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Sample records for replacing failed components

  1. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  2. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  3. Outcome After Salvage Arthrodesis for Failed Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrad, Ilka; Henricson, Anders; Magnusson, Håkan; Carlsson, Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-03-01

    In cases with total ankle replacement (TAR) failure, a decision between revision TAR and salvage arthrodesis (SA) must be made. In a previous study, we analyzed revision TAR and found low functional outcome and satisfaction. The aims of the current study were to analyze SA concerning failure rate and patient-related outcome measures (PROMs). Until September 2014, a total of 1110 primary TARs were recorded in the Swedish Ankle Registry. Of the 188 failures, 118 were revised with SA (and 70 with revision TAR). Patient- and implant-specific data for SA cases were analyzed as well as arthrodesis techniques. Failure of SA was defined as repeat arthrodesis or amputation. Generic and region-specific PROMs of 68 patients alive with a solid unilateral SA performed more than 1 year before were analyzed. The first-attempt solid arthrodesis rate of SA was 90%. Overall, 25 of 53 (47%) patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Mean Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) was 22 (95% confidence interval 20-24), Euro Qol-5 Dimensions 0.57 (0.49-0.65), Euro Qol-Visual Analogue Scale 59 (53-64), Short Form-36 physical 34 (31-37) and mental 50 (46-54). The scores and satisfaction were similar to those after revision TAR but the reoperation rate was significantly lower in SA (P < .05). Salvage arthrodesis after failed TAR had a solid arthrodesis rate of 90% at first attempt, but similar to revision TAR, less than 50% of the patients were satisfied and the functional scores were low. Until studies show true benefit of revision TAR over SA, we favor SA for failed TAR. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF FAILED MITRAL VALVE REPLACEMENT. THE DURBAN EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistan, D; Booysen, M; Alexander, G; Madiba, T E

    2017-06-01

    Mitral valve replacement is the procedure of choice in patients with severe mitral valve disease. However, these patients are surviving longer and are thus at an increased risk of prosthesis failure or valve-related complications. Study setting: Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, a tertiary referral Hospital in Durban. Study population: All patients undergoing redo mechanical mitral valve replacement surgery between January 2005 and December 2014. Study design: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing redo mitral valve replacement. Patients were identified from theatre record books, their files were electronically accessed and pertinent information extracted onto a data capture sheet. Information documented included demographics, duration to failure, INR, Albumin, HIV status, clinical findings and outcome. The data was stored on an Excel datasheet. Fifty-eight patients were documented (mean age 32 ± 15.81 years; M:F 1:3). Ten patients (17%) were HIV positive (median CD4 count 478). Mean duration between first surgery and redo was 8.8 years. Thirty-five patients (60%) had no co-morbidities. Presenting features at redo surgery were congestive cardiac failure (27), chest pain (11) and palpitations (17). Mean preoperative Ejection Fraction was 51.65 %. Twenty-nine patients (55%) had emergency redo surgery. Twenty-two patients (75%) had acute prosthetic valve thrombosis. Thirty-two patients had tricuspid regurgitation. Original pathology was documented in 23 patients (40%) as Rheumatic valve disease. Prosthetic valve thrombosis was documented in 31 patients (54%). The most commonly used valve was the On-X. Mean presenting INR was 1.96 + 1.2 and mean presenting serum albumin was 36.7 + 7.8 g/l. Forty-one patients (71%) were found to be compliant to Warfarin therapy prior to redo surgery. Mean ICU stay was 6 +9 days. Two patients died postoperatively. Mean followup was 32 + 26.6 months. Twelve patients (20.7%) developed postoperative complications. Patients

  5. Monte Carlo modeling for realizing optimized management of failed fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Nakasuji, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cladding is one of the key components in a fission reactor to keep confining radioactive materials inside a fuel tube. During reactor operation, the cladding is however sometimes breached and radioactive materials leak from the fuel ceramic pellet into the coolant water through the breach. The primary coolant water is therefore monitored so that any leak is quickly detected, where the coolant water is periodically sampled and the concentration of, for example the radioactive iodine 131 (I-131), is measured. Depending on the measured concentration, the faulty fuel assembly with leaking rod is removed from the reactor and replaced by new one immediately or at the next refueling. In the present study, an effort has been made to develop a methodology to optimize the management for replacement of failed fuels due to cladding failures using the I-131 concentration measured in the sampled coolant water. A model numerical equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of I-131 concentration due to fuel leaks, and is then solved using the Monte-Carlo method as a function of sampling rate. Our results have indicated that, in order to achieve the rationalized management of failed fuels, higher resolution to detect a small amount of I-131 is not necessarily required but more frequent sampling is favorable. (author)

  6. Acetabular distraction: an alternative approach to pelvic discontinuity in failed total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N M; Hellman, M; Haughom, B H; Shah, R P; Sporer, S M; Paprosky, W G

    2014-11-01

    A pelvic discontinuity occurs when the superior and inferior parts of the hemi-pelvis are no longer connected, which is difficult to manage when associated with a failed total hip replacement. Chronic pelvic discontinuity is found in 0.9% to 2.1% of hip revision cases with risk factors including severe pelvic bone loss, female gender, prior pelvic radiation and rheumatoid arthritis. Common treatment options include: pelvic plating with allograft, cage reconstruction, custom triflange implants, and porous tantalum implants with modular augments. The optimal technique is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable healing between the two segments. A method of treating pelvic discontinuity using porous tantalum components with a distraction technique that achieves both initial stability and subsequent long-term biological fixation is described. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  8. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt){minus}20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy`s immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state.

  9. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. The methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and is expected to continue operation for at least and additional 25 years. Aging evaluations are in progress to address additional replacements that may be needed during this period

  10. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. Methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and will continue operation for perhaps another 20 years. Aging evaluations are in program to address additional replacements that may be needed during this extended time period. 3 figs

  11. Role of integrated approach of yoga therapy in a failed post-total knee replacement of bilateral knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ebnezar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OA Knee is the most common arthritis. Knee replacement Surgeries are being done increasingly in the present times. This has led to the violation of the standard indications and when knees are replaced ignoring other co - musculoskeletal conditions it results in the surgery failing early. This is about a patient who encountered a failed TKR due to improper selection as patient had bilateral OA Hip that was ignored in the initial stages. To overcome the problem she was advised bilateral hip replacement which would leave her with four replacements in the lower limb. She refused surgery and was told there are no alternative treatment options. This patient underwent a 3 week integrated course of IAYT at our center and she made a remarkable recovery. IAYT is a good non-surgical treatment that can be affective both before and after knee replacement and it should be considered as the first choice of treatment before surgery.

  12. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement...

  13. CUSTOM TRIFLANGE ACETABULAR COMPONENTS IN REVISION HIP REPLACEMENT (EXPERIENCE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korytkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive defects of acetabulum especially accompanied by pelvis discontinuity at the level of acetabulum pose a serious challenge in revision hip replacement and create additional complexity in fixing the acetabular component. One of the perspective options to solve the above issue is the use of custom triflange acetabular components (CTAC designed based on preoperative computer tomography given the specifics of bone defects of the patient. Purpose of the study — to evaluate the outcomes of CTAC use in revision hip replacement.Materials and methods. The authors analyzed treatment outcomes of 12 patients after revision hip replacement using additive techniques of computer simulation and 3D printing CTAC. Follow up period after the surgery averaged 7±3 months (from one to ten months. 7 out of 12 patients had acetabular defects of Paprosky 3B type, 4 patients had defects of Paprosky 3A and in one patient — of Paprosky 2C.Results. Two out of twelve patients had prosthesis dislocations that required revision hip surgery, one of those patients underwent open reduction of dislocation with wound debridement, another patient underwent replacement of articulating couple of acetabular component. Total scores under Harris Hip Score and paint VAS score prior to treatment was 28±7 and 7±1 points respectively, postoperative scores were 76±9 and 3±1 respectively.Conclusion. The application of additive techniques for revision hip replacement in patients with extensive acetabular and pelvic defects allows to make a precise preoperative planning, to restore joint rotation center, to reconstruct bone defects and to securely fix triflange acetabular component that altogether significantly improve treatment outcomes and patients satisfaction with the surgery.

  14. Operative technique of two parallel compression screws and autologous bone graft for ankle arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shah; Hill, Simon O

    2012-09-01

    The management of failed total ankle replacement (TAR) depends on the primary indication, presence of infection, condition of adjacent joints, and available bone stock. In addition, the patient's expectations, age, and general health should also be taken into account. This article describes a technique of arthrodesis in failed TAR with two parallel screws inserted in opposite directions and autologous cancellous bone graft. Four patients were managed using this technique. The subtalar joint and both malleoli were preserved. The average time for radiological union was 14.8 weeks. There were no hardware-related complications or infections. One patient developed subsequent subtalar arthritis and is waiting for subtalar joint fusion. The results from this small series of patients suggest that arthrodesis following failed total ankle replacement with two parallel screws and bone graft may be an effective technique.

  15. Preventive Replacement Decisions for Dragline Components Using Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Demirel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliability-based maintenance policies allow qualitative and quantitative evaluation of system downtimes via revealing main causes of breakdowns and discussing required preventive activities against failures. Application of preventive maintenance is especially important for mining machineries since production is highly affected from machinery breakdowns. Overburden stripping operations are one of the integral parts in surface coal mine productions. Draglines are extensively utilized in overburden stripping operations and they achieve earthmoving activities with bucket capacities up to 168 m3. The massive structure and operational severity of these machines increase the importance of performance awareness for individual working components. Research on draglines is rarely observed in the literature and maintenance studies for these earthmovers have been generally ignored. On this basis, this paper offered a comprehensive reliability assessment for two draglines currently operating in the Tunçbilek coal mine and discussed preventive replacement for wear-out components of the draglines considering cost factors.

  16. Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2014-07-28

    (SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements.

  17. Remote-controlled welding during replacement of components and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeser, K.; Huemmeler, A.; Pellkofer, D.

    1986-01-01

    Only on the basis of a thorough fundamental knowledge of nuclear power stations in general and the relevant codes and regulations in particular can extended repair measures, such as the replacement of components or pipelines, be planned and prepared. The application of effective decontamination procedures and shielding measures and a high degree of mechanization of the machining and welding operations will lead to a drastic reduction of the radiation load to which the personnel is exposed. By using highly sophisticated pipe assembling and welding systems the exposure period can be minimized. At the same time a very high level of quality is being reached. The close adherence to the schedule of individual detail operations confirms and justifies the necessity of thorough planning and training of personnel. It may be assumed that in the field of nuclear engineering some pioneer work has been done that will have a stimulating effect on other areas with similar or transferable applications. (orig.) [de

  18. Outcome of revision arthroplasty for failed metal-on-metal total hip replacements; is there a relation with metal ions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz J; Al-Azzani, Waheeb A K; Jackson-Taylor, Esther; Clatworthy, Elizabeth; John, Alun

    2017-05-12

    We aimed to assess the early outcome following revision arthroplasty for failed metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacements (THR) due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). We reviewed 106 consecutive revision arthroplasties. Case notes and radiological investigations were reviewed to assess the complications. Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Euroqol (EQ-5D-3L) scores were used to assess the functional outcome and improvement of quality of life. At a mean follow-up of 20 months (12-48 months), the mean OHS was 28.7. Pain improved in 61% patients. A majority of patients were in level 2 for all the EQ-5D-3L dimensions. The overall complication rate was 16%. Survivorship free from further revision for any cause was 94.3% at 48 months. There was no correlation between pre-revision blood metal ions and the final outcome. Revision surgery for failed MoM hip replacement due to ARMD is associated with a relatively higher rate of complications and risk of chronic pain. There is poor correlation between serum metal ions and development of ARMD and outcome following revision surgery.

  19. Transcatheter versus surgical valve replacement for a failed pulmonary homograft in the Ross population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassas, Khadija; Mohty, Dania; Clavel, Marie Annick; Husain, Aysha; Hijji, Talal; Aljoufan, Mansour; Alhalees, Zohair; Fadel, Bahaa M

    2018-04-01

    Patients who undergo the Ross procedure are at increased risk of pulmonary valve (PV) homograft dysfunction. For those who require reintervention on the homograft, transcatheter PV replacement (tPVR) provides a less invasive therapeutic option than surgical PVR (sPVR). We examined the outcomes following tPVR versus sPVR in a cohort of patients who underwent the Ross procedure. We performed a retrospective analysis of Ross patients age ≥14 years who underwent tPVR (n = 47) or sPVR (n = 41) at our institution. The patients' clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Baseline parameters, including demographic data and left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) systolic function, were similar in the 2 groups. The mean follow-up was 56 ± 24 months for the tPVR group and 89 ± 46 months for the sPVR group (P Ross patients who require reintervention on the PV homograft, both tPVR and sPVR provide low procedural mortality and comparable midterm outcome with no significant difference in mortality or PV reintervention. However, IE is more common following tPVR. A larger randomized study is needed to determine the role of each procedure in patient management. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of few failure data on the opportunistic replacement policy for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laggoune, Radouane; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Aissani, Djamil

    2010-01-01

    In continuous operating units, the production loss is often very large during the system shut down. Their economic profitability is conditioned by the implementation of suitable maintenance policy that could increase the availability and reduce the operating costs. In this paper, an opportunistic replacement policy is proposed for multi-component series system in the context of data uncertainty, where the expected total cost per unit time is minimized under general lifetime distribution. When the system is down, either correctively or preventively, the opportunity to replace preventively non-failed components is considered. To deal with the problem of the small size of failure data samples, the Bootstrap technique is applied, in order to model the uncertainties in parameter estimates. The Weibull parameters are considered as random variables rather than just deterministic point estimates. A solution procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations with informative search method is proposed and applied to the optimization of preventive maintenance plan for a hydrogen compressor in an oil refinery.

  1. Circuit arrangement of an electronic component for the design of fail-safe protective circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centmaier, W.; Bernhard, U.; Friederich, B.; Heisecke, I.

    1974-01-01

    The critical parameters of reactors are controlled by safety circuits. These circuits are controlled designed as logic modules operating by the 'n-out-of-m' selection principle. In most cases, a combination of a '1-out-of-3' circuit with a '2-out-of-3' circuit and separate indication is sufficient for a dynamic fail-safe circuit. The basic logic elements are AND and OR gate circuits, respectively, which are triggered by pulse trains and in which the failure of a pulse train is indicated as an error at the output. The module allows the design of safety circuits offering various degrees of safety. If the indication of an error is made on the modules, faulty components can be exchanged by the maintenance crew right away. (DG) [de

  2. Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in a Dog after a Failed Triple Pelvic Osteotomy with a Zurich Cementless Total Hip Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SY Heo and H.B Lee*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An Alaskan Malamute (2-year-old, castrated male, 41kg was referred with bilateral hind limb lameness. The dog had a history of a bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO to correct hip dysplasia one year previously, a surgery that was unsuccessful. On physical examination, pain and crepitus were noted in both hip joints. There was hip joint subluxation and mild degenerative changes bilaterally seen by radiograph. A Zurich cementless total hip replacement (ZCTHR was planned for the right hind limb. After a craniolateral approach, an acetabular cup and a cementless femoral stem were implanted. The femoral head was placed in the femoral stem, and the prosthetic joint was then reduced. At a 9 month postoperative checkup, there was no pain on palpation or manipulation of the right pelvic limb, and the range of motion was within normal limits. On radiological examination, there was no implant loosening. The ZCTHR can thus be applied in a failed TPO patient as a revision surgery.

  3. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce D; Legg, Keith O; Schell, Jerry; Bondaruk, Bob; Alford, Charles; Natishan, Paul; Lawrence, Steven; Shubert, Gary; Bretz, Philip; Kaltenhauser, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to qualify high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and plasma thermal spray coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on gas turbine engine components...

  4. Design concept of a pump stage with replaceable hydraulic components and prediction of its performance curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugova, S O; Knyazeva, E G; Tverdokhleb, I B; Kochevsky, A N

    2010-01-01

    In many cases, centrifugal pump units are expected to deliver the required performance under varying operating conditions. In particular, the pumps for oil extraction and transportation should deliver a constant head, although their capacity often changes during the life cycle. In order to keep the efficiency at a high level and not to replace a whole pump, the authors suggest to replace in such cases only hydraulic components of the pump (impellers and stationary sections of diffuser channels) that are to be installed in the same casing. The paper describes an approach for designing of radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels to be used as replaceable. It allows for delivering a required head and providing a high efficiency in a wide range of capacities. The components intended for smaller capacities are featured with narrower flow passages. However, the dimensions of replaceable components are the same. The paper describes also a numerical simulation of fluid flow in a pump stage with two sets of replaceable radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels. The CFD software used in this research is ANSYS CFX 11. Good correspondence of results is observed. Difference in flow pattern at various capacities and its influence on the performance curves delivered with replaceable components is demonstrated. Basing on the obtained results, the analysis of energy losses is presented.

  5. Quantification of structural changes of UHMWPE components in total joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulin, Petr; Pokorny, David; Slouf, Miroslav; Nevoralova, Martina; Vackova, Tatana; Dybal, Jiri; Pilar, Jan

    2014-03-28

    At present time the number of implantations of joint replacements as well as their revisions increases. Higher demands are required on the quality and longevity of implants. The aim of this work was to determine the degree of oxidative degradation and the amount of free/residual radicals in selected ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components of the joint replacements and demonstrate that the measured values are closely connected with quality and lifetime of the polymer components. We tested both new (4 samples) and explanted (4 samples) UHMWPE polymers for total joint replacements. The samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and microhardness (MH) test. The IR measurements yielded the values of oxidation index and trans-vinylene index. The ESR measurements gave the free radicals concentration. In the group of new polyethylene components, we found oxidation index values ranging from 0.00-0.03 to 0.24. The trans-vinylene index values ranged from 0.044 to 0.080. The value of free radical concentration was zero in virgin and also in sample of Beznoska Company and non-zero in the other samples. In the group of explanted components, the measured values were associated with their history, micromechanical properties and performance in vivo. We demonstrated that measuring of oxidative damage may help the orthopaedic surgeon in estimating the quality of UHMWPE replacement component and thus radically to avoid early joint replacement failure due to worse polyethylene quality.

  6. Probabilistic risk analysis of aging components which fail on demand. A Bayesian model. Application to maintenance optimization of Diesel engine linings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.; Lannoy, A.; Clarotti, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of preventive maintenance of aging materials can be well modelled through the application of the two-parameters Weibull law. Unfortunately there is no theoretical model describing the aging of components implied in emergency interventions which may fail in very moment of demand. These components are relevant to the safety of Nuclear Power Plants and the main problem with them is the optimization of the maintenance and the test schedule. Indeed the effect of any test is twofold, namely: the test reveals failures which otherwise would occur when the Power Plant would need urgent intervention but at the same time it causes the aging process to step up. The aging process is suspected to affect certain safeguard equipment, but it does not exist a theoretical model of component aging in function of demands. Sections 2.1 and 2.2 of the paper are devoted to the description of a Bayesian model of discrete aging, deriving the likelihood function of the model (data modelling) and to selecting 'the best prior' (Analyst knowledge) that can be associated to the likelihood, respectively. The aspects of numerical integration relative to assessing the predictive reliability of the aging components are discussed in Section 2.3. Section 3 reports a Reliability Centered Maintenance application of the model to cylinders of emergency electrical generators of the NPP nuclear sectors. These components are subjected to an annual endoscopic checking and to a systematical replacement at every 5 years. The statistical Bayesian decision theory was applied to determine an optimal period of cylinder replacement based on the aging model presented in this paper. It is shown that the optimal value is between 10 to 12 years. (author)

  7. Femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement: a study protocol for a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerbeek, Robin E; Derks, Rosalie P H; Zonneveld, Bas J G L; van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The short and mid-term outcomes are related to malposition and unexplained pain. Whether external rotation of the femoral component in isolated patellofemoral joint replacement is required is unclear. The primary aim of this study is to determine the CT-measured femoral component rotation of patellofemoral joint replacement relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary aim is to correlate the CT-measured femoral component rotation with the clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up as assessed with the KOOS questionnaire. We designed a prospective observational study with medical research ethics committee and institutional review board approval. A total of 40 patients who will be treated with patellofemoral joint replacement for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis will be included. Intra-operatively, rotation of the femoral component will be assessed using anatomical landmarks including the epicondylar axis, Whiteside's line, and lower leg axis. The aim is to insert the femoral component between 3 and 6 degrees external rotation relative to the transepicondylar axis. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists will measure the angle between the transepicondylar axis and the femoral component, two to three days after surgery. The primary outcome is the CT-based femoral component rotation of the prosthesis relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary outcome is the patient reported KOOS questionnaire at 1-year follow-up. Successful completion of this study will provide data on the actual amount of femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement, and its relationship with clinical results. (Netherlands Trial Register NTR4175).

  8. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  9. Replacement of heavy components of the Main Primary System (MPS). Recent innovations made by Framatome ANP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanussot, J.M.; Thevenet, R.

    2006-01-01

    The replacement of heavy components is the result of widespread stress corrosion of Inconel 600 (and alloys 82/182) in the primary system. Following the corrosion of steam generator tubes, which led to the first steam generator replacement (SGR) operations, work has begun on reactor vessel head replacements (RVHR) and pressurizer replacements, pending treatment of the dissimilar butt welds (DBW). The replacement of sections of the Main Primary System is one way of optimizing plant lifetime besides preventing stress corrosion in primary components and combating phenomena as thermal fatigue or certain metallurgical weaknesses. The increase in the number of major operations carried out in the reactor building on PWR and BWR reactor geometries has called for major technical innovations. AREVA, has over the past twenty years carried out more than forty SGRs throughout the world, including the supply of 115 steam generators of all types. This equates to over 60% of all SGR operations performed in Europe and the USA. Today, most SGR operations are performed in the USA, though some still continue in Europe and Asia. Operations have been planned until 2015. The first RVHR operations were carried out in France in 1993, and have been widespread in Europe since 1996 (Spain and Belgium), and in the USA since 2002 (Davis Besse). Since 1993 AREVA, through its subsidiaries Framatome ANP, Jeumont SA and SGT, has performed 72 RVHRs, i.e. most of those carried out in Europe and the USA. Today, RVHR operations take place throughout the world and have been planned until 2014. The first pressurizer replacement took place in the fall of 2005 in Saint Lucie, USA. Others are to follow (Fort Calhoun, Millestone). A significant number of partial or complete pressurizer replacements are now being scheduled. Special focus must be given to this new operation, as a decision is required between the following types of replacements, taking into account the number of pressurizer heaters and the

  10. Effects of dispersal and environmental heterogeneity on the replacement and nestedness components of β-diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianuca, Andros T; Declerck, Steven A J; Lemmens, Pieter; De Meester, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Traditionally metacommunity studies have quantified the relative importance of dispersal and environmental processes on observed β-diversity. Separating β-diversity into its replacement and nestedness components and linking such patterns to metacommunity drivers can provide richer insights into biodiversity organization across spatial scales. It is often very difficult to measure actual dispersal rates in the field and to define the boundaries of natural metacommunities. To overcome those limitations, we revisited an experimental metacommunity dataset to test the independent and interacting effects of environmental heterogeneity and dispersal on each component of β-diversity. We show that the balance between the replacement and nestedness components of β-diversity resulting from eutrophication changes completely depending on dispersal rates. Nutrient enrichment negatively affected local zooplankton diversity and generated a pattern of β-diversity derived from nestedness in unconnected, environmentally heterogeneous landscapes. Increasing dispersal erased the pattern of nestedness, whereas the replacement component gained importance. In environmentally homogeneous metacommunities, dispersal limitation created community dissimilarity via species replacement whereas the nestedness component remained low and unchanged across dispersal levels. Our study provides novel insights into how environmental heterogeneity and dispersal interact and shape metacommunity structure. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. The stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, M.M.M.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Gibbons, P.; Minderhoud, N.; Weernink, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the initial stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement was biomechanically evaluated during simulated normal walking and chair rising. A 20 mm diameter canal was created in the femoral necks of five fresh frozen human cadaver bones and the femoral

  12. Design of reactor components (non replaceable) of 500 MWe PHWR for enhanced life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power station is characterised by large initial cost and low operating cost. So a plant which is capable of operating for a longer period of time will be economically more attractive. In the past approach had been to design a nuclear power plant for 30 to 40 years of life time. However, with the improvement in technology and incorporation of redundant and diverse safety features it is now possible to design a nuclear power plant for longer life. Now internationally it is being realised that without sacrificing safety features, plant life should be extended till the cost of maintenance or refurbishment is larger than the cost of the replacement capacity. In order to meet the objective of long life, for the components which cannot be easily replaced the life time of about 100 years is being considered as the design objective. For other items replacement, layout space, shielding, access route and lifting capacity and component design are receiving additional emphasis so as to provide a long total station life time. With the above background, design improvements to enhance the life of reactor components for 500 MWe PHWR namely calandria, end shields and calandria vault liners which cannot be replaced and on which any repair is extremely difficult, have been made. This paper deals with design life of these components and the modifications incorporated in the design. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Simultaneous Optimization of Block Replacement and Spare Part Ordering Time for a Multi Component System with Separate Spare Part Ordering for Block and Failure Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mardin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A block replacement schedule can be optimized simultaneously with a spare parts ordering schedule, since all items are replaced at a constant interval. The solution of joint optimization for spare parts ordering time and block replacement gives lower costs compared to separate optimization of ordering time and replacement time. The spare parts for replacement can be classified as stochastic demand for failure replacement and deterministic demand for block replacement. In this paper, we propose a simulation model for a separate spare parts ordering schedule. The solution was compared to the solution for a model with common spare parts for both failure and block replacement. The system has N identical components, each with a Weibull lifetime distribution. The costs of failure and block replacements, and also the costs of ordering, holding and shortage of spare parts are given. The proposed model was shown to perform better than the common order model. Also, compared to the age replacement model, the solution of the proposed model is relatively similar, yet the economies of scale would be an advantage for the block replacement over age replacement.

  14. Optimal replacement policy for safety-related multi-component multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Chen Tao; Yang Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates replacement scheduling for non-repairable safety-related systems (SRS) with multiple components and states. The aim is to determine the cost-minimizing time for replacing SRS while meeting the required safety. Traditionally, such scheduling decisions are made without considering the interaction between the SRS and the production system under protection, the interaction being essential to formulate the expected cost to be minimized. In this paper, the SRS is represented by a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov model, and its state distribution is evaluated with the aid of the universal generating function. Moreover, a structure function of SRS with recursive property is developed to evaluate the state distribution efficiently. These methods form the basis to derive an explicit expression of the expected system cost per unit time, and to determine the optimal time to replace the SRS. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  15. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  16. High flux testing reactor Petten. Replacement of the reactor vessel and connected components. Overall report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoides, N.G.; Cundy, M.R.; Von der Hardt, P.; Husmann, K.; Swanenburg de Veye, R.J.; Tas, A.

