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Sample records for replacement start x-plain

  1. European consensus for starting and stopping enzyme replacement therapy in adult patients with Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Toscano, A.

    2017-01-01

    synthesis is presented. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on how the diagnosis of Pompe disease should be confirmed, when treatment should be started, reasons for stopping treatment and the use of ERT during pregnancy. This was based on expert opinion and supported by the literature. One clinical trial and 43......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pompe disease is a rare inheritable muscle disorder for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. Uniform criteria for starting and stopping ERT in adult patients were developed and reported here. METHODS: Three consensus meetings were organized...... through the European Pompe Consortium, a network of experts from 11 European countries in the field of Pompe disease. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of ERT in adult patients on a range of clinical outcome measures and quality of life. A narrative...

  2. Replacement Planning: A Starting Point for Succession Planning and Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Replacement planning is a process of identifying short-term or long-term backups so that organizations have people who can assume responsibility for critical positions during emergencies. Individuals identified as "replacements" are not promised promotions; rather, they are prepared to the point where they can assume a critical position long…

  3. Replacement Planning: A Starting Point for Succession Planning and Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Replacement planning is a process of identifying short-term or long-term backups so that organizations have people who can assume responsibility for critical positions during emergencies. Individuals identified as "replacements" are not promised promotions; rather, they are prepared to the point where they can assume a critical position long…

  4. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  5. Type of Referral, Dialysis Start and Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in an International Integrated Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Marrón

    Full Text Available Integrated Care Settings (ICS provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT, offering at least both types of dialysis.To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics.Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start.Modality information (80% of patients and renal education (87% were more frequent (p8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%.Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.

  6. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  7. Application of a pattern of incremental haemodialysis, based on residual renal function, when starting renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José L; Domínguez, Patricia; Bueno, Blanca; Amézquita, Yésika; Espejo, Beatriz; Paraíso, Vicente

    The interest in the preservation of residual kidney function on starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) is very common in techniques such as peritoneal dialysis but less so in haemodialysis (HD). In our centre the pattern of incremental dialysis (2 HD/week) has been an option for a group of patients. Here we share our experience with this regimen from March 2008. We included incident patients with residual diuresis >1,000ml/24h, clinical stability, absence of oedema, absence of hyperkalaemia >6.5 mEq/l and phosphoremia >6mg/dl, with acceptable comprehension of dietetic care. Exclusion criteria were: Clinical instability, no dietary or medical compliance and the afore mentioned laboratory abnormalities. A total of 24patients were included in incremental technique. The mean age at start of RRT was 60 (15 years. The average time on incremental technique was 19 (18 months (range: 7-80), with a mean time on dialysis of 31 (23 months (range: 12-86). The reasons for transfer to thrice-weekly HD were: in 6patients due to laboratory tests, in 2patients for heart failure events, one for poor compliance and 3for receiving a kidney graft. The residual diuresis decreased in the first year from 2,106 (606ml/day to 1,545 (558 (P=.17) with the urea clearance and calculated residual renal function, basal 5.7 (1.5vs. 3.8 (1.9ml/min per year (P=.01) and basal 8.9 (2.4vs. 6.9 (4.3 per year (P=.28), respectively. Incremental HD treatment, with twice-weekly HD, may be an alternative in selected patients. This approach can largely preserve residual renal function at least for the first year. Although this pattern probably is not applicable to all patients starting RRT, it can and should be an initial alternative to consider. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  9. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  10. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  11. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.;

    2010-01-01

    of death and survival rates of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD in the ERA-EDTA Registry. Methods. Thirteen national registries providing data on patients who started RRT from 1986-2005 to the ERA-EDTA Registry participated. Incidence per million population (pmp) of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD and other...

  12. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  13. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  14. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  15. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  17. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  18. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  19. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  20. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  1. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  2. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  3. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  4. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  5. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  6. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  7. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  8. A New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Goodwill to the Islamic world and willingness to mend ties highlight Barack Obama’s new Middle East policy u.S. President Barack Obama started to implement his new Middle East policy soon after he assumed office. He paid a

  9. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  10. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  11. MICRO ENGINE START PERFORMANCE RESEARCH FOR RACING CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vrublevskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of modernization of the single-cylinder engine start by replacing the standard system by an electric starter is presented. Based on the calculated and experimental studies there have been provided the start-up characteristics of a single-cylinder engine. The measures to reduce the start-up time of the engine during the race in the Shell – EcoMarathon are offered.

  12. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  13. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  14. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  15. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  16. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  17. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  18. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  19. Getting Started with Roo

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Spring Roo goes a step beyond the Spring Framework by bringing true Rapid Application Development to Java-just as Grails has done with Groovy. This concise introduction shows you how to build applications with Roo, using the framework's shell as an intelligent and timesaving code-completion tool. It's an ideal RAD tool because Roo does much of the tedious code maintenance. You'll get started by building a simple customer relationship management application, complete with step-by-step instructions and code examples. Learn how to control any part of the application with Roo's opt-in feature, w

  20. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  1. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  2. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  3. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  4. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  5. Start your own information marketing business

    CERN Document Server

    Skrob, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Breaking down the information marketing world from A to Z, the undisputed info marketing expert offers professional strategies to set up a successful information marketing business. These businesses are easy to start, can be run from home, don't require any employees, need little cash outlay, can be run part-time, and can produce millions of dollars a year. Readers learn everything they need to jump into this lucrative field, creating an entirely new business that gives them added income or replaces their current salary entirely.

  6. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  7. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  8. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  9. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  10. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  11. Ruderal succession starting at different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Bornkamm

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Succession experiments were carried out in 1 m2 sized plots on three different soils (S = sand. SCL = silty clayey loam, CL = clayey loam. Vegetation was allowed to grow for 9 years, starting at different dates between 18.06.1969 and 1.04.1971. The greatest part of the variation of floristic composition and cover was brought about by the different soils. Direct effects of the starting season were detected only in the first two years. On sand in the first year the winter annual Conyza canadensis was well developed on the plots that had started in spring, but was poorly developed on the summer and fall plots. In the second year it decreased in the spring plots but increased in the summer and fall plots. The same was true for the winter annual Sonchus asper on CL. On SCL, however., Senecio vulgaris, belonging to the therophyta epeteia (overwintering in summer habit, was well developed in both the spring and summer plots, and showed an increase towards the second year in the fall plots only. In the later years of the experiment plots that had been started early in the year mostly were dominated by Poa pratensis ssp. angustifolia (or Quercus rubra, whereas plots that had been started late in the year mostly were dominated by Solidagn canadensis together with Artemsia vulgaris. The analyses of the transition events between the (subdominant species showed a variety of replacement patterns, but no determinated series of species following each other. It remains, therefore, unclear in what manner the differentiation between the terminal dominants may be related to the starting season.

  12. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  13. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  14. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  15. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  16. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  17. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin....... Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke...... suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular...

  18. Marketing start- upů

    OpenAIRE

    Vatulya, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is dedicated to marketing of start-ups and the most frequent mistakes they make in this field. The goal of this thesis is to propose recommendations for start-up founders which could help them avoid mistakes while building their business. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part defines the concept of start-ups, explores their history and introduces the main issues start-ups have to deal with in the field of marketing. The second part contains interviews with...

  19. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  20. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  1. New Firm Performance and the Replacement of Founder-CEOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the causes and consequences of the replacement of founder-CEOs in a sample of 4,172 Danish start-ups. We propose that founder-CEO replacement is driven in part by mismatches between business quality and founder ability. Our framework suggests that replacements are more likely among the w...... considerably faster. Our empirical results are consistent with these proposed predictions. Copyright © 2015 Strategic Management Society....... the worst- and best-performing firms, with low (high)-ability founders replaced by manager with higher (lower) ability. Replacement is not unambiguously associated with better subsequent performance. Firms that replaced the founder were much more likely to fail, but the surviving firms among them grew...

  2. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  3. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  4. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  5. The START III bargaining space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  6. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  7. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  8. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  9. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  10. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  11. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  12. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  13. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  15. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  18. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  19. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  20. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  1. Double Star Mission Starts Countdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As of July, scientists at the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) have been busy modulating and testing the payloads that will be onboard a space exploration satellite, marking the start of the countdown for China's Double Star Project.

  2. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  3. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  4. Biomechanics of the sprint start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, M J; Steele, J R

    1997-01-01

    Many variables have been studied pertaining to the block sprint start. Research suggests that the adoption of a medium block spacing is preferred, with front and rear knee angles in the set position approximating 90 and 130 degrees, respectively, with the hips held moderately high. The sprinter must be capable of developing a high force rate combined with a high maximum force, especially in the horizontal direction. This ability to create high force underlies other important indicators of starting performance such as minimum block clearance time, maximum block leaving velocity and maximum block leaving acceleration. Once the sprinter has projected him/herself from the blocks at a low angle (40 to 45 degrees) relative to the ground, the following 2 post-block steps should occur with the total body centre of gravity ahead of the contacting foot at foot strike to minimise potential horizontal braking forces.

  5. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  6. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  7. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  8. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  9. New Start,New Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Daniel Arbenz was bom and educated in Switzerland. In 1978, he entered the hotel indastry as a chef and worked his way up through all segments of the business. After graduating from the famous Swiss Hotel Management School in Luceme and obtaining management exposure in the finest hotels in Switzerland, he moved to Hong Kong in 1989, starting his career in Asia. Arbenz moved to Singapore, then to Bali, for Resort Hotels and has been with the Intercontinental Hotels Group for almost 10 years in general man...

  10. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  11. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  12. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  13. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  14. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  15. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  17. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  18. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  19. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  20. [Ascending aorta replacement late after aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasunari; Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junji

    2013-07-01

    Replacement of the asceding aorta is indicated in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement( AVR), if the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 5.0 cm. If the diameter of the asceding aorta is from 4.0 to 5.0 cm, it was arguable whether replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed. Nine patients who underwent reoperative ascending aorta replacement after AVR were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation on the asending aorta replacement was performed 11.8±7.2 years (range 1y5m~23y3m) after AVR. Mean patient age was 69.9±6.3 (range 60~81). In 2 cases, reoperations were performed early year after AVR. Although ascending aorta was dilated at the 1st operation, replacement wasn't performed for the age and minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). In 3 cases, reoperations were performed more than 10 years later. On these cases, ascending aorta aneurysm and dissection occurred with no pain and were pointed out by computed tomography(CT) or ultrasonic cardiogram(UCG). We think that patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta should undergo AVR and aorta replacement at the 1st operation regardness of age. It is important that patients who underwent AVR should undergo a regular checkup on the ascending aorta.

  1. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Papaderakis; Ioanna Mintsouli; Jenia Georgieva; Sotiris Sotiropoulos

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases) hydrogen evolution too...

  2. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  3. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  4. Tingzikou key water control project started construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tingzikou key water control project on Jialing River, one of 18 newly started key projects in 2009 for China's western part development program, formally started construction at the end of November last year.

  5. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.