    1985-01-01

    The project of replacing the HFR originated in 1974 when results of several research programmes confirmed severe neutron embrittlement of aluminium alloys suggesting a limited life of the existing facility. This report contains the detailed chronology of events concerning preparation and execution of the replacement. After a 14 months' outage the reactor resumed routine operation on 14th February, 1985. At the end of several years of planning and preparation the reconstruction proceded in the following steps: unloading of the old core, decay of short-lived radioactivity in December 1983, removal of the old tank and of its peripheral equipment in January-February 1984, segmentation and waste disposal of the removed components in March-April, decontamination of the pools, bottom penetration overhauling in May-June, installation of the new tank and other new components in July-September, testing and commissioning, including minor modifications in October-December, and, trials runs and start-up preparation in January-February 1985. The new HFR Petten features increased and improved experimental facilities. Among others the obsolete thermal columns was replaced by two high flux beam tubes. Moreover the new plant has been designed for future increases of reactor power and neutron fluxes. For the next three to four years the reactor has to cope with a large irradiation programme, claiming its capacity to nearly 100%

  17. Is cementing technique the cause of early aseptic loosening of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty? A report of 22 failed tibial components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Endres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite excellent results of bicondylar knee resurfacing when both the tibial and femoral components are cemented, loosening of the cemented tibial component (surface cementing occurs in approximately 10% of the implants within a 4-year interval after the procedure. Based on our own experience, we want to report of early failed tibial components in 22 patients after a mean follow up of 51 months, necessitating a revision procedure. We analysed retrospectively 22 cases of failed tibial components in patients after a mean follow up of 51 months, necessitating a revision procedure. This raised the question of whether the cementing technique was implicated in the loosening. Every correlation between early loosening and clinically relevant covariates were investigated. All patients were evaluated for radiolucency and osteolytic lesions at the bone–cement interfaces by radiographic assessment according to Rossi et al. (a.p. view and lateral view divided into two zones. The mean radiographic cement penetration in anterior-posterior view was 1.2 mm (SD 0.8 in zone 1 and 1.6 mm (SD 0.9 in zone 2. The mean radiographic cement penetration in lateral view was 1.1 mm (SD 0.4 in zone 1 and 1.3 mm (SD 0.3 in zone 2. Osteolytic lesions were seen in all cases around the implant after a mean of 51 months. In all cases a revision procedure was done. Based on clinical presentation, haematological screening, joint aspiration (synovial fluid diagnostic, microbiological analyses and histological evaluation of intraoperative samples an infection was excluded. The authors have a critical attitude toward a loosening rate of almost 10% as stated by the recent literature within the first 4 to 5 years and consider that a reduction of the loosening rate when using the full cementation technique /cementing the stem will mean a greater benefit for patients than the possible advantage of a better bone stock in case of revision surgery. Apart from this aspect, the question of

  18. Analysis of failed and nickel-coated 3093 beam clamp components at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Pappacena, K.; Gaviria, J.; Burtsteva, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company (BJC), are undertaking a major effort to clean up the former gaseous diffusion facility (K-25) located in Oak Ridge, TN. The decontamination and decommissioning activities require systematic removal of contaminated equipment and machinery followed by demolition of the buildings. As part of the cleanup activities, a beam clamp, used for horizontal life lines (HLLs) for fall protection, was discovered to be fractured during routine inspection. The beam clamp (yoke and D-ring) was a component in the HLL system purchased from Reliance Industries LLC. Specifically, the U-shaped stainless steel yoke of the beam clamp failed in a brittle mode at under less than 10% of the rated design capacity of 14,500 lb. The beam clamp had been in service for approximately 16 months. Bechtel Jacobs approached Argonne National Laboratory to assist in identifying the root cause of the failure of the beam clamp. The objectives of this study were to (1) review the prior reports and documents on the subject, (2) understand the possible failure mechanism(s) that resulted in the failed beam clamp components, (3) recommend approaches to mitigate the failure mechanism(s), and (4) evaluate the modified beam clamp assemblies. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and chemical analysis of the corrosion products on the failed yoke and white residue on an in-service yoke indicated the presence of zinc, sulfur, and calcium. Analysis of rainwater in the complex, as conducted by BJC, indicated the presence of sulfur and calcium. It was concluded that, as a result of galvanic corrosion, zinc from the galvanized components of the beam clamp assembly (D-ring) migrated to the corroded region in the presence of the rainwater. Under mechanical stress, the corrosion process would have accelerated, resulting in the catastrophic failure of the yoke. As suggested by Bechtel Jacobs personnel, hydrogen embrittlement as a consequence of corrosion

  19. [Polyethylene replacement by cementing a new component over the osseointegrated metal-back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Ruiz, A; Zorrilla-Ribot, P; Salido-Valle, J A

    2015-01-01

    In uncemented revision total hip replacement due to polyethylene wear, the metal cup needs to be maintained when its stability is checked during surgery, only replacing the polyethylene that is cemented if anchoring is not possible. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and radiological results of a polyethylene liner cemented into an osseointegrated acetabular shell component. A retrospective analysis was performed on 15 patients in whom the surgical indication was polyethylene wear, with a mean follow-up of 6.1 years (range 3.5-9.7 years). The Harris Hip Score was used to assess the clinical results before surgery and at the end of follow-up. Anteroposterior and axial X-rays of the hip were taken to rule out complications. The mean Harris Hip Score improved, increasing from 64.7 points before the surgery to 80.3 at the end of follow-up. The osteolytic lesions disappeared, or at least the size did not increase, in the follow-up X-rays. One patient (6.7%) suffered 2 dislocation episodes that were treated without the need for surgery. Another patient presented with aseptic loosening of the femoral stem that required a replacement. Cementing the polyethylene liner, when anchoring is not possible, in an uncemented osseointegrated metal shell is a technique that offers good results in the medium term, and which may minimise the complications that may occur with the replacement of the shell component, without compromising its stability. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. MRI after patellofemoral replacement: the component-bone interface and rotational alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; Figiel, Jens; Hähnlein, Ulrike; Timmesfeld, Nina; Schofer, Markus D; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay

    2013-07-01

    In an earlier paper, it was shown that tailored magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for reproducible analysis of the preserved knee joint structures after patellofemoral replacement (PFR). This pilot study investigates to what degree MRI could produce reliable assessment of the implant-bone interface of femoral and patellar components and rotational alignment following PFR. MRI tailored for reduction of metallic artefacts was performed in seven patients who had undergone PFR. Two independent investigators evaluated the implant-bone interface at femoral and patellar components and the rotational alignment of the femoral component. They also assessed their degree of confidence in evaluation using a five-point scale. The inter-observer reliability was determined. Implant-induced MRI artefact was barely observed and there was no interference with component-bone interface evaluation. There was excellent inter-observer reliability, inter-observer agreement, and confidence for the implant-bone interface at femoral and patellar components and for rotational alignment. The applied score for the interface was found to be reliable. Tailored MRI allows reproducible analysis of the implant-bone interface and of rotational alignment of the femoral component in patients who have had PFR. It might prove helpful in the assessment of painful PFR.

  1. Loosening of the femoral component of total hip replacement after plugging the femoral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W H; McCarthy, J C; O'Neill, D A

    1982-01-01

    A roentgen follow-up study was done of 171 total hip replacements at an average of 3.3 years (range 2 to 5 years) after insertion to assess the loosening rate in older adult patients (average age 60 years) in whom the medullary canal was plugged. The cement (Simplex P) was introduced using a cement gun. The femoral components used were CAD and HD-2 in design, made of chrome cobalt alloy. Evaluation was made according to three categories of loosening: definite (requiring evidence of migration of the component or the cement), probable (requiring a continuous radiolucent zone around the cement mantle in one or more radiographic views), or possible (requiring a radiolucent zone that occupied 50% or more of the cement-bone interface in one or more views but was not continuous). One hip was revised for a loose femoral component. Another patient has asymptomatic subsidence of the femoral component. Thus the total incidence of definitely loose femoral components was 1.1%. No hip was classified as probably loose. Seven hips (4%) were rated as possibly loose. Compared to four other reported series of similar groups of patients followed for like duration, this incidence of definitely loose components is statistically significantly less than in nonplugged canals. The other differences among the series compared, such as stem design, type of cement introduction, modulus of elasticity of the metal used, presence or absence of a collar, and dates during which the surgery was done, are also discussed. Plugging the femoral canal; introducing the cement with a cement gun; using a femoral stem that largely fills the medullary canal, has a collar, and has a rounded rectangular cross section with no medial stress risers made of a superalloy with a modulus of elasticity of about 200 GPa--all these factors were associated with a low (1.1%) incidence of femoral component loosening at 3 years.

  2. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    from inaction. Often, the media are blamed. Politicians complain about the media when they interfere (the CNN effect), and when they do not. This article looks at how the media do cover failing states. Sierra Leone and Congo are used as examples. The analysis shows that there is little independent...

  3. [Comparison of in vivo characteristics of polyethylene wear particles produced by a metal and a ceramic femoral component in total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veigl, D; Vavřík, P; Pokorný, D; Slouf, M; Pavlova, E; Landor, I

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo and compare, in terms of the quality and number of ultra high-molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles, total knee replacements of identical construction differing only in the material used for femoral component production, i.e., CoCrMo alloy or ZrO2 ceramics. Samples of peri-prosthetic granuloma tissue were collected in two patients with total knee replacement suffering from implant migration, who were matched in relevant characteristics. The primary knee replacement in Patient 1 with a CoCrMo femoral component was done 7.2 years and in Patient 2 with a ZrO2 implant 6.8 years before this assessment. The polyethylene wear-induced granuloma was analysed by the MORF method enabling us to assess the shape and size of wear debris and the IRc method for assessment of particle concentration. In the granuloma tissue samples of Patient 1, on the average, particles were 0.30 mm in size and their relative volume was 0.19. In the Patient 2 tissue samples, the average size of particles was 0.33 mm and their relative volume was 0.26. There was no significant difference in either particle morphology or their concentration in the granuloma tissue between the two patients. One of the options of how to reduce the production of polyethylene wear particles is to improve the tribological properties of contacting surfaces in total knee replacement by substituting a cobalt-chrome femoral component with a zirconia ceramic femoral component. The previous in vitro testing carried out with a mechanical simulator under conditions approaching real weight-bearing in the human body did show a nearly three-fold decrease in the number of UHMWPE wear particles in zirconia components. The evaluation of granuloma tissue induced by the activity of a real prosthetic joint for nearly seven years, however, did not reveal any great difference in either quality or quantity of polyethylene debris between the two replacements. The difference of surface

  4. The replacement of major components of the main primary system, recent achievements performed by Framatome-ANP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanussot, J.M.; Thevenet, R.

    2005-01-01

    Steam generators, the closure head, and now pressurizers are likely to be fully or partially replaced as a consequence of maintenance or repair programs aiming at extending the operating life of a nuclear unit. The generalization of important operations inside the reactor containment has led Framatome-ANP to propose innovations in order to optimize the replacement of primary components in terms of delays and work quality. These innovations and improvements are presented here, they concern 5 issues: -) lifting and handling, -) metrology and topometry, -) tooling and welding, -) automated operations in piping, and -) the management of replacement operations. (A.C.)

  5. A study on the optimal replacement periods of digital control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Even a trip of a single nuclear power plant (NPP) causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this paper we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models of optimal replacement periods to the digital control computer's components of Wolsung NPP Unit 1 and calculated the optimal replacement periods analytically. We compared the periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit 1. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained and those used in the field show a little difference. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Rajamanickam, N.; Sivananth, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A FE model is developed to study the suitability of MMC for steering knuckle. ► Structural analysis of steering knuckle is carried out for 12 load cases. ► The cross section of the critical region is optimized using genetic algorithm. ► The life of the MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) knuckle is compared before and after optimization. ► MMC material could replace SG iron for automotive steering knuckle. -- Abstract: Steering knuckle is considered as one of the critical component in automotive suspension system. It is subjected to time varying loads during its service life, leading to fatigue failure. Therefore, its design is an important aspect in the product development cycle. Currently, spheroidal graphite (SG) iron is widely used to manufacture steering knuckle in the commercial automobile sector. It has been observed from the knuckle manufacturers that advanced materials and weight reduction are the real need for the current automobile industry. Due to their high strength to weight ratio, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have the potential to meet the demanded design requirements of the automotive industry, compared to conventional materials. In this work, an aluminum alloy reinforced with titanium carbide particulate is suggested as an alternate material in place of existing SG iron. Structural analysis of steering knuckle made of alternate material Al-10 wt.% TiC was performed using commercial code ANSYS. The results of steering knuckle made of MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) were compared with that of aluminum alloy and SG iron steering knuckles for its performance based on real time load cases. It is found from this analysis, the knuckle strut region has maximum stress and deflection during its life time. The critical strut region cross section area of knuckle was analyzed and geometrically optimized for minimum bending stress and deflection using genetic algorithm available in MatLab. Since, the knuckle experiences time varying loads, fatigue analysis also

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in the Treatment of Pure Aortic Regurgitation in Native Valves and Failing Surgical Bioprostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawaya, Fadi J; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Seiffert, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    %, respectively). Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were body mass index 8%, major vascular or access complication, and moderate to severe AR. In the failing SHV group, device success, early safety, and clinical efficacy were 71%, 90%, and 77%, respectively...

  8. Simultaneous Optimization of Block Replacement and Spare Part Ordering TIME for a Multi Component System with Separate Spare Part Ordering for Block and Failure Replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Mardin, Farid; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    A block replacement schedule can be optimized simultaneously with a spare parts ordering schedule, since all items are replaced at a constant interval. The solution of joint optimization for spare parts ordering time and block replacement gives lower costs compared to separate optimization of ordering time and replacement time. The spare parts for replacement can be classified as stochastic demand for failure replacement and deterministic demand for block replacement. In this paper, we propos...

  9. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameters...... of totally different nature-e.g. reliability data, operating cost and condition information. This paper presents an asset management approach which answer the question "When to replace a component?" The presented model address the problem in direct economic terms, and the model is capable of evaluating...... consequences of replacing today or later, so the most cost-efficient solutions can be reached. A software system, VefoNet, has been developed in a common Nordic project. The system includes the described model as well as other asset management models. The system also includes a data collection system based...

  10. The role of the transverse acetabular ligament for acetabular component orientation in total hip replacement: an analysis of acetabular component position and range of movement using navigation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteis, T; Sendtner, E; Beverland, D; Archbold, P A; Hube, R; Schuster, T; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J

    2011-08-01

    Orientation of the native acetabular plane as defined by the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) and the posterior labrum was measured intra-operatively using computer-assisted navigation in 39 hips. In order to assess the influence of alignment on impingement, the range of movement was calculated for that defined by the TAL and the posterior labrum and compared with a standard acetabular component position (abduction 45°/anteversion 15°). With respect to the registration of the plane defined by the TAL and the posterior labrum, there was moderate interobserver agreement (r = 0.64, p hip replacement. However, there is only a moderate interobserver agreement and intra-observer reliability in the alignment of the acetabular component using the TAL and the posterior labrum. No reduction in impingement was found when the acetabular component was aligned with the TAL and the posterior labrum, compared with a standard acetabular component position.

  11. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce D; Legg, Keith O; Schell, Jerry; Bondaruk, Bob; Alford, Charles; Natishan, Paul; Lawrence, Steven; Shubert, Gary; Bretz, Philip; Kaltenhauser, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Hard chromium electroplating is extensively used by aircraft manufacturers and military maintenance depots to provide wear and/or corrosion resistance or to restore dimensional tolerance to components...

  12. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Postgraduate School for offering this great learning - and life-experience to international students. A special thanks goes to my thesis advisors...Numerical Demonstration To implement the linear program, we use the Python Programming Language (PSF 2016) with the Pyomo optimization modeling language...Here are a few examples: 1. If the action REPLACE requires a certain machine , and we only have y such machines available, then we can set all decision

  13. Biochemical and histological evaluation of the synovial-like tissue around failed (loose) total joint replacement prostheses in human subjects and a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, T S; Ozuna, R M; Shortkroff, S; Keller, K; Sledge, C B; Spector, M

    1990-07-01

    The tissue around loose total joint replacement prostheses displays a synovial-like lining comprised of cells that produce IL-1 and PGE2, mediators of inflammation that stimulate bone resorption. Particles of titanium alloy, as well as cobalt-chromium alloy and polyethylene, were found to aggravate the histiocytic response and production of IL-1 and PGE2. Tissue with similar histological and biochemical features was produced in a canine model of the aseptic loose cemented femoral stem.

  14. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Applications for ESD repair include components of steel, stainless steel, nickel- and cobalt -based superalloys , aluminum, Monel, titanium, and magnesium...alternative processes such as high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings. ESD operating parameters for coating 4340 steel with tungsten-carbide/ cobalt cermet

  15. Contact Kinematics Correlates to Tibial Component Migration Following Single Radius Posterior Stabilized Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Matthew G; Perry, Kevin I; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-03-01

    Contact kinematics between total knee arthroplasty components is thought to affect implant migration; however, the interaction between kinematics and tibial component migration has not been thoroughly examined in a modern implant system. A total of 24 knees from 23 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with a single radius, posterior stabilized implant were examined. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis at 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years to measure migration of the tibial component in all planes. At 1 year, patients also had standing radiostereometric analysis examinations acquired in 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of flexion, and the location of contact and magnitude of any condylar liftoff was measured for each flexion angle. Regression analysis was performed between kinematic variables and migration at 1 year. The average magnitude of maximum total point motion across all patients was 0.671 ± 0.270 mm at 1 year and 0.608 ± 0.359 mm at 2 years (P = .327). Four implants demonstrated continuous migration of >0.2 mm between the first and second year of implantation. There were correlations between the location of contact and tibial component anterior-posterior tilt, varus-valgus tilt, and anterior-posterior translation. The patients with continuous migration demonstrated atypical kinematics and condylar liftoff in some instances. Kinematics can influence tibial component migration, likely through alterations of force transmission. Abnormal kinematics may play a role in long-term implant loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of total knee replacement: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Raelene M; Briscoe, Adam; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-01-01

    PEEK-OPTIMA™ (Invibio Ltd, UK) has been considered as an alternative joint arthroplasty bearing material due to its favourable mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of its wear debris. In this study, the potential to use injection moulded PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of a total knee replacement was investigated in terms of its wear performance. Experimental wear simulation of three cobalt chrome and three PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components articulating against all-polyethylene tibial components was carried out under two kinematic conditions: 3 million cycles under intermediate kinematics (maximum anterior-posterior displacement of 5 mm) followed by 3 million cycles under high kinematic conditions (anterior-posterior displacement 10 mm). The wear of the GUR1020 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was assessed by gravimetric analysis; for both material combinations under each kinematic condition, the mean wear rates were low, that is, below 5 mm3/million cycles. Specifically, under intermediate kinematic conditions, the wear rate of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was 0.96 ± 2.26 mm3/million cycles and 2.44 ± 0.78 mm3/million cycle against cobalt chrome and PEEK-OPTIMA™ implants, respectively (p = 0.06); under high kinematic conditions, the wear rates were 2.23 ± 1.85 mm3/million cycles and 4.44 ± 2.35 mm3/million cycles, respectively (p = 0.03). Following wear simulation, scratches were apparent on the surface of the PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components. The surface topography of the femoral components was assessed using contacting profilometry and showed a statistically significant increase in measured surface roughness of the PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components compared to the cobalt chrome implants. However, this did not appear to influence the wear rate, which remained linear over the duration of the study. These

  17. Editing Transgenic DNA Components by Inducible Gene Replacement in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene conversions occur when genomic double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) trigger unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a homologous template sequence. Exogenous or mutated sequence can be introduced through this homology-directed repair (HDR). We leveraged gene conversion to develop a method for genomic editing of existing transgenic insertions in Drosophila melanogaster. The clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is used in the homology assisted CRISPR knock-in (HACK) method to induce DSBs in a GAL4 transgene, which is repaired by a single-genomic transgenic construct containing GAL4 homologous sequences flanking a T2A-QF2 cassette. With two crosses, this technique converts existing GAL4 lines, including enhancer traps, into functional QF2 expressing lines. We used HACK to convert the most commonly-used GAL4 lines (labeling tissues such as neurons, fat, glia, muscle, and hemocytes) to QF2 lines. We also identified regions of the genome that exhibited differential efficiencies of HDR. The HACK technique is robust and readily adaptable for targeting and replacement of other genomic sequences, and could be a useful approach to repurpose existing transgenes as new genetic reagents become available. PMID:27334272

  18. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  19. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on C-2, E-2, P-3 and C-130 Propeller Hub Components Using HVOF Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to qualify high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on propeller hub components from various military aircraft...

  20. An example of a component replacement when applying ASME N509 and ASME N510 to older ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an example of a component replacement (electric heater) when installed in an older ventilation system that was constructed before the issuance of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2}. Many of the existing ventilation systems at the Hanford Site were designed, fabricated, and installed before the issuance of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2}. Requiring the application of these codes to existing ventilation systems presents challenges to the engineer when design changes are needed. Although it may seem that the application of ASME N509{sup 1} or N510{sup 2} may be a hindrance at times, this does not need to occur. Proper preparation at the start of project or design modifications can minimize frustration to the engineer when it is judged that portions of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2} do not apply in a particular application.

  1. A Review of 399 Total Ankle Replacements: Analysis of Ipsilateral Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis and Associated Talar Component Subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prissel, Mark A; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    Total ankle replacement (TAR) is an accepted treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. When concurrent subtalar joint pathologic features exist, ipsilateral subtalar joint arthrodesis (STJA) can be performed either simultaneous with TAR or as a staged procedure. Limited data exist on the effect of talar component subsidence and prosthesis survivorship. The present study purpose was to evaluate the effect of STJA on talar component subsidence after primary TAR and its effect on TAR survivorship. All patients, a minimum of 18 years old, from a single institution with modern-generation TAR and 1-year minimum follow-up data available were evaluated. The study group included patients who had also undergone STJA, and the control group (no STJA) was matched 1:1 by age, gender, and prosthesis. The initial postoperative weightbearing and most recent weightbearing radiographs were compared for talar component subsidence. We reviewed 399 primary TARs from 2004 to 2012. A total of 33 patients with ipsilateral STJA met the inclusion criteria and had an appropriate control group match. In the study group, 8 patients required a return to the operating room for 4 revisions and 4 reoperations at a median follow-up point of 24.3 months. Of the controls, 9 patients required a return to the operating room, with 4 revisions and 5 reoperations at a median follow-up point of 38.4 months. No statistically significant radiographic differences were found between the 2 groups. Primary TAR and ipsilateral STJA were infrequently required (41 of 399; 10.3%). TAR did not result in decreased survivorship when performed with ipsilateral STJA at an early follow-up point. Further study is warranted to determine any differences among previous, simultaneous, and subsequent STJA with ipsilateral TAR, and a matched longitudinal analysis is needed to determine longer term survivorship. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  3. Transcatheter Replacement of Failed Bioprosthetic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonato, Matheus; Webb, John; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-01-01

    postprocedural gradients (mean >= 20 mm Hg). Optimal implantation depths were defined by receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 292 consecutive patients (age, 78.9 +/- 8.7 years; 60.3% male; 157 CoreValve Evolut and 135 Sapien XT) were evaluated. High implantation was associated with significantly...... lower rates of elevated gradients in comparison with low implantation (CoreValve Evolut, 15% versus 34.2%; P=0.03 and Sapien XT, 18.5% versus 43.5%; P=0.03, respectively). Optimal implantation depths were defined: CoreValve Evolut, 0 to 5 mm; Sapien XT, 0 to 2 mm (0-10% frame height); sensitivities, 91...... valves. These clinical evaluations support specific implantation targets to optimize hemodynamics after ViV....

  4. The migration of femoral components after total hip replacement surgery: accuracy and precision of software-aided measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decking, J. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Mainz School of Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Schuetz, U.; Decking, R.; Puhl, W. [Orthopaedic Dept., Univ. of Ulm, School of Medicine (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy and precision of a software-aided system to measure migration of femoral components after total hip replacement (THR) on digitised radiographs. Design and patients: Subsidence and varus-valgus tilt of THR stems within the femur were measured on digitised anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. The measuring software (UMA, GEMED, Germany) relies on bony landmarks and comparability parameters of two consecutive radiographs. Its accuracy and precision were calculated by comparing it with the gold standard in migration measurements, radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Radiographs and corresponding RSA measurements were performed in 60 patients (38-69 years) following cementless THR surgery. Results and conclusions: The UMA software measured the subsidence of the stems with an accuracy of {+-}2.5 mm and varus-valgus tilt with an accuracy of {+-}1.8 (95% confidence interval). A good interobserver and intraobserver reliability was calculated with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.86 to 0.97. Measuring the subsidence of THR stems within the femur is an important parameter in the diagnosis of implant loosening. Software systems such as UMA improve the accuracy of migration measurements and are easy to use on routinely performed radiographs of operated hip joints. (orig.)

  5. Uncemented computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacture femoral components in revision total hip replacement: a minimum follow-up of ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead-Allwood, S; Sandiford, N A; Skinner, J A; Hua, J; Muirhead, W; Kabir, C; Walker, P S

    2010-10-01

    We prospectively evaluated the long-term outcome of 158 consecutive patients who underwent revision total hip replacement using uncemented computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacture femoral components. There were 97 men and 61 women. Their mean age was 63.1 years (34.6 to 85.9). The mean follow-up was 10.8 years (10 to 12). The mean Oxford, Harris and Western Ontario and McMaster hip scores improved from 41.1, 44.2 and 52.4 pre-operatively to 18.2, 89.3 and 12.3, respectively (p component was 97% (95% confidence interval 94.5 to 99.7). These results are comparable to those of previously published reports for revision total hip replacement using either cemented or uncemented components.

  6. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  7. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  8. The transverse acetabular ligament: an aid to orientation of the acetabular component during primary total hip replacement: a preliminary study of 1000 cases investigating postoperative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Mockford, B; Molloy, D; McConway, J; Ogonda, L; Beverland, D

    2006-07-01

    Ensuring the accuracy of the intra-operative orientation of the acetabular component during a total hip replacement can be difficult. In this paper we introduce a reproducible technique using the transverse acetabular ligament to determine the anteversion of the acetabular component. We have found that this ligament can be identified in virtually every hip undergoing primary surgery. We describe an intra-operative grading system for the appearance of the ligament. This technique has been used in 1000 consecutive cases. During a minimum follow-up of eight months the dislocation rate was 0.6%. This confirms our hypothesis that the transverse acetabular ligament can be used to determine the position of the acetabular component. The method has been used in both conventional and minimally-invasive approaches.

  9. The use of the transverse acetabular ligament for determining the orientation of the components in total hip replacement: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermans, G; Van Doorn, W J; Koenraadt, K; Kats, J

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of the acetabular component can influence both the short- and long-term outcomes of total hip replacement (THR). We performed a prospective, randomised, controlled trial of two groups, comprising of 40 patients each, in order to compare freehand introduction of the component with introduction using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) as a reference for anteversion. Anteversion and inclination were measured on pelvic radiographs. With respect to anteversion, in the freehand group 22.5% of the components were outside the safe zone versus 0% in the transverse acetabular ligament group (p = 0.002). The mean angle of anteversion in the freehand group was 21° (2° to 35°) which was significantly higher compared with 17° (2° to 25°) in the TAL group (p = 0.004). There was a significant difference comparing the variations of both groups (p = 0.008). With respect to inclination, in the freehand group 37.5% of the components were outside the safe zone versus 20% in the TAL group (p = 0.14). There was no significant difference regarding the accuracy or variation of the angle of inclination when comparing the two groups. The transverse acetabular ligament may be used to obtain the appropriate anteversion when introducing the acetabular component during THR, but not acetabular component inclination.

  10. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Tomak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM chart, Moving Average (MA chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision.

  11. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomak, Leman; Tomak, Yılmaz

    2015-01-01

    Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) chart, Moving Average (MA) chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision. PMID:26413501

  12. Urban chaos and replacement dynamics in nature and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-11-01

    Replacements resulting from competition are ubiquitous phenomena in both nature and society. The evolution of a self-organized system is always a physical process substituting one type of components for another type of components. A logistic model of replacement dynamics has been proposed in terms of technical innovation and urbanization, but it fails to arouse widespread attention in the academia. This paper is devoted to laying the foundations of general replacement principle by using analogy and induction. The empirical base of this study is urban replacement, including urbanization and urban growth. The sigmoid functions can be employed to model various processes of replacement. Many mathematical methods such as allometric scaling and head/tail breaks can be applied to analyzing the processes and patterns of replacement. Among varied sigmoid functions, the logistic function is the basic and the simplest model of replacement dynamics. A new finding is that replacement can be associated with chaos in a nonlinear system, e.g., urban chaos is just a part of replacement dynamics. The aim of developing replacement theory is at understanding complex interaction and conversion. This theory provides a new way of looking at urbanization, technological innovation and diffusion, Volterra-Lotka’s predator-prey interaction, man-land relation, and dynastic changes resulting from peasant uprising, and all that. Especially, the periodic oscillations and chaos of replacement dynamics can be used to explain and predict the catastrophic occurrences in the physical and human systems.

  13. Engaging Future Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    military missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa, Asia , and South America. There is an increasing proliferation of failed and failing states...disparity, overpopulation , food security, health services availability, migration pressures, environmental degradation, personal and 22 community

  14. The use of the transverse acetabular ligament in total hip replacement: An analysis of the orientation of the trial acetabular component using a navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Kabata, T; Maeda, T; Kajino, Y; Iwai, S; Kuroda, K; Hasegawa, K; Tsuchiya, H

    2014-03-01

    It has recently been reported that the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) is helpful in determining the position of the acetabular component in total hip replacement (THR). In this study we used a computer-assisted navigation system to determine whether the TAL is useful as a landmark in THR. The study was carried out in 121 consecutive patients undergoing primary THR (134 hips), including 67 dysplastic hips (50%). There were 26 men (29 hips) and 95 women (105 hips) with a mean age of 60.2 years (17 to 82) at the time of operation. After identification of the TAL, its anteversion was measured intra-operatively by aligning the inferomedial rim of the trial acetabular component with the TAL using computer-assisted navigation. The TAL was identified in 112 hips (83.6%). Intra-observer reproducibility in the measurement of anteversion of the TAL was high, but inter-observer reproducibility was moderate. Each surgeon was able to align the trial component according to the target value of the angle of anteversion of the TAL, but it was clear that methods may differ among surgeons. Of the measurements of the angle of anteversion of the TAL, 5.4% (6 of 112 hips) were outliers from the safe zone. In summary, we found that the TAL is useful as a landmark when implanting the acetabular component within the safe zone in almost all hips, and to prevent it being implanted in retroversion in all hips, including dysplastic hips. However, as anteversion of the TAL may be excessive in a few hips, it is advisable to pay attention to individual variations, particularly in those with severe posterior pelvic tilt.