  6. LS1 Report: Replacing an antique

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    At the PS Booster, the old beam dump and the shielding blocks surrounding it have been removed (see here). Installation of the new beam dump is now under way (see video).   The new PSB beam dump during its installation. At the PS, replacement of the old cooling and ventilation system, which dated back to 1957, is progressing well. The dismantling phase has just been completed and the tunnel is being prepared to receive a brand new ventilation system offering more efficient aeration of radioactive areas. At the same time, testing of the newly installed access system is under way. At the SPS, all the equipment of the Long Straight Section 1 (LSS1) has been removed to make way for the campaign to replace the irradiated cables, which started this week. In the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) campaign is still progressing at a good clip, especially at Point 1, where the teams are two and a half months ahead of schedule. The Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation (SMACC) proje...

  7. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  8. STUDY ON STARTING VELOCITY OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  9. Knee Replacement: What you can Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves function lessen with each additional surgery. Artificial knees can wear out Another risk of knee replacement ... replacement surgery to last about two hours. After knee replacement surgery After surgery, you're wheeled to ...

  10. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  12. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  13. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  14. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  15. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds... appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes the New Starts and Small Starts programs... Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the apportionment of the FY 2011...

  16. Starting Time Calculation for Induction Motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Garg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Paper Presents The Starting Time Calculation For A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. The Importance Of Starting Time Lies In Determining The Duration Of Large Current, Which Flows During The Starting Of An Induction Motor. Normally, The Starting Current Of An Induction Motor Is Six To Eight Time Of Full Load Current. Plenty Of Methods Have Been Discovered To Start Motor In A Quick Time, But Due To Un-Economic Nature, Use Are Limited. Hence, For Large Motors Direct Online Starting Is Most Popular Amongst All Due To Its Economic And Feasible Nature. But Large Current With Dol Starting Results In A Heavy Potential Drop In The Power System. Thus, Special Care And Attention Is Required In Order To Design A Healthy System. A Very Simple Method To Calculate The Starting Time Of Motor Is Proposed In This Paper. Respective Simulation Study Has Been Carried Out Using Matlab 7.8.0 Environment, Which Demonstrates The Effectiveness Of The Starting Time Calculation.

  17. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  18. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  19. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  20. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  1. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Africa

    1990-01-01

    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  2. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  3. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  4. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shiti

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  5. Assisted Workouts: Starting My Own Workout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousminer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    As an undergraduate student with cerebral palsy, I found it difficult to achieve my goal of starting a regular exercise program at my school, the University of Central Florida. However, when I started a program called Assisted Workouts in spring 2003. the struggle proved to be well worth it. The program is not only beneficial to me, but it has…

  6. Modeling Start Curves of Bainite Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that calculations with a physically based model give an accurate description of the start curve of bainite formation in a wide range of steels. The temperature dependence of the overall kinetics, which determines the characteristic C shape of the start curve, is controlled by both

  7. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  8. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  9. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  10. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  11. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  12. Success of Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis in a Large Canadian Renal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatheeri, Ali M A; Blake, Peter G; Gray, Daryl; Jain, Arsh K

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Many patients start renal replacement therapy urgently on in-center hemodialysis via a central venous catheter, which is considered suboptimal. An alternative approach to manage these patients is to start them on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this report, we describe the first reported Canadian experience with an urgent-start PD program. Additionally we reviewed the literature in this area. ♦ In this prospective observational study, we report on our experience in a single academic center. This program started in July 2010. We included patients who initiated PD urgently, that is within 2 weeks of catheter insertion. We followed all incident PD patients until October 2013 for mechanical and infectious complications. Peritoneal dialysis catheters were inserted either percutaneously or laparoscopically and dialysis was initiated in either an inpatient or outpatient setting. ♦ Thirty patients were started on urgent PD during our study period. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 1,050 days. Twenty insertions (66.7%) were done percutaneously and 10 (33.3%) were laparoscopic. Dialysis was initiated within 2 weeks (range: 0-13 days, median = 6 days). Twenty-four patients (80%) started PD in an outpatient setting and 6 patients (20%) required immediate inpatient PD start. Three patients (10%) developed a minor peri-catheter leak during the first week of training that was managed conservatively. There were no episodes of peritonitis or exit-site/tunnel infection during the first 4 weeks post-insertion. Four patients (13.3%) from the percutaneous insertion group and 2 patients (6.7%) from laparoscopic insertions developed catheter dysfunction due to migration, which was managed by repositioning, without need for catheter replacement or modality switch. ♦ Our results are consistent with other studies in this area and demonstrate that urgent-start PD is an acceptable and safe alternative to hemodialysis in patients who need to start dialysis urgently without established

  13. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  14. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  15. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  16. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  17. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  18. Begin and start: aspect and complement choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Nagy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a semantic analysis of begin and start and their non-finite complementation: the to-infinitive and –ing constructions. The core idea of the paper is that the aspectual constructions ‘begin+ to infinitive’, ‘begin + ing’, ‘start+ to infinitive’, and ‘start+ ing’ have both a schematic and a prototypical meaning, and that the subtle differences between them are motivated by several factors, like viewing (perfectivity vs. imperfectivity, temporality (future orientation vs. ongoing reading dynamicity (graduality vs. abruptness, agentivity, etc.

  19. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  20. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  1. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  2. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  3. Patient perspectives on buprenorphine/naloxone: a qualitative study of retention during the starting treatment with agonist replacement therapies (START) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Cheryl; Schwartz, Robert P; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Hasson, Albert L; Thomas, Christie; Buoncristiani, Samantha H; Hser, Yih-Ing; Wiest, Katharina; Cohen, Allan J; Glick, Naomi; Jacobs, Petra; McLaughlin, Paul; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the barriers and facilitators of retention among patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone at eight community-based opioid treatment programs across the United States. Participants (n = 105) were recruited up to three and a half years after having participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone on liver function. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 patients provided with buprenorphine/naloxone who had terminated early and 38 patients who had completed at least 24 weeks of the trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Barriers to buprenorphine/naloxone retention that emerged included factors associated with: (1) the design of the clinical trial; (2) negative medication or treatment experience; and (3) personal circumstances. The facilitators comprised: (1) positive experience with the medication; (2) personal determination and commitment to complete; and (3) staff encouragement and support. The themes drawn from interviews highlight the importance of considering patients' prior experience with buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone, medication preference, personal circumstances, and motivation to abstain from illicit use or misuse of opioids, as these may influence retention. Ongoing education of patients and staff regarding buprenorphine/naloxone, especially in comparison to methadone, and support from staff and peers are essential.

  4. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  5. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  6. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  7. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  8. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  9. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  10. starting infants on antiretroviral therapy clinical: paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN STARTING ART. A literature review of 30 ... Overall mortality during follow-up was mostly low, with a probability of ..... type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 1999 ...

  11. COLLEGE STUDENTS' STARTING THEIR OWN UNDERTAKINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays there are many college students who choose to start their own undertakings instead of finding a job after graduation.The government encourages this practice,and provides many preferential policies and facilitation measures for college students.This phenomenon has aroused great concern from the whole society. However,why do so many college students take the way of starting their own

  12. Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E Fred

    2008-12-22

    The field of photonics starts with the efficient generation of light. The generation of efficient yet highly controllable light can indeed be accomplished with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are, in principle, capable of generating white light with a 20 times greater efficiency than conventional light bulbs. Deployed on a global scale to replace conventional sources, such solid-state light sources will result in enormous benefits that, over a period of 10 years, include (1) gigantic energy savings of 1.9 x 1020 joule, (2) a very substantial reduction in global-warming CO2 emissions, (3) a strong reduction in the emission of pollutants such as acid-rain-causing SO2, mercury (Hg), and uranium (U), and (4) financial savings exceeding a trillion (10(12)) US$. These benefits can be accomplished by the "replacement paradigm" in which conventional light sources are replaced by more energy efficient, more durable, and non-toxic light sources. However, it will be shown that solid-state light sources can go beyond the replacement paradigm, by providing new capabilities including the control of spectrum, color temperature, polarization, temporal modulation, and spatial emission pattern. We will show that such future, "smart" light sources, can harness the huge potential of LEDs by offering multi-dimensional controllability that will enhance the functionality and performance of light sources in a wide range of applications. These applications include optical microscopy, imaging, display technologies, communications, networking, and transportation systems.

  13. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-12-12

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  14. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  15. [Proximal and total femur replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, P H; Wirtz, D C; Dürr, H R

    2012-07-01

    Reconstruction of segmental bone defects of the proximal femur following wide tumor resection or revision arthroplasty. Aggressive benign or primary malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur; destructive metastases; massive segmental bone defects of the proximal femur; periprosthetic fractures. Local infection; very short life expectancy (acetabular bone stock. Anterolateral approach. Exposure and detachment of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius muscle from the proximal femur with a sufficient safety margin to the bone; distal transsection of the vastus lateralis/intermedius and rectus femoris muscle according to the extraosseous tumor extension; distal femur osteotomy al least 3 cm beyond the farthest point of tumor extension; in case of total femur replacement, additional lateral arthrotomy of the knee with resection of the ligaments and menisci; reaming of the medullary canal after securing the shaft with a Verbrugge clamp; trial assembly and reduction followed by the definitive implantation of the prosthesis with adjustment of the femoral neck anteversion in 5° increments; soft tissue reconstruction and fixation to an attachment tube covering the prosthesis; in case of total femur replacement, the preparation of the tibia is followed by the coupling of the tibial and femoral components. Infection prophylaxis, 20 kg partial weight bearing, continuous passive motion. A total of 20  patients with proximal femur replacement and 2 patients with total femur replacement implanted between June 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had primary malignant bone tumors, while 19 patients underwent resection for metastatic disease. The mean age at surgery was 62.0 ± 18.1 years (18-82 years). Fifteen patients with a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17.2 months (4-51 months) were studied. Among the 22 cases, periprosthetic infection occurred in 3 patients (13.6%), dislocation in 2 patients (9.1%). Evaluation of the functional

  16. A metabolically active dermal replacement (Dermagraft) for vestibuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, J D; Gath, H J

    2005-05-01

    This article describes the use of tissue-engineered dermal replacement in the vestibular extension instead of palatal donor tissue or (split-thickness) skin graft. In three patients the living human-derived fibroblast skin substitute (Dermagraft) was implanted on the wound surface after mucogingival junction and supraperiosteal dissection. Following application of Dermagraft, epithelial closure starting from the resection margins of the defect was observed, obviating further surgical treatment. Vestibular depth was increased and no scarring or frena occurred. Tissue-engineered dermal replacement consisting of living human fibroblasts appears to be a useful substitute for autogenous grafts in pre-prosthetic surgery, offering the advantages of unlimited availability, good colour match and no donor site morbidity.

  17. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for thromboprophylaxis after major joint replacement has not been established. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly target factor Xa but to some extent also inhibit thrombin. Apixaban, a specific factor Xa inhibitor, may provide effective...... thromboprophylaxis with a low risk of bleeding and improved ease of use. METHODS: In a double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned patients undergoing total knee replacement to receive 2.5 mg of apixaban orally twice daily or 30 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously every 12 hours. Both medications were started...... for 60 days after anticoagulation therapy was stopped. RESULTS: A total of 3195 patients underwent randomization, with 1599 assigned to the apixaban group and 1596 to the enoxaparin group; 908 subjects were not eligible for the efficacy analysis. The overall rate of primary events was much lower than...

  18. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander;

    2009-01-01

    thromboprophylaxis with a low risk of bleeding and improved ease of use. METHODS: In a double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned patients undergoing total knee replacement to receive 2.5 mg of apixaban orally twice daily or 30 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously every 12 hours. Both medications were started......BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for thromboprophylaxis after major joint replacement has not been established. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly target factor Xa but to some extent also inhibit thrombin. Apixaban, a specific factor Xa inhibitor, may provide effective...... for 60 days after anticoagulation therapy was stopped. RESULTS: A total of 3195 patients underwent randomization, with 1599 assigned to the apixaban group and 1596 to the enoxaparin group; 908 subjects were not eligible for the efficacy analysis. The overall rate of primary events was much lower than...

  19. Renal replacement therapy in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiban, A K; Yehia, A; Mohamed, Y A; Hajar, A R

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of dialysis and transplantation in Yemen. The reported incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in one region of Yemen was estimated as 385 per million population (PMP) per year. The total population of Yemen is also estimated as 16,000,000. Peritoneal dialysis was started in 1980, while hemodialysis was started in 1981. At present there are around 36 hemodialysis machines distributed in the large cities of Yemen. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis is commonly used; however, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has been out of practice since 1992. Renal transplantation has not yet been started in Yemen; however, at present there are 327 transplant patients being followed up in it. The majority of patients had their grafts from living non related donors abroad. In our experience, such transplantations were associated with high morbidity and mortality, in addition to acquisition of serious, potentially lethal extra-renal medical problems. We believe that there is a wide shortage of renal services in Yemen. Establishing a National Kidney Foundation to organize these services may be helpful.

  20. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  1. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  2. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  3. Update on Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kevin Matthew Yen Bing; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Carrier, Serge

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset male hypogonadism has long been recognized as a treatable medical condition; however, misconceptions about the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) have often led urologists away from its more mainstream use. This paper aims to bring the reader up-to-date on the current understanding of TRT, starting with when and who to treat. Various formulations of TRT, each with its own risks and benefits, are also detailed. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the current literature's views into the various controversies of TRT including its impact on prostate health, sexual health, cardiovascular health, frailty, and mood is discussed.

  4. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  5. Continuous renal replacement therapy circuit failure after antidote administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinwoo

    2014-12-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred to the emergency department (ED). He was found unconscious in his house along with an empty 200-mL bottle of Basta(™), a herbicide containing 18% glufosinate. He was comatose with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. As his blood pressure dropped to 60/30 mmHg despite fluids and norepinephrine, 20% intravenous fat emulsion product was injected. He experienced repeated cardiopulmonary arrests during his first 4 h in the ED. When the arrests occurred, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and boluses of fat emulsion were given. He was given a total of 1500 mL of 20% fat emulsion. In an attempt to correct the acidosis, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started. Within 5 min of starting CRRT, the transmembrane pressure increased sharply and the machine stopped.

  6. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  7. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  8. Clones to replace forest seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, B.

    1985-01-01

    A considerable time can elapse between initial selection of candidate plus trees and harvest of improved seed. The technique showing the greatest promise of shortening this interval is vegetative propagation. Stock plants are grown for two years from seed before the first propagation cycle begins and each plant can be bulked-up 300-500 times over two cycles. An initial stock of 2500 superior Sitka Spruce plants can be multiplied to yield between 300,000 and 750,000 rooted cuttings for forest use within four years from the start of propagation.

  9. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  10. OPTIMUM ORDERING POLICY FOR PREVENTIVE AGE REPLACEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN

    2009-01-01

    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  11. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  12. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug

  13. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  14. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  15. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  16. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  17. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  18. Leptin replacement improves cognitive development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto J Paz-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY: A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105 was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS, a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828.

  19. Systematic clustering of transcription start site landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Parker, Brian J;

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide, high-throughput methods for transcription start site (TSS) detection have shown that most promoters have an array of neighboring TSSs where some are used more than others, forming a distribution of initiation propensities. TSS distributions (TSSDs) vary widely between promoters...

  20. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  1. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  3. A strong start, a promising future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihe Rao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Protein & Cell has made a very strong start in its first full year of publication, covering 12 monthly issues with a consistently high standard of content and production. Thanks to the contributors, editors, editorial board, editodal staff and publishers, both the scientific quality and the production quality of the journal have been outstanding.

  4. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  5. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  6. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  7. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  8. The Prickly Politics of School Starting Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    1999-01-01

    Tinkering with school schedules to accommodate adolescents' sleep patterns is politically risky. A University of Minnesota study analyzing stakeholders' attitudes toward later high school starting times showed that changing a school's schedule provokes as emotional a reaction as that of closing a school or changing its attendance area. Open…

  9. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  10. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  11. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  12. Starting New Schools: Lessons for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wayne B.

    Arguments for beginning new schools as a robust alternative to the incremental improvement of existing schools are presented in this paper. The educational improvement approach of starting new schools or programs, rather than making incremental improvements or generating comprehensive change in existing schools, is advocated. Two major types of…

  13. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  14. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  15. Construction of Shanghai Chemical Park Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park started construction on January 6, 2001 with the first pile driven for the 200,000-ton phenol acetone plant of Gaoqiao Branch,Sinopec Ltd. This is one of the largest industrial investment projects of the city of the country as well as the city at the beginning of the new century.

  16. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  17. Getting started with Magento module development

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzele, Branko

    2013-01-01

    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  18. Philadelphia's Independence Starts Here: Disability Arts Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mimi Kenney

    2008-01-01

    In tribute to Philadelphia's world-changing past, Festival partners dubbed the month-long Disability Arts Festival "Independence Starts Here." Through it, they hoped to begin to change the future for over 675,000 people with disabilities in the area and their families. Led by Amaryllis Theatre Company, which now also serves as VSA arts…

  19. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  20. Principios Multiculturales para los Programas Head Start (Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Spanish-language report outlines 10 multicultural principles for Head Start preschool programs and ancillary services. The report assets that Head Start programming should: (1) treat every child as an individual; (2) represent the cultural groups in the community; (3) emphasize accurate information about cultural groups and discard…

  1. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen K

    2012-02-01

    The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. The purpose of this study was to compare different sprint start positions and to generate correction factors between popular timing triggering methods on 40-m/40-yd sprint time. Fourteen female athletes (17 ± 1 years), personal best 100 m: 13.26 (±0.68) seconds and 11 male athletes (20 ± 5 years), personal best 100 m: 11.58 (±0.74) seconds participated. They performed 2 series of 3 40-m sprints in randomized order: (a) start from the block, measured by means of Brower audio sensor (BAS) and Dartfish video timing (DVT), (b) 3-point start, measured by using hand release pod (HR) and DVT, and (c) standing start, triggered by both photocell across starting line (SFC), and foot release (FR) plus DVT. Video analysis was performed by 2 independent observers and averaged. Simultaneous measurements at national athletics competitions demonstrated that DVT and BAS were equivalent to Omega Timing within the limits of precision of video timing (±0.01 seconds). Hand and floor timer triggering showed small but significant biases compared with movement captured from video (0.02-0.04 seconds), presumably because of sensitivity of pressure thresholds. Coefficient of variation for test-retest timing using different starting positions ranged from 0.7 to 1.0%. Compared with block starts reacting to gunfire, HR, SFC, and FR starts yielded 0.17 ± 0.09, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.69 ± 0.11 second faster times, respectively, over 40 m (all p sprint performances.

  2. LS1 Report: A stubborn cavity will soon be replaced

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Testing on the LHC’s replacement RF cryomodule was completed last week in SM18. This module will bring them all to design-level, replacing a faulty cavity that has been acting up since the machine’s start-up.   A LHC cryomodule undergoes testing in SM18. Distributed between four cryomodules, the LHC is home to a total of 16 radiofrequency (RF) cavities. Each is designed to provide a 2 MV accelerating field… and all but one has been succeeding at this job. Ever since the machine’s startup, one stubborn cavity in a Point 4 module has quenched whenever it had to stay at 2 MV. The accelerator team found that no amount of conditioning could get the cavity to behave, and the highest continuous wave voltage it could perform at was 1.3 MV. “This was fine for physics,” says Pierre Maesen, who is leading the repair and replacement of the LHC’s cryomodules. “We were able to compensate for this ‘missing’...

  3. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  4. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  5. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Prateek; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of compressed sensing where the goal is to recover almost all the sparse vectors using a small number of fixed linear measurements. For this problem, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding operator that leads to a general family of iterative algorithms. While one extreme of the family yields well known hard thresholding algorithms like ITI (Iterative Thresholding with Inversion) and HTP (Hard Thresholding Pursuit), the other end of the spectrum leads to a novel algorithm that we call Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement (OMPR). OMPR, like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, adds exactly one coordinate to the support at each iteration, based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the Restricted Isometry Property (a condition on the measurement matrix). In contrast, OMP is kn...

  6. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  7. [Animal experiment, can we replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrisson, H

    2017-09-01

    Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions. The application of 3Rs - replacement, reduction, and refinement - expressed in 1959 by Russel and Burch is an ethical guide to improve the welfare of animals in research. The alternative methods do not allow, in the present state of the knowledge, to answer all the scientific questions in biology and medicine research. They are, most of the time, complementary methods of the in vivo methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John A Whitlock; Joy M Richman

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development.

  9. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  10. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  11. Getting started with MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  12. Starting and developing a surveying business

    CERN Document Server

    Imber, Austen

    2013-01-01

    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  13. New START: The Contentious Road to Ratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senate ratification of the New START treaty re-established effective bilateral inspection and monitoring of American and Russian nuclear holdings and has the potential to further enhance U.S.-Russian cooperation on key issues, including containing the Iranian nuclear program, and further reductions in the two countries' arsenals. Although the accord was widely heralded as a foreign policy success of the Obama administration, the contentious Senate ratification may impede future progress on arms control.

  14. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100 kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114 ± 2.4 kg; age=97 ± 1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462 g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150 g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4 ± 1.0 g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9 ± 3.9 and 43.0 ± 10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU

  15. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  16. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  17. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  18. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts project...

  19. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  20. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan;

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  1. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  2. Getting started with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Patawari, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  3. China Starts Its Lunar Exploration Prbgram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    Why China Starts Lunar Exploration Program.Lunar exploration is always a subject of great interest, for the earth's I nearest neighbour probably holds the key to humanity's future subsistence and development. The unique mineral and energy resources on the moon are important supplement and reserve to the Earth resources, which will generate farreaching influence on the sustainable development of human society. The helium-3 resource unique to lunar soil is a clean, efficient, safe and cheap new-type nuclear fusion fuel, and it will help change the energy structure of human society.

  4. How To Start a Prep Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse D.

    1998-04-01

    At City College, we follow our mother institution, the University of California at Berkeley, in that we require high school physics as a prerequisite for general college physics and then provide a one-semester prep physics course as an alternative to meet this prerequisite. Many people have asked me how they can start such a course. In traveling about on my sabbatical, doing Physics Of Magic (1) at various schools, I have observed how various schools implement this prerequisite course. I will discuss my observations.

  5. Opening the insider's eye: starting action research

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of getting started on a process of action research (AR). I hope that the paper encourages a few teachers to begin classroom investigations, because it is important for the TESOL and TEFL profession that we have more teacher-researchers. Only if we establish action research as a more attractive aspect of teaching can we avoid the almost complete separation between research on the one hand and practice on the other (Wallace 1991, p. 10). This gap between theory an...