  15. The Plasma-Facing Components Transporter (PFCT) : a Prototype System for PFC Replacement on the new ITER 2001 Cassette Mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micciche, G.; Lorenzelli, L.; Muro, L.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The remote maintainability of the early ITER divertor cassette (based on the ITER 1998 design) was successfully proved during test campaigns carried out in the Divertor Refurbishment Platform (DRP) at the ENEA research centre at Brasimone over the period 1999-2003. Due to subsequent major modifications in the ITER divertor cassette design, the main focus over the past few years has been on the design and manufacture of the various components, devices and tools needed for refurbishment of the new ITER 2001 Divertor Cassette. The design of this new cassette differs substantially from the earlier version: in particular the shape, weight and attachment system of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC's) has been completely revised, and this also entailed a review of the procedures adopted for its refurbishment. One of the major requirements of the cassette refurbishment process is removal and replacement of the three PFC's. In the old cassette concept, target replacement was performed by means of a purpose-built '' C '' frame slung from a standard bridge crane. The 2001 cassette design precludes such handling methods for a number of reasons, notably because of the extremely tight inter-PFC clearances, and the need for controlled inclination of the target in addition to normal translational movements, both impossible with a simple Cartesian crane. To demonstrate the refurbishment feasibility operations for the new ITER Divertor 2001 cassettes, an experimental machine known as the Plasma-Facing Component Transporter (PFCT) has been designed, fabricated and commissioned in the years 2004-5. This full six degree-of-freedom system has been designed to handle payloads of up to 5 tonnes with good positional accuracy, and axes capable of very low joint velocities, including inclination of the PFC's over the range of ± 10 o in both horizontal axes, and controlled rotation about the vertical axis. Preliminary trials carried out during the commissioning phase have proved its

  16. Controlled expression of nif and isc iron-sulfur protein maturation components reveals target specificity and limited functional replacement between the two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Patricia C; Johnson, Deborah C; Ragle, Brook E; Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Dean, Dennis R

    2007-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing organism Azotobacter vinelandii contains at least two systems that catalyze formation of [Fe-S] clusters. One of these systems is encoded by nif genes, whose products supply [Fe-S] clusters required for maturation of nitrogenase. The other system is encoded by isc genes, whose products are required for maturation of [Fe-S] proteins that participate in general metabolic processes. The two systems are similar in that they include an enzyme for the mobilization of sulfur (NifS or IscS) and an assembly scaffold (NifU or IscU) upon which [Fe-S] clusters are formed. Normal cellular levels of the Nif system, which supplies [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase, cannot also supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of other cellular [Fe-S] proteins. Conversely, when produced at the normal physiological levels, the Isc system cannot supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase. In the present work we found that such target specificity for IscU can be overcome by elevated production of NifU. We also found that NifU, when expressed at normal levels, is able to partially replace the function of IscU if cells are cultured under low-oxygen-availability conditions. In contrast to the situation with IscU, we could not establish conditions in which the function of IscS could be replaced by NifS. We also found that elevated expression of the Isc components, as a result of deletion of the regulatory iscR gene, improved the capacity for nitrogen-fixing growth of strains deficient in either NifU or NifS.

  17. Management of severe aortic regurgitation in a patient with cardiogenic shock using a percutaneous left ventricular assist device and transcatheter occlusion of the failed aortic valve homograft as a bridge to surgical valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Peter; Lim, D Scott; Kern, John

    2014-01-01

    Acute hemodynamic compromise due to severe aortic regurgitation remains a difficult problem. The optimal management strategy and timing of surgery continues to evolve as new technologies become available. Here, we report the case of a young woman presenting with severe regurgitation of an aortic homograft who developed precipitous cardiogenic shock and multi-organ dysfunction. Her mortality risk with emergent surgery was prohibitive, and no percutaneous valve-in-valve device was available. We stabilized her condition by placing an Amplatz-type Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) occluder across her aortic valve in conjunction with a percutaneous left ventricular assist device as a bridge to surgical valve replacement. She went on to a successful surgery and recovered well. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Individualised distal femoral cut improves femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement in knees with moderate and severe varus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Dhanasekararaja; Iyyampillai, Geethan; Shanmugam, Sivaraj; Natesan, Rajkumar; S, Rajasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the variation in valgus correction angle and the influence of individualised distal femoral cut on femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement (TKR) in knees with varus deformity. The study was done prospectively in two stages. In the first stage, the valgus correction angle (VCA) was calculated in long-limb radiographs of 227 patients and correlated with pre-operative parameters of femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and hip-knee-ankle angle. In the second part comprising of 240 knees with varus deformity, 140 (group 1) had the distal femoral cut individualised according to the calculated VCA, while the remaining 100 knees (group 1) were operated with a fixed distal femoral cut of 5°. The outcome of surgery was studied by grouping the knees as varus 15°. Of the 227 limbs analysed in stage I, 70 knees (31 %) had a VCA angle outside 5-7°. Coronal bowing (p shaft angle (p alignment when VCA was individualised in the groups of knees with varus 10-15° (p 0.002) and varus >15° (p 0.002). Valgus correction angle is highly variable and is influenced by femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and pre-operative deformity. Individualisation of VCA is preferable in patients with moderate and severe varus deformity. Level 2.

  19. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  20. Method of detecting failed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Hideaki; Suzumura, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the settlement of the temperature of an adequate filling high temperature pure water by detecting the outlet temperature of a high temperature pure water filling tube to a fuel assembly to control the heating of the pure water and detecting the failed fuel due to the sampling of the pure water. Method: A temperature sensor is provided at a water tube connected to a sipping cap for filling high temperature pure water to detect the temperature of the high temperature pure water at the outlet of the tube, and the temperature is confirmed by a temperature indicator. A heater is controlled on the basis of this confirmation, an adequate high temperature pure water is filled in the fuel assembly, and the pure water is replaced with coolant. Then, it is sampled to settle the adequate temperature of the high temperature coolant used for detecting the failure of the fuel assembly. As a result, the sipping effect does not decrease, and the failed fuel can be precisely detected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  1. Failed endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhol Islami V

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of failed intubation is higher in obstetric than other surgical patients. Failed intubation was the 2nd commonest cause of mortality during anesthesia. Bearing in mind that failre to intubate may be unavoidable in certain circumstances, it is worth reviewing. The factors, which may contribute to a disastrous out come. Priorities of subsequent management must include maintaining oxygenation and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. Fiber optic intubation is now the technique of choice with a high success rate and with least trauma to the patient.

  2. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martucci, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A failed fuel detection apparatus is described for a nuclear reactor having a liquid cooled core comprising a gas collection hood adapted to engage the top of the suspect assembly and means for delivering a stripping gas to the vicinity of the bottom of the suspect fuel assembly. (U.S.)

  3. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has…

  4. Large-component handling equipment and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.; Swannack, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor systems have special requirements for component replacements during maintenance servicing. Replacement operations must address handling of equipment within shielded metal containers while maintaining an inert atmosphere to prevent reaction of sodium with air. Plant identification of a failed component results in selecting and assembling the maintenance cask and equipment transport system for transfer from the storage facility to the Reactor Containment Building (RCB). This includes a proper diameter and length cask, inert atmosphere control consoles, component lift fixture and support structure for interface with the facility area surrounding the component. This equipment is staged in modular groups in the Reactor Service Building for transfer through the equipment airlock to the containment interior. The failed component is generally prepared for replacement by installation of the special lifting fixture attachment. Assembly of the cask support structure is performed over the component position on the containment building operating floor. The cask and shroud from the reactor interface are inerted after all manual service connections and handling attachments are completed. The component is lifted from the reactor and into the cask interior through a floor valve which is then closed to isolate the component reactor port. The cask with sodium wetted component is transferred to a service/repair location, either within containment or outside, to the Maintenance Facility cleaning and repair area. The complete equipment and handling operations for replacement of a large reactor component are described

  5. Searching for Failed Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Jill; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the deaths of massive stars is key to understanding both stellar evolution and the chemical enrichment of the universe. Only by monitoring all the massive stars in a large sample over years are we able to take a statistical approach to the deaths of massive stars and possibly observe the rare phenomenon of a failed supernova, a massive star that collapses to form a black hole without a SN explosion. To this end, we have been monitoring 25 galaxies within 10 Mpc with the Large Binocular Telescope for the past 4 years. Analyzing the data using image subtraction, we monitor the fate of all ~106 evolved supergiants in these galaxies to obtain limits on the rate of failed supernovae. We search for stars that have "vanished'' over the course of our survey, by examining all stars showing a decrease in luminosity of ΔνLν ≥ 104L⊙ from the first to the last observation. If we can detect the variable source in our last observation, it is not considered a vanished supergiant or failed supernova. We also identify sources that have increased in luminosity by this same amount, allowing us to estimate our false-positive rates. In addition to the search that does not require a particular signature, we also search for the low luminosity, long period transients predicted by Lovegrove & Woosley (2013) for failed explosions of red supergiants. Among many other applications, the survey also provides photometry of SN progenitors and the first light curves of these stars. Here I present the first results of the survey and provide the first direct limits on the rate of failed supernovae.

  6. Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip replacement is surgery for people with severe hip damage. The most common cause of damage is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis ... pain medicines, and exercise haven't helped, hip replacement surgery might be an option for you. During ...

  7. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  9. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on C-2, E-2, P-3 and C-130 Propeller Hub Components Using HVOF Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Hard chromium electroplating is extensively used by aircraft manufacturers and military maintenance depots to provide wear and/or corrosion resistance or to restore dimensional tolerance to components...

  10. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  11. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total knee replacement; Knee arthroplasty; Knee replacement - total; Tricompartmental knee replacement; Subvastus knee replacement; Knee replacement - minimally invasive; Knee arthroplasty - minimally ...

  12. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  13. An in vitro simulation model to assess the severity of edge loading and wear, due to variations in component positioning in hip joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer Lancaster-Jones, O; Williams, S; Jennings, L M; Thompson, J; Isaac, G H; Fisher, J; Al-Hajjar, M

    2017-09-23

    The aim of this study was to develop a preclinical in vitro method to predict the occurrence and severity of edge loading condition associated with the dynamic separation of the centres of the head and cup (in the absence of impingement) for variations in surgical positioning of the cup. Specifically, this study investigated the effect of both the variations in the medial-lateral translational mismatch between the centres of the femoral head and acetabular cup and the variations in the cup inclination angles on the occurrence and magnitude of the dynamic separation, the severity of edge loading, and the wear rate of ceramic-on-ceramic hip replacement bearings in a multi-station hip joint simulator during a walking gait cycle. An increased mismatch between the centres of rotation of the femoral head and acetabular cup resulted in an increased level of dynamic separation and an increase in the severity of edge loading condition which led to increased wear rate in ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Additionally for a given translational mismatch, an increase in the cup inclination angle gave rise to increased dynamic separation, worst edge loading conditions, and increased wear. To reduce the occurrence and severity of edge loading, the relative positions (the mismatch) of the centres of rotation of the head and the cup should be considered alongside the rotational position of the acetabular cup. This study has considered the combination of mechanical and tribological factors for the first time in the medial-lateral axis only, involving one rotational angle (inclination) and one translational mismatch. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. To fail or not to fail : clinical trials in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during

  15. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  16. Can Achilles tendon be used as a new distal landmark for coronal tibial component alignment in total knee replacement surgery? An observational MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiftikçi U

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uğur Tiftikçi,1 Sancar Serbest,1 Veysel Burulday2 1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale, Turkey Background: In total knee arthroplasty, it is better to use more than one reference point for correct alignment of the components. By measuring the distances of Achilles tendon (AT and other conventional landmarks from the mechanical axis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the ankle, we aimed to demonstrate that, as a novel landmark which can help for correct alignment in the coronal plane, AT is a better option than other landmarks. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was done on 53 ankle MRIs that met the criteria for inclusion to the study among 158 ankle MRIs. After identification of the mechanical axis, the distances of distal landmarks, which were extensor hallucis longus tendon (EHLT, tibialis anterior tendon (TAT, dorsalis pedis artery (DPA, AT, extensor digitorum longus tendon (EDLT, and malleoli, were measured from the mechanical axis and were statistically evaluated. Results: In proximal measurements, the distances of the landmarks to the mechanical axis (on average were AT, 2.64±1.62 mm lateral; EHLT, 3.89±2.45 mm medial; DPA, 4.69±2.39 mm medial; TAT, 8.24±3.60 mm medial; and EDLT, 14.2±4.14 mm lateral (P<0.001. In distal measurements, the distances of the landmarks to the mechanical axis (on average were AT, 1.99±1.24 mm medial; EHLT, 4.27±2.49 mm medial; DPA, 4.79±2.10 mm medial; TAT, 12.9±4.07 mm medial; and EDLT, 12.18±4.17 mm lateral (P<0.001. Conclusion: In this study, the mechanical axis line, which is the center of talus, passes through the AT. Our MRI investigations showed that the AT, EHLT, DPA, and malleolar center (3–5 mm medial may help in correct alignment. Keywords: total knee arthroplasty, tibial component, alignment, distal references, landmark, MRI, Achilles tendon

  17. Method for repairing failed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakudo, Taketomi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To repair fuel elements that became failed during burnup in a reactor or during handling. Method: After the surface in the vicinity of a failed part of a fuel element is cleaned, a socket made of a shape-memory alloy having a ring form or a horseshoe form made by cutting a part of the ring form is inserted into the failed position according to the position of the failed fuel element. The shape memory alloy socket remembers a slightly larger inside diameter in its original phase (high-temperature side) than the outside diameter of the cladding tube and also a slightly larger inside diameter of the socket in the martensite phase (low-temperature side) than the outside diameter of the cladding tube, such that the socket can easily be inserted into the failed position. The socket, inserted into the failed part of the cladding tube, is heated by a heating jig. The socket recovers the original phase, and the shape also tends to recover a smaller diameter than the outside diameter of the cladding tube that has been remembered, and accordingly the failed part of the cladding tube is fastened with a great force and the failed part is fully closed with the socket, thus keeping radioactive materials from going out. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  19. DECOFF Probabilities of Failed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    A statistical procedure of estimation of Probabilities of Failed Operations is described and exemplified using ECMWF weather forecasts and SIMO output from Rotor Lift test case models. Also safety factor influence is investigated. DECOFF statistical method is benchmarked against standard Alpha...

  20. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  1. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... your activities. Most of the time, hip joint replacement is done in people age 60 and older. ...

  2. UCI knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanski, P M; Waugh, T R; Orofino, C F; Anzel, S H

    1976-10-01

    Between March 9, 1972 and December 31, 1973, a total of 103 UCI knee replacements were performed. Follow-up data are available on 83 knees with an average follow-up of 33 months. Patient evaluation of the end results indicates that 78.3 per cent were better, 9.6 per cent unchanged, and 12.1 per cent worse. Patient evaluation of their own knee function averaged 55 per cent preoperatively and 79 per cent postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated on a 100 point Modified Larson Analysis Form. The average preoperative score was 46, and the average postoperative score was 70. There were six (5.8%) biological complications in the 103 knee replacement. Biological complications included infections, wound healing problems and unexplained pain. Mechanical complications were seen in 18 (17.4%) knees, and included knee instability, tibial component loosening or deformation, and patellar problems. Additional surgery was required in 18 (17.4%) knees. Failure of the procedure eventually requiring removal of the prosthesis and fusion or amputation occurred in 4 (3.9%) knees. The intermediate-term results of UCI knee replacement have been clinically satisfactory. We currently recommend consideration of this procedure for patients with disabling arthritis of the knee.

  3. New Firm Performance and the Replacement of Founder-CEOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the causes and consequences of the replacement of founder-CEOs in a sample of 4,172 Danish start-ups. We propose that founder-CEO replacement is driven in part by mismatches between business quality and founder ability. Our framework suggests that replacements are more likely among...... the worst- and best-performing firms, with low (high)-ability founders replaced by manager with higher (lower) ability. Replacement is not unambiguously associated with better subsequent performance. Firms that replaced the founder were much more likely to fail, but the surviving firms among them grew...

  4. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  5. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download ... What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased ...

  6. Valve Repair or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Replacement Menu Topics Topics FAQs Valve Repair or Replacement Heart valves play a key role in this ... leaflets with a tissue patch. What is valve replacement? Severe valve damage means the valve must be ...

  7. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  8. Knee joint replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knee replacement - total - discharge; Tricompartmental knee replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - knee replacement discharge ... such as downhill skiing or contact sports like football and soccer. But, you should be able to ...

  9. Dynamic k-out-of-n system reliability with component partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coit, David W.; Chatwattanasiri, Nida; Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon; Konak, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new k-out-of-n system reliability model that is appropriate for certain design problems when the minimum number of required components, k, changes dynamically in response to failures to maximize the utility of the available collection of functioning components. This new model shares some distinct similarities with weighted k-out-of-n models and for some problems they produce the same result. However, there are subtle and distinct differences, and in practice, there are some complex applications have not been properly explained or modeled by traditional or extended k-out-of-n system models. For this application, components are arranged in a k-out-of-n configuration of heterogeneous components with different performance levels. Component performance is indicated by a component-specific component partnership level; the fewer partners required to operate successfully implies higher performance. The components can work collectively with partners at the same level to maintain system reliability, or they can create a partnership group with components at higher performance levels which serve as replacements to provide the necessary number of working components. When components fail, the dynamic k-out-of-n configuration maintains reliability of the system with changing k by having components create partnerships with other components at the same level or above. To demonstrate the model, a system replacement maintenance policy based on a replacement interval variable is applied to an example system to obtain the optimal replacement time. - Highlights: • A new k-out-of-n system reliability model is presented. • Components can form partnerships with other components. • The new k-out-of-n model is presented with a dynamic or changing k. • The new model is for systems with components that must work together in a group

  10. Diggers failing to become diggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    of mining as a national discourse beg the question how we might begin to assess mining’s actual long-term influence on the national imaginary. Two quite recent interventions – possibly at the tail end of another boom cycle – have sought to address how the ‘story of mining’ as a national narrative could......Mining has in recent years emerged as a national discourse in Australia as the combined result of the mining boom and national anxieties over the GFC featured prominently in references to Australia as a failed competitive state (the folding of manufacturing, where the closure of car factories plays...... a particular iconic role, not to mention perpetually troubled Qantas). Yet mining is not new to Australia, but has been pivotal to the country’s demographic growth post-settlement/post-invasion. Arguably, mining’s boom and bust cycles have given it at times a disproportionate influence on narratives...

  11. Detector for failed fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide automatic monitor for the separation or reactor water and sampling water, in a failed fuel element detector using a sipping chamber. Constitution: A positional detector for the exact mounting of a sipping chamber on a channel box and a level detector for the detection of complete discharge of cooling water in the sipping chamber are provided in the sipping chamber. The positional detector is contacted to the upper end of the channel box and operated when the sipping chamber is correctly mounted to the fuel assemblies. The level detector comprises a float and a limit switch and it is operated when the water in the sipping chamber is discharged by a predetermined amount. Isolation of reactor water and sampling water are automatically monitored by the signal from these two detectors. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Why good projects fail anyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  13. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction. Most production systems are repaired or replaced when they have already failed. However, they may require much time and high expenses to repair a failed system, so maintaining a system to prevent ...

  14. An optimal inspection strategy for randomly failing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelbi, Anis; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generating optimal inspection strategies for randomly failing equipment where imminent failure is not obvious and can only be detected through inspection. Inspections are carried out following a condition-based procedure. The equipment is replaced if it has failed or if it shows imminent signs of failure. The latter state is indicated by measuring certain predetermined control parameters during inspection. Costs are associated with inspection, idle time and preventive or corrective actions. An optimal inspection strategy is defined as the inspection sequence minimizing the expected total cost per time unit over an infinite span. A mathematical model and a numerical algorithm are developed to generate an optimal inspection sequence. As a practical example, the model is applied to provide a machine tool operator with a time sequence for inspecting the cutting tool. The tool life time distribution and the trend of one control parameter defining its actual condition are supposed to be known

  15. Fail-safe reactivity compensation method for a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Erik T.; Angelo, Peter L.; Aase, Scott B.

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates generally to the field of compensation methods for nuclear reactors and, in particular to a method for fail-safe reactivity compensation in solution-type nuclear reactors. In one embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention augments other control methods for a nuclear reactor. In still another embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention permits one to control a nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor through a method that does not rely on moving components into or out of a reactor core, nor does the method of the present invention rely on the constant repositioning of control rods within a nuclear reactor in order to maintain a critical state.

  16. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication......, reviews existing criteria for the replacement of restorations and encourages practitioners to shift, if not already doing so, to considering the replacement of a restoration as a last resort rather than as a prudent action to be taken if in any doubt about clinical acceptability. Further research...

  17. Replacement of Autoclave ME-24 Temperature Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acmad-Suntoro

    2008-01-01

    Autoclave ME-24 which is used as a passivity equipment of metal in order to prevent its rate of corrosion has four heating systems including their temperature controllers. Replacement of the temperature controllers are inevitably implemented because the controllers were defective. Repair of the controllers or replacement with exactly the same controllers is impossible because of both expire in component and module level of the controllers. Therefore replacement with similar type and performance has to be implemented. This paper describes technical consideration, steps of design, and result of test measurement in the controller replacement so that the autoclave can work normally as before. (author)

  18. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  19. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  20. Optimization of station battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  1. Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing as a Key Component of the Value Platform: A Pilot Analysis of Colonoscopy, Aortic Valve Replacement and Carpal Tunnel Release Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jacob A; Mayhew, Christopher R; Morris, Amanda J; Bader, Angela M; Tsai, Mitchell H; Urman, Richard D

    2018-04-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is a methodology that calculates the costs of healthcare resources consumed as a patient moves along a care process. Limited data exist on the application of TDABC from the perspective of an anesthesia provider. We describe the use of TDABC, a bottom-up costing strategy and financial outcomes for three different medical-surgical procedures. In each case, a multi-disciplinary team created process maps describing the care delivery cycle for a patient encounter using the TDABC methodology. Each step in a process map delineated an activity required for delivery of patient care. The resources (personnel, equipment and supplies) associated with each step were identified. A per minute cost for each resource expended was generated, known as the capacity cost rate, and multiplied by its time requirement. The total cost for an episode of care was obtained by adding the cost of each individual resource consumed as the patient moved along a clinical pathway. We built process maps for colonoscopy in the gastroenterology suite, calculated costs of an aortic valve replacement by comparing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) techniques, and determined the cost of carpal tunnel release in an operating room versus an ambulatory procedure room. TDABC is central to the value-based healthcare platform. Application of TDABC provides a framework to identify process improvements for health care delivery. The first case demonstrates cost-savings and improved wait times by shifting some of the colonoscopies scheduled with an anesthesiologist from the main hospital to the ambulatory facility. In the second case, we show that the deployment of an aortic valve via the transcatheter route front loads the costs compared to traditional, surgical replacement. The last case demonstrates significant cost savings to the healthcare system associated with re-organization of staff required to execute a

  2. Data mining and diagnosing IC fails

    CERN Document Server

    Huisman, Leendert M

    2005-01-01

    This book grew out of an attempt to describe a variety of tools that were developed over a period of years in IBM to analyze Integrated Circuit fail data. The selection presented in this book focuses on those tools that have a significant statistical or datamining component. The danger of describing sta­ tistical analysis methods is the amount of non-trivial mathematics that is involved and that tends to obscure the usually straigthforward analysis ideas. This book is, therefore, divided into two roughly equal parts. The first part contains the description of the various analysis techniques and focuses on ideas and experimental results. The second part contains all the mathematical details that are necessary to prove the validity of the analysis techniques, the existence of solutions to the problems that those techniques engender, and the correctness of several properties that were assumed in the first part. Those who are interested only in using the analysis techniques themselves can skip the second part, b...

  3. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are two options for replacement: First, a removable partial denture may be used to replace the missing tooth. ... appearance look and feel more natural than a removable partial denture. However, it does require grinding down the support ...

  4. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  5. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  6. Elbow replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... Pain is normal after elbow replacement surgery. It should get better over time. Your doctor will give you a prescription for pain medicine. Get it filled when ...

  7. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  8. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hip Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  9. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Replacement Therapy Diabetes sometimes damages kidneys so badly that ... Dialysis Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement therapy, is a way of cleaning the blood ...

  10. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. Hip replacement - precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. After you have hip replacement surgery, you will need to be careful how ... to Expect at Home After you have hip replacement surgery, you will need to be careful how ...

  12. Hip replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Total hip replacement - discharge; Hip hemiarthroplasty - discharge; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement discharge ... such as downhill skiing or contact sports like football and soccer. But you should be able to ...

  13. COMMERCIAL BEEF HERD REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fanning, Jasper; Marsh, Thomas L.; Jones, Rodney D.

    2001-01-01

    Annualized cow ownership costs represent a large component of the total costs in a cow-calf enterprise, and therefore impact profitability. Annualized cow costs are determined in large part by the price or cost of that cow when it entered the herd. We find that ownership costs, and in turn cow-herd profitability, can be significantly impacted by heifer replacement strategies. Timing (within the cattle cycle) and method (raise vs. purchase) are both important considerations.

  14. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  15. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  16. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  17. Neglected City Narratives And Failed Rebranding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    Rīga, Latvia went through a failed rebranding process as the forerunner of its status as a European Capital of Culture (2014). The same thing happened in Aarhus, Denmark. Aarhus will be a European Capital of Culture (2017) and leading to this, it went through a failed rebranding process. Based on...

  18. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  19. A delay time model for a mission-based system subject to periodic and random inspection and postponed replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inspection and replacement policy for a single component system that successively executes missions with random durations. The failure process of the system can be divided into two states, namely, normal and defective, following the delay time concept. Inspections are carried out periodically and immediately after the completion of each mission (random inspections). The failed state is always identified immediately, whereas the defective state can only be revealed by an inspection. If the system fails or is defective at a periodic inspection, then replacement is immediate. If, however, the system is defective at a random inspection, then replacement will be postponed if the time to the subsequent periodic inspection is shorter than a pre-determined threshold, and immediate otherwise. We derive the long run expected cost per unit time and then investigate the optimal periodic inspection interval and postponement threshold. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A delay time model of inspection is introduced for mission-based systems. • Periodic and random inspections are performed to check the state. • Replacement of the defective system at a random inspection can be postponed.

  20. Failed fuel action plan guidelines: Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a generic guideline that can be used to formulate a failed fuel action plan (FFAP) for specific application by a utility. This document is intended to be part of a comprehensive fuel reliability monitoring, management, and improvement program. The utilities may utilize this document as one resource in developing a failed fuel action plan. This document is not intended to be used as a failed fuel action plan standard. This document is intended to provide guidance on: management responsibilities; fuel performance parameters; cost/benefit analysis; action levels; long-term improvement methods; and data collection, analysis, and trending. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  2. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  3. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most commonly replaced valves. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are fairly uncommon in adults. Replacing a ... Problems and Causes • Risks, Signs and Symptoms • Accurate Diagnosis • Treatment Options ... Repair Valve Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - ...

  4. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  5. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  6. How to replace a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1996-01-01

    A potential life extending procedure for a nuclear reactor after, say, 40 years of service life, might in some circumstances be the replacement of the reactor pressure vessel. Neutron induced degradation of the vessel might make replacement by one of a different material composition desirable, for example. Although the replacement of heavy components, such as steam generators, has been possible for many years, the pressure vessel presents a much more demanding task if only because it is highly irradiated. Some preliminary feasibility studies by Siemens are reported for the two removal strategies that might be considered. These are removal of the entire pressure vessel in one piece and dismantling it into sections. (UK)

  7. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  8. Built to Last: The Army’s Failed Quest to Replace the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    organization in order to manage the infantry-fighting vehicle development. A new Army institution and its first commander, General William DePuy stepped in...recommended that the Army stop production and complete its written plan first.29 Based upon the GAOs recommendation, the Office of Management and Budget...37 Christopher F. Foss, ed., Jane’s Armour and Artillery 2011-2012, 32 ed. (New York: Janes Information Group, 2011), 443. 38 Haworth, The

  9. Opportunity-based age replacement: exponentially distributed times between opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); M.C. Dijkstra (Matthijs)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis article gives a full analysis of a component-replacement model in which preventive replacements are only possible at maintenance opportunities. These oppertunities arise according to a Poisson process, independently of failures of the component. Conditions for the existence of a

  10. Conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty: A short to mid-term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Amite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conversion of hemiarthroplasty (unipolar or bipolar of the hip to total hip replacement has been reported to be associated with very high rates of intra- and postoperative complications. We present a prospective analysis of the outcome of conversion surgery in patients with failed hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods: Forty-four cases, 30 women and 14 men, average age 62 years (range 42-75 years of failed hemiarthroplasty were converted to total hip replacement between January 1998 and December 2004. Groin pain was the main presenting complaint in the majority of the patients (24 out of 44. Six patients had infection and were operated with staged procedure. All acetabular and the majority (86.5% of femoral components used in our series were uncemented. Results: After an average follow-up of 6.4 years (range, two to nine years Harris hip scores improved from 38 (range 15-62 preoperatively to 86 (range 38 to 100 and 22 (50% patients were community ambulators without support while 17 (38% needed minimal support of cane. Fifteen out of 18 (83% patients who had isolated groin pain preoperatively experienced no pain postoperatively while three patients (17% reported only partial improvement. Intraoperative and postoperative complications included iatrogenic fracture of the femur in two, femoral perforation in two, partial trochanteric avulsion in two, fracture of the acetabular floor in three hips, and postoperative dislocation in one. None of these complications resulted in a poor long-term outcome. The rate of loosening in our series was 2.3% (one out of 44 after a mean follow-up of 6.4 years with a mean survival of 97.4% at 72 months. Conclusion: Conversion of symptomatic hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty is a safe option that gives good functional results, with marginally higher rates of intra-operative complications. The patients should be warned of the possibility of incomplete relief of groin pain postoperatively.

  11. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  12. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  13. On total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  14. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... candidate for partial knee replacement and what the success rate is for your condition. Alternative Names Unicompartmental ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  15. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  16. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  17. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  18. Why Do Large Infrastructure Projects Often Fail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    The paper reports, in a systematic manner, the views of a group of experienced practitioners on why large infrastructure projects often fail. The views, centering on the role played by the Owner (the Client or Buyer), can be summarized as follows:The owner should be aware of the need of clarity...... elements in securing successful projects....

  19. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  20. I Failed the edTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Adam; Oyler, Celia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, co-written by a teacher and a professor, the authors examine possible explanations for why Adam (first author), a New York City public school special educator, failed the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment required by all candidates for state certification. Adam completed a yearlong teaching residency where he was the special…

  1. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  2. Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE? K Lombard, M Grosser. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal of Education Vol. 28 (4) 2008: pp. 561-580. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Calandria and shield tank assembly replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottram, R.; Guin, J.; Poxleitner, T.

    2011-01-01

    In late 2008, Bruce Powers Refurbishment of Bruce A Units 1 and 2 began to experience delays which led to a question of whether there was an alternative approach to future reactor refurbishments. A proposed alternative was to remove and replace the entire Calandria and Shield Tank Assembly (CSTA) as a modular component. In early 2009, a team of expert contractors was brought together, led by Bruce Power personnel, to establish the feasibility of the removal and replacement approach as an alternative to conventional in-situ fuel channel assembly replacement. The accepted option of removing the entire CSTA was vertically up through the vault roof without end fittings. The study findings suggest that modular replacement of the entire CSTA is a viable option for future reactor refurbishments at Bruce Power. The project itself is an example of the successful integration of contractors and Bruce Power personnel solving complex multi-disciplinary issues. (author)

  4. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, PandIDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, D

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  6. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega......Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... distinguishing between platform replacement “height” and “width”. Seven groups of managerial measures for dealing with the issues are recommended. Originality/value – The study aims to contribute to the existing literature by taking a managers' perspective of product platform development. Its specific...

  7. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  8. Cervical intervertebral disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Garrick W; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2013-02-06

    Symptomatic adjacent-level disease after cervical fusion has led to the development and testing of several disc-replacement prostheses. Randomized controlled trials of cervical disc replacement (CDR) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) have demonstrated at least equivalent clinical results for CDR with similar or lower complication rates. Biomechanical, kinematic, and radiographic studies of CDR reveal that the surgical level and adjacent vertebral level motion and center of rotation more closely mimic the native state. Lower intradiscal pressures adjacent to CDR may help decrease the incidence of adjacent spinal-level disease, but long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate this theory.

  9. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  10. Cobalt toxicity after revision total hip replacement due to fracture of a ceramic head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo-de Tomás, J M; Novoa-Parra, C; Gómez-Barbero, P

    Symptomatic cobalt toxicity from a failed total hip replacement is a rare, but devastating complication. Potential clinical findings include cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, skin rash, visual and hearing impairment, polycythaemia, weakness, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and neuropathy. The case is presented of a 74year-old man in whom, after a ceramic-ceramic replacement and two episodes of prosthetic dislocation, it was decided to replace it with a polyethylene-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). At 6months after the revision he developed symptoms of cobalt toxicity, confirmed by analytical determination (serum cobalt level=651.2μg/L). After removal of the prosthesis, the levels of chromium and cobalt in blood and urine returned to normal, with the patient currently being asymptomatic. It is recommended to use a new ceramic on ceramic bearing at revision, in order to minimise the risk of wear-related cobalt toxicity following breakage of ceramic components. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G.R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in co...

  12. Mexico: Failing State or Emerging Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    argue that President Calderón’s current counter-drug strategy actually triggered the displacement of malign actors throughout Mexico by aggravating...increasing violence in Mexico along the nearly 2,000-mile long U.S. southern border as greater than Iraq and on par with Iran as the greatest...USJFCOM), said either Mexico or Pakistan were “worst case scenarios” for U.S. national security should either nation rapidly fail or collapse.2 Tension

  13. FidFail: Coverage and Precision Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    command line argument optionally disables static field analysis in order to reduce DidFail’s memory usage and analysis time. These new features make...unanalyzed taint flows. Finally, a new command line argument optionally disables static field analysis in order to reduce DidFail’s memory usage and...one of the apps has permission for. Unknown to the Android user, sensitive data could be exfiltrated to the Internet , if an app with permission to

  14. Revision of the Failed Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Winston, Jonathan D; Bielicka, Deidre L; Rogozinski, Benjamin J; Lourie, Gary M; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome of revision surgery for failed thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with failed thumb CMC arthroplasty. The primary reason for revision was pain caused by metacarpal subsidence. Revision surgery included soft tissue interposition and distraction pinning to address the metacarpal subsidence. Additional ligament reconstruction was performed in patients with thumb instability. Eight patients required additional metacarpophalangeal joint fusion for concomitant joint hyperextension. Eleven required additional partial excision of the trapezoid for concomitant scaphotrapezoidal joint arthritis. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Mean follow-up was 57 months (range, 24-121 months). Pain levels evaluated by visual analog scale were significantly reduced in all patients after revision surgery. Mean grip strength and key pinch strength significantly increased. Twenty-seven patients achieved good functional results; those for 5 patients were fair. This study showed that revision surgery with distraction pinning and soft tissue interposition with or without ligament reconstruction was an effective treatment for failed CMC arthroplasty of the thumb. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  16. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  17. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  18. Joint replacement in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJZ

    Objective: This paper presents the short-term findings from a joint replacement register started at the Zambian-Italian Orthopaedic Hospital (ZIOH) in Lusaka and compares the variables entered in this register with those captured in the Malawian. National Joint Register for purposes of synchronizing these in the near future ...

  19. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  20. Replacing starch with digestible fibre in growing rabbit feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of replacing dietary starch with digestible fibre (DF=pectin and hemicelluloses on health status, digestive physiology, growth performance, and carcass traits, 250 hybrid rabbits weaned at 27 d were fed until slaughter (76 d five diets with increasing DF to starch ratio (1.0 to 1.9; DF 18.9 to 22.2%; starch 19.6 to 11.5%. The digestibility of dry matter (64.7, 65.2, 66.8, 67.5 and 67.6% and NDF (27.9, 32.2, 35.0, 40.2 and 41.5% increased (probability of linear component of variance, L<0.001 with increasing DF to starch ratio. Final live weight and daily growth tended to decrease (L=0.06, feed intake significantly lowered (130 to 122 g/d, L=0.01 and feed conversion ratio improved (2.72 to 2.68; L<0.01. Health status, caecal fermentation and ileal mucosa traits of rabbits did not change. The feeding strategy failed in controlling the diffusion of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

  1. Survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-11-01

    To assess the survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants and to explore the possible factors that might affect the outcome of this reimplantation procedure. Patients that had failed dental implants, which were replaced with the same implant type at the same site, were included. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants; survival analysis was also performed. The effect of systemic, environmental, and local factors on the survival of the reoperated implants was evaluated. 175 of 10,096 implants in 98 patients were replaced by another implant at the same location (159, 14, and 2 implants at second, third, and fourth surgeries, respectively). Newly replaced implants were generally of similar diameter but of shorter length compared to the previously placed fixtures. A statistically significant greater percentage of lost implants were placed in sites with low bone quantity. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) in the survival rates between implants that were inserted for the first time (94%) and implants that replaced the ones lost (73%). There was a statistically higher failure rate of the reoperated implants for patients taking antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. Dental implants replacing failed implants had lower survival rates than the rates reported for the previous attempts of implant placement. It is suggested that a site-specific negative effect may possibly be associated with this phenomenon, as well as the intake of antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Catastrophic failure of the Elite Plus total hip replacement, with a Hylamer acetabulum and Zirconia ceramic femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M R; Yarlagadda, R; Anderson, G H

    2002-07-01

    We report catastrophic early failure of a cemented total hip replacement comprising a modular femoral component with a Zirconia ceramic head and an acetabular component of cross-linked ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (Hylamer). Between 1995 and 1999 we implanted 29 hips in 26 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years. Survivorship analysis in this group revealed a failure rate of 67.6% at five years. All hips which failed did so because of aseptic loosening with progressive osteolysis or radiolucencies. We therefore recommend early and regular review of all patients with this combination of implants and early revision surgery in order to avoid massive bone loss.

  3. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  4. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... assigned to the 'small' aortic size subset. Effective orifice area indices were calculated for all patients to assess the geographic distribution of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible confounding variables were performed. RESULTS...

  5. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  6. We still fail to account for Mendel's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porteous John W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present article corrects common textbook accounts of Mendel's experiments by re-establishing what he wrote and how he accounted for his observations. It notes the long-established tests for the validity of any explanations that purport to explain observations obtained by experiment. Application of these tests to Mendel's paper shows that the arguments he used to explain his observations were internally consistent but were, on one crucial issue, implausible. The same tests are applied to the currently accepted explanation for Mendel's observations. Conclusions The currently favoured explanation for Mendel's observations is untenable. It misrepresents Mendel, fails to distinguish between the parameters and the variables of any system of interacting components, its arguments are inconsistent, it repeats the implausibility in Mendel's paper, fails to give a rational explanation for his observed 3:1 trait ratio and cannot explain why this ratio is not always observed in experimental practice. A rational explanation for Mendel's observations is initiated. Readers are challenged to complete the process before a further article appears.

  7. Phaser.MRage: automated molecular replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkóczi, Gábor; Echols, Nathaniel; McCoy, Airlie J.; Oeffner, Robert D.; Adams, Paul D.; Read, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of the molecular-replacement pipeline phaser.MRage is introduced and illustrated with examples. Phaser.MRage is a molecular-replacement automation framework that implements a full model-generation workflow and provides several layers of model exploration to the user. It is designed to handle a large number of models and can distribute calculations efficiently onto parallel hardware. In addition, phaser.MRage can identify correct solutions and use this information to accelerate the search. Firstly, it can quickly score all alternative models of a component once a correct solution has been found. Secondly, it can perform extensive analysis of identified solutions to find protein assemblies and can employ assembled models for subsequent searches. Thirdly, it is able to use a priori assembly information (derived from, for example, homologues) to speculatively place and score molecules, thereby customizing the search procedure to a certain class of protein molecule (for example, antibodies) and incorporating additional biological information into molecular replacement

  8. Failure investigations of failed valve plug SS410 steel due to cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyankar, V. D.; Deshmukh, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Premature and sudden in service failure of a valve plug due to crack formation, applied in power plant has been investigated. The plug was tempered and heat treated, the crack was originated at centre, developed along the axis and propagates radially towards outer surface of plug. The expected life of the component is 10-15 years while, the component had failed just after the installation that is, within 3 months of its service. No corrosion products were observed on the crack interface and on the failed surface; hence, causes of corrosion failure are neglected. This plug of level separator control valve, is welded to the stem by means of plasma-transferred arc welding and as there is no crack observed at the welding zone, the failure due to welding residual stresses are also neglected. The failed component discloses exposed surface of a crack interface that originated from centre and propagates radially. The micro-structural observation, hardness testing, and visual observation are carried out of the specimen prepared from the failed section and base portion. The microstructure from the cracked interface showed severe carbide formation along the grain boundaries. From the microstructural analysis of the failed sample, it is observed that there is a formation of acicular carbides along the grain boundaries due to improper tempering heat treatment.

  9. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  10. Outcome of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty in Management of Failed Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wael A; Amenábar, Tomás; Hetaimish, Bandar M; Safir, Oleg A; Kuzyk, Paul R; Gross, Allan E

    2016-11-01

    This is a retrospective review of the functional outcomes and complications of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) of failed metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. A total of 20 revision THAs were performed in 19 patients. Of them, 2 cases were failed hip resurfacing, and 18 cases were failed (MoM) THA. The mean age at revision (THA) was 59.35 years (standard deviation [SD] 9.83). The mean follow-up was 45 months (SD 13.98). The indications of revision were aseptic loosening of acetabular component without adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR; 10 hips), aseptic loosening of the acetabular and femoral components without ALTR (1 hip), painful hip associated with ALTR (6 hips), iliopsoas impingement associated with a large-diameter femoral head or malpositioned acetabular component (3 hips). The acetabular components were revised in 18 hips using Trabecular Metal Modular cups. The femoral components were revised in 3 hips. A constrained acetabular liner was used in 5 hips. The Harris hip score significantly improved from 48.4 (SD 12.98) to 83.25 (SD 10.08). There were 2 complications (1 foot drop and 1 superficial infection) and 1 failure (recurrent dislocation) that required revision to a constrained liner. Early results of revision THA of failed MoM hip arthroplasty showed improvement in pain and functional outcome. No case of failed bone ingrowth was noted with the use of Trabecular Metal Modular cups. Extensive soft tissue and abductor muscles dysfunctions were common. A constrained acetabular component with repair of the hip abductors might be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efforts for optimization of BWR core internals replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, N.

    2000-01-01

    The core internal components replacement of a BWR was successfully completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 (1F3) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in 1998. The core shroud and the majority of the internal components made by type 304 stainless steel (SS) were replaced with the ones made of low carbon type 316L SS to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. Although this core internals replacement project was completed, several factors combined to result in a longer-than-expected period for the outage. It was partly because the removal work of the internal components was delayed. Learning a lesson from whole experience in this project, some methods were adopted for the next replacement project at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 2 (1F2) to shorten the outage and reduce the total radiation exposure. Those are new removal processes and new welding machine and so on. The core internals replacement work was ended at 1F2 in 1999, and both the period of outage and the total radiation exposure were the same degree as expected previous to starting of this project. This result shows that the methods adopted in this project are basically applicable for the core internals replacement work and the whole works about the BWR core internals replacement were optimized. The outline of the core internals replacement project and applied technologies at 1F3 and 1F2 are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Closed External Fixation for Failing or Failed Femoral Shaft Plating in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbar, Adil; Witwit, Ibrahim; Al-Algawy, Alaa A Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done. X-Rays showed plating failure with acceptable amount of callus, which unfortunately had refractured. Cases associated with infection and no radiological evidence of callus formation were excluded from this study. Closed reduction was done by manipulation, then fracture fixation by AO external fixator. The patients were encouraged for full weight bearing as early as possible with dynamization later on. Of the 18 patients who underwent external fixation after close reduction, 15 cases showed bone healing in a period between 11-18 weeks (mean of 14.27 weeks) with good alignment (Radiologically). Removal of external fixator was done followed by physical therapy thereafter. Closed external fixation for treatment of failing or failed femoral plating, achieves good success rate and has less complications, is a short time procedure, especially in a hospital with limited resources.

  13. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  14. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  18. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  19. Knee joint replacement prosthesis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body, or to make a part of the body work better. The metal prosthetic device in knee joint replacement surgery replaces cartilage and bone which is damaged from disease or aging.

  20. Avascular Necrosis of Acetabulum: The Hidden Culprit of Resistant Deep Wound Infection and Failed Fixation of Fracture Acetabulum - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Kandhari V; M, Desai M; S, Bava S; N, Wade R

    2015-01-01

    Chances of avascular necrosis of acetabulum are rare as it enjoys a rich blood supply. But cases of post - traumatic avascular necrosis of acetabulum following fracture of posterior column have been well documented. Importance of identifying and suspecting the avascular necrosis of acetabulum is essential in cases of failed fixation of fracture acetabulum, previously operated using extensile approach to acetabulum; either extended anterior ilio - femoral or tri - radiate approach. Such patients usually present with repeated deep bone infection or with early failure of fixation with aseptic loosening and migration of its components. We present a similar case. 40 years female presented with inadequately managed transverse fracture of left acetabulum done by anterior extended ilio-inguinal approach. The fixation failed. She presented 6 months later with painful hip. Cemented total hip replacement was performed with reconstruction of acetabulum by posterior column plating. Six months postoperatively patient presented with dislodgement of cup, pelvic discontinuity and sinus in the thigh. Two stage revision surgery was planned. First implant, removal; debridement and antibiotic spacer surgery was performed. At second stage of revision total hip replacement, patient had Paprosky grade IIIb defect in acetabulum. Spacer was removed through the posterior approach. Anterior approach was taken for anterior plating. Intra-operatively external iliac pulsations were found to be absent so procedure was abandoned after expert opinion. Postoperatively digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a chronic block in the external iliac artery and corona mortis was the only patent vascular channel providing vascular to the left lower limb. Thus, peripheral limb was stealing blood supply from the acetabulum to maintain perfusion. Patient was ultimately left with pelvic discontinuity, excision arthroplasty and pseudoarthrosis of the left hip. Avascular necrosis of acetabulum is a rare

  1. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed bioprosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John G; Wood, David A; Ye, Jian; Gurvitch, Ronen; Masson, Jean-Bernard; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Osten, Mark; Horlick, Eric; Wendler, O; Dumont, Eric; Carere, Ronald G; Wijesinghe, Namal; Nietlispach, Fabian; Johnson, Mark; Thompson, Chrisopher R; Moss, Robert; Leipsic, Jonathon; Munt, Brad; Lichtenstein, Samuel V; Cheung, Anson

    2010-04-27

    The majority of prosthetic heart valves currently implanted are tissue valves that can be expected to degenerate with time and eventually fail. Repeat cardiac surgery to replace these valves is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter heart valve implantation within a failed bioprosthesis, a "valve-in-valve" procedure, may offer a less invasive alternative. Valve-in-valve implantations were performed in 24 high-risk patients. Failed valves were aortic (n=10), mitral (n=7), pulmonary (n=6), or tricuspid (n=1) bioprostheses. Implantation was successful with immediate restoration of satisfactory valve function in all but 1 patient. No patient had more than mild regurgitation after implantation. No patients died during the procedure. Thirty-day mortality was 4.2%. Mortality was related primarily to learning-curve issues early in this high-risk experience. At baseline, 88% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV; at the last follow-up, 88% of patients were in class I or II. At a median follow-up of 135 days (interquartile range, 46 to 254 days) and a maximum follow-up of 1045 days, 91.7% of patients remained alive with satisfactory valve function. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation is a reproducible option for the management of bioprosthetic valve failure. Aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid tissue valves were amenable to this approach. This finding may have important implications with regard to valve replacement in high-risk patients.

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  4. Fail forward: Mitigating failure in energy research and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on participant observation and empirical field research in three case companies, the OFEI model is developed to identify inappropriate behaviors that cause energy research and innovation to fail. The OFEI model can be used to give failed (or failing) projects a second chance and the article concludes...

  5. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  6. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential, severe damage warrants surgical intervention including complete replacement. Ligaments are longitudinally arranged, complex tissues; the mechanical properties of ligaments are a direct result of their components and the arrangement of these components in the tissue. It is these mechanics that have made ...

  8. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.

  9. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D.

    1995-01-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs

  10. 4D monitoring of actively failing rockslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Nick; Williams, Jack; Hardy, Richard; Brain, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the conditions which promote rockfall to collapse relies upon detailed monitoring, ideally before, during and immediately after failure. With standard repeat surveys it is common that surveys do not coincide with or capture precursors, or that surveys are widely spaced relative to the timing and duration of driving forces such as storms. As a result gaining insight into the controls on failure and the timescales over which precursors operate remains difficult to establish with certainty, and establishing direct links between environmental conditions and rock-falls, or sequences of events prior to rockfall, remain difficult to define. To address this, we present analysis of a high-frequency 3D laser scan dataset captured using a new permanently installed system developed to constantly monitor actively failing rock slopes. The system is based around a time of flight laser scanner, integrated with and remotely controlled by dedicated controls and analysis software. The system is configured to capture data at 0.1 m spacing across > 22,000 m3 at up to 30 minute intervals. Here we present results captured with this system over a period of 9 months, spanning spring to winter 2015. Our analysis is focussed upon improving the understanding of the nature of small (< 1m^3) rockfalls falling from near vertical rock cliffs. We focus here on the development of a set of algorithms for differencing that trade-off the temporal resolution of frequent surveys (hourly) against high spatial resolution point clouds (< 0.05 m) to enhance the precision of change detection, allowing both deformation and detachments to be monitored through time. From this dataset we derive rockfall volume frequency distributions based upon short-interval surveys, and identify the presence and/or absence of precursors, in what we believe to be the first constant volumetric measurement of rock face erosion. The results hold implications for understanding of rockfall mechanics, but also for how

  11. A dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.C.; Miller, M.

    1994-01-01

    For over 30 years AEA Technology has carried out research and development in the field of nuclear instrumentation and protection systems. Throughout the course of this extensive period of research and development the dominant theme has been the achievement of fully fail-safe designs. These are defined as designs in which the failure of any single component will result in the unit output reverting to a demand for trip action status. At an early stage it was recognized that the use of dynamic rather than static logic could ease the difficulties inherent in achieving a fail-safe design. The first dynamic logic systems coupled logic elements magnetically. The paper outlines the evolution from these early concepts of a dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems. Details are given of collaboration between AEA Technology and Duke Power Co. to mount an ISAT TM demonstration at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Power Station

  12. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Incidence of major joint replacement surgery is on the rise in Africa but this trend has not been matched by proper audits in the form of National Joint Registries. Objective: This paper presents the short-term findings from a joint replacement register started at the Zambian-Italian Orthopaedic Hospital (ZIOH) in ...

  13. Maintenance or replacement of primary equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchu, J.

    1995-01-01

    The principal materials, such as the primary equipments of a PWR type steam generator, have a finite service life. Framatome, builder of steam generators and maintenance contractor of Electricite de France has developed a methodology for the maintenance or the replacement of primary equipments. The paper describes the methodology followed by Framatome to identify and localize the wear mode and to treat or repair the component. Four failure modes have been considered: crack propagation, rubbing/vibration wear, neutron irradiation and corrosion propagation under permanent stress. A kinetic modelling of wear propagation has been computerized and validated using mechanical tests on Inconel 600 mockups. These analyses have allow to determine the strategy of repair or replacement of vessel heads for each unit. The method is evaluated taking into account the risk assessment, cost, dosimetry, efficiency and time delay involved. (J.S.). 1 fig., 3 photos

  14. Phaser.MRage: automated molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkóczi, Gábor; Echols, Nathaniel; McCoy, Airlie J; Oeffner, Robert D; Adams, Paul D; Read, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Phaser.MRage is a molecular-replacement automation framework that implements a full model-generation workflow and provides several layers of model exploration to the user. It is designed to handle a large number of models and can distribute calculations efficiently onto parallel hardware. In addition, phaser.MRage can identify correct solutions and use this information to accelerate the search. Firstly, it can quickly score all alternative models of a component once a correct solution has been found. Secondly, it can perform extensive analysis of identified solutions to find protein assemblies and can employ assembled models for subsequent searches. Thirdly, it is able to use a priori assembly information (derived from, for example, homologues) to speculatively place and score molecules, thereby customizing the search procedure to a certain class of protein molecule (for example, antibodies) and incorporating additional biological information into molecular replacement.

  15. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  16. Penentuan Interval Waktu Penggantian Optimal Komponen Berdasarkan Model Opportunity Based-Age Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Giatman, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance system, especially replacement that is not good, can cause much lose out for the company. The lose out is caused production process disturbing bay unexpectadly or unscheduled replacement. This will lose out for factory that have continue flow shop type, because replacement of the component that is need shut down machine will cause all machine in the process production stop. To anticipate of lose out that cause by replacement activity, so in this research will search interval of op...

  17. Sparse approximation problem: how rapid simulated annealing succeeds and fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Information processing techniques based on sparseness have been actively studied in several disciplines. Among them, a mathematical framework to approximately express a given dataset by a combination of a small number of basis vectors of an overcomplete basis is termed the sparse approximation. In this paper, we apply simulated annealing, a metaheuristic algorithm for general optimization problems, to sparse approximation in the situation where the given data have a planted sparse representation and noise is present. The result in the noiseless case shows that our simulated annealing works well in a reasonable parameter region: the planted solution is found fairly rapidly. This is true even in the case where a common relaxation of the sparse approximation problem, the G-relaxation, is ineffective. On the other hand, when the dimensionality of the data is close to the number of non-zero components, another metastable state emerges, and our algorithm fails to find the planted solution. This phenomenon is associated with a first-order phase transition. In the case of very strong noise, it is no longer meaningful to search for the planted solution. In this situation, our algorithm determines a solution with close-to-minimum distortion fairly quickly.

  18. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  19. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  20. Development of failed fuel detection system for PWR (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Churl Kew; Kang, Hee Dong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Cho, Byung Sub; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Yoon, Jae Seong

    1987-12-01

    Ultrasonic transducers satisfying the conditions for failed fuel rod detection for failed fuel rod detection have been designed and built. And performance tests for them have been carried out. Ultrasonic signal processing units, a manipulator guiding the ultrasonic probe through the fuel assembly lanes and its control units have been constructed. The performance of the system has been verified experimentally to be successful in failed fuel rod detection. (Author)

  1. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  2. TWO-STAGE REVISION HIP REPLACEMENT PATIENS WITH SEVERE ACETABULUM DEFECT (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Favorable short-term results of arthroplasty are observed in 80–90% of cases, however, over the longer follow up period the percentage of positive outcomes is gradually reduced. Need for revision of the prosthesis or it’s components increases in proportion to time elapsed from the surgery. In addition, such revision is accompanied with a need to substitute the bone defect of the acetabulum. As a solution the authors propose to replace pelvic defects in two stages. During the first stage the defect was filled with bone allograft with platelet-rich fibrin (allografting with the use of PRF technology. After the allograft remodeling during the second stage the revision surgery is performed by implanting standard prostheses. The authors present a clinical case of a female patient with aseptic loosening of acetabular component of prosthesis in the right hip joint, with failed hip function of stage 2, right limb shortening of 2 cm. Treatment results confirm the efficiency and rationality of the proposed bone grafting option. The authors conclude bone allograft in combination with the PRF technology proves to be an alternative to the implantation of massive metal implants in the acetabulum while it reduces the risk of implant-associated infection, of metallosis in surrounding tissues and expands further revision options.

  3. Hip-inspired implant for revision of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty with severe glenoid bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Uri, Ofir; Bayley, Ian; Lambert, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Glenoid reconstruction and inverted glenoid re-implantation is strongly advocated in revisions of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Nevertheless, severe glenoid deficiency may preclude glenoid reconstruction and may dictate less favorable solutions, such as conversion to hemiarthropasty or resection arthropasty. The CAD/CAM shoulder (Stanmore Implants, Elstree, UK), a hip arthroplasty-inspired implant, may facilitate glenoid component fixation in these challen...

  4. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  5. Hyperfrequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  6. Ultrasonics aids the identification of failed fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Over a number of years Brown Boveri Reaktor of West Germany has developed and commercialized an ultrasonic failed fuel rod detection system. Sipping has up to now been the standard technique for failed fuel detection, but sipping can only indicate whether or not an assembly contains defective rods; the BBR system can tell which rod is defective. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA.... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  8. Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one procedure versus percutaneous spinal fixation alone .... unchanged; Fair: definite relief of some preoperative symptoms, while other symptoms were either .... spinal fixation procedure alone for management of pain and handicap after failed back spinal surgery ...

  9. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. This action is necessary to provide guidance...-basis taxation of foreign persons not otherwise subject to U.S. net-basis taxation and the withholding...

  10. Failed fuel rod detection system and computerized manipulator during outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.H.; Foerch, H.