  6. Robotics: Hephaestus is Starting all Over Again

    OpenAIRE

    Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hephaestus is starting all over again with new Pandoras. They are no longer of clay, but mecatronic. And they are animated. The roboticist keeps on asking the question of autonomy: what adaptability can we hope to give these new machines? The analogy between humans and machines has to be made; it cannot be avoided. In the end, does Hephaestus have the keys to knowledge? With his machines that adapt, that “decide” on their actions, what can he tell us about our own “functioning”? The question ...

  7. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  8. Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    Learn fundamental Web design principles and become comfortable working in Dreamweaver's complex interface! Dreamweaver 8 is a great Web design tool for pros, but newcomers may be overwhelmed by its interface or want to know more about how to work creatively and intelligently in the program. Help is at hand in Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver, which offers a detailed tutorial for making your first site in Dreamweaver. Author Arnie Keller, who teaches Web design at the University of Victoria, shows you how to style type the smart way with CSS, create a sophisticated page layout

  9. Getting started with Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The book starts with the basics of Foundation and helps you build your skills as you advance from installation to design, configuration, and customization with examples at every step.This book will be of great benefit to web architects, designers, and builders. While it helps to be a programmer, it isn't necessary for this book. You should be familiar with the basic principles of responsive web design and have a desire to create a professional website that looks great on both mobile devices and regular displays.

  10. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  11. Getting started with the Lazarus IDE

    CERN Document Server

    Person, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy-to-understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.This book is geared toward developers that have a familiarity with Delphi or Free Pascal and would like to start using the open source Lazarus Integrated Development Environment. You should have knowledge of creating a console and GUI applications as well as creating basic components. Example source code and projects are provided to help learn the differences between Delphi and Lazarus projects.

  12. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  13. Aortic valve replacement with the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure 12 years after mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y

    1999-10-01

    An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.

  14. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  15. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  16. ORGANIZING THE MUSIC CLASSES IN STARTING SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tagiltseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of children preparation for school in so called starting schools. In author’s opinion, the arts disciplines such as music, drawing and choreography can develop the aesthetic sense, moral qualities, more optimistic world outlook and respectful  attitude; the child develops creative skills and beauty perception both in fine arts and wild life.The author looks at the problems of planning and organizing the music training of preschool children, the different requirements for and concepts of the preschool and primary school normative documents being analyzed. The paper substantiates the effectiveness of poly-artistic and activity approaches to the split-level teaching, in particular – the method of projecting the familiar actions onto some sort of artistic activities. Based on the succession of preschool and primary school training, the author specifies the goals of music classes in starting schools, and outlines the most relevant game activities of role plays, didactic plays and contests.The paper is addressed to preschool and primary school teachers, music teachers, as well as methodologists and researchers dealing with preschool teaching. 

  17. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  18. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  19. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  20. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  1. Percutaneous tricuspid valve replacement in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous replacement of the tricuspid valve with a bovine jugular venous valve (melody valve was successfully undertaken in a 9-year-old boy. The patient had a previous history of bacterial endocarditis of the native tricuspid valve in infancy. Initially, a pericardial patch valve was created, followed by surgical replacement of the valve using a biological tissue valve at 4 years of age. Progressive stenosis and regurgitation of the biological valve, with severe venous congestion and resulting hepatic dysfunction prompted percutaneous valve replacement.

  2. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  3. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  4. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  5. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  6. Getting started with LevelDB

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  7. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  8. When to start: not so fast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains controversial whether and, if so, the extent to which antiretroviral therapy (ART results in net benefit if used by HIV-positive persons with a high CD4 count, particularly those with early HIV infection. This controversy is primarily reflecting lack of solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. Currently published trials have compared early ART with initiation of ART below currently globally accepted thresholds for initiation (i.e. CD4 count at 350 cells/µL and, hence, are unable to inform this discussion. Analyses on large observational studies that have attempted to address this question have shown inconsistent results; therefore, those results are considered low-quality evidence, as per the GRADE criteria used by, for example, WHO when formulating guidelines. In resource-constrained regions, not even observational data are available to inform this question. The START study is underway to answer this question. Data remain blinded, but START may show net harm from early use of ART; such a result would severely undermine use of ART as prevention in early HIV infection. Prescription of any type of medicine is guided by the principle of “do no harm” – that is, “the doctor should not prescribe medications unless s/he knows that the treatment is unlikely to be harmful.” Hence, the balance of risk/benefit to individuals versus prevention benefit is important to accurately determine, and current guidelines of generally initiating ART once the patient develops HIV-related symptoms or the CD4 count drops to levels around 350 cells/µL should be adhered to until further evidence has emerged.

  9. Experimental Results on Statistical Approaches to Page Replacement Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEUNG,VITUS J.; IRANI,SANDY

    2000-12-08

    This paper investigates the questions of what statistical information about a memory request sequence is useful to have in making page replacement decisions: Our starting point is the Markov Request Model for page request sequences. Although the utility of modeling page request sequences by the Markov model has been recently put into doubt, we find that two previously suggested algorithms (Maximum Hitting Time and Dominating Distribution) which are based on the Markov model work well on the trace data used in this study. Interestingly, both of these algorithms perform equally well despite the fact that the theoretical results for these two algorithms differ dramatically. We then develop succinct characteristics of memory access patterns in an attempt to approximate the simpler of the two algorithms. Finally, we investigate how to collect these characteristics in an online manner in order to have a purely online algorithm.

  10. Possible removal of topiramate by continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Linda; Parker, Dennis; Liu-DeRyke, Xi; Shah, Aashit; Coplin, William M; Rhoney, Denise H

    2010-01-15

    Topiramate is primarily renally eliminated and requires dosage adjustment based upon renal function. While there is data to suggest drug removal during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), little is known regarding its clearance and dosing during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We describe a 59-year-old man with refractory status epilepticus who was started on continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) for acute renal failure while receiving topiramate with a series of serum concentrations to assess for removal during CVVHDF. Our data suggest clinically important amounts of topiramate are removed by CRRT, and higher topiramate dosage may be needed for these patients instead of the current recommended 50% of normal dosage. Unfortunately, there is no antiepileptic drug dosing recommendation when used during CRRT due to the paucity of data. This case highlights a need for research evaluating the effect of CRRT on AED elimination in order to optimize therapy for seizure control.

  11. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, D. S.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Ponce, D. M.; Young, A. T.

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H- current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration.

  12. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  13. Gyrator-type circuits replace ungrounded inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Gyrator circuits using only transistors, capacitors, and resistors which can replace both grounded and ungrounded inductors have been developed to permit complete microminiaturization of circuitry by integration of the components.

  14. Total ankle replacement. Design evolution and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Alexander; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Dereymaeker, Greta

    2010-04-01

    The ankle joint has unique anatomical, biomechanical and cartilaginous structural characteristics that allow the joint to withstand the very high mechanical stresses and strains over years. Any minor changes to any of these features predispose the joint to osteoarthritis. Total ankle replacement (TAR) is evolving as an alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Initial implant designs from the early 1970s had unacceptably high failure and complication rates. As a result many orthopaedic surgeons have restricted the use of TAR in favour of ankle arthrodesis. Long term follow-up studies following ankle arthrodesis show risks of developing adjacent joint osteoarthritis. Therefore research towards a successful ankle replacement continues. Newer designs and longer-term outcome studies have renewed the interest in ankle joint replacement. We present an overview of the evolution, results and current concepts of total ankle replacement.

  15. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  16. Total ankle replacement - surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.

  17. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... Operator License, Marine Radio Operator Permit, First Class Radiotelegraph Operator's Certificate, Second... Radio Operator's License, Restricted GMDSS Radio Operator License, GMDSS Radio Maintainer's License,...

  18. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  19. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  20. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  1. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  2. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  3. [Replacement of tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biacabe, B; Laccourreye, O; Ménard, M; Hans, S; Brasnu, D

    2000-02-01

    To compare anesthesic techniques used between 1992 and 1997 at Laënnec Hospital for replacement by tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis: local and general anesthesia. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. Provox in situ lifetime was calculated in 58 patients who underwent 115 and 49 replacements under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Age, sex, surgical and radiotherapy backgrounds, complications and anaesthetic techniques were studied as potential factors correlated with Provox in situ lifetime. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. In 1992, 12% of Provox prosthesis were inserted under local anaesthesia and 54% in 1997. Provox in situ lifetime was either not influenced by anaesthetic techniques or other factors under analysis. The theoretical financial cost was estimated at 14, 341 FFrs and 6,048 FFrs for replacement under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Due to increased control of health care costs, we advocated local anaesthesia for Provox prosthesis replacement if control endoscopy is not required.

  4. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  5. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  6. [Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Santo; Pistolesi, Valentina; Maggiore, Umberto; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Pierucci, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In the critically ill patient, acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with infective complications requiring appropriate antimicrobial treatment. AKI and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome can affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of many drugs. Furthermore, the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is an additional variable to be taken into consideration to avoid inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are widely adopted in the intensive care unit (ICU) and antibiotics that are significantly eliminated by the kidney are likely to be removed during RRT. Generally, drug-dosing adjustments are required if the extracorporeal clearance accounts for more than 25-30% of the total body clearance. The molecular weight cutoffs of the more widely used membranes are much higher than the molecular weight of most drugs. Therefore, molecular size will not be a limitation for the removal of the unbound fraction of the antibiotics most commonly used in ICU patients. However, CRRTs are still not standardized and the impact of RRT on plasma drug concentrations can be substantially different depending on the CRRT modality (diffusive, convective or both), membrane characteristics and delivered dialysis dose. In any case, drug-dosing adjustments should be based on the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the different classes of antimicrobials, taking into account that high extracorporeal clearances could lead to drug underexposure in clinical conditions where appropriate antibiotic treatment is essential.

  7. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  8. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  9. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  10. Stop making plans; start making decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael C; Steele, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Many executives have grown skeptical of strategic planning. Is it any wonder? Despite all the time and energy that go into it, strategic planning most often acts as a barrier to good decision making and does little to influence strategy. Strategic planning fails because of two factors: It typically occurs annually, and it focuses on individual business units. As such, the process is completely at odds with the way executives actually make important strategy decisions, which are neither constrained by the calendar nor defined by unit boundaries. Thus, according to a survey of 156 large companies, senior executives often make strategic decisions outside the planning process, in an ad hoc fashion and without rigorous analysis or productive debate. But companies can fix the process if they attack its root problems. A few forward-looking firms have thrown out their calendar-driven, business-unit-focused planning procedures and replaced them with continuous, issues-focused decision making. In doing so, they rely on several basic principles: They separate, but integrate, decision making and plan making. They focus on a few key themes. And they structure strategy reviews to produce real decisions. When companies change the timing and focus of strategic planning, they also change the nature of senior management's discussions about strategy--from "review and approve" to "debate and decide," in which top executives actively think through every major decision and its implications for the company's performance and value. The authors have found that these companies make more than twice as many important strategic decisions per year as companies that follow the traditional planning model.

  11. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John B; Green, Jonathon P; Levin, Gregory T; Brughelli, Matt E; Frost, David M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of different starting stances from a standing position on short sprint times and the subsequent variability in times was investigated in this study. A dual-beam timing light system was used to measure 5- and 10-m times for 3 different standing starts commonly found in the sporting environment: parallel (feet parallel to the start line), split (lead left foot on start line, right leg back), and false (initial parallel start, right leg drops back to split start when movement initiated). The parallel start was found to be significantly (alpha men and women. The split and false start seem to offer the best option as a movement strategy for minimizing short-distance sprint times. However, the benefits of these 2 starts are less clear if total movement time is the variable of interest.