    1984-01-01

    During regular outages spent fuel assemblies need to be replaced and relocated within the core. Defective fuel rods in particular fuel assemblies have to be removed from further service and before delivery of such faulty fuel assemblies to a reprocessing plant. The system which Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH and Krautkraemer have developed in the Federal Republic of Germany is capable of directly locating the defective rods in a proper fuel assembly. Inspection times are comparable to those of standard sipping methods, with the advantages of immediately available results and direct identification of the defective fuel rods. During the repair of fuel assemblies this system allows withdrawal of individual defective rods. With the sipping method all the fuel rods of a defective fuel assembly need to be removed and inspected by eddy current testing. During steam generator inspection and repair personnel are exposed to ample radiation. A remotely controlled, computerized manipulator was used to significantly reduce the radiation dose by automating steps in the procedures; at the same time inspection and repair times were reduced. The main features of the manipulator are a rigid component construction of the leg and two arms, and a resolver control for horizontal and vertical motion that enables rapid and accurate access to a desired tube (author)

  11. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  13. Comparison of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients with and without failed renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelken, B M; Gorgulu, N; Caliskan, Y; Yazici, H; Turkmen, A; Yildiz, A; Sever, M S

    2010-01-01

    The survival of patients returning to hemodialysis (HD) following kidney transplant failure is unfavorable. However, the factors responsible for this poor outcome are largely unknown; chronic inflammation due to failed allograft and malnutrition may contribute to morbidity and mortality. We aimed to compare the nutritional status and its relation with inflammation in patients on HD with and without previous kidney transplantation. Forty-three patients with failed renal allografts (27 males; mean age 36±9 yr) and 40 never transplanted HD patients (24 males; mean age 39±9 yr) were included in the study. Body weight, triceps (TSF), biceps (BSF), subscapular (SSSF), and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses (SISF); mid-arm, mid-arm muscle, hip and waist circumferences; as well as body mass indices (BMIs) were determined as anthropometric parameters. Moreover, biochemical markers of nutritional status, including serum cholesterol and albumin as well as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation, were measured. Associations among these variables were analyzed. There were no significant differences considering age, gender or duration of renal replacement therapy between the two groups. The TSF (pfailed renal allografts were significantly lower than those of the never transplanted HD patients. Waist circumference was significantly lower as well (p=0.028). Patients with failed transplants were characterized by lower serum albumin (pfailed allografts may induce chronic inflammation in chronic HD patients which may result in a worse nutritional status. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Hormone abnormalities in patients with severe and chronic pain who fail standard treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with severe and chronic pain fail to obtain adequate pain relief with standard pharmacologic treatment agents, including low to moderate dosages of opioids. Understandably, physicians might not believe patients who claim that a standard opioid dosage is an ineffective treatment. These patients may be severely impaired, nonfunctional, and bedridden or housebound. To help characterize these individuals and develop treatment strategies for them, a serum hormone profile consisting of adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone was obtained on 61 chronic pain patients who failed standard treatments; 49 patients (80.3%) demonstrated ≥ 1 hormone abnormality defined as a serum concentration or level above or below the normal range, and 7 patients (11.5%) showed a severe pituitary-adrenal-gonadal deficiency as indicated by deficient serum levels of adrenocorticotropin and ≥ 2 adrenal-gonadal hormones. Hormone serum abnormalities are biomarkers of severe, uncontrolled pain, and, in a patient who has failed standard treatment, they are an indicator that enhanced analgesia is required and that hormone replacement may be indicated.

  15. Carcaça e não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros recebendo polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252 Carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed with pressed citrus pulp replacing corn silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yumi Noro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP sobre as características de carcaça e dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte quatro cordeiros com idade média de 90 dias e peso vivo inicial médio de 18 kg foram confinados durante 67 dias, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50, 75% da MS. Não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05 para peso vivo ao abate (32,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (44,7%, rendimento verdadeiro (50,3% e não-componentes da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, apenas o rendimento de lombo foi afetado (pThe objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by pressed citrus pulp (PCP on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs with average age of 90 days and initial weight of 18 kg were maintained in feedlot for 67 days, fed with increasing levels of PCP replacing corn silage (0, 25, 50, 75%, DM basis. There was no difference (p>0.05 for live weight at slaughter (32.8 kg, hot carcass yield (44.7%, true yield (50.3% and non-carcass components. In relation to cut yields, only loin yield was affected (p<0.05 by the diet, which showed quadratic response. For the carcass measurements, only the arm length was affected by the diet, showing quadratic behavior. The percentage of fat and muscle showed quadratic behavior according to replacement levels. The results suggest that pressed citrus pulp can substitute corn silage for lambs in feedlot without affecting the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components.

  16. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  18. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  19. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Bing

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  20. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

    1992-01-01

    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  1. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  2. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  3. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  4. Lower limb joint replacement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nicholas D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There is limited literature regarding the peri-operative and surgical management of patients with rheumatoid disease undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. This review article summarises factors involved in the peri-operative management of major lower limb arthroplasty surgery for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We performed a search of the medical literature, using the PubMed search engine (http://www.pubmed.gov. We used the following terms: ‘rheumatoid’ ‘replacement’ ‘arthroplasty’ and ‘outcome’. Findings The patient should be optimised pre-operatively using a multidisciplinary approach. The continued use of methotrexate does not increase infection risk, and aids recovery. Biologic agents should be stopped pre-operatively due the increased infection rate. Patients should be made aware of the increased risk of infection and periprosthetic fracture rates associated with their disease. The surgical sequence is commonly hip, knee and then ankle. Cemented total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR have superior survival rates over uncemented components. The evidence is not clear regarding a cruciate sacrificing versus retaining in TKR, but a cruciate sacrificing component limits the risk early instability and potential revision. Patella resurfacing as part of a TKR is associated with improved outcomes. The results of total ankle replacement remain inferior to THR and TKR. RA patients achieve equivalent pain relief, but their rehabilitation is slower and their functional outcome is not as good. However, the key to managing these complicated patients is to work as part of a multidisciplinary team to optimise their outcome.

  5. Initiating Heavy-atom Based Phasing by Multi-Dimensional Molecular Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    -based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available, as often the case for e.g. membrane proteins. Here we present an approach for heavy atom site identification based on a Molecular Replacement Parameter Matrix (MRPM) search. It involves an n-dimensional search...... to test a wide spectrum of molecular replacement parameters, such as clusters of different conformations. The result is scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions, from anomalous difference Fourier maps, that allow meaningful phases to be determined. The strategy was successfully applied...... but correct molecular replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts....

  6. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  7. Initiating Heavy-atom Based Phasing by Multi-Dimensional Molecular Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    in the determination of a membrane protein structure, the CopA Cu+-ATPase, when other methods had failed to resolve the heavy atom substructure. MRPM is particularly suited for proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be generated, and it enables the identification of weak...... but correct molecular replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts....

  8. Rehabilitation after total joint replacement: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Snell, Deborah; Hipango, Julia; Sinnott, K Anne; Dunn, Jennifer A; Rothwell, Alastair; Hsieh, C Jean; DeJong, Gerben; Hooper, Gary

    2018-07-01

    The evidence supporting rehabilitation after joint replacement, while vast, is of variable quality making it difficult for clinicians to apply the best evidence to their practice. We aimed to map key issues for rehabilitation following joint replacement, highlighting potential avenues for new research. We conducted a scoping study including research published between January 2013 and December 2016, evaluating effectiveness of rehabilitation following hip and knee total joint replacement. We reviewed this work in the context of outcomes described from previously published research. Thirty individual studies and seven systematic reviews were included, with most research examining the effectiveness of physiotherapy-based exercise rehabilitation after total knee replacement using randomized control trial methods. Rehabilitation after hip and knee replacement whether carried out at the clinic or monitored at home, appears beneficial but type, intensity and duration of interventions were not consistently associated with outcomes. The burden of comorbidities rather than specific rehabilitation approach may better predict rehabilitation outcome. Monitoring of recovery and therapeutic attention appear important but little is known about optimal levels and methods required to maximize outcomes. More work exploring the role of comorbidities and key components of therapeutic attention and the therapy relationship, using a wider range of study methods may help to advance the field. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapy-based exercise rehabilitation after total hip replacement and total knee replacement, whether carried out at the clinic or monitored at home, appears beneficial. Type, intensity, and duration of interventions do not appear consistently associated with outcomes. Monitoring a patient's recovery appears to be an important component. The available research provides limited guidance regarding optimal levels of monitoring needed to achieve gains following hip

  9. Mechanical Valve Replacement: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Cakir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Valve diseases in developing countries like Turkey which often occur as a complication of rheumatic fever are a serious disease. Surgical treatment of valve diseases should be done before irreversible damage to the myocardium occurred. In this study, we aimed to present the early results of mechanical valve replacement operations. Method: A hundred patients with mechanical valve replacement surgery were retrospectively evaluated in Seyhan Application Center attached to our clinic between July 2007 and August 2011. Results: Fifty patients were male and 50 were women. The mean age of patients was 47.88 (18-78. Isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR was performed to 23 patients, isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR was 32, double valve replacement (AVR + MVR was 12, MVR + aortic valve valvuloplasty was 1, AVR + mitral kommissurotomi was 1, AVR + coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG was 17, MVR + CABG was 8, MVR + atrial septal defect closure was 2 and Bentall procedure.was 4 patients. In addition, ablation procedure was performed to 5 patients intraoperatively because of preoperative atrial fibrillation. Two patients (2 % died in early postoperative period. Conclusion: Mechanical prosthetic valves are used for surgical treatment of valve disease with low mortality and morbidity in a large group of patients like women that not to think to get pregnant, non advanced age group and patients have less risky for anticoagulation drug in our clinic. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 49-54

  10. Wear prediction on total ankle replacement effect of design parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md; Harun, Muhamad Noor; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.

  11. Diverse modalities of gingival replacement: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep N Vinnakota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable. It can be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials.This paper describes different clinical situations in which three types of gingival prostheses, removable acrylic veneer with melanin pigmentation, fixed ceramic veneer and flexible nylon based veneer, were used effectively.

  12. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  13. Selection and Implementation of a Replacement Cutting Tool Selection Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    A new commercial cutting tool software package replaced an internally created legacy system. This report describes the issues that surfaced during the migration and installation of the commercial package and the solutions employed. The primary issues discussed are restructuring the data between two drastically different database schemas and the creation of individual component graphics.

  14. Securing Failed Inner-City Communities: The Military's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Oral

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the threat to internal security posed by violent gangs. This threat was found to be particularly acute in inner-city communities that have over time devolved to a status that the author classified as failed communities...

  15. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  16. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both.

  17. partial replacement of partial replacement of cement with bagasse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    4. CONCLUSION. CONCLUSION. CONCLUSION. 1. BA as a partial replacement for cement will help to solve environmental problems encountered in urban settings where Bagasse is disposed; hence this can help in the actualization of the phrase. “waste to wealth”. 2. The desirable properties of aggregates used in this.

  18. Comparison of primary total hip replacements performed with a standard incision or a mini-incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolson, Steven T; Mow, Christopher S; Syquia, Jose Fernando; Lannin, John V; Schurman, David J

    2004-07-01

    Primary total hip replacement performed through an incision that is a minimally invasive technique. Proponents have claimed that mini-incision techniques reduce blood loss, transfusion requirements, postoperative pain, and the length of the hospital stay compared with standard techniques through a longer incision. However, we are aware of no well-designed comparison study that supports these claims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the short-term results of a mini-incision with a standard incision technique for total hip replacement. A consecutive series of patients who underwent 135 primary unilateral total hip replacements (fifty with use of a mini-incision [a standard incision) by three surgeons at one hospital were studied. Each surgeon selected patients to have a mini-incision procedure and performed a standard approach in the remaining patients. A posterior approach was used for all procedures. In-hospital data were collected retrospectively, and the initial postoperative radiographs were analyzed. Because of the selection process, the patients who had a mini-incision had both a significantly lower average body-mass index (p = 0.008) and a lower average score on the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating (p = 0.006), indicating that they were thinner and healthier than the patients who had a standard incision. With the numbers of patients available, no significant differences were found between the groups with respect to the average surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, in-hospital transfusion rate, length of hospital stay, or the patients' disposition after discharge. The mini-incision group was found to have a significantly higher risk of a wound complication (p = 0.02), a higher percentage of acetabular component malposition (p = 0.04), and poor fit and fill of femoral components inserted without cement (p = 0.0036). There was no evidence that the mini-incision technique resulted in less bleeding or less trauma to the soft tissues

  19. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...... on the prediction. The model can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based on daily milk yield measurements that are available in modern milking systems. This talk will present the results of the paper and discuss directions for further research....

  20. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  1. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  2. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  3. A fail-safe design for X-ray safety shutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, W.E.; Port, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of any safety shutter device is to help minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Many such devices for analytical X-ray work may fail in a mode with great potential for injury. The authors present a design that may be used to modify any existing mechanical or electro-mechanical system that utilizes a gate which blocks an aperture to control exposure. The system is of 'fail-safe' design, as defined in the National Bureau of Standards Handbook 111 (American National Standards Institute, 1972); One in which all reasonable anticipated failures of indicator or safety components will cause the equipment to respond in a mode ensuring that personnel are safe from exposure to radiation. The system has visible indicators that make the user aware that a particular failure has occurred; in addition, X-ray generation ceases. (Auth.)

  4. Roguing with replacement in perennial crops: conditions for successful disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2013-02-01

    Replacement of diseased plants with healthy plants is commonly used to manage spread of plant pathogens in perennial cropping systems. This strategy has two potential benefits. First, removing infected plants may slow pathogen spread by eliminating inoculum sources. Second, replacing infected plants with uninfected plants may offset yield losses due to disease. The extent to which these benefits are realized depends on multiple factors. In this study, sensitivity analyses of two spatially explicit simulation models were used to evaluate how assumptions concerning implementation of a plant replacement program and pathogen spread interact to affect disease suppression. In conjunction, effects of assumptions concerning yield loss associated with disease and rates of plant maturity on yields were simultaneously evaluated. The first model was used to evaluate effects of plant replacement on pathogen spread and yield on a single farm, consisting of a perennial crop monoculture. The second model evaluated effects of plant replacement on pathogen spread and yield in a 100 farm crop growing region, with all farms maintaining a monoculture of the same perennial crop. Results indicated that efficient replacement of infected plants combined with a high degree of compliance among farms effectively slowed pathogen spread, resulting in replacement of few plants and high yields. In contrast, inefficient replacement of infected plants or limited compliance among farms failed to slow pathogen spread, resulting in replacement of large numbers of plants (on farms practicing replacement) with little yield benefit. Replacement of infected plants always increased yields relative to simulations without plant replacement provided that infected plants produced no useable yield. However, if infected plants produced useable yields, inefficient removal of infected plants resulted in lower yields relative to simulations without plant replacement for perennial crops with long maturation periods

  5. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmaningrum Soemadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW. The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <, and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T. At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the machine fails during the warranty period, it is rectified at no cost to the buyer. Any failure occurring before and after the expiry of the warranty is restored by minimal repair. An overhaul-replacement policy is formulated for such machines by using dynamic programming approach to obtain the buyer’s optimal policy. The results show that a significant rejuvenation effect due to overhaul may extend the length of machine life cycle and delay the replacement decision. In contrast, the warranty stimulates early machine replacement and by then increases the replacement frequencies for a certain range of replacement cost. This demonstrates that to minimize the total ownership cost over T the buyer needs to consider the minimal repair cost reduction due to rejuvenation effect of overhaul as well as the warranty benefit due to replacement. Numerical examples are presented for both illustrating the optimal policy and describing the behavior of the optimal solution.

  6. Hip-inspired implant for revision of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty with severe glenoid bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Glenoid reconstruction and inverted glenoid re-implantation is strongly advocated in revisions of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Nevertheless, severe glenoid deficiency may preclude glenoid reconstruction and may dictate less favorable solutions, such as conversion to hemiarthropasty or resection arthropasty. The CAD/CAM shoulder (Stanmore Implants, Elstree, UK), a hip arthroplasty-inspired implant, may facilitate glenoid component fixation in these challenging revisions where glenoid reconstruction is not feasible. We questioned (1) whether revision arthroplasty with the CAD/CAM shoulder would alleviate pain and improve shoulder function in patients with failed RSA, not amenable to glenoid reconstruction, (2) whether the CAD/CAM hip-inspired glenoid shell would enable secure and durable glenoid component fixation in these challenging revisions. Patients and methods 11 patients with failed RSAs and unreconstructable glenoids underwent revision with the CAD/CAM shoulder and were followed-up for mean 35 (28–42) months. Clinical outcomes included the Oxford shoulder score, subjective shoulder value, pain rating, physical examination, and shoulder radiographs. Results The average Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved statistically significantly after the revision from 50 to 33 points and from 17% to 48% respectively. Pain rating at rest and during activity improved significantly from 5.3 to 2.3 and from 8.1 to 3.8 respectively. Active forward flexion increased from 25 to 54 degrees and external rotation increased from 9 to 21 degrees. 4 patients required reoperation for postoperative complications. No cases of glenoid loosening occurred. Interpretation The CAD/CAM shoulder offers an alternative solution for the treatment of failed RSA that is not amenable to glenoid reconstruction. PMID:24650026

  7. Potentiality Prediction of Electric Power Replacement Based on Power Market Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Jingyi; Zhao, Le; Liu, Chang; Li, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The application of electric power replacement plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. To exploit the potentiality of regional electric power replacement, the regional GDP (gross domestic product) and energy consumption are taken as potentiality evaluation indicators. The principal component factors are extracted with PCA (principal component analysis), and the integral potentiality analysis is made to the potentiality of electric power replacement in the national various regions; a region is taken as a research object, and the potentiality of electric power replacement is defined and quantified. The analytical model for the potentiality of multi-scenario electric power replacement is developed, and prediction is made to the energy consumption with the grey prediction model. The relevant theoretical research is utilized to realize prediction analysis on the potentiality amount of multi-scenario electric power replacement.

  8. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering...

  9. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...

  10. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  11. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  12. Alumina-on-alumina total hip replacement for femoral neck fracture in healthy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Lorenzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total hip replacement is considered the best option for treatment of displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck (FFN. The size of the femoral head is an important factor that influences the outcome of a total hip arthroplasty (THA: implants with a 28 mm femoral head are more prone to dislocate than implants with a 32 mm head. Obviously, a large head coupled to a polyethylene inlay can lead to more wear, osteolysis and failure of the implant. Ceramic induces less friction and minimal wear even with larger heads. Methods A total of 35 THAs were performed for displaced intracapsular FFN, using a 32 mm alumina-alumina coupling. Results At a mean follow-up of 80 months, 33 have been clinically and radiologically reviewed. None of the implants needed revision for any reason, none of the cups were considered to have failed, no dislocations nor breakage of the ceramic components were recorded. One anatomic cementless stem was radiologically loose. Conclusions On the basis of our experience, we suggest that ceramic-on-ceramic coupling offers minimal friction and wear even with large heads.

  13. Percutaneous valved stent repair of a failed homograft: implications for the Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Victor; Jones, Alan; Taylor, Dylan; Coe, Yashu; Ross, David B

    2008-08-01

    A case of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation following a failed homograft in the pulmonary position is reported. A 16-year-old boy developed infective endocarditis of his pulmonary homograft, which was implanted four years earlier during a Ross procedure for congenital aortic stenosis. Following successful medical therapy, the boy was symptomatic due to pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation. A 22 mm Melody valve (Medtronic, USA) was successfully implanted percutaneously. His symptoms resolved and he was discharged home one day after the procedure. Echocardiography at the six-month follow-up demonstrated a normally functioning pulmonary valve. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement may make the Ross procedure a more attractive option for patients with aortic stenosis, particularly in the pediatric population.

  14. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  15. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing. Replacement housing applies only to existing, individual owner occupied housing. Replacement housing does not...

  16. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  17. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  18. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  19. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  20. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  1. Contribution to optimization of preventive replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legat, V.; Zaludova, A.H.; Cervenka, V.; Jurca, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the optimal interval for preventive maintenance/replacement using either an age-based or diagnostic-based renewal strategy. For the case of a finite-time horizon, for which the computations are complicated, a simple formula is proposed for modifying the commonly used inifinite-time solution so that it gives a good approximation to the exact finite-time solution. Examples demonstrate that the method is sufficiently accurate and simple in practice for typical engineering components with Weibull life distributions and for a reasonable range of the cost factor (ratio of unit corrective to unit preventive maintenance costs). This paper investigates the problem of the accuracy of the results compared to the exact, finite-time solution for a selected matrix of time-to failure Weibull shape parameters and cost factors commonly occurring in technical practice. Applications offer substantial benefits to both manufacturer and user of technical equipment

  2. Radiological difficulty in identifying unicompartmental knee replacement dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Oruaro Adebayo Onibere, MBBS, MRCS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Unicondylar knee replacement is a relatively common elective orthopedic procedure but is not often seen in the Emergency Department setting. Familiarity with normal clinical and radiological appearances is difficult to gain. Dislocation of the mobile bearing component “spacer” is a known complication of unicondylar knee replacements, and these patients will initially present to the accident and Emergency Department. In this setting, an accurate and prompt diagnosis is necessary to appropriately manage the patient's condition. There is normally a radiological challenge in identifying dislocated mobile bearings on plain radiographs. These patients may need to have further imaging, such as a computer tomographic scan to identify the dislocated mobile bearing.

  3. Transcatheter Sapien valve implantation in a native tricuspid valve after failed surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefer, Joelle; Sluysmans, Thierry; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    We describe the first report of a transcatheter Sapien implantation in a native tricuspid valve after multiple failed surgical repairs with a lack of prosthetic material and radiographic landmarks. A 47-year old female underwent multiple valve repairs and replacements including three tricuspid valve repairs without surgical ring or bioprosthesis implantation. She developed signs of right heart failure associated with a mixed tricuspid disease combining a severe stenosis and regurgitation. After surgical turn down, a revalvulation using a transcatheter approach was attempted. The challenges in this case were the absence of a stiff region to anchor the percutaneous valve, the lack of radiographic landmarks and the difficulties of precise annulus measurements. The applied strategy was -under general anesthesia and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-: balloon sizing, prestenting of the tricuspid annulus using covered stents followed by Sapien valve implantation through the femoral vein under fluoroscopy and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The procedure was successfull, solving the tricuspid leak and stenosis (peak gradient from 22 to 3 mm Hg) using two Sapien for a perfect positioning. It was complicated by pulmonary bleeding due to a distal wire exit, treated successfully by coil embolization. The clinical and echocardiographic outcome was good up to 5 months. Transcatheter Sapien valve implantation in a native tricuspid valve after failed multiple surgical repairs is feasible by the femoral vein. Technical challenges due to the lack of rigid landing zone and fluoroscopic markers were solved by prestenting and valve implantation under bi-plane fluoroscopic and TEE guidance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Placed Parenting, locating unrest: failed femininities, troubled mothers and rioting subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Allen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Critical attention has been given to the consolidation of classed forms of 'placed personhood', as compelling future-orientated and self-regulating subjects that 'fit' into contemporary economic and social formation. These forms of personhood, spoken of as moral character and behavioural 'traits', are increasingly attached to placed parenthood: as that which (selflocates in the right moral and material terrain. Good subjects – made through good parenting and in particular via 'good mothers' – are tasked with self-optimizing and bringing forward their own futures and those of their families (Allen and Osgood 2009; Armstrong 2010; Evans 2010, Gillies 2007; Lawler 2000; Taylor 2012a; Taylor and Addison 2011. A broader 'public' as concerned with equity, welfare and redistribution is dis-placed and entirely re-placed with a self-orientated 'enterprising' privatized response. This limited response is self-congratulating of its own 'responsibility' and condemning of those who 'fail' heightened efforts (in times of 'cutting back' parent-citizens are told simply to be more 'efficient'. 'Necessity' and 'austerity' are, as the editors of this special issue highlight, invoked to re-do all kind of classed and gendered violence, where the most privileged sections of society are evacuated from blame in times of economic crisis: in contrast, what re-circulates is a stated need for poor, 'failing mothers' to 'step-up' for all our sakes. Those who cannot bring themselves forward and propel into this neo-liberal future are increasingly condemned as the wrong kind of parents. This piece aims to chart some of the 'ugliness of parenting' (Taylor 2009, 2012b as placed parenthood attaches to specific classed locales and subjects as that which 'fails' and 'troubles' the future. This is witnessed in the example of and responses to the English Riots of 2011, which is placed as a case study casting light on intersections of class, race, gender and sexuality in forms

  5. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs

  6. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  7. Sipping tests on a failed irradiated MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C. A.; Terremoto, L. A. A.; Da Silva, J. E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (authors)

  8. Replacement charging belts - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahner, Klaus [AMS 14C Dating Centre, University of Aarhus (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Manufacturing of the original High Voltage Engineering Corp. charging belts has been ceased many years ago, thus leaving users of these accelerators without access to a critical spare part. During the past 6 years we experimented with industrial conveyor belts, supplied by the Forbo Siegling GmbH as replacement charging belts. Our EN accelerator runs routinely on these belts over the past years and performs very well. Furthermore this so called 'Siegling belt' has been adopted by other laboratories, indicating that a viable solution for the charging belt problem in general has been found. This review addresses both the technical aspects of finding a replacement charging belt and our specific experiences with the Siegling belt.

  9. Replacement cross-site transfer system project W-058 safety class upgrade summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the design of the replacement cross-site transfer system structures, systems, and components for safety related applications as defined in the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Basis for Interim Operations

  10. THE BEEF COW REPLACEMENT DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.; Short, Sara D.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis examines effects of several common assumptions on net present values (NPVs) of beef cows. While effects on NPVs vary over a price cycle or successive price cycles, several generalities manifest themselves. A cow is not likely to recover the lost revenue from not having just one calf. Incorporating genetic improvement into the herd increases the probability of an older cow being culled. Variable net replacement/culling rates make sense in the context of cattle inventory and price...

  11. Considerations on Fail Safe Design for Design Basis Accident (DBA) vs. Design Extension Condition (DEC): Lesson Learnt from the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Kim, Sungyeop

    2014-01-01

    The fail safety design is referred to as an inherently safe design concept where the failure of an SSC (System, Structure or Component) leads directly to a safe condition. Usually the fail safe design has been devised based on the design basis accident (DBAs), because the nuclear safety has been assured by securing the capability to safely cope with DBAs. Currently regards have been paid to the DEC (Design Extension Condition) as an extended design consideration. Hence additional attention should be paid to the concept of the fail safe design in order to consider the DEC, accordingly. In this study, a case chosen from the Fukushima accident is studied to discuss the issue associated with the fail safe design in terms of DBA and DEC standpoints. For the fail safe design to be based both on the DBA and the DEC, a Mode Changeable Fail Safe Design (MCFSD) is proposed in this study. Additional discussions on what is needed for the MCFSD to be applied in the nuclear safety are addressed as well. One of the lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident should include considerations on the fail-safe design in a changing regulatory framework. Currently the design extension condition (DEC) including severe accidents should be considered during designing and licensing NPPs. Hence concepts on the fail safe design need to be changed to be based on not only the DBA but also the DEC. In this study, a case on a fail-safe design chosen from the Fukushima accident is studied to discuss the issue associated with the fail safe design in terms of DBA and DEC conditions. For the fail safe design to be based both on the DBA and the DEC, a Mode Changeable Fail Safe Design (MCFSD) is proposed in this study. Additional discussions on what is needed for the MCFSD to be applied in the nuclear safety are addressed as well

  12. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  13. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  14. Opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, J.P.; Sheu, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes an opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair. The system has two types of failures. Type I failures (minor failures) are removed by minimal repairs, whereas type II failures are removed by replacements. Type I and type II failures are age-dependent. A system is replaced at type II failure (catastrophic failure) or at the opportunity after age T, whichever occurs first. The cost of the minimal repair of the system at age z depends on the random part C(z) and the deterministic part c(z). The opportunity arises according to a Poisson process, independent of failures of the component. The expected cost rate is obtained. The optimal T * which would minimize the cost rate is discussed. Various special cases are considered. Finally, a numerical example is given

  15. 77 FR 9846 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Administration for comment on its impact on small business. Drafting Information The principal author of these... unit if it satisfies the principles of Sec. 1.864-4(c)(5)(iii) (substituting ``qualified business unit... income, with two exceptions. Qualified fails charge income earned by a qualified business unit (QBU) of a...

  16. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  17. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  18. Reversing Polarities: Anarchical (Failed States versus International Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernandez Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how the literature on 'failed states' (reproduces the modern state as a regulatory ideal, obscuring its contingent character and its violent foundation. So, discursive practices, based on an Eurocentric account, construct the 'failed state' as deviant. The resultant hierarchy of states, in turn, creates favorable conditions for interventionist practices, whose agents are depicted as members of a 'progressive' and 'benevolent' 'international community'. As state failure is interpreted as exclusively domestic process, a well-demarcated boundary between the domestic level of 'anarchy' and the international realm of 'order' and 'progress' results. This article shows that the traditional image of an anarchical system versus an ordered and progressive state is turned on its head when viewed from the perspective of 'failed states'. In the latter, domestic anarchy is contrary to a modernizing international realm. By labelling the 'other' as 'traditional', 'failed', and 'backward' in distinction to a 'modern', 'successful' and 'progressive' international, the dominant discourse conditions us to conceive of these realms as homogeneous in themselves and radically different from each other, rather than as liminal areas with numerous ambiguities and overlaps.

  19. Chloroquine in the Ugandan market fails quality test: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antimalaria treatment failure has been partly attributed to poor quality antimalarials in the drug market. A 1998 survey in Kampala showed that 55 % of tablets and 62 % of injection forms of chloroquine failed the quality test. Objective: This study was carried out as a follow-up to establish the quality of ...

  20. Why does Centralisation fail to internalise Policy Externalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); H.J. Roelfsema (Hein)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCentralisation of political decision making often fails to produce the desired results. For instance, it is frequently argued that decision making within the European Union results in overspending and overregulation in some policy areas, while too low spending and too little regulation

  1. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  2. Post-deportation risks for failed asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Alpes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What happens to people who are deported after their asylum applications have failed? Many who are deported are at risk of harm when they return to their country of origin but there is little monitoring done of deportation outcomes.

  3. Refections of an Industrial Sociologist on the Failed Attempts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locating privatisation within the theoretical context of neo-liberalism, this paper reflects on the causes of the failed attempt to privatise NITEL as well as the reasons for dismal performances of most public enterprises in Nigeria. Reflecting on the utility or otherwise of privatising state-owned enterprises in Nigeria, the paper ...

  4. Factors associated with failed spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of spinal anaesthesia has increased in the last three decades, given that it is the recommended anaesthetic of choice for better foetal and maternal outcomes in Caesarean section. Failed spinal anaesthesia (FSA) exposes patients to unfavourable experience of pain and the potential complications of ...

  5. The ugly twins: Failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total

  6. Organization Theory: Bright Prospects for a Permanently Failing Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOrganization theory is a paradoxical field of scientific inquiry. It has struggled for more than fifty years to develop a unified theory of organizational effectiveness under girded by a coherent set of assumptions, and it has thus far failed to produce one. Yet, by other standards it is

  7. Therapeutic options after failed Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Weel, J. F.; van der Ende, A.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many of the currently used Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens fail to cure 5-20% of the patients. Those patients will remain at risk of developing a potentially fatal complication of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, a new attempt to cure H. pylori infection after initial failure of

  8. Why pediatricians fail to diagnose hypertension: a multicenter survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Blufpand, Hester N.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate why pediatricians fail to diagnose childhood hypertension, with special emphasis on the use of blood pressure (BP) reference data. We hypothesized that pediatricians frequently omit BP measurements and do not routinely relate BP measurements to reference data. We conducted a multicenter

  9. Factors associated with failed spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Abiodun Alabi

    Results: The incidence of failed spinal anaesthesia was 11.7%, which was slightly higher in emergency Caesarean sections. In univariate analysis, previous anaesthesia, obesity, dry tap of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bloody CSF and duration of work experience less than one year were significantly associated with FSA in the ...

  10. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken

  11. Delay factors in failed construction projects in southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with a view to showing the contribution of delay factors in the overall consideration of failed construction projects in south western Nigeria. This is considered necessary because the traditional view of construction project failure as consisting mainly of structural or functional failures tends to excuse ...

  12. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis. T...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis....... The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...

  13. Counselor Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Samuel

    1983-01-01

    Describes the laws regarding counselor liability for failure to report child abuse and state laws designating mandated reporters of suspected child abuse. Notes how the law protects mandated reporters. Discusses criminal penalties for those who fail to report suspected abuse. (RC)

  14. Heterotopic Pregnancy in a Natural Conception Following Failed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents another rare case of spontaneous simultaneous intrauterine and extrauterine tubal pregnancies following failed progestogen-only injectable contraceptive. The ruptured heterotopic pregnancy was diagnosed in unruptured state but could not be treated because the couple did not believe/accept the ...

  15. Rulers against Writers, Writers against Rulers: The Failed Promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various literary critics have dwelt on the nature, tenets and trends of commitment in Nigeria literature. However, there is paucity of scholarly studies on the representations of the failed promise to the public sphere in postcolonial Nigerian fiction. This paper, therefore, examines the strategies and technicalities of representing ...

  16. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  17. BENEFITS OF SHIRODKAR STITCH IN WOMEN WITH FAILED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... BENEFITS OF SHIRODKAR STITCH IN WOMEN WITH FAILED McDONALD STITCH. Omondi-Ogutu, MBChB, MMed (O/G) PGDRM, ... advanced cervical changes (dilatation) are present on visual (speculum) and digital .... length at 23 weeks of gestation: the value of. Shirodkar Suture for the short cervix.

  18. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.E.H.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandor, G.K.; Marcian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  19. Characteristics of failed fertilized oocytes in patients with severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Pigarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Machtinger R, Combelles CM, Missmer SA, Correia KF, Fox JH, Racowsky C. The association between severe obesity and characteristics of failed fertilized oocytes. Hum Reprod. 2012 Nov;27(11:3198-207.

  20. Failing hospitals: mission statements to drive service improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Annabel; Sarfraz, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to consider whether the hospital mission statement can be used as a management tool to improve service provision in failing hospitals. A literature search into the potential value and harm of hospital mission statements was done, followed by a survey of initial attitudes within a failing hospital. Do they indicate likely success of the tool? Mission statement is a potentially valuable leadership tool in the hospital environment. The success of its implementation is broadly dependent on its being developed with the support of stakeholders and its real application to all management decisions and questions of asset allocation. The potential danger lies in the fact that it can be seen as an expensive expression of politically correct platitudes which leads to cynical alienation of stakeholders. This was a small study within a single UK failing hospital, and extending its range will help to clarify whether its findings are typical of attitudes within such institutions. The likely success of the hospital mission statement as a management tool within a failing hospital is significantly limited by initial attitudes and preconceptions. Our research suggests that implementation is likely to be detrimental without preparatory involvement of the local community and hospital staff at all levels. Hospital management cannot be divorced from the local community where patient confidence must be maintained. This paper complements previous research, which has looked at mission statement acceptance among the upper echelons of hospital management.

  1. What leads to failure of joint-preserving surgery for ankle osteoarthritis?: when this surgery fails, what next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Norman

    2013-09-01

    This article discusses the lack of scientific evidence regarding the treatment of failed joint-preserving surgery. Most of the concepts of treatment derive from treatment modalities in trauma and orthopedic surgery. The main question for the foot and ankle specialist is whether the joint can be salvaged. The definition of failure is difficult. Therefore pain reported by the patient is the main symptom that dictates the course of treatment. Whenever possible the joint should be maintained. However, if pain is associated with global radiographic osteoarthritis, total ankle replacement or fusions are the only means to solve the problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Placement and replacement rates of amalgam and composite restorations on posterior teeth in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin D; Guevara, Peter H; Greenwood, William

    2017-01-01

    Replacement rates of direct dental restorations have been reported to be 37% to 70%, occupying a large proportion of a general dentist's time. Variations in the rate of initial placement and replacement of direct dental restorations may be associated with material placed (amalgam or composite), age, caries risk of the patient, and other factors. The purpose of this research was to clarify where the majority of patient care time is spent as a restorative Army dentist regarding either the initial placement or replacement of failed restorations; and how the location, caries risk, and material used (amalgam or composite) affects replacement rates. This retrospective cross-sectional study gathered data from 600 randomly selected military patient dental records. All paper records were reviewed and cross checked with the digital record and digital x-ray databases. Record review was limited to all direct dental restorations placed in the posterior dentition within the past 2 years (March 2011 to March 2013). Statistical analysis was accomplished using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Of the 600 charts reviewed, 525 were male, 75 were female, with an average age of 26 years (SD=6), ranging from 17 to 54 years. A third of the patients were classified as high, moderate, and low caries risk, respectively. The total number of posterior direct dental restorations placed was 2,117. Initial restorations totaled 1,429 (67.5%), and replacement restorations placed totaled 688 (32.5%). Four hundred forty-one of the 688 direct dental restorations replaced were amalgam (64%), the 247 remaining direct restorations replaced were composite (36%). Mandibular first molar dental restorations were replaced the most often (23.1%) while mandibular first premolar restorations were replaced the least often (0.9%). Older patients were more likely to have replacement of an existing restoration. Military dentists spend about one-third (32.5%) of their time replacing existing direct

  3. Conversion of failed modern unicompartmental arthroplasty to total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, W N; Ozuna, R M; Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S

    1996-10-01

    Between January 1983 and January 1991, 29 patients (31 knees) with a failed Robert Brigham metal-backed knee arthroplasty (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA) underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-five patients had osteoarthritis, three avascular necrosis, and one rheumatoid arthritis. The average patient age was 72.3 years (range, 49-88 years), and the average weight was 179 lb. (range, 112-242 lb.). The interval between the primary and secondary index procedures averaged 62 months (range, 7-106 months), and mean postrevision follow-up period was 45 months (range, 24-104 months). The primary mechanism of failure of the UKA was tibial polyethylene wear in 21 knees and opposite compartment progression of arthritis in 10 knees. Sixteen knees had particulate synovitis with dense metallic staining of the synovium. At revision, the posterior cruciate ligament was spared in 30 knees and substituted in 1 knee. Restoration of bony deficiency at revision required cancellous bone-graft for contained defects in seven knees, tibial wedges in four knees, and femoral wedges in two knees. No defects received structural allografts. The data suggest that failed, modern unicompartmental knee arthroplasty can successfully be converted to TKA. In most cases, the posterior cruciate ligament can be spared and bone defects corrected with simple wedges or cancellous grafts. Moreover, the results of revision of failed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are superior to those of failed TKA and failed high tibial osteotomy and comparable to the authors' results of primary TKA with similar-length follow-up periods. Although these results are encouraging, longer-term follow-up evaluation is required to determine survivorship of these revision arthroplasties.

  4. Replaceable Jejunal Feeding Tubes in Severely Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term enteral nutrition in chronically ill, malnourished children represents a clinical challenge if adequate feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes fails. We evaluated the usefulness and complications of a new type of surgical jejunostomy that allows for easier positioning and replacement of the jejunal feeding tube in children. We surgically inserted replaceable jejunal feeding tubes (RJFT connected to a guide thread which exited through a separate tiny opening of the abdominal wall. In a retrospective case series, we assessed the effectiveness and complications of this technique in severely ill children suffering from malnutrition and complex disorders. Three surgical complications occurred, and these were addressed by reoperation. Four children died from their severe chronic disorders within the study period. The RJFT permitted continuous enteral feeding and facilitated easy replacement of the tube. After the postoperative period, jejunal feeding by RJFT resulted in adequate weight gain. This feeding access represents an option for children in whom sufficient enteral nutrition by nasogastric tubes or gastrostomy proved impossible. Further studies are required to investigate the safety and effectiveness of this surgical technique in a larger case series.

  5. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2006-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases

  6. Hydraulic experiments on the failed fuel location module of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, K.; Kumar, S.; Padmakumar, G.; Prakash, V.; Vijayashree, R.; Rajan Babu, V.; Govinda Rajan, S.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Prabhaker, R.

    2003-01-01

    The design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is based on sound design concepts with emphasis on intrinsic safety. The uncertainties involved in the design of various components, which are difficult to assess theoretically, are experimentally verified before design is validated. In PFBR core, the coolant (liquid sodium) enters the bottom of the fuel subassembly, passes over the fuel pins picking up the fission heat and issues in to a hot pool. If there is any breach in the fuel pins, the fission products come in direct contact with the coolant. This is undesirable and it is necessary to locate the subassembly with the failed fuel pin and to isolate it. A component called Failed Fuel Location Module (FFLM) is employed for locating the failed SA by monitoring the coolant samples coming out of each Subassembly. The coolant sample from each Subassembly is drawn by FFLM using an EM pump through sampling tube and selector valve and is monitored for the presence of delayed neutrons which is an indication of failure of the Subassembly. The pressure drop across the selector valve determines the rating of the EM Pump. The dilution of the coolant sample across the selector valve determines the effectiveness of monitoring for contamination. It is not possible to predict pressure drop across the selector valve and dilution of the coolant sample theoretically. These two parameters are determined using a hydraulic experiment on the FFLM. The experiment was carried out in conditions that simulate the reactor conditions following appropriate similarity laws. The paper discusses the details of the model, techniques of experiments and the results from the studies

  7. Moving from peanut extract to peanut components: towards validation of component-resolved IgE tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, J. A.; Meijer, Y.; Derksen, N.; van der Palen-Merkus, T.; Knol, E.; Aalberse, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of peanut extracts by recombinant peanut components is an important step in allergy serologic testing. Criteria are needed for the unbiased inclusion of patients into a study to validate such a replacement. Plasma samples from 64 peanut-positive children (42 reactors, 22 nonreactors in a

  8. Remote replacement of TF [toroidal field] and PF [poloidal field] coils for the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.; Watkin, D.C.; Hollis, M.J.; DePew, R.E.; Kuban, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The use of deuterium-tritium fuel in the Compact Ignition Tokamak will require applying remote handling technology for ex-vessel maintenance and replacement of machine components. Highly activated and contaminated components of the fusion devices auxiliary systems, such as diagnostics and RF heating, must be replaced using remotely operated maintenance equipment in the test cell. In-vessel remote maintenance included replacement of divertor and first wall hardware, faraday shields, and for an in-vessel inspection system. Provision for remote replacement of a vacuum vessel sector, toroidal field coil or poloidal field ring coil was not included in the project baseline. As a result of recent coil failures experienced at a number of facilities, the CIT project decided to reconsider the question of remote recovery from a coil failure and, in January of 1990, initiated a coil replacement study. This study focused on the technical requirements and impact on fusion machine design associated with remote recovery from any coil failure

  9. Deciding to have knee or hip replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000368.htm Deciding to have knee or hip replacement To use the sharing features on this page, ... a decision. Who Benefits From Knee or hip Replacement Surgery? The most common reason to have a ...

  10. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a blood transfusion during ... higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down for long periods ...

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  12. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  13. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Documents PDF Older Person’s Guide to Joint Replacement Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Older Person’s Guide to Joint Replacement Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  14. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  15. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  16. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  17. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ...

  18. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  19. Defective amalgams - repair or replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, David; Keenan, Analia V

    2010-01-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings, BIOSIS, OpenSIGLE. Reference lists of all eligible trials and review articles, and their reference lists were searched. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial, involving replacement and repair of amalgam restorations. Titles and abstracts were assessed independently by two authors. Full papers were obtained for relevant articles. Data synthesis was to follow Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines. 145 potentially eligible studies were identified. Only three studies were analysed further but none of these met the inclusion criteria and all were excluded from this review. There are no published randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) relevant to this review question. There is a need for methodologically sound RCTs reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement (www.consort-statement.org/). Further research needs to explore qualitatively the views of patients on repairing versus replacement and investigate themes around pain, distress and anxiety, time and costs.

  20. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors

  1. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  2. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  3. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  4. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  5. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  6. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  7. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.715 Replacement commodities. When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been previously acquired, and a qualified AbilityOne...

  8. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    functioned for 10 years or less. Fracture of the tooth was the most common type of failure reported, followed by loosening of the post and fracture of the post. Tapered posts implied an increased risk of tooth fracture compared to loosening or fracture of the post, and the relative risk of tooth fracture...... increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts......., the tooth, the restorative materials, and the techniques. Two-hundred and sixty questionnaires were collected from 171 practitioners over a 3-year period. Functioning time until failure varied between 3 months and 38 years. Mean survival time until failure was 11 years. Of the failed restorations, 61% had...

  9. 'HAs fail to consult Irish people in UK'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Health authorities are failing to consult local people on their health needs, a conference on the mental health of Irish people living in the UK heard last week. Consulting Irish people was often only 'symbolic', despite the requirements of the NHS and Community Care Act, conference Chair Padraic Kenna, Director of Innisfree Housing Association, told delegates. 'The Irish caught the boat in the 1950s only to miss the boat ever since,' he said.

  10. Amount of meniscal resection after failed meniscal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Boisrenoult, Philippe; Beaufils, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The failure rate after arthroscopic meniscal repair ranges from 5% to 43.5% (mean, 15%) in the literature. But little is known about the amount of meniscal tissue removed after failed meniscal repair. The volume of subsequent meniscectomy after failed meniscal repair is not increased when compared with the volume of meniscectomy that would have been performed if not initially repaired. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. From January 2000 to December 2009, 295 knees underwent arthroscopic meniscal repair for unstable peripheral vertical tears. When present (219 cases), all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears underwent reconstruction. Patients with multiple ligament injuries and posterior cruciate ligament injuries were excluded from the analysis. Thirty-two medial and 5 lateral menisci underwent subsequent meniscectomy after failed repair at a mean of 26 months postoperatively (range, 3-114 months). Five parameters were specifically evaluated: the amount of meniscectomy related to the initial tear, the ACL status, the appearance of chondral lesions, the time from the initial injury to meniscal repair, and the time from repair to meniscectomy. The posterior segment of the meniscus was involved in all tears and retears. Among failures, resection of the meniscal segments primarily repaired occurred for 17 medial and 2 lateral meniscal tears (52%); the tear extended in 5 cases (all medial menisci), and healing of some repaired segments led to a partial resection of the initial lesion in 35% of cases (10 medial menisci, 3 lateral menisci). The time from injury to meniscal repair was correlated with an increasing volume of meniscus removed (P lesions at revision (P meniscal lesion, even if it fails. The amount of meniscectomy is rarely increased when compared with the initial lesion. This study supports the hypothesis that the meniscus can be partially saved and that a risk of a partial failure should be taken when possible.

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mutants that fail to bind to plant cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, J L; Colby, S; Matthysse, A G

    1990-01-01

    Transposon insertion mutants of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were screened to obtain mutant bacteria that failed to bind to carrot suspension culture cells. A light microscope binding assay was used. The bacterial isolates that were reduced in binding to carrot cells were all avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana leaves and on carrot root disks. The mutants did not appear to be altered in cellulose production. The composition of the medium affected the ability of the parent and mutant bacteria ...

  12. When in vitro fertilization fails: a prospective view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R B; Walther, V N; Chute, D; Greenfeld, D A

    1992-01-01

    New reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) offer much hope to infertile couples, yet the odds for success are not high. In this study we examine the experiences of a cohort of women undergoing IVF or a related technology at three points in time: before technological intervention, approximately one month after the first failed cycle, and six months later. We consider the women's expectations and experiences and discuss implications of the findings for social work practice.

  13. Hardware replacements and software tools for digital control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.P.; Wang, B-C.; Fung, J.

    1996-01-01

    Technological obsolescence is an on-going challenge for all computer use. By design, and to some extent good fortune, AECL has had a good track record with respect to the march of obsolescence in CANDU digital control computer technology. Recognizing obsolescence as a fact of life, AECL has undertaken a program of supporting the digital control technology of existing CANDU plants. Other AECL groups are developing complete replacement systems for the digital control computers, and more advanced systems for the digital control computers of the future CANDU reactors. This paper presents the results of the efforts of AECL's DCC service support group to replace obsolete digital control computer and related components and to provide friendlier software technology related to the maintenance and use of digital control computers in CANDU. These efforts are expected to extend the current lifespan of existing digital control computers through their mandated life. This group applied two simple rules; the product, whether new or replacement should have a generic basis, and the products should be applicable to both existing CANDU plants and to 'repeat' plant designs built using current design guidelines. While some exceptions do apply, the rules have been met. The generic requirement dictates that the product should not be dependent on any brand technology, and should back-fit to and interface with any such technology which remains in the control design. The application requirement dictates that the product should have universal use and be user friendly to the greatest extent possible. Furthermore, both requirements were designed to anticipate user involvement, modifications and alternate user defined applications. The replacements for hardware components such as paper tape reader/punch, moving arm disk, contact scanner and Ramtek are discussed. The development of these hardware replacements coincide with the development of a gateway system for selected CANDU digital control

  14. BIOMECHANICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE THREADED ELEMENT’S FORM OF THE TOTAL HIP ENDOPROSTHESIS’ ACETABULAR COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCHENKO S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Formulation of the problem. Total hip replacement (THR remains to be responsible for the markable clinical achievements of contemporal orthopaedic surgery [1; 2; 4]. It should be noted, that numerous efforts to create an “ideal” uncemented hip endoprosthesis’ construction were failed, but led into wide diversity of implants. Such a diversity allowes to individualize implant type selection and to improve implant’s survival and total THR’s clinical outcomes [1; 4]. Outcomes mentioned above determine successful application of total hip replacement as a treatment method. Consequently, development of new and improvement of existing hip endoprosthesis’ constructions seems to be of current interest for contemporal orthopaedic surgery. Purpose. To determine optimal parametres of threaded element’s geometry of total hip endoprosthesis’ threaded acetabular component. Conclusion. There were revealed that threaded element model with right-angled triangle transverse section shape seems to be the most effective considering hardness, while the triangle is leaned on the bone massive with its cathetus. At the same time, results of calculations represent pelvic bone stress-strain state during THR quantitavely and stipulate further research.

  15. Management of Failed Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Ahmad Ibrahim; Jackson, Timothy D; Hong, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has emerged as the gold standard for the management of morbid obesity. Accordingly, patients who fail to lose weight after LRYGB present a difficult problem for the bariatric surgeons. A literature review was performed to evaluate the management options for this select bariatric population. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using the most comprehensive timeline. All relevant articles were identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed. Results: Thirteen articles were retrieved based on key word searches. Management for weight failure following LRYGB included revision using the following options: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, pouch/anastomotic revision with or without endoluminal techniques, laparoscopic distal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy may be considered in patients who fail LRYGB with nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Failed LRYGB should be managed based on the patient presentation and diagnostic evaluation. Patients may present with significant nutritional deficiencies/complications, failure to lose weight, or weight recidivism. A treatment algorithm is proposed based on the literature to guide bariatric surgeons with respect to management options. However, given the paucity of research with respect to this problem, additional studies are needed to provide more insight on the optimal surgical management.

  16. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P.

    1998-01-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient's sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients' sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients' education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Hip arthroplasty in failed intertrochanteric fractures in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javahir A Pachore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failed intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients are surgical challenge with limited options. Hip arthroplasty is a good salvage procedure even though it involves technical issues such as implant removal, bone loss, poor bone quality, trochanteric nonunion and difficulty of surgical exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 patients of failed intertrochanteric fractures where hip arthroplasty was done between May 2008 and December 2011 were included in study. 13 were males and 17 were females with average age of 67.3 years. There were 2 cemented bipolar arthroplasties, 19 uncemented bipolar, 4 cemented total hip arthroplasty and 5 uncemented total hip arthroplasties. 16 patients had a trochanteric nonunion, which was treated by tension band principles. Total hip was considered where there was acetabular damage due to the penetration of implant. Results: The average followup was 20 months (range 6-48 months. Patients were followed up from 6 to 48 months with average followup of 20 months. None of the patients were lost to followup. There was no dislocation. All patients were ambulatory at the final followup. Conclusion: A predictable functional outcome can be achieved by hip arthroplasty in elderly patients with failed intertrochanteric fractures. Though technically demanding, properly performed hip arthroplasty can be a good salvage option for this patient group.

  18. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  19. Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Paladini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA (Normast® administration, as add-on therapy for chronic pain, in the management of pain-resistant patients affected by failed back surgery syndrome. Methods. A total of 35 patients were treated with tapentadol (TPD and pregabalin (PGB. One month after the start of standard treatment, um-PEA was added for the next two months. Pain was evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at the time of enrollment (T0 and after one (T1, two (T2, and three (T3 months. Results. After the first month with TDP + PGB treatment only, VAS score decreased significantly from 5.7±0.12 at the time of enrollment (T0 to 4.3 ± 0.11 (T1 (p<0.0001; however, it failed to provide significant subjective improvement in pain symptoms. Addition of um-PEA led to a further and significant decrease in pain intensity, reaching VAS scores of 2.7 ± 0.09 (T2 and 1.7 ± 0.11 (T3, end of treatment (p<0.0001 without showing any side effects. Conclusions. This observational study provides evidence, albeit preliminary, for the efficacy and safety of um-PEA (Normast as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen in the treatment of pain-resistant patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome.

  20. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P. [University of malaya Centre, Kuala Lumpar (Malaysia). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient`s sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients` sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients` education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 9 refs.

  1. Early identification of risk factors for refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with long-term renal replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, Francisca Hillegonda; Tobe, TJM; Huisman, RM; de Jong, PE; Plukker, JTM; Stegeman, CA

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism can complicate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with end-stage renal disease. Current medical therapies often result in hypercalcaemia and fail to correct hyperparathyroidism, but might be more effective at an early stage of disease. The aim of

  2. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  3. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  4. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Shengliang; Chai, Guorong; Su, Yana

    2017-01-01

    We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requi...

  5. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure.Methods: A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.Results: There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001. The overall success rate was 92%.Conclusion: Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery.Keywords: bleb, failure, 5-FU, needling, gonioscopy

  6. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  7. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  8. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  9. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  10. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  11. "Too big to fail" or "Too non-traditional to fail"?: The determinants of banks' systemic importance

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Kyle; Zhou, Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of banks' systemic importance. In constructing a measure on the systemic importance of financial institutions we find that size is a leading determinant. This confirms the usual "Too big to fail'' argument. Nevertheless, banks with size above a sufficiently high level have equal systemic importance. In addition to size, we find that the extent to which banks engage in non-traditional banking activities is also positively related to ...

  12. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  13. Replacement collision sequences in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewitt, T.H.; Kirk, M.A.; Scott, T.L.

    1975-10-01

    The concept of radiation-induced defects traveling large distances by focussed collision sequences (focusons) without thermal activation has important consequences in radiation effect studies. The focussed collision sequences are of two types: (1) ''Silsbee focussing'' or momentum focussing which can cause defect pairs to form large distances from the primary knock-on and (2) focussed replacement collisions also called ''dynamic crowdions'' where mass transport causes a large separation between the vacancy and its interstitial. Direct experimental evidence for focussed collision sequences is in short supply and conflicting. The sputtering patterns associated with close packed crystalline directions from the backscattering of charged particles seemed to substantiate long-range focussed collisions until it was pointed out that collision chains need not be long to yield such patterns. More recently, transmission sputtering has been used with conflicting results. Ecker et al. found no evidence for focusons greater than 17 atom distances whereas preliminary results of Siedman et al. suggest several hundred atom distances. Keil and co-workers found evidence for replacement collision sequences of 100 atom distances by stereo electron microscopy of interstitial agglomerates interjected by low energy heavy ion bombardment. Experiments by Kirk et al. and Becker and co-workers on ordered alloys, are only sensitive to dynamic crowdions. Kirk and co-workers result on the changes in magnetic properties of Ni 3 Mn induced by thermal neutron bombardment strongly support long range focusons (greater than 30 atom distances) whereas Wollenberger found no evidence for focusons with 1 and 3 MeV electron irradiation. Theoretical treatments of Liebfried suggest a maximum length of 30 atom distances whereas Holmes' modified treatment suggests less than 10 atom distances. (10 fig, 23 references)

  14. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  15. Model and Adaptive Operations of an Adaptive Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Zhao, Qiuyun; Shu, Hongping

    In order to keep up with the dynamical and open internet environment and in terms of component, an adaptive component model which is based on event mechanism and policy binding is proposed. Components of the model can sense external changes and give the explicit description of the external environment. According to preset policy, component also can take adaptive operations such as adding, deleting, replacing and updating when necessary, and adjust the behavior and structure of the internetware to provide better services.

  16. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  17. Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Implantation: Failing Tricuspid Bioprosthesis in a Patient with Ebstein’s Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Shah, Aman M; Briceno, David F; Zaidi, Ali N; Chau, Mei; Garcia, Mario J; Slovut, David; Taub, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation has been recently proposed as an alternative to surgical reoperative aortic valve replacement in patients with a failing aortic bioprosthesis. Experience with transcatheter VIV implantation at other valve positions is very limited. Herein is reported the case of an 18-year-old man with Ebstein's anomaly and severe tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation status after bioprosthetic valve replacement, who developed new dyspnea on exertion three years after the initial valve replacement. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a severely dilated right atrium and new TV stenosis with an immobile leaflet. The patient underwent successful VIV implantation of a 29-mm SAPIEN XT bioprosthetic valve, with resolution of symptoms and no residual TV regurgitation or stenosis at the two-year follow up. Video 1: Degenerative bioprosthetic tricuspid valve. TEE showing the degenerative bioprosthetic tricuspid valve, and color Doppler during systole showing severe tricuspid regurgitation. Video 2: Degenerative bioprosthetic tricuspid valve. Three-dimensional TEE showing stenosis with an immobile leaflet creating a coaptation defect, viewed from the right atrium. Video 3: Transcatheter VIV replacement with a 29-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT deployed within the tricuspid valve prosthesis. Final result after valve implantation, demonstrating a patent valve orifice, and appropriate apposition of transcatheter valve within a pre-existing surgical Carpentier-Edwards bioprosthetic valve, viewed from the right ventricle. Video 4: Transcatheter VIV replacement with a 29-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT deployed within the tricuspid valve prosthesis. Final result after valve implantation, demonstrating a patent valve orifice, and appropriate apposition of transcatheter valve within a pre-existing surgical Carpentier-Edwards bioprosthetic valve, viewed from the right atrium.