  12. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  14. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  15. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John

    2017-04-01

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  16. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  17. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Wolfe, T A; Elsasser, T H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of increased milk replacer feeding on growth, intake, feed efficiency, and health parameters in stressed calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 120; approximately 3 to 8 d of age) were purchased from sale barns and dairy farms and housed in fiberglass hutches. In addition, wood shavings contaminated with coronavirus were mixed with clean shavings and added to each hutch before the start of the experiment. Calves were fed either a fixed amount (454 g/d) of a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat milk replacer to weaning at 28 d or a variable amount (454, 681, 908, and 454 g/d on d 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 31, and 32 to 41, respectively) of a milk replacer containing 28% CP and 17% fat without or with added dietary supplement containing bovine serum. Calves were also fed commercial calf starter and water ad libitum. Plasma IgG concentration in most calves on arrival at the facility was feed efficiency, morbidity and mortality, and selected plasma metabolites were determined. Body weight at 28 d, 56 d, daily body weight gain, intake of milk replacer, fecal scores, days with diarrhea, and days treated with antibiotics were increased with feeding variable amount of milk replacer over the 56-d study. Starter intake from d 1 to 56 was reduced from 919 to 717 g/d in calves fed fixed and variable amounts of milk replacer, respectively. Morbidity, measured as the number of days that calves had diarrhea, was increased by 53% when a variable amount of milk replacer was fed. Calves fed variable milk replacer were treated with antibiotics for 3.1 d compared with 1.9 d for calves fed 454 g of milk replacer/d. Concentrations of plasma glucose, urea N, and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased when calves were fed variable amount of milk replacer. Dietary supplement containing bovine serum had no effect on any parameter measured. There was no effect of milk replacer feeding on concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, total

  18. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin are preferred for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major joint replacement. Apixaban, an orally active factor Xa inhibitor, might be as effective, have lower bleeding risk, and be easier to use than is enoxaparin. We assessed......, patients, statisticians, adjudicators, and steering committee were masked to allocation. Apixaban was started 12-24 h after wound closure and enoxaparin 12 h before surgery; both drugs were continued for 10-14 days, when bilateral ascending venography was scheduled. Primary outcome was the composite...... efficacy and safety of these drugs after elective total knee replacement. METHODS: In ADVANCE-2, a multicentre, randomised, double-blind phase 3 study, patients undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral total knee replacement were randomly allocated through an interactive central telephone system...

  19. The Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and the ideal biomechanical requirements of ankle replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban

    2016-03-01

    The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met.

  20. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  1. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  2. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  3. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  4. Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posters Books & Cards Jewelry & Accessories Video & Music Stay Connected Get Apraxia Kids News Notifications Home Family Start Guide Introduction Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech If you are new to the diagnosis of ...

  5. The effect of timing of the first kidney transplantation on survival in children initiating renal replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S; Geskus, Ronald B;

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists concerning the timing of the first kidney transplantation for children who need to start renal replacement therapy (RRT). Our aim was to estimate the effect of timing of the first transplantation on patient survival in children, for the first time also taking into account...

  6. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德

    2004-01-01

    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  7. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  8. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, A Scott; Ostrowski, Kevin A; Hedges, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    There is an emerging evolution in the understanding of the relationship between the prostate and testosterone. It has long been generally believed that with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), increasing serum testosterone levels led to prostatic growth and worsening of voiding dysfunction and associated complications. A new theory, the Saturation Model of Testosterone and its effect on the Prostate has gained attention. This theory suggests that the prostate's response to increasing levels of serum testosterone reaches a limit beyond which there is minimal effect. This model predicts that testosterone replacement therapy occurs above this saturation point, and replacing testosterone to eugonadal levels should not worsen prostate related benign disease. We evaluated the recent published data, with an emphasis on clinical studies done within the last 3 years, for the effects of testosterone supplementation on benign prostatic disease.

  9. Double Valve Replacement for Lupus Valvulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Victor A.; Hawksley, Vaughn C.; Rabinowitz, Max; Coyne, Carolyn M.; Sullivan, Thomas J.; Sprague, Merle S.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamically significant lupus valvulitis, requiring valve replacement, is rare: 21 cases have been reported so far in the literature, and only 2 of these have involved double valve replacement. We describe an additional case of double valve replacement in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. The histopathologic and clinical features of this case suggest that valvular involvement resulted from both acute and chronic disease processes. Medical success in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, especially that achieved through prolonged or high-dose steroid therapy, may cause chronic valvular disease to become a more common surgical problem. A review of the literature supports this contention. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:56-60) Images PMID:15227191

  10. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...... ). Results - 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3-5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3-5, indicating moderately to severely...

  11. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  12. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  13. Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain Osteoarthritis ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  14. Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain Osteoarthritis ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  15. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  16. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  17. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    2009-01-01

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with oth

  18. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  19. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of discretionary selection of New Starts projects for Funding. SUMMARY...

  20. The echocardiography of replacement heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This is a practical description of how replacement valves are assessed using echocardiography. Normal transthoracic appearances including normal variants are described. The problem of differentiating normal function, patient–prosthesis mismatch and pathological obstruction in aortic replacement valves with high gradients is discussed. Obstruction and abnormal regurgitation is described for valves in the aortic, mitral and right-sided positions and when to use echocardiography in suspected infective endocarditis. The roles of transoesophageal and stress echocardiography are described and finally when other imaging techniques may be useful. PMID:27600454

  1. Upgrade or replace?: The effect of the EPBD on the choice between improvement or replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    What is better: improvement or replacement by new construction? The choice between life cycle extension and replacement of existing buildings is at itself a vital but very difficult decision, involving a wide range of different aspects and affecting several contrary and often conflicting interests.

  2. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2003-September 2004. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2003 and 2004 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Sixty-nine turtles were over-wintered at the Woodland Park Zoo and 69 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 136 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2004. Two were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Thirty-four were released at the Klickitat ponds, 19 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 62 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 246 for the Klickitat ponds, 114 for the Klickitat lake, 167 for the Skamania pond complex, and 250 at Pierce NWR. In 2004, 32 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-one of the females nested and produced 85 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and October and transported to the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos for rearing in the head-start program. Data collection for a four-year telemetry study of survival and habitat use by juvenile western pond turtles at Pierce NWR concluded in 2004. Radio transmitters on study animals were replaced as needed until all replacements were in service; afterward, the turtles were monitored until their transmitters failed. The corps of study turtles ranged from 39 in August 2003 to 2 turtles at the end of August 2004. These turtles showed the same seasonal pattern of movements between summer water and upland winter

  3. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国

    2001-01-01

    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  4. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H{sup {minus}} current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Give Your Child a Head Start = Dele a Su Hijo la Ventaja Educativa Inicial de Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This pamphlet, in English- and Spanish-language versions, offers information to parents on the functioning and benefits of Head Start, a federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The pamphlet's sections answer the following questions: (1) "What Is Head Start?" (2) "What Can the Head Start Program Offer to Your…

  6. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMaio, Frank, E-mail: dimaio@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, UW Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed.

  7. Potential of Microbubbles as Fat Replacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, T.A.M.; Sala, Guido; Linden, Van der Erik; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microbubbles as fat replacers and texture modifiers was assessed by comparison of the rheological and tribological properties of model food systems that contained (1) microbubbles, (2) emulsion droplets or (3) no added colloidal structures. We used (a) liquids with thickener, (b)

  8. Predictors of mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjang, Yanto Sandy; van Hees, Yvonne; Koerfer, Reiner; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is recommended as a standard surgical procedure for aortic valve disease. Still the evidence for commonly claimed predictors of post-AVR prognosis, in particular mortality, appears scant. This systematic review reports on the evidence for predictors of post-AVR

  9. Is physiological glucocorticoid replacement important in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John; Blair, Joanne; Ross, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm with low concentrations at night, rising in the early hours of the morning, peaking on waking and declining over the day to low concentrations in the evening. Loss of this circadian rhythm, as seen in jetlag and shift work, is associated with fatigue in the short term and diabetes and obesity in the medium to long term. Patients with adrenal insufficiency on current glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone have unphysiological cortisol concentrations being low on waking and high after each dose of hydrocortisone. Patients with adrenal insufficiency complain of fatigue, a poor quality of life and there is evidence of poor health outcomes including obesity potentially related to glucocorticoid replacement. New technologies are being developed that deliver more physiological glucocorticoid replacement including hydrocortisone by subcutaneous pump, Plenadren, a once-daily modified-release hydrocortisone and Chronocort, a delayed and sustained absorption hydrocortisone formulation that replicates the overnight profile of cortisol. In this review, we summarise the evidence regarding physiological glucocorticoid replacement with a focus on relevance to paediatrics. PMID:27582458

  10. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 700.55. (b) May include existing dwellings for resale, new construction, modular homes, mobile homes... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance payments... supplemental income payments received from public agencies. If the person's monthly income pattern is...

  11. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  12. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...

  13. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  14. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...

  15. Method of replacing corrupted audio data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, J.; Meijerink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    A decoding method for coded data representing original data. Corrupted data is detected and replaced with buffered data. The buffered data is stored in the buffer a time interval corresponding to an estimated periodicity or an integer multiple thereof before the corrupted data was received. The esti

  16. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  17. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  18. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  19. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  20. [Acute renal replacement therapy in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, T; Ozanne, B; Bétrémieux, P; Tirel, O; Ecoffey, C

    2013-12-01

    In pediatric intensive care unit, the available modalities of acute renal replacement therapy include intermittent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapies. No prospective studies have evaluated to date the effect of dialysis modality on the outcomes of children. The decision about dialysis modality should therefore be based on local expertise, resources available, and the patient's clinical status. Poor hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis is a common problem in critically ill patients. Moreover, many pediatric intensive care units are not equipped with dedicated water circuit. Peritoneal dialysis, a simple and inexpensive alternative, is the most widely available form of acute renal replacement therapy. However, its efficacy may be limited in critically ill patients. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy permits usually to reach a greater estimated dialysis dose, a better control of fluid balance, and additionally, to provide adequate nutrition. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Revision Total Hip Replacement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hafizur Rahman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. Conventional, primary total hip replacement is a durable operation in the majority of patients. A hip replacement is a mechanical device with parts that are assembled before and during the operation. But the possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, and its clinical performance over time, is a challenging occasion to the surgeons, and such a challenge we faced with our presenting patient. A 68 year old lady with history of cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty done in a tertiary care hospital, due to fracture neck of the left femur having the history of diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, anaemia, and mental disorders presented with loosened prosthesis, thinning of medial proximal cortex of the femur which had broken within few months after surgery. She complained of painful walking at left hip joint. There was also evidence of chronic infective and degenerative arthritis of acetabular component of the affected hip joint. Cemented revision total hip replacement surgery was performed with expert multidisciplinary involvement. On 2nd postoperative day the patient was allowed to walk on operated limb with the aid of walker. On 12th postoperative day all the stitches were removed and wound was found healthy.

  2. [Hormone replacement therapy: curse or blessing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Fink, D; Lang, U; Kimmig, R

    2006-01-01

    There is a controversial discussion on the risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and many women and doctors have revised their opinions of HRT over the last few years. Complementary and alternative therapies can be considered an option to treat menopausal symptoms. The following issue summarizes the actual knowledge of treatment options of menopausal symptoms.

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  4. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints.

  5. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio: pitfalls and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eHuysseune

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The canonical (β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1 in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement.The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts.

  6. 25 CFR 700.183 - Determination of replacement housing benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of replacement housing benefit. 700.183... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.183 Determination of replacement housing benefit. (a) Amount of benefit. The replacement housing benefit for a certified eligible head-of-household is...

  7. Development and optimization of new generation Start-Up Instrumentation systems (SUI) for domestic CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Elnara

    Due to the age and operating experience of Bruce Power units, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. The research objectives of this thesis will focus on methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objective of this thesis does not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Bruce Power will be identified in this project and a structured approach to developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU stations is proposed. Finally, benefits of Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for all stages of plant life management, such as system design, development, operation and maintenance are demonstrated. Keywords: Task Breakdown and Analysis methodology, installation/removal procedure development and optimization, risk-based analysis and optimization, Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for system maintenance and troubleshooting, Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), Ion Chambers, Fission Chambers, proportional counters, Shutdown System 1 (SDS1), Shutdown System 2 (SDS2).

  8. Head Start: A True Start to Getting Ahead: A Literature Review of the Head Start Program as a Primary Poverty Prevention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, LaPorsche C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Head Start Program plays a vital role in increasing the likelihood that under-privileged children will become academically successful in school, attend college, and become successful citizens. Yet, Head Start continuously struggles to retain its funding and is challenged in its goal of assisting low income children. A review of the literature on Head Start and related early childhood education longitudinal studies will attest to the importance of this program as a primary prevention strategy to reduce poverty, raise public awareness of its benefits, and support the efforts of its advocates to retain and expand its funding at local and federal levels.

  9. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  10. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; Pantophlet, A. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Hendriks, W. H.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy

  11. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on

  12. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; Pantophlet, A. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Hendriks, W. H.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy

  13. CONSERVATION AREA START-UPS: COMBINING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN S. WRIGHT; JEFF CANEEN; NATHAN ALEXANDER; ANDREW GOMEZ

    2010-01-01

    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  14. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimytri Siqueira; Alexandre Abizaid; Magaly Arrais J.; Eduardo Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common native valve disease, affecting up to 5% of the elderly population. Surgical aortic valve replacement reduces symptoms and improves survival, and is the definitive therapy in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. However, despite the good results of classic surgery, risk is markedly increased in elderly patients with co-morbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) allows implantation of a prosthetic heart valve within the diseased native aortic valve without the need for open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass, offering a new therapeutic option to elderly patients considered at high surgical risk or with contraindications to surgery. To date, several multicenter registries and a randomized trial have confirmed the safety and efficacy of TAVR in those patients. In this chapter, we review the background and clinical applications of TAVR in elderly patients.

  16. Mitochondrial replacement therapy in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes, such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST), or polar body (PBT) transfer, could prevent second-generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization.

  17. Nicotine replacement therapies: patient safety and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson SG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stuart G Ferguson1,2, Saul Shiffman3,4, Joseph G Gitchell51School of Pharmacy, 2Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 3Pinney Associates, 4University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Pinney Associates, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has become a central part of the treatment of nicotine dependence. However, NRT’s potential efficacy is limited to some extent by patient adherence and persistence. Here we review the relationship between NRT compliance and adherence, and overall treatment outcome. We then examine the factors that likely impact on treatment compliance and persistence, with a special focus on users’ perceptions of treatment safety and efficacy as possible mediators. Potential clinical strategies for improving suboptimal medication use are also discussed.Keywords: nicotine replacement therapy, compliance, safety

  18. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  19. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  20. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption. PMID:28179939

  1. Liver replacement for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Peters, Robert L.; Ashcavai, Mary; Redeker, Allan G.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl with advanced cirrhosis and severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency of the homozygous PiZZ phenotype was treated by orthotopic liver transplantation. After replacement of the liver with a homograft from a donor with the normal PiMM phenotype, the alpha1-antitrypsin concentration in the recipient’s serum rose to normal; it had the PiMM phenotype. Two and a third years later, chronic rejection necessitated retransplantation. Insertion of a homograft from a heterozygous PiMZ donar was followed by the identification of that phenotype in the recipient’s serum. Neither liver graft developed the alpha1-antitrypsin glycoprotein deposits seen with the deficiency state. These observations confirm that this hepatic- based inborn error metabolism is metabolically cured by liver replacement. PMID:320694

  2. Current practice in primary total hip replacement: results from the National Hip Replacement Outcome Project

    OpenAIRE

    Best, A. J.; Fender, D.; Harper, W. M.; McCaskie, A. W.; Oliver, K; Gregg, P J

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Study of Primary Hip Replacement Outcome, 402 consultant orthopaedic surgeons from three regions were contacted by postal questionnaire which covered all aspects of total hip replacement (THR). There was a 70% response rate of which 71 did not perform hip surgery, a further 33 refused to take part, leaving 181 valid responses. Preoperative assessment clinics were used by 89% of surgeons, but anaesthetists and rehabilitation services were rarely involved at this stage. ...

  3. Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charles Osterberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT is a widely used treatment for men with symptomatic hypogonadism. The benefits seen with TRT, such as increased libido and energy level, beneficial effects on bone density, strength and muscle as well as cardioprotective effects, have been well-documented. TRT is contraindicated in men with untreated prostate and breast cancer. Men on TRT should be monitored for side-effects such as polycythemia, peripheral edema, cardiac and hepatic dysfunction.

  4. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  5. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew McCullough

    2014-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supp...

  6. Current concepts in total femoral replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo BP; Klika, Alison K.; Higuera, Carlos A.; Barsoum, Wael K.; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20th century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing li...

  7. Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy in Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Don P; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and in age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST) or polar body (PBT) transfer could prevent second generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal d...

  8. Mineralogical correlation between primary and replacement dolomites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志诚; 杨守业; 陈智娜

    1997-01-01

    Primary dolostones occur in the Upper Sinian Dengying Formation. Based on mineralogieal study the indicators for correlation between the primary dolomites which are not influenced by the diagenesis and the replacement dolomites of different periods have been obtained. It is shown that the primary dolomites are characterized by crystal forms precipitated and deposited directly from sea water, stable and homogeneous distribution of Mg and Ca, ideal chemical composition, regular modulated microstructures, low positive δ13C and low negative δ18O.

  9. Drug Dosing During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A. Jill

    2008-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are used to manage fluid overload and/or renal failure. The continuous nature of the fluid and solute removal has less impact on hemodynamic variables in critically ill patients, making CRRT preferred over intermittent hemodialysis for some patients in the intensive care arena. The impact of CRRT on drug removal is variable depending on the CRRT modality, the ultrafiltrate and dialysate flow rates, the filter, and the patient's residual renal func...

  10. VH replacement in primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Amy; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Coffre, Maryaline; Hewitt, Susannah L; Jensen, Kari; Skok, Jane A; Rajewsky, Klaus; Koralov, Sergei B

    2015-02-01

    The genes encoding the variable (V) region of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) are assembled from V, D (diversity), and J (joining) elements through a RAG-mediated recombination process that relies on the recognition of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the individual elements. Secondary V(D)J rearrangement modifies the original Ig rearrangement if a nonproductive original joint is formed, as a response to inappropriate signaling from a self-reactive BCR, or as part of a stochastic mechanism to further diversify the Ig repertoire. VH replacement represents a RAG-mediated secondary rearrangement in which an upstream VH element recombines with a rearranged VHDHJH joint to generate a new BCR specificity. The rearrangement occurs between the cryptic RSS of the original VH element and the conventional RSS of the invading VH gene, leaving behind a footprint of up to five base pairs (bps) of the original VH gene that is often further obscured by exonuclease activity and N-nucleotide addition. We have previously demonstrated that VH replacement can efficiently rescue the development of B cells that have acquired two nonproductive heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements. Here we describe a novel knock-in mouse model in which the prerearranged IgH locus resembles an endogenously rearranged productive VHDHJH allele. Using this mouse model, we characterized the role of VH replacement in the diversification of the primary Ig repertoire through the modification of productive VHDHJH rearrangements. Our results indicate that VH replacement occurs before Ig light chain rearrangement and thus is not involved in the editing of self-reactive antibodies.

  11. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...

  12. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of...

  13. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  14. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  15. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  16. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many changes which have characterized the second demographic transition, shifts in fertility and union formation have attracted a great deal of interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to below-replacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens' "pure relationship" concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are morel likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  17. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H. [comp.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  18. Retention Benefit Based Intelligent Cache Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌达; 陆俊林; 程旭

    2014-01-01

    The performance loss resulting from different cache misses is variable in modern systems for two reasons: 1) memory access latency is not uniform, and 2) the latency toleration ability of processor cores varies across different misses. Compared with parallel misses and store misses, isolated fetch and load misses are more costly. The variation of cache miss penalty suggests that the cache replacement policy should take it into account. To that end, first, we propose the notion of retention benefit. Retention benefits can evaluate not only the increment of processor stall cycles on cache misses, but also the reduction of processor stall cycles due to cache hits. Then, we propose Retention Benefit Based Replacement (RBR) which aims to maximize the aggregate retention benefits of blocks reserved in the cache. RBR keeps track of the total retention benefit for each block in the cache, and it preferentially evicts the block with the minimum total retention benefit on replacement. The evaluation shows that RBR can improve cache performance significantly in both single-core and multi-core environment while requiring a low storage overhead. It also outperforms other state-of-the-art techniques.

  19. Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy A; Yun, Yueli

    2015-02-17

    Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary model for this kind of symbiosis is the association between the bacterium Buchnera and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A longstanding obstacle to efforts to illuminate genetic changes underlying obligate symbioses has been the inability to experimentally disrupt and reconstitute symbiont-host partnerships. Our experiments show that Buchnera can be experimentally transferred between aphid matrilines and, furthermore, that Buchnera replacement has a massive effect on host fitness. Using a recipient pea aphid matriline containing Buchnera that are heat sensitive because of an allele eliminating the heat shock response of a small chaperone, we reduced native Buchnera through heat exposure and introduced a genetically distinct Buchnera from another matriline, achieving complete replacement and stable inheritance. This transfer disrupted 100 million years (∼ 1 billion generations) of continuous maternal transmission of Buchnera in its host aphids. Furthermore, aphids with the Buchnera replacement enjoyed a dramatic increase in heat tolerance, directly demonstrating a strong effect of symbiont genotype on host ecology.

  20. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  2. Response Time Comparisons among Four Base Running Starting Techniques in Slow Pitch Softball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; Brown, Rodney L.