  18. Replacing positivism in medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David

    2005-06-01

    Revisiting debates about philosophical approaches in medical geography suggests that logical positivism may have been prematurely discarded. An analysis of authoritative texts in medical geography and their sources in human geography shows that logical positivism has been conflated with Comtean positivism, science, empiricism, quantification, science politics, scientism and so on, to produce the "standard version" of the all-purpose pejorative "positivism", which it is easy to dismiss as an evil. It is argued that the standard version fails to do justice to logical positivism, being constructed on sources which are at some distance from the logical positivist movement itself. An alternative approach is then developed, an historically and geographically situated interpretation of logical positivism as a deliberately and knowingly constructed oppositional epistemology within an oppressive and anti-scientific culture predicated on idealist intuitionism. Contrasting the standard version with this alternative reading of logical positivism suggests that much may have been lost in human, and thus, medical geography, by throwing out the logical positivist baby with the "positivism" bath water. It is concluded that continuing to unpack the standard version of logical positivism may identify benefits from a more nuanced appreciation of logical positivism, but it is premature to take these to the level of detailed impacts on the kinds of medical geographies that could be done or the ways of doing them.

  19. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  20. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  1. Clinical Outcomes Associated with a Failed Infant Car Seat Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malika D; Dookeran, Keith A; Khan, Janine Y

    2017-01-01

    To assess comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes among late preterm and low birth weight term infants (Baby Unit. This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive infants who failed ICSC on the Mother-Baby Unit and were subsequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Prentice Women's Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Regression models were used to estimate risk differences (RDs) with 95% CIs for factors related to length of stay. A total of 148 infants were studied (43% male; 37% delivered via cesarean). ICSC failure in the Mother-Baby Unit was due to desaturation, bradycardia, and tachypnea in 59%, 37%, and 4% of infants, respectively. During monitoring on the neonatal intensive care unit, 39% of infants experienced apnea (48% in preterm vs 17% in term infants) in the supine position, 19% received phototherapy, and 2% and 6.8% received nasogastric and thermoregulatory support, respectively. Univariate predictors of increased duration of stay (days) were younger gestational age, apnea, nasogastric support, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics (all P < .05). In multivariable analysis adjusted for gestational age and discharge weight, only apnea (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.99-6.74; P < .001), administration of antibiotics (RD, 3.25; 95% CI, 0.29-6.21; P < .032), and intravenous fluid support (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 0.076-9.66; P < .047) remained independent predictors of a longer duration of stay. Infants who failed ICSC were at risk for comorbid conditions that prolonged hospital stay beyond the neonatal intensive care unit observation period. Almost one-half of late preterm infants who failed ICSC had apnea events in the supine position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. UCI total knee replacement. A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L R

    1982-06-01

    Using the UCI (University of California at Irvine) total knee prosthesis, an arthroplasty was performed in ninety-seven patients (121 knees) from 1972 through 1977. I examined eighty of these patients (100 knees) at three to eight years after the operation and it was necessary to either perform or recommend further surgery in twenty-five of them (twenty-seven knees). These results were designated as failures. The knees in valgus angulation that failed typically did so within the first year because of medical instability and patellar dislocation. The knees in varus angulation that failed typically did so one to six years after operation because of loosening of the tibial component. When failure became established, each knee was found to have reverted to its preoperative angular deformity, indicating that deforming factors were still operative. I suspect that ligament imbalance may have contributed to many of these failures. The surface area and stiffness of the 5.0 and 7.5-millimeter-thick tibial components of the original UCI prosthesis were not sufficient to prevent loosening and subsidence. Constraint between the tibial and femoral components was not sufficient to prevent subluxation or dislocation if soft-tissue release was needed for correction of deformity. Prompted by this experience, total knee arthroplasty using the UCI device has been discontinued at the Ochsner Medical Institutions.

  3. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.

    1976-11-01

    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons [neutron flux = 3.876 x 10 6 (neutrons)/(cm 2 .s)]. Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available

  4. A Perplexed Economist Confronts 'too Big to Fail'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines premises and data underlying the assertion that some financial institutions in the U.S. economy were "too big to fail" and hence warranted government bailout. It traces the merger histories enhancing the dominance of six leading firms in the U. S. banking industry and he sharp increases in the concentration of financial institution assets accompanying that merger wave. Financial institution profits are found to have soared in tandem with rising concentration. The paper advances hypotheses why these phenomena might be related and surveys relevant empirical literature on the relationships between market concentration, interest rates received and charged by banks, and economies of scale in banking.

  5. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da

    2002-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (author)

  6. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  7. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...... method. In the first we compared bronchoscopy performance scores of 14 novices with the scores of 14 experienced consultants to find the score that best discriminated between the two groups. In the second we asked an expert group of 7 experienced bronchoscopists to judge how a borderline trainee would...

  8. [Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C

    2008-02-01

    In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the

  9. Recognizing and treating delayed or failed lactogenesis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Nancy M

    2007-01-01

    Delayed or failed achievement of lactogenesis II--the onset of copious milk volume--occurs as a result of various maternal and/or infant factors. Early recognition of these risk factors is critical for clinicians who interact with breastfeeding women so that intervention and achievement of full or partial breastfeeding can be preserved. This article describes the maternal and infant conditions that contribute to the unsuccessful establishment of a full lactation. Treatment modalities that can maximize maternal lactation capacity and infant growth rates are offered.

  10. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... looking in the direction where the other parties were but have not seen (i.e. perceived the presence of) the other road user. This paper describes two studies approaching this problem.One study is based on 10 self-reported near accidents. It does show that "looked-but-failed-to-see" events do occur...

  11. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  12. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.R.

    1993-03-23

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  13. How energy efficiency fails in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Sorensen, Knut H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy efficiency fails in the building industry based on many years of research into the integration of energy efficiency in the construction of buildings and sustainable architecture in Norway. It argues that energy-efficient construction has been seriously restrained by three interrelated problems: (1) deficiencies in public policy to stimulate energy efficiency, (2) limited governmental efforts to regulate the building industry, and (3) a conservative building industry. The paper concludes that innovation and implementation of new, energy-efficient technologies in the building industry requires new policies, better regulations and reformed practices in the industry itself

  14. On fail-safe principle and safety for reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Chiyozi; Ito, Taiju

    1974-01-01

    Fail-safe technique is not systematically established yet in the safety technology in reactor operation, though the concept has been incorporated in design. The safey measures taken are multifold, with emphasis placed on the fair margin of design making sacrifice of economy and availability, and the policy of using multiplicity, independency and reliability freely is taken. The following matters are described: distinction between accidents and failures; principles for reactor safety and safety measures against radiation and accidents of cooling system, foolproof and interlock; the relation between safety and plant availability; safety manipulation and scram; reactor safety instrumentation; reliability of measuring instrumentation; and system reliability. (Mori, K.)

  15. John 21:24-25: A case of failed attestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Tolmie

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available John 21:24-25: A case of� failed attestation In� this article� the� tendency� to� interpret John� 21:24-25 narratologically as a highly sophisticated and effective� technique� is disputed.� Instead it is argued that� the Beloved Disciple� is� identified in� these� verses as� the� real author of the� Gospel� and� that� the� dominating� function� in� John� 21� :24-25� is� the testimonial function� (also� known� as� the function� of attestation.� It� is� also argued� that� the� intended� effect� of this� junction� is� undermined� by� the awkward manner in which� it is� fulfilled.

  16. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or 'movement paths', of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context.

  17. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  18. Failed back surgery pain syndrome: therapeutic approach descriptive study in 56 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Garcia, Oliver Garcia; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Araujo, Joaci O

    2011-01-01

    The authors show the clinical evaluation and follow-up results in 56 patients diagnosed with a failed back surgery pain syndrome. Descriptive and prospective study conducted over a one-year period. In this study, 56 patients with a failed back surgery pain syndrome were assessed in our facility. The age ranged from 28 to 76 years (mean, 48.8 ± 13.9 years). The pain was assessed through a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Postoperative pain was more severe (mean VAS score 8.3) than preoperative pain (7.2). Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) were diagnosed in 85.7% of patients; neuropathic abnormalities associated or not with MPS were found in 73.3%. Drug therapy associated with physical medicine treatment provided > 50% pain improvement in 57.2% of cases; trigger point injection in 60.1%, and epidural infusion of morphine with lidocaína in 69.3% of refractory cases. In patients with a post-laminectomy syndrome, postoperative pain was more severe than preoperative pain from a herniated disk. A miofascial component was found in most patients.

  19. Total hip arthroplasty after failed osteosynthesis of proximal femoral fractures: Revision and mortality of 80 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Franz; Galler, Michael; Zellner, Michael; Bäuml, Christian; Füchtmeier, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) after failed osteosynthesis for proximal femoral fractures is associated with higher revision rates, particularly for dislocation. The purpose of this study was to report our results with THA after failed osteosynthesis within a treatment period of 10 years. A retrospective cohort study including 80 consecutive patients was conducted. After a minimum follow-up of 1 year, we evaluated revision for any cause including dislocation, outcome, and mortality. We performed 48 THAs with standard components only and 32 THAs with revision implants. Routinely, a 36-mm femoral head was used, and trochanteric fixation was performed in one-third of the cases. Total revision rate for any cause was 21%, which included six infections, six periprosthetic fractures, and five hematomas. One hip dislocation was also treated. Treatment with uncemented revision stem revealed significantly higher number of revisions-compared to standard cemented or uncemented stem. The mortality rate after 1 year was 9%, and the mean Parker score at follow-up was 6.6 (range: 0-9). THA was associated with an increased surgical revision rate, but hip dislocation was documented only once. In most cases, a standard implant with a large 36-mm femoral head size was sufficient. Uncemented revision stem revealed significantly higher number of revisions-compared to standard cemented or uncemented stem. One-year mortality was lower than expected.

  20. Reasons for placement, replacement, and age of gold restorations in selected practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjör, I A; Medina, J E

    1993-01-01

    A total of 745 gold restorations were surveyed concerning the reasons for their placement and replacement. Cast gold restorations (n = 480) were placed due to primary caries (23%), replacement of amalgam (39%), and composite restorations (9%), or due to failure of existing gold restorations (29%). The main reasons for replacement of cast gold restorations were fracture of tooth (36%) and secondary caries (22%). The main reasons for the placement of compacted gold restorations (n = 265) were treatment of primary caries (40%), failure of an existing compacted gold restoration (26%), removal of another type of restoration (18%), and repair of a defective margin of a casting (16%). The main reasons for replacement of compacted gold restorations were inclusion into larger restorations (29%) and secondary caries (21%). The longevity of failed gold restorations was recorded for 111 restorations. The mean age for failed cast and compacted gold restorations was about 18.5 years (range 5-41 years). The ages of 2564 gold restorations in situ, 1689 castings, and 875 compacted gold restorations were recorded. The median and mean ages for gold castings were about 15 and 16 years and for compacted gold restorations about 17 and 18 years.

  1. A Physical Model of Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    During the core collapse of massive stars, the formation of the protoneutron star is accompanied by the emission of a significant amount of mass-energy (˜0.3 M⊙) in the form of neutrinos. This mass-energy loss generates an outward-propagating pressure wave that steepens into a shock near the stellar surface, potentially powering a weak transient associated with an otherwise-failed supernova. We analytically investigate this mass-loss-induced wave generation and propagation. Heuristic arguments provide an accurate estimate of the amount of energy contained in the outgoing sound pulse. We then develop a general formalism for analyzing the response of the star to centrally concentrated mass loss in linear perturbation theory. To build intuition, we apply this formalism to polytropic stellar models, finding qualitative and quantitative agreement with simulations and heuristic arguments. We also apply our results to realistic pre-collapse massive star progenitors (both giants and compact stars). Our analytic results for the sound pulse energy, excitation radius, and steepening in the stellar envelope are in good agreement with full time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations. We show that prior to the sound pulses arrival at the stellar photosphere, the photosphere has already reached velocities ˜20 - 100% of the local sound speed, thus likely modestly decreasing the stellar effective temperature prior to the star disappearing. Our results provide important constraints on the physical properties and observational appearance of failed supernovae.

  2. Electromechanical Dyssynchrony and Resynchronization of the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Kass, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and depressed function frequently develop discoordinate contraction due to electrical activation delay. Often termed dyssynchrony, this further depresses systolic function and chamber efficiency, and worsens morbidity and mortality. In the mid-1990s, a pacemaker-based treatment termed cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was developed to restore mechanical synchrony by electrically activating both right and left sides of the heart. It is a major therapeutic advance for the new millennium.. Acute chamber-effects of CRT include increased cardiac output and mechanical efficiency, and reduced mitral regurgitation, while reduction in chamber volumes ensues more chronically. Patient candidates for CRT have a prolonged QRS duration and discoordinate wall-motion, although other factors may also be important as ∼30% of such selected subjects fail to respond to the treatment. In contrast to existing pharmacological inotropes, CRT both acutely and chronically increases cardiac systolic function and work yet it also reduces long-term mortality. Recent studies reveal unique molecular/cellular changes from CRT that may also contribute to this success. Heart failure with dyssynchrony displays depressed myocyte and myofilament function, calcium handling, beta-adrenergic responsiveness, mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity, cell survival signaling, and other changes. CRT reverses many of these abnormalities often by triggering entirely new pathways. In this review, we discuss chamber, circulatory, and basic myocardial effects of dyssynchrony and CRT in the failing heart, and highlight new research aiming to better target and implement CRT as well as leverage its molecular effects. PMID:23989718

  3. Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae: Variation with Stellar Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Coughlin, Eric R.

    2018-02-01

    We study the ejection of mass during stellar core-collapse when the stalled shock does not revive and a black hole forms. Neutrino emission during the protoneutron star phase causes a decrease in the gravitational mass of the core, resulting in an outward going sound pulse that steepens into a shock as it travels out through the star. We explore the properties of this mass ejection mechanism over a range of stellar progenitors using spherically-symmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations that treat neutrino mass loss parametrically and follow the shock propagation over the entire star. We find that all types of stellar progenitor can eject mass through this mechanism. The ejected mass is a decreasing function of the surface gravity of the star, ranging from several M⊙ for red supergiants to ˜0.1M⊙ for blue supergiants and ˜10-3M⊙ for Wolf-Rayet stars. We find that the final shock energy at the surface is a decreasing function of the core-compactness, and is ≲ 1047 - 1048 erg in all cases. In progenitors with a sufficiently large envelope, high core-compactness, or a combination of both, the sound pulse fails to unbind mass. Successful mass ejection is accompanied by significant fallback accretion that can last from hours to years. We predict the properties of shock breakout and thermal plateau emission produced by the ejection of the outer envelope of blue supergiant and Wolf-Rayet progenitors in otherwise failed supernovae.

  4. Mechanical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Retrieved/Failed Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Daood

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine surface alterations and bone formation on the surface of failed dental implants (Straumann [ST] and TiUnite [TiUn] removed due to any biological reason. In addition, failure analysis was performed to test mechanical properties. Dental implants (n = 38 from two manufacturers were collected and subjected to chemical cleaning. The presence of newly formed hydroxyapatite bone around failed implants was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify surface defects. Mechanical testing was performed using a Minneapolis servo-hydraulic system (MTS along with indentation using a universal testing machine and average values were recorded. A statistical analysis of mechanical properties was done using an unpaired t test, and correlation between observed defects was evaluated using Chi-square (p = 0.05. Apatite-formation was evident in both implants, but was found qualitatively more in the ST group. No significant difference was found in indentation between the two groups (p > 0.05. The percentage of “no defects” was significantly lower in the ST group (71%. Crack-like and full-crack defects were observed in 49% and 39% of TiUn. The ST group showed 11,061 cycles to failure as compared with 10,021 cycles in the TiUnite group. Implant failure mechanisms are complex with a combination of mechanical and biological reasons and these factors are variable with different implant systems.

  5. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  6. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requirement. Based on this average cost function, we propose the genetic algorithm to locate the optimal replacement policy N to minimize the average cost rate. The results show that the GA is effective and efficient in finding the optimal solutions. The availability of equipment has significance effect on the optimal replacement policy. Many practical systems fit the model developed in this paper.

  7. A preclinical numerical assessment of a polyetheretherketone femoral component in total knee arthroplasty during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Lennert; Janssen, Dennis W.; Briscoe, Adam; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Background Conventional total knee replacement designs show high success rates but in the long term, the stiff metal components may affect bone quality of the distal femur. In this study we introduce an all-polymer total knee replacement device containing a PEEK femoral component on an UHMWPE tibial

  8. A preclinical numerical assessment of a polyetheretherketone femoral component in total knee arthroplasty during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, L. de; Janssen, D.W.; Briscoe, A.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional total knee replacement designs show high success rates but in the long term, the stiff metal components may affect bone quality of the distal femur. In this study we introduce an all-polymer total knee replacement device containing a PEEK femoral component on an UHMWPE

  9. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits

  10. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Standard Targetry Replacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) evaluates potential direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of standard targetry replacement and alternatives on environmental and land use resources...

  11. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Garonne, Vincent; Serfon, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these component, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  12. The role of the safety analysis organization in steam generators replacement and reactor vessel head replacement evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Whee G.; Boatwright, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a major component in a nuclear power plant is replaced, especially the steam generators, the plant operator is presented a rare opportunity to learn from operating experience and significantly improve the performance, reliability and robustness of the plant. In addition to the use of improved materials, improved design margins can be built into the component specification that can later be used to provide meaningful operating margins. A Safety Analysis organization that is well-integrated with other plant organizations and possesses a detailed knowledge of the plant design and licensing bases can effectively balance the wants and needs of each organization to optimize the benefits realized by the plant as a whole. Knowledge of the assumptions, limitations, and available margins, both analytical and operating, can be used to specify a replacement steam generator design that optimizes costs and operating improvements. The work scope required to support the new design can be controlled through carefully selected and evaluated restrictions in operations, development of alternate operating strategies, and imposition of appropriate limitations. The important point is that the effective Safety Analysis organization must possess both the breadth and depth of knowledge of the plant design and operations and proactively use this information to support the replacement steam generator project. (author)

  13. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies; Installations nucleaires: technologies de reparation et de remplacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  14. Re-treatment decisions for failed posterior fillings by Finnish general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinikainen, Mia; Vehkalahti, Miira; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate treatment decisions of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the private and public sector in cases of re-treatment of failed posterior fillings. A questionnaire on six cases from 400 GDPs, selected by stratified randomisation by gender, and main occupation (public vs. private sector). Others were all full-time dental teachers (DTs; n=47) representing clinical disciplines other than surgery and orthodontics. Restorative cases were described in detail, including figures drawn on four subcases involving the first permanent upper molar where the filling to be replaced increased in size from occlusal filling to the entire clinical crown. For each case, respondents chose the optimal treatment from eight alternatives, later re-classified as amalgam restoration, direct composite restoration, prosthetic restoration (indirect composite, cast gold inlay/onlay, ceramic inlay/onlay, ceramic crown, or bridge construction following tooth extraction). For re-treatment of the occlusal filling, composite restoration was preferred both by GDPs (92%) and DTs (83%). For three-surface fillings, prosthetic restorations were dominant in the private sector (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8; Pamalgam and 2% gold; the rest chose composites. Treatment decisions were similar in public and private sectors for cases with the smallest and largest fillings. Wide variation in cases of medium-sized restorations indicated a lack of generally accepted guidelines of good clinical practice and of evidence-based treatment practice.

  15. Pulsatile hyperglucagonemia fails to increase hepatic glucose production in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolisso, G.; Scheen, A.J.; Luyckx, A.S.; Lefebvre, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    To study the metabolic effects of pulsatile glucagon administration, six male volunteers were submitted to a 260-min glucose-controlled glucose intravenous infusion using the Biostator. The endogenous secretion of the pancreatic hormones was inhibited by somatostatin, basal insulin secretion was replaced by a continuous insulin infusion, and glucagon was infused intravenously in two conditions at random: either continuously or intermittently. Blood glucose levels and glucose infusion rate were monitored continuously by the Biostator, and classical methodology using a D-[3- 3 H]glucose infusion allowed the authors to study glucose turnover. While basal plasma glucagon levels were similar in both conditions, they plateaued at 189 +/- 38 pg ml -1 during continuous infusion and varied between 95 and 501 pg x ml -1 during pulsatile infusion. When compared with continuous administration, pulsatile glucagon infusion 1) initially induced a similar increase in endogenous (hepatic) glucose production and blood glucose, 2) did not prevent the so-called evanescent effect of glucagon on blood glucose, and 3) after 3 h tended to reduce rather than increase hepatic glucose production. In conclusion, in vivo pulsatile hyperglucanemia in normal man fails to increase hepatic glucose production

  16. Exercise training fails to modify arterial baroreflex sensitivity in ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Naoyoshi; Mori, Nobuyoshi; Nagasaka, Makoto; Ito, Osamu; Ogawa, Mika; Kurosawa, Hajime; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2007-04-01

    In men, exercise training attenuates age-related reduction in baroreflex sensitivity, which is related to cardiovascular health. It is unknown, however, if this holds true for post-menopausal women. We examined the effects of exercise training on baroreceptor-heart rate (HR) reflex sensitivity in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SO) Wistar-Kyoto rats. At the age of 8 weeks, OVX and SO rats were assigned to either sedentary or exercise-trained group. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week. At the age of 20 weeks, baroreflex sensitivity in response to increases in blood pressure (BRSinc) and decreases in blood pressure (BRSdec) were evaluated by injections of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Both BRSinc and BRSdec were significantly reduced in sedentary OVX rats compared with sedentary SO rats. Exercise training decreased resting HR and BRSdec, but had no effect on BRSinc in SO rats. In OVX rats, exercise training decreased resting HR but modified neither BRSdec nor BRSinc. We conclude that withdrawal of female sex hormones in normotensive female rats is associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity in response to both increase and decrease in blood pressure and that exercise training fails to modulate the decline of BRSinc associated with withdrawal of female sex hormones. To maintain high level of BRSinc in post-menopausal women, hormone replacement therapy may be needed.

  17. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  18. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  19. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  20. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  1. Optimization of steam generator replacement with virtual reality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have to be carefully examined and maintained up to the point of replacing major components during the overhaul period for continued operation. Most understandably the cost of maintenance and upgrading will tend to increase with the NPP power. There is thus an escalating need for developing an optimized process management method to reduce the cost involved. Albeit the steam generators (SGs) may not directly affect the expected lifespan of NPP, thousands of tubes with diameter on the order of 3 cm in the SG operating at 320degC and 16 MPa may well tend to be called Achilles' heel of the pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For instance, the SGs of Kori Nuclear Unit 1 (KNU 1) were replaced in October 1998 after 20 years of service on account of aging and potential threat to operational safety. In the same year the SG tubes of Ulchin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 were ruptured to result in leakage of the primary coolant to the secondary side. As a result their SGs are planned to be replaced in a few years. There is, however, a limit to improving the replacement process by trial and error in practice on account of the size of NPP with the ensuing complexity in process management. This paper proposes an optimization method for the SG replacement process based on the KNU 1 experience in 1998. The whole process was simulated accounting for interactions of each part in virtual reality utilizing the computer aided design solution CATIA, and the digital process management solution DELMIA. (author)

  2. FAILED PRIMARY TREATMENT OF CALCANEAL FRACTURE. WHAT TO DO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Andoljšek

    2008-02-01

    When conservative treatment fails, operative treatment is indicated in most patients withbone and joint problems. The goals of surgical treatment are pain relief and restoration oftalocalcaneal alignment. In lateral impingement, when subtalar joint and general alignmentof the tuber are preserved, removal of the bulged lateral wall could suffice. In suchcases a corrective osteotomy of the tuber is rarely indicated. In painfull subtalar arthrosisfusion is the only option. Limited fusion is preferable. »In situ« subtalar fusion is advisablein cases without malalignment or deformity. When we have arthrosis and varus/valgusdeformity with preserved height, arthrodesis with corrective osteotomy is indicated. In mostcases, where complex deformity is present, corrective subtalar distraction bone-blockarthrodesis should be done

  3. A Novel Endoscopic Technique for Failed Nasogastric Tube Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Direct visualization of the nasopharynx gives the otolaryngologist a unique advantage for addressing difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy. One common situation is being consulted to assist when the blind placement of a nasogastric tube has failed. A novel technique for managing a patient with a nasogastric tube embedded in the adenoid remnant is described with illustrations. The atraumatic method is easily employed by a resident armed with a portable nasolaryngoscope and plain suture. By using a repeated pull-through technique, the nasogastric tube can be guided past difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy and into a position from where it can be advanced into the patient's esophagus. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. Trending a New Normal: Is Nigeria becoming a failed Nation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Judging from every economic parameter, Nigeria will suggest being a failed nation. Not so long ago international investors identified Nigeria as one of the world’s most promising investment opportunities, but things have changed drastically in the meantime. The slump in the price of crude oil has hit Nigerian economy hard, the twin curses of insecurity and corruption have not gone away either. The Nigerian currency - naira has also lost its value by 170% from its value in 2015. The question most analysts and citizens are now asking is if Nigeria will ever fulfil its potential. This study empirically analyses the current economic situation of Nigeria, and gives recommendations on what government should do in getting the country out of recession.

  5. Failed rapid sequence induction in an achondroplastic dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia, a common cause of short limbed type of dwarfism is due to quantitative decrease in rate of endochondral ossification. This abnormal bone growth leads to disproportionate body and head structure, thus placing them under high risk for anaesthetic management. There is paucity in literatures, regarding appropriate drug dosage selection in these patients. Use of drugs as per standard dosage recommendations based on body weight or body surface area, may not be adequate in these patients owing to discrepancies in overall body weight and lean body weight, especially during rapid sequence induction. Here, we report a case of failed rapid sequence induction due to abnormal response to administered drugs in an adult achondroplastic dwarf. Standard doses of thiopentone and rocuronium had to be repeated thrice to achieve adequate conditions for intubation.

  6. The ambivert: A failed attempt at a normal personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian J

    2017-09-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn toward an overlooked and nearly forgotten personality type: the ambivert. This paper presents a genealogy of the ambivert, locating the various contexts it traversed in order to highlight the ways in which these places and times have interacted and changed-ultimately elucidating our current situation. Proposed by Edmund S. Conklin in 1923, the ambivert only was meant for normal persons in between the introvert and extravert extremes. Although the ambivert could have been taken up by early personality psychologists who were transitioning from the study of the abnormal to the normal, it largely failed to gain traction. Whether among psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, or applied and personality psychologists, the ambivert was personality non grata. It was only within the context of Eysenck's integrative view of types and traits that the ambivert marginally persisted up to the present day and is now the focus of sales management and popular psychology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... until immediately before the collision even though the bicycle must have been clearly visible.Similar types of accidents have been the subject of studies elsewhere. In literature they are labelled "looked-but-failed-to-see", because it seems clear that in many cases the car drivers have actually been......, especially for well experienced drivers. The other study based on Gap Acceptance shows that the car driver acceptance of gaps towards cyclists depends on whether or not another car is present. Hypotheses for driver perception and for accident countermeasures are discussed....

  8. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had......PURPOSE: A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. METHODS: Members of the European...... a histopathological diagnosis of increta. Based on these cases we present a flow chart to aid clinical management for future cases. CONCLUSION: We need properly defined stringent terminology for the different types of retained placenta, as well as improved tools to predict and diagnose both abnormally invasive...

  9. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described.

  10. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  11. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  12. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?'

  13. Alternative Splicing of NOX4 in the Failing Human Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán V. Varga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress is a major contributor to the development and progression of heart failure, however, our knowledge on the role of the distinct NADPH oxidase (NOX isoenzymes, especially on NOX4 is controversial. Therefore, we aimed to characterize NOX4 expression in human samples from healthy and failing hearts. Explanted human heart samples (left and right ventricular, and septal regions were obtained from patients suffering from heart failure of ischemic or dilated origin. Control samples were obtained from donor hearts that were not used for transplantation. Deep RNA sequencing of the cardiac transcriptome indicated extensive alternative splicing of the NOX4 gene in heart failure as compared to samples from healthy donor hearts. Long distance PCR analysis with a universal 5′-3′ end primer pair, allowing amplification of different splice variants, confirmed the presence of the splice variants. To assess translation of the alternatively spliced transcripts we determined protein expression of NOX4 by using a specific antibody recognizing a conserved region in all variants. Western blot analysis showed up-regulation of the full-length NOX4 in ischemic cardiomyopathy samples and confirmed presence of shorter isoforms both in control and failing samples with disease-associated expression pattern. We describe here for the first time that NOX4 undergoes extensive alternative splicing in human hearts which gives rise to the expression of different enzyme isoforms. The full length NOX4 is significantly upregulated in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggesting a role for NOX4 in ROS production during heart failure.