    1981-01-01

    Response times among four starting techniques (cross-over step, jab step, standing sprinter's start, and momentum start) were compared. The results suggest that the momentum start was the fastest starting technique for optimum speed in running bases. (FG)

  3. Ductal carcinoma In-Situ in turner syndrome patient undergoing hormone replacement therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Turner’s syndrome is a rare congenital disease which affects about 1 in every 2500-3000 live-born females. This happens due to chromosomal abnormalities in a phenotypic female, causing increased gonadotropin concentrations and low concentrations of estrogens from infancy. As a result, hormone replacement therapy is started in most adolescent Turner syndrome patients to initiate and sustain sexual maturation. Accordingly, most Turner’s syndrome patients undergo several decades of estrogen replacement therapy, from puberty to post-menopausal age. The highly publicized findings of the Women’s Health Initiative have called into question the appropriateness of hormone replacement therapy in adolescents with Turner’s syndrome. Those concerns were mostly theoretical extrapolations, as few prospective studies of cancer occurrence in women with Turner syndrome have been reported. Consequently, several recent publications have challenged those extrapolations, based on the assertion that the levels of hormone replacement in Turner syndrome patients are well below the physiologic levels observed in normal menstruating women, as well as the fact that these women are significantly younger than those studied by the Women’s Health Initiative. In discord to those reports, we present a case of ductal carcinoma in-situ in a 40-year-old Turner patient, who had undergone over two decades of combined hormone replacement therapy. The patient underwent an elective excisional biopsy for a palpable mass, with histopathology revealing a complex fibroadenoma with a nidus of ductal carcinoma in-situ. The lesion was noted to be estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor negative, with heavy staining for HER-2/Neu receptor. The patient was treated with tamoxifen. While a rare case, it is imperative for the astute clinician to keep in mind the consequences of long-term hormone replacement therapy in Turner’s syndrome patients in order to avoid missed

  4. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change to performance,…

  5. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  6. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... work, purchase of a site, site surveys or soil testing, site preparation, site excavation, construction... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Start of construction. 36.15 Section 36.15 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements § 36.15 Start of construction. The applicant may not begin construction of a new irradiator prior...

  7. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  8. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  9. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  10. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  11. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  12. Starting Time and School Life: Reflections from Educators and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Particia K; Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Bemis, Amy E.

    1999-01-01

    Using teacher surveys and focus groups, a University of Minnesota study examined the effects of changing school starting times on school operations at all levels and on the community. The least desirable start time was 9:40 a.m. at middle schools. Later schedules benefited high school students. No one schedule can accommodate everyone. (MLH)

  13. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  14. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  15. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  16. Numerical study of unsteady starting characteristics of a hypersonic inlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weixing; Guo Rongwei

    2013-01-01

    The impulse and self starting characteristics of a mixed-compression hypersonic inlet designed at Mach number of 6.5 are studied by applying the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the assumption of viscous perfect gas model,and the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω two-equation Reynolds averaged NavierStokes (RANS) model is used for turbulence modeling.Results indicate that during impulse starting,the flow field is divided into three zones with different aerodynamic parameters by primary shock and upstream-facing shock.The separation bubble on the shoulder of ramp undergoes a generating,growing,swallowing and disappearing process in sequence.But a separation bubble at the entrance of inlet exists until the freestream velocity is accelerated to the starting Mach number during self starting.The mass flux distribution of flow field is non-uniform because of the interaction between shock and boundary layer,so that the mass flow rate at throat is unsteady during impulse starting.The duration of impulse starting process increases almost linearly with the decrease of fleestream Mach number but rises abruptly when the freestream Mach number approaches the starting Mach number.The accelerating performance of booster almost has no influence on the self starting ability of hypersonic inlet.

  17. Early versus Late Start in Foreign Language Education: Documenting Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Rocio; Pessoa, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    This study compares 27 sixth grade students who have been learning Spanish since kindergarten with 5 who have had Spanish for only 1 year using a battery of Spanish oral and written tests. The students who started early out performed the new students in listening, speaking, and writing Spanish. Those who started early also displayed a positive…

  18. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  19. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  20. Economic evaluation of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis versus urgent-start hemodialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.

  1. Experimental replacement of aragonite by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasioptas, A.; Perdikouri, C.; Geisler, T.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of aragonite with (NH4)2HPO4 solution has been shown to produce hydroxyapatite (HAP) with an overall identical and thus pre-determined morphology (Kasioptas et al, 2008). The preservation of the morphology is an outcome of the pseudomorphic nature of this particular reaction. We have investigated the mechanism of the replacement of aragonite by HAP using single, natural, inorganic aragonite crystals. Isothermal experiments were carried out with small crystals placed and sealed in autoclaves with (NH4)2HPO4 solution. After the experiments the aragonite crystals are partly replaced by a new phase. X-ray powder diffraction confirmed that the product phase is indeed HAP; however electron microprobe measurements revealed that the HAP is probably non-stoichiometric. Even when completely converted to HAP, scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine-structure of the aragonite has perfectly been retained. It was also observed that the HAP product phase exhibited a high porosity and was separated from the aragonite parent phase by a sharp interface (on the micrometer scale). The replacement of aragonite by HAP in an aqueous solution can be described in terms of a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism that takes place at an inward moving reaction front (Putnis& Putnis, 2007). The porosity in the HAP product phase allows the solution to reach the reaction interface. In addition, we have performed experiments with (NH4)2HPO4 solutions prepared with H2O enriched with 97 at.% 18O. The solutions were pre-heated separately to equilibrate the oxygen isotopes in the solution. Raman spectroscopy of the HAP product was used to identify the different vibration modes in the PO43-molecule due to the exchange of 16O with 18O atoms. Apart from the main ?1(PO4) band located near 962 cm-1, we observed four new bands near 945, 931, 919 and 908 cm-1. We have attributed the generation of these new bands to four different degrees of 18O atomic substitutions in

  2. Lower limb joint replacement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nicholas D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There is limited literature regarding the peri-operative and surgical management of patients with rheumatoid disease undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. This review article summarises factors involved in the peri-operative management of major lower limb arthroplasty surgery for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We performed a search of the medical literature, using the PubMed search engine (http://www.pubmed.gov. We used the following terms: ‘rheumatoid’ ‘replacement’ ‘arthroplasty’ and ‘outcome’. Findings The patient should be optimised pre-operatively using a multidisciplinary approach. The continued use of methotrexate does not increase infection risk, and aids recovery. Biologic agents should be stopped pre-operatively due the increased infection rate. Patients should be made aware of the increased risk of infection and periprosthetic fracture rates associated with their disease. The surgical sequence is commonly hip, knee and then ankle. Cemented total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR have superior survival rates over uncemented components. The evidence is not clear regarding a cruciate sacrificing versus retaining in TKR, but a cruciate sacrificing component limits the risk early instability and potential revision. Patella resurfacing as part of a TKR is associated with improved outcomes. The results of total ankle replacement remain inferior to THR and TKR. RA patients achieve equivalent pain relief, but their rehabilitation is slower and their functional outcome is not as good. However, the key to managing these complicated patients is to work as part of a multidisciplinary team to optimise their outcome.

  3. Mactaquac intake tendons removal and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I. [NB Power Generation Corp., Mactaquac Generating Station, Keswick Ridge, NB (Canada); Mee, A. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In 1988 and 1989, multi-strand tendons were installed in the intake structure of the Mactaquac generating station. In order to control displacements caused by alkali aggregate reaction (AAR), they were installed in preparation for a slot cutting program in the intake structure to guard against the possibility of a sliding failure of a section of the structure along a plane coincident with the bottom of the water passage. Unique problems for the designers were present in the expansion affect of AAR that were compounded by field conditions that resulted in further difficulties. For example, concrete expansion required the installation of a thick shim pack under the upper anchor head and the periodic testing of the tendons. Once tested, shims could be gradually removed to maintain the correct load over the life of the tendon. However, during the first round of testing and de-stressing five years after the original installation, it was found that some of the tendons had already failed. Over half of the tendons have been replaced in the 20 years since the installation. This paper discussed the original design considerations and examined the conditions that contributed to the premature failure of the tendons. It outlined the history of tendon testing procedures, tendon failure modes and tendon replacement methods. Specifically, the paper discussed the remedial techniques that were employed and the iterations that lead to the current repair approach, while considering the unique field conditions. The application of various corrosion protection schemes and installation and testing methodologies were discussed. It was concluded that tendons were successfully installed in numerous concrete dams around the world but have needed replacement for a variety of reasons. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  4. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  5. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  6. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy for Primary Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriaroon, Panida; Ballow, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin replacement therapy has been standard treatment in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases for the past 3 decades. The goal of therapy is to reduce serious bacterial infections in individuals with antibody function defects. Approximately one-third of patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin treatment experience adverse reactions. Recent advances in manufacturing processes have resulted in products that are safer and better tolerated. Self-infusion by the subcutaneous route has become popular and resulted in better quality of life. This review summarizes the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases including its properties, dosing, adverse effects, and different routes of administration.

  7. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  8. To learn more about BHT replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the article 'An improved financial tool to replace BHT' which appeared in Bulletin No 41/2002, dates of 4 general presentations were published. Please note that the time of the first presentation has changed from 16.00 hrs to 14.00 hrs. The dates/times are now as follows: Wednesday 16 October 14.00 hrs* IT Auditorium (English) *note change of time. Friday 18 October 16.00 hrs, SL Auditorium (French) Monday 21 October 10.00 hrs, LHC Auditorium (French) Wednesday 23 October 10.00 hrs, Council Chamber (English)

  9. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenzhao; Jayaraman, Sahana; Zhang, Bochao; Schwartz, Gregory W; Daber, Robert D; Hershberg, Uri; Garfall, Alfred L; Carlson, Christopher S; Luning Prak, Eline T

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement (VHR) is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH) invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ). In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VHR, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VHR versus other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, and include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VHR.

  10. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning; S�ndergaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may...... be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully...

  11. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  12. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent studies, this paper examines whether an increased use of electronic stability control can replace studded tyres. A re-analysis of a study that evaluated the effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway is presented. It is found that if all cars have electronic stability control, the use of studded tyres can be reduced to about 15 percent before any increase in the number of accidents occurs. Even if studded tyres were eliminated entirely, any increase in the number of accidents is likely to be considerably smaller than it would have been if electronic stability control had never been invented.

  13. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  14. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  15. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Heleen van den

    2015-01-01

    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  16. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Heleen van den

    2015-01-01

    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  17. The Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills. FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen; Taylor, Karen; Maxwell, Kelly

    Helping families access affordable, quality child care has been the primary focus for the Orange County, North Carolina Smart Start Partnership for Young Children. This study investigated the effects of Smart Start efforts on children's skills at kindergarten entry. Kindergarten teachers rated the cognitive, language and social skills of 39…

  18. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The use of limestone powder as an alternative cement replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of limestone powder as an alternative cement replacement material: An ... The laboratory test results revealed that up to 15% replacement of clinker by fine ... Early strength, Limestone filler, Loss on ignition, Portland limestone cement ...

  20. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  1. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Charvin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop, rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation.