  14. Evaluation and Management of Failed Shoulder Instability Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartucho, António; Moura, Nuno; Sarmento, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Failed shoulder instability surgery is mostly considered to be the recurrence of shoulder dislocation but subluxation, painful or non-reliable shoulder are also reasons for patient dissatisfaction and should be considered in the notion. Methods: The authors performed a revision of the literature and online contents on evaluation and management of failed shoulder instability surgery. Results: When we look at the reasons for failure of shoulder instability surgery we point the finger at poor patient selection, technical error and an additional traumatic event. More than 80% of surgical failures, for shoulder instability, are associated with bone loss. Quantification of glenoid bone loss and investigation of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion are determining facts. Adequate imaging studies are determinant to assess labrum and capsular lesions and to rule out associated pathology as rotator cuff tears. CT-scan is the method of choice to diagnose and quantify bone loss. Arthroscopic soft tissue procedures are indicated in patients with minimal bone loss and no contact sports. Open soft tissue procedures should be performed in patients with small bone defects, with hiperlaxity and practicing contact sports. Soft tissue techniques, as postero-inferior capsular plication and remplissage, may be used in patients with less than 25% of glenoid bone loss and Hill-Sachs lesions. Bone block procedures should be used for glenoid larger bone defects in the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion or in the presence of poor soft tissue quality. A tricortical iliac crest graft may be used as a primary procedure or as a salvage procedure after failure of a Bristow or a Latarjet procedure. Less frequently, the surgeon has to address the Hill-Sachs lesion. When a 30% loss of humeral head circumference is present a filling graft should be used. Conclusion: Reasons for failure are multifactorial. In order to address this entity, surgeons must correctly identify the causes and

  15. Remembering past exchanges: Apes fail to use social cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates can remember events from their distant past. Furthermore, they can distinguish between very similar events by the process of binding. So far, research into long-term memory and binding has focused on the binding of contextual information, such as spatial surroundings. As such, we aimed to investigate if apes can bind and retrieve other types of information, specifically, social information. We presented great apes with three different object types; they learnt to exchange (via reinforcement one of the object types with one experimenter and another type with a second, different, experimenter. The remaining object type was not reinforced by either of the experimenters. After a delay of two or ten weeks, we assessed the apes’ memory of which object type was exchanged with which experimenter. Additionally, we introduced a new experimenter to see if the apes could infer by exclusion that the remaining object type should be exchanged with the new experimenter. The apes successfully remembered which object types were exchanged, but failed to distinguish which object type was exchanged with whom. This failure to bind an object type to a specific person may have resulted from the apes learning to use a rule based on recency, as opposed to learning a conditional rule involving social information. However, results from a second experiment suggested they fail to incorporate social information even when no other information could guide successful performance. Our findings are consistent with research showing long-term memory in primates, but suggest that social information may not be bound in memory as readily as spatial or contextual information.

  16. A strategy for the phased replacement of CANDU digital control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepburn, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant developments have occurred with respect to the replacement of the Plant Digital Control Computers (DCCs) on CANDU plants in the past six months. This paper summarises the conclusions of the condition assessment carried out on these machines at Point Lepreau Generating Station, and describes a strategy for a phased transition to a replacement system based on today's technology. Most elements of the strategy are already in place, and sufficient technical work has been done to allow those components which have been assessed as requiring prompt attention to be replaced in a matter of months. (author)

  17. Failed fertilization with conventional oocyte insemination can be overcome with the ability of ICSI according to binding or failing to bind to the zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Bollendorf, A; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of failed fertilization with conventional oocyte insemination and to determine the ability of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to overcome the failed fertilization according to binding or failing to bind to the zona pellucida. Retrospective review of 12,448 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle to identify cycles where failed fertilization occurred following conventional oocyte insemination with seemingly normal sperm. A number of three oocytes retrieved was required. There were only 12 cases of failed fertilization (0.1%). Six were related to failure of any or few sperm attaching to the zona pellucida These six had high fertilization rates with ICSI. Six had normal attachment and five attempted another cycle, this time with ICSI. Only 60% had good fertilization. When there is failed fertilization with normal sperm oocyte binding following conventional oocyte insemination, ICSI may still be effective in 60% of the cases, but it would be probably recommended to combine ICSI with artificial oocyte activation by calcium ionophore.

  18. A useful framework for optimal replacement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Dekker, Rommert

    1997-01-01

    In this note we present a general framework for optimization of replacement times. It covers a number of models, including various age and block replacement models, and allows a uniform analysis for all these models. A relation to the marginal cost concept is described

  19. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  20. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 57.19122 Section 57.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  2. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  3. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 56.19122 Section 56.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  4. An abstract machine for module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Krl, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement from the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection.

  5. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report any lumps immediately.If you are taking hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause, your doctor will check every 3 to 6 months to see if you still need this medication. If you are taking this ... hormone replacement therapy, because this medication may interfere with ...

  6. Temelin NPP - IandC replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalenka, I.

    1997-01-01

    The original instrumentation and control system of the Temelin nuclear power plant is being upgraded and replaced by a modern Westinghouse-supplied system which meets the requirements imposed on current nuclear power plant designs. The history and purpose of the IandC system replacement is given, and the design of the new system is described in some detail. (A.K.)

  7. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  8. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  9. Validation of HVOF WC/Co Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Aircraft Landing Gear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to quality high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray WC/Co coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on landing gear components...

  10. Pipe replacement in a water supply network: coordinated versus uncoordinated replacement and budget effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Operators of underground water supply networks are challenged with pipe replacement
    decisions, because pipes are subject to increased failure rates as they age and financial resources
    are often limited.We study the optimal replacement time and optimal number of pipe replacements
    such

  11. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  12. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  13. Aviation Fuel System Reliability and Fail-Safety Analysis. Promising Alternative Ways for Improving the Fuel System Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design requirements for an aviation fuel system (AFS, AFS basic design requirements, reliability, and design precautions to avoid AFS failure. Compares the reliability and fail-safety of AFS and aircraft hydraulic system (AHS, considers the promising alternative ways to raise reliability of fuel systems, as well as elaborates recommendations to improve reliability of the pipeline system components and pipeline systems, in general, based on the selection of design solutions.It is extremely advisable to design the AFS and AHS in accordance with Aviation Regulations АП25 and Accident Prevention Guidelines, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Association, which will reduce risk of emergency situations, and in some cases even avoid heavy disasters.ATS and AHS designs should be based on the uniform principles to ensure the highest reliability and safety. However, currently, this principle is not enough kept, and AFS looses in reliability and fail-safety as compared with AHS. When there are the examined failures (single and their combinations the guidelines to ensure the AFS efficiency should be the same as those of norm-adopted in the Regulations АП25 for AHS. This will significantly increase reliability and fail-safety of the fuel systems and aircraft flights, in general, despite a slight increase in AFS mass.The proposed improvements through the use of components redundancy of the fuel system will greatly raise reliability of the fuel system of a passenger aircraft, which will, without serious consequences for the flight, withstand up to 2 failures, its reliability and fail-safety design will be similar to those of the AHS, however, above improvement measures will lead to a slightly increasing total mass of the fuel system.It is advisable to set a second pump on the engine in parallel with the first one. It will run in case the first one fails for some reasons. The second pump, like the first pump, can be driven from the

  14. Building 65 Hydraulic Systems Handbook: Components, Systems, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    clean hydraulic fluid and mount it using the alignment pin to position it. 5. Replace the four cap screws and tighten them. 6. Replace the control...anti-friction bearings, shafts , gears, seals, bearing cages, fuel leaks gas turbines. 8. Cobalt (Co.) -- Bearings, turbine components 9...radiator), gears 10. Iron (Fe) -- Rings, crankshaft, cylinder walls, valve train, pistons, anti-friction bearings, gear train, shafts , clutch

  15. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  16. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  17. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. 'Failed' contraception in a rural South African population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although access (preferably free) to termination of pregnancy. (TOP) is an integral component of women's reproductive health and rights, it is surely more desirable to avoid unwanted pregnancies. According to Benagiano and Pera/ the best ways to reduce the need for abortion are education and contraception. Putting ...

  19. A new approach of the design process for replacing wooden parts of furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupan Cornel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on different design processes for innovative products, the paper presents a new approach of the process. The new method studies the problem of replacing the wooden components of the resistance structure of furniture with other materials. This is a reverse engineering process, that starts with the entire component, following a series of steps to the part drawings, ready for manufacturing. The method was validated by redesigning some parts of the upholstered products manufactured by TAPARO Company, by replacing the wooden parts of the resistance structure of sofas with composite material.

  20. 7 CFR 1951.264 - Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Analyzing Credit Needs and Graduation of Borrowers § 1951.264 Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate. (a) When borrowers with other than FCP loans fail to: (1) Provide information... appeal the decision. (b) If an FCP borrower fails to cooperate after a lender expresses a willingness to...

  1. Ontology-Based Quality Attributes Prediction in Component-Based Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chengpu Li; Rob Pooley; Xiaodong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Despite the success that Component-Based Development (CBD) has achieved so far, componentmismatch remains as a big obstacle for wider and smoother component reuse. Mismatch refers that theselected component does not satisfy the functional requirements, or that it fails the user’s expectation interms of the Quality Attributes (QAs) of the component-based system. This allows us the potential topredict the quality attributes of a software system by analysing the result of component retrieval. In...

  2. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  3. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  4. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  5. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  6. Excisional Bleb Revision for Management of Failed Ahmed Glaucoma Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Moghimi, Sasan; Zarei, Reza; Mohammadi, Masoud; Nabavi, Amin; Yaseri, Mehdi; Izadi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome of excisonal bleb revision in patients with failed Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). In total, 29 patients with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) despite of maximal tolerated medical therapy at least 6 months after AGV implantation were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Excision of fibrotic tissue around the reservoir with application of mitomycin C 0.02% was performed. IOP, number of glaucoma medications were evaluated at baseline and 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Complete and qualified success was defined as IOP≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications, respectively. Intraoperative and postopervative complications were also recorded. Mean IOP was reduced from 30±4.2 mm Hg at baseline to 19.2±3.1 mm Hg at 12-month follow-up visit (Pglaucoma medications was decrease from 3.2±0.5 at baseline to 1.9±0.7 at 12-month follow-up (Pglaucoma surgeries were significantly associated with the failure of excisonal bleb revision. Excisional bleb revision could be considered as a relatively effective alternative option for management of inadequate IOP control after AGV implantation.

  7. Salvage of Failed Protein Targets by Reductive Alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  8. Why have we failed to cure Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread recognition in the urgency to understand the causes and mechanisms of senile dementia. Attempts to find cures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have, however, failed so far, in spite of enormous investments, intellectual and financial. We therefore have to reconsider the problem from new angles. AD is regarded as a disease because of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathology. However, this combination does not define a disease but rather a syndrome, just like hepatic cirrhosis in which liver pathology causes metabolic changes, but which can result from many different etiologies. It is unlikely that attacking a downstream phenomenon, like apoptosis or amyloid-β accumulation, can cure AD, or prevent the progression of the disease. It is probable that senile dementia is the result of a combination of several processes, working differently in each person. Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors for "senile dementia of the Alzheimer type", some genetic but most environmental and therefore modifiable. Thus, a concerted action to fight the dementia epidemic must be made by aggressive action against its risk factors, and this battle must begin in midlife, not in old age.

  9. Fail-fixed servovalve with positive fluid feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Howard B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The servovalve includes a primary jet of fluid. A variable control signal is adapted to vary the angular position of the primary jet from its maximum recovery position. A first fluid path is adapted to supply fluid to a servopiston at a variable pressure determined at least in part by the control signal. A second fluid path is adapted to receive a predetermined portion of the primary jet fluid when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The second fluid path terminates in the vicinity of the primary jet and is adapted to direct a secondary jet of fluid at the primary jet to deflect the primary jet toward the input orifice of the second fluid path. The resultant positive fluid feedback in the second fluid path causes the primary jet to latch in a first angular position relative to the maximum recovery position when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The servovalve may further include a means to discharge the fluid and a means to block the first fluid path to the servopiston when the control signal falls below a second predetermined value. A method of operating a fail-fixed servovalve is also described.

  10. Recurrent failings of medical humanitarianism: intractable, ignored, or just exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sandro; Pavignani, Enrico

    2017-11-18

    Humanitarian health workers operate in dangerous and uncertain contexts, in which mistakes and failures are common, often have severe consequences, and are regularly repeated, despite being documented by many reviews. This Series paper aims to discuss the failures of medical humanitarianism. We describe why some of these recurrent failings, which are often not identified until much later, seem intractable: they are so entrenched in humanitarian action that they cannot be addressed by simple technical fixes. We argue that relief health-care interventions should be contextualised. Perhaps medical humanitarianism deserves a better reputation than the one at times tarnished by unfair criticism, resulting from inapplicable guiding principles and unrealistic expectations. The present situation is not conducive to radical reforms of humanitarian medicine; complex crises multiply and no political, diplomatic, or military solutions are in sight. Relief agencies have to compete for financial resources that do not increase at the same pace as health needs. Avoiding the repetition of failures requires recognising previous mistakes and addressing them through different policies by donors, stronger documentation and analysis of humanitarian programmes and interventions, increased professionalisation, improved, opportunistic relationships with the media, and better ways of working together with local health stakeholders and through indigenous institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. H.; Meyer, J.; Smith, W. P.; Rockhill, J. K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head & neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head & neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  12. Why Buildings Fail: Are We Learning From Our Mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kevin Parfitt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most building professionals have investigated or performed remedial designs for at least one architectural or engineering system failure during their careers. Other practitioners, especially those who work for forensic consultants or firms specializing in disaster response and repair, are more familiar with the variety and extent of building failures as they assist their clients in restoring damaged or deficient buildings. The advent of social medial and twenty-four-hour news channels along with the general ease of finding more examples of failures in the Internet have made us realize that building failures in the broad sense are much more common than we may have realized.Relatively recent events leading to building failures such as the Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes, the roof/parking deck of the Algo Centre mall in the northern Ontario, Canada city of Elliot Lake and the Indiana State Fairground stage collapse in the US are just a few reminders that much more work needs to be done on a variety of fronts to prevent building failures from a life safety standpoint. The need is compounded by economic concerns from what would be considered more mundane or common failures. Inspections by the author after Hurricane Katrina revealed a huge number of failures associated rain water alone as roofs, windows, flashing, mechanical penetrations etc. failed leading to interior water penetration often resulting in more damage from damp conditions and mold propagation than outright structural collapses.

  13. Diagnostic Profiles of Patients Differentially Failing Executive Functioning Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin; Ramirez, Gabriela; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limited research exists to explain differential executive functioning impairment in clinical populations, particularly between the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The distribution of clinical diagnoses was examined in patients failing none, one, or both tasks, and executive task performance was compared among dementia-related diagnoses. Two hundred and sixty-six participants received evaluations through an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which included executive tasks. Dementia-related diagnoses were established through consensus. Chi-square analyses indicated that TMT failure, with or without WCST failure, possessed higher associations with dementia diagnoses. Repeated measures analysis of variance similarly indicated that participants with dementia, especially mild and moderate severity, performed worse on TMT. Executive dysfunction was observed in dementia-related diagnoses, and TMT failure was implicated in dementia in higher proportions than WCST impairment. Trail Making Test appears more sensitive than WCST for assessing executive impairment across diagnoses, especially when time and resources are limited in screening and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalejo, Rocío; Canalejo, Antonio; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M Encarnacion; Estepa, Jose C; Mendoza, Francisco Javier; Munoz-Castaneda, Juan Rafael; Shalhoub, Victoria; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2010-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) modulates mineral metabolism by promoting phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA and secretion, but despite a marked elevation in FGF23 in uremia, PTH production increases. Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats. In normal parathyroid glands, FGF23 decreased PTH production, increased expression of both the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor, and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, FGF23 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which mediates the action of FGF23. In contrast, in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, FGF23 did not reduce PTH production, did not affect expression of the calcium-sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor, and did not affect cell proliferation. In addition, FGF23 failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. We observed very low expression of the FGF23 receptor 1 and the co-receptor Klotho in uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands, which may explain the lack of response to FGF23 in this tissue. In conclusion, in hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, the parathyroid cells resist the inhibitory effects of FGF23, perhaps as a result of the low expression of FGF23 receptor 1 and Klotho in this condition.

  15. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  16. Sucrose-replacement by rebaudioside a in a model beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Dorota; Ipsen, Annika; Koenig, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Rebaudioside A (RA), a component of Stevia rebaudiana, is a non-caloric sweetener of natural origin, suitable to meet consumers' demand for sweet taste, but undesirable flavors were reported at high concentrations. Aim of this study was to create a model beverage (ice-tea) in which sucrose was replaced increasingly by RA to identify optimal sensory profile for consumer acceptance. Samples with 20 % and 40 % sucrose replacement by RA, respectively, showed very similar sensory profiles but were significantly higher in some flavor attributes, such as artificial sweetness, licorice-like and metallic, as well as in sweet and bitter aftertaste (p < 0.05) compared to the reference ice-tea. In both hedonic tests, preference and acceptance samples with RA have been judged as comparable to the reference despite perception of some undesirable notes. In view of the results of our study it can be stated that a replacement of 20 % or 40 % sucrose by RA in an ice-tea is achievable.

  17. Total Humeral Endoprosthetic Replacement following Excision of Malignant Bone Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhel Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Humerus is a common site for malignant tumors. Advances in adjuvant therapies and reconstructive methods provide salvage of the upper limb with improved outcomes. Reports of limb salvage with total humeral replacement in extensive humeral tumors are sparse. We undertook a retrospective study of 20 patients who underwent total humeral endoprosthetic replacement as limb salvage following excision of extensile malignant tumor from 1990 to 2011. With an average followup of 42.9, functional and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Ten patients were still alive at the time of review. Mean estimated blood loss was 1131 mL and duration of surgery was 314 minutes. Deep infection was encountered in one patient requiring debridement while mechanical loosening of ulnar component was identified in one patient. Subluxation of prosthetic humeral head was noted in 3 patients. Mean active shoulder abduction was 12.5° and active flexion was 15°. Incompetence of abduction mechanism was the major determinant of poor active functional outcome. Mean elbow flexion was 103.5° with 30.5° flexion contracture in 10 patients with good and useful hand function. Average MSTS score was 71.5%. Total humeral replacement is a reliable treatment option in restoring mechanical stability and reasonable functional results without compromising patient survival, with low complication rate.

  18. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  19. A Study on the Maintenance Effectiveness Assessment for Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Oh, Seung Jong

    2006-01-01

    One of the key tasks in the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plant is to assess the aging management of structures, systems and components (SSC). The evaluation can be categorized by two parts, passive and active components. Unlike the passive components, active components are periodically maintained and replaced with new components, so the evaluation of aging mechanism of the passive components such as erosion, corrosion is not applicable to the evaluation of active components of nuclear power plant. For active components, they will maintain capability to fulfill its design function if preventive maintenance effectiveness is proper. In this paper, the assessment based on the reliability and availability of the active components of the domestic nuclear power plants is examined

  20. Initiating heavy-atom-based phasing by multi-dimensional molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard; Nissen, Poul

    2016-03-01

    To obtain an electron-density map from a macromolecular crystal the phase problem needs to be solved, which often involves the use of heavy-atom derivative crystals and concomitant heavy-atom substructure determination. This is typically performed by dual-space methods, direct methods or Patterson-based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available. This is often the case for, for example, membrane proteins. Here, an approach for heavy-atom site identification based on a molecular-replacement parameter matrix (MRPM) is presented. It involves an n-dimensional search to test a wide spectrum of molecular-replacement parameters, such as different data sets and search models with different conformations. Results are scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions from anomalous difference Fourier maps. The strategy was successfully applied in the determination of a membrane-protein structure, the copper-transporting P-type ATPase CopA, when other methods had failed to determine the heavy-atom substructure. MRPM is well suited to proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be considered, and it enables the identification of weak but correct molecular-replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts.

  1. Examination of a failed reactor coolant pump rotating assembly from Crystal River Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Lubnow, T.; Clary, M.

    1990-01-01

    On January 18, 1989, the A reactor coolant pump rotating assembly at the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant failed during operation. A rotating assembly from this pump had previously failed in 1986. The reactor coolant pump was fabricated by Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Ind. Products, Inc. from UNS S66286 superalloy (Alloy A286). A root cause failure analysis examination was performed on the pump shaft and other components. The failure analysis included shaft vibrational mode and stress analyses, pump clearance and alignment analyses, and detailed destructive examination of the shaft and hydrostatic bearing assemblies. Based on the detailed physical examination of the shaft it was concluded that cracks initiated in the pump shaft at two sites approximately 180 0 apart in a band of shallow, thermally induced fatigue cracks. The cracks initiated at the bottom edge of the motor end shrink fit pad under the shrink fit sleeve supporting the hydrostatic bearing journal. The band of thermally induced fatigue cracks was apparently caused by mixing of cold seal injection water and hot reactor coolant in gaps between the pump shaft and sleeve. The motor end shrink fit was apparently not effective in preventing introduction of the seal injection water to this area. Initial crack propagation occurred by fatigue due to lateral vibration; however, the majority of crack propagation occurred by abnormal torsional fatigue loading induced by contact and sticking between the rotating and stationary portions of the hydrostatic bearing. Final fracture of the shaft occurred by torsional overload. Metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties of the shaft were within design specification and probably did not significantly influence the cracking process

  2. EEG functional connectivity and brain-to-brain coupling in failing cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Gatti, Laura; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis). Finally, correlation analysis was considered to assess the relation between behavioral and physiological levels. Results showed that the external feedback was able to modulate participants' responses in both behavioral and neural components with increased RTs and ERs after the negative reinforcement. Similarly, a reduced inter-brain connectivity was found, mainly localized within the superior frontal regions, and for low-frequency bands (delta and theta). In contrast pre-feedback condition showed the best performance in terms of both behavioral and brain-to-brain coupling activity. Moreover, the presence of significant correlations between RTs and inter-brain connectivity revealed that the failing cooperation induces significant negative effects on the cognitive and brain strategy in comparison with cooperative (pre-feedback) and individual (control) condition. The present study provides significant contribution to the identification of patterns of cognitive behavior and functional connectivity when social reinforcement is provided within dyads of participants by using a hyperscanning approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  4. Novel Amalgams for In-Space Fabrication of Replacement Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Calvin T.; Van Hoose, James R.; Grugel, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    Being able to fabricate replacement parts during extended space flight missions precludes the weight, storage volume, and speculation necessary to accommodate spares. Amalgams, widely used in dentistry, are potential candidates for fabricating parts in microgravity environments as they are moldable, do not require energy for melting, and do not pose fluid handling problems. Unfortunately, amalgams have poor tensile strength and the room temperature liquid component is mercury. To possibly resolve these issues a gallium-indium alloy was substituted for mercury and small steel fibers were mixed in with the commercial alloy powder. Subsequent microscopic examination of the novel amalgam revealed complete bonding of the components, and mechanical testing of comparable samples showed those containing steel fibers to have a significant improvement in strength. Experimental procedures, microstructures, and test results are presented and discussed in view of further improving properties.

  5. Principal component analysis of image gradient orientations for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    We introduce the notion of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of image gradient orientations. As image data is typically noisy, but noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional PCA of pixel intensities very often fails to estimate reliably the low-dimensional subspace of a given data

  6. Failing left ventricle to ascending aorta conduit-Hybrid implantation of a melody valve and NuMed covered stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gössl, Mario; Johnson, Jonathan N; Hagler, Donald J

    2014-04-01

    We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with increasing shortness of breath, a new 3/4 diastolic murmur, and a complex history of LV outflow tract obstruction. She has undergone multiple surgeries including the replacement of her old LV apex to ascending aorta conduit with a 20-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, addition of a 24-mm homograft sutured between the conduit and the LV apex, and insertion of a 21-mm Freestyle porcine valve conduit between the Gore-Tex tube graft and allograft at age 23. The current assessment showed a failing Freestyle conduit prosthesis leading to left heart decompensation. Due to substantial surgical risk, the patient underwent successful implantation of a Melody valve into the Gore-Tex tube and exclusion of the failing Freestyle bioprosthesis with a NuMed CP stent in a hybrid procedure. The case nicely illustrates the collaborative potential of cardiovascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists in the new arena of a hybrid operating room. Complex hybrid procedures like the current one, especially those including percutaneous placements of valves, offer therapeutic options for patients that are otherwise too high risk for conventional open heart surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Claude

    2009-07-01

    The replacement of renal function by hemodialysis (HD) demonstrated for the first time that at least the most vital functions of a complex organ could be replaced by a man-made device. The Founding Father of dialysis is the Scottish chemist Thomas Graham who in 1861 found that colloid and crystalloid substances contained in fluids could be separated by diffusion of crystalloids through vegetable parchment acting as a semipermeable membrane. He coined this phenomenon as "dialysis". Fifty years later, using collodion as dialysis membrane and hirudin as anticoagulant (ATG), Abel et al. in Baltimore performed the first dialysis in dogs with a "vivi-diffusion" apparatus shortly after named "artificial kidney"(AK). In 1924, Haas in Germany treated for the first time uremia in man with dialysis using a collodion membrane and a new ATG: "heparin". Disappointed by unsuccessful results achieved with HD, Haas gave up his trials in 1928. HD revived in the early forties when Willem Kolff in the Netherlands built a "rotating drum kidney" using cellophane as dialysis membrane. The first recovery of a patient undergoing HD for acute renal failure (ARF) was reported by Kolff in 1945, paving the way for a rapidly worldwide expanding treatment of ARF with dialysis. The concept of applying HD to patients with end-stage chronic renal failure (ESRF), first pioneered by Alwall in Sweden as far back as 1948, became reality in 1960 when Scribner, Quinton et al. designed an external arteriovenous by pass made of Teflon tubing which allowed a permanent access to the bloodstream without requirement of permanent anticoagulation. The Teflon AV shunt, later improved with the use of a silicone rubber material (Silastic) has been the cornerstone for implementing the long-term treatment of ESRF patients with maintenance HD. The next major breakthrough in this area consisted in the surgically created AV fistula performed in 1966 by Cimino, Brescia et al. which considerably reduced the complications

  8. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  9. Knee Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a man-made surface of metal and plastic. In a partial knee replacement, the surgeon only ... survivorship of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for isolated... Article: Usage of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Article: Effectiveness of liposome ...

  10. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  11. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  12. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  14. Keys to Recovery after Knee Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shares her knee pain journey Photo: Courtesy of Melanie Modlin Melanie Modlin, 62, had total knee replacement last June. ... feel normal again?” The answer came slowly. For Melanie, feeling normal involved more than just becoming pain- ...

  15. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  16. Experience with failed or damaged spent fuel and its impacts on handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-12-01

    Spent fuel management planning needs to include consideration of failed or damaged spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. Described in this paper, which was prepared under the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program that is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are the following: the importance of fuel integrity and the behavior of failed fuel, the quantity and burnup of failed or damaged fuel in storage, types of defects, difficulties in evaluating data on failed or damaged fuel, experience with wet storage, experience with dry storage, handling of failed or damaged fuel, transporting of fuel, experience with higher burnup fuel, and conclusions. 15 refs

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  18. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  19. Short communication: Absorption of protein and immunoglobulin g in calves fed a colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G W; Foster, D M

    2007-06-01

    A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alternative to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality, limited colostrum reserves, or to break the cycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. However, it is important to make sure these products are effective and are capable of providing adequate serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available colostrum replacer product in dairy calves. Holstein calves from a single dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at birth. Group 1 (n = 21) calves were given 4 quarts of colostrum via esophageal feeder within 3 h of birth and served as the control group for this study. Group 2 (n = 21) received 2 packages of a colostrum replacer product, and group 3 (n = 21) received 3 packages of the colostrum replacer product within 3 h of birth. Blood samples from all calves were collected 24 h after colostrum administration and analyzed for serum total protein and IgG concentrations. Calves fed fresh colostrum had significantly higher serum total protein levels and IgG concentrations compared with calves fed the colostrum replacer product. Calves fed the colostrum replacer also had a significantly higher percentage of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL). The colostrum replacer product evaluated in this study failed to routinely provide adequate IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

  20. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...