  2. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  3. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device replacement infections and prevention: results from the REPLACE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Daniel Z; Gleva, Marye J; Warren, David K; Mela, Theofanie; Chung, Mina K; Gottipaty, Venkateshwar; Borge, Richard; Dan, Dan; Shinn, Timothy; Mitchell, Kevin; Holcomb, Richard G; Poole, Jeanne E

    2012-01-01

    Infection following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) replacement is a serious complication, and rates of infection have increased. Analysis of procedural and clinical data from device replacement procedures collected by the REPLACE Registry may provide insights into infection prevention strategies and outcomes. We prospectively evaluated procedural complications in patients undergoing CIED replacement over 6 months from 72 U.S. sites. Major and minor infections were predefined and adjudicated by an independent blinded clinical events committee. Data regarding infection prevention strategies and infectious outcomes were analyzed for their potential relationships. A total of 1,744 patients were included in REPLACE. All patients received preoperative intravenous antibiotics and 68.7% received postoperative systemic antibiotic therapy. CIED infection developed in 22 patients (1.3%), of which 14 cases were major (0.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4%-1.3%) and eight were minor (0.5%, 95% CI 0.2%-0.9%). Patients with infections were more likely to have had postoperative hematomas (five of 22 [22.7%] vs 17 of 1,722 [0.98%], P = 0.002). Participating sites experiencing infection rates >5% were more likely to use povidone-iodine for topical antisepsis, had lower implantation volume, and had patients with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.79 vs 2.32, 95% CI for difference 0.08-0.86, P = 0.019). In this multicenter prospective study with 6 months of follow-up, infections associated with CIED replacements were surprisingly infrequent, possibly due to the use of preoperative antibiotics. Patients with infections were more likely to have had a postoperative hematoma, and sites with higher infection rates had sicker patients and lower overall procedural volume. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  5. Testosterone replacement therapy in obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewa, Tomasz; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Chlosta, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Controversy surrounds testosterone replacement therapy in obese ageing due to no generally accepted lower limits of normal testosterone level and high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the ageing male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Late onset hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age, often coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome. High fat and carbohydrates (fructose) consumption is responsible for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome which is one of risk factors for hypogonadism in older men. High fructose intake has been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Obesity and lack of physical activity negatively influence testosterone level. Low testosterone level should be regarded as an effect of obesity, but reverse relationship has not been proved yet. The management of late-onset hypogonadism symptoms has to be treated by a change of a life style and prevented with healthy nutrition and physical activity. The question related to rational indications for testosterone replacement therapy in obese males seems to be still actual.

  6. An improved financial tool to replace BHT

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In November, the BHT tool used to control financial data will be replaced by an improved and more powerful system, called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. The team in charge of CET. From left to right, sitting, Martyn Rankin, David McGlashan, standing, Per Gunnar Jonsson, James Purvis and Mikael Angberg. After 10 years of BHT at CERN, in order to face the challenges of the LHC era, and following the recommendations of the External Review Committee, the BHT application will be replaced by an improved and more powerful expenditure tracking tool called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. For those who are not familiar with it, the BHT, Budget Holders Toolkit, is a utility that provides a way to view CERN financial data. It is available for users who have access to at least one budget code. The new CET represents a tool that not only allows powerful analysis of the past, but also assists in forecasting the future. CET will offer significantly more functionality than BHT, including extended contract analysis, ...

  7. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  8. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84 as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34 have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  9. Concomitant aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881

  10. BABAR IFR Replacement R and D

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, M

    2003-01-01

    The Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of the BaBar detector will soon need to be replaced by a more robust muon detection system. Scintillator bars with embedded Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers and Limited Streamer Tubes are two replacement technology options. The scintillator bars are tested for attenuation length; and causes for the large width of the Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) signal are analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. Cooling techniques for Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are investigated. The fairly high attenuation length coupled with the narrow PMT signal make the scintillator a viable option for a muon detecting system. Continuing work will focus on increasing timing resolution using an APD to read the signal from the WLS fibers, and investigating the lifetime of the APD. The ability to read a signal from the LST on external copper strips is tested and signals are found to be clearly distinguishable from noise. The voltage is compared to count rate to find that the optimal operating voltage for the LS...

  11. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1999-04-01

    Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important.

  12. Neutron scattering at Australia's replacement research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Kennedy, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    On August 25 1999, the Australian government gave final approval to build a research reactor to replace the existing HIFAR reactor at Lucas Heights. The replacement reactor, which will commence operation in 2005, will be multipurpose in function, with capabilities for both neutron-beam research and radioisotope production. Regarding beams, cold and thermal neutron sources are to be installed and the intent is to use supermirror guides, with coatings with critical angles up to 3 times that of natural Ni, to transport cold and thermal neutron beams into a large modern guide hall. The reactor and all the associated infrastructure, with the exception of the neutron beam instruments, is to be built by INVAP, SE and subcontractors in a turnkey contract. The goal is to have at least eight leading-edge neutron-beam instruments ready in 2005, and they will be developed by ANSTO and other contracted organisations, in consultation with the Australian user community and interested overseas parties. A review of the planned scientific capabilities, a description of the facility and a status report on the activities so far is given.

  13. Postoperative Autologous Reinfusion in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Crescibene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgeries for total knee replacement (TKR are increasing and in this context there is a need to develop new protocols for management and use of blood transfusion therapy. Autologous blood reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and the aim of the present study was to verify the safety and the clinical efficacy. An observational retrospective study has been conducted on 124 patients, undergoing cemented total knee prosthesis replacement. Observed population was stratified into two groups: the first group received reinfusion of autologous blood collected in the postoperative surgery and the second group did not receive autologous blood reinfusion. Analysis of data shows that patients undergoing autologous blood reinfusion received less homologous blood bags (10.6% versus 30%; p=0.08 and reduced days of hospitalization (7.88 ± 0.7 days versus 8.96 ± 2.47 days for the control group; p=0.03. Microbiological tests were negative in all postoperatively salvaged and reinfused units. Our results emphasize the effectiveness of this procedure and have the characteristics of simplicity, low cost (€97.53 versus €103.79; p<0.01, and easy reproducibility. Use of autologous drainage system postoperatively is a procedure that allows reducing transfusion of homologous blood bags in patients undergoing TKR.

  14. Recombinant Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christine; Jakob, Franz; Seefried, Lothar; Mentrup, Birgit; Graser, Stephanie; Plotkin, Horacio; Girschick, Hermann J; Liese, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare monogenetic and multisystemic disease with involvement of different organs, including bone, muscle, kidney, lung, gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. The exact metabolic mechanisms of the effects of TNAP deficiency in different tissues are not understood in detail. There is no approved specific treatment for HPP; therefore symptomatic treatment in order to improve the clinical features is of major interest. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a relatively new type of treatment based on the principle of administering a medical treatment replacing a defective or absent enzyme. Recently ERT with a bone targeted recombinant human TNAP molecule has been reported to be efficient in ten severely affected patients and improved survival of life threatening forms. These results are very promising especially with regard to the skeletal phenotype but it is unclear whether ERT also has beneficial effects for craniosynostosis and in other affected tissues in HPP such as brain and kidney. Long-term data are not yet available and further systematic clinical trials are needed. It is also necessary to establish therapeutic approaches to help patients who are affected by less severe forms of HPP but also suffer from a significant reduction in quality of life. Further basic research on TNAP function and role in different tissues and on its physiological substrates is critical to gain a better insight in the pathogenesis in HPP. This and further experiences in new therapeutic strategies may improve the prognosis and quality of life of patients with all forms of HPP.

  15. Improving NPT safeguards. Particularly at the natural uranium starting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Klerk, P. de [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-03-01

    According to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) all nuclear material is subject to safeguards, but according to INFCIRC/153 the full range of safeguards is only applied beyond the `starting point of safeguards`, that is: The point at which nuclear material has reached a composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or enrichment. This paper addresses the two questions: (a) is the starting point adequately defined, and (b) what mesures could be applied to nuclear material before the starting point? Those questions have been asked before, some of the answers in this paper are new. (orig.).

  16. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58–14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70–12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumen...

  17. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...... demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge...

  18. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  19. A new highly segmented start counter for the CLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabian, Y.G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Battaglieri, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Burkert, V.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); DeVita, R. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Elouadrhiri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Guo, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kubarovsky, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Mutchler, G.S. [T.W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houton, TX 77251-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: mutchler@rice.edu; Ostrick, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ripani, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rottura, A. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Pasyuk, E. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States); Weygand, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a highly segmented Start Counter are described. The Start Counter is an integral part of the trigger used in photon beam running with CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The Start Counter is constructed of 24 2.2-mm-thick single-ended scintillation paddles, forming a hermetic hexagon around the target region. This device measures the interaction time of the incoming photon in the target by detecting the outgoing particles. The counter provides complex trigger topologies, shows good efficiency and achieved a time resolution of 350 ps.

  20. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3450 - Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3450 Section 874.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... replacement prosthesis. (a) Identification. A partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is a device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3495 - Total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3495 Section 874.3495 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... replacement prosthesis. (a) Identification. A total ossicular replacement prosthesis is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material. (a) Identification. A pacemaker repair or replacement material is an...

  5. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  6. The influence of solution composition and grain boundaries on the replacement of calcite by dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraila Martinez, Teresita de Jesus; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Dolomite formation is a mineral replacement reaction that affects extensive rock volumes and comprises a large fraction of oil and gas reservoirs [1,2]. The most accepted hypothesis is the 'dolomitization' of limestone by Mg-rich fluids [3]. The objective of this research is to study the replacement mechanism of calcite by dolomite, the role of grain boundaries, highlighted by Etschmann et al. (2014), and the possible influence of solutions in dolomite formation under the presence of ions that are normally in crustal aqueous fluids. To accomplish this purpose, we performed hydrothermal experiments using Carrara marble cubes of ~1.5 mm size and 7-9 mg weight as starting material, reacted with 1M (Mg,Ca)Cl2 aqueous solutions, with Mg/Ca ratios of 3 and 5 at 200°C, for different reaction times. Additional experiments were performed adding 1mM of Na2SO4, NaCl or NaF to the previous solutions. After the reaction, the product phases were identified using Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and the textural evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples reacted with aqueous solutions resulted in the replacements of the calcite rock into magnesite and dolomite. The amount and type of reaction strongly depends on the Mg/Ca ratio. Samples reacted with a Mg/Ca ratio of 5 resulted in an almost complete replacement reaction and more favorable for magnesite formation than for dolomite. When the Mg/Ca ratio was 3 dolomite formed but the replacement was located in the core of the sample. We show that grain boundaries are very important for the infiltration of solution and the progress of a replacement reaction, acting as fluid pathways. Solution composition controls the nature of the replacement product. Acknowledgment: This work is funded within a Marie Curie EU Initial Training Network- CO2-React. 1. Etschmann B., Brugger J., Pearce M.A., Ta C., Brautigan D., Jung M., Pring A. (2014). Grain boundaries as

  7. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical Surface with Variable Viscosity Fluid in the Presence of Viscous Dissipation: BSRM Approach.

  8. A demonstration project for smart grid started in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On April 7, the construction of 110-kV Hechanglu intelligent substation in Tianjin Binhai New Area was started, inaugurating the comprehensive demonstration project for smart grid in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City.

  9. CERN confirms goal of 2007 start-up for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Speaking at the 131st session of CERN Council on 17 December 2004, the Director-General, Robert Aymar, confirmed that the top priority is to maintain the goal of starting up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007.

  10. Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And Recapitalization Needs: Farmers ... be considered for more loans whenever they meet up with the conditions for such new contracts.

  11. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  12. Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164133.html Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days Prescribing ... less may help patients avoid the dangers of dependence and addiction, a new study suggests. Among patients ...

  13. Low Starting Electron Beam Current in Degenerate Band Edge Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohamed A K; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new principle of operation in vacuum electron-beam-based oscillators that leads to a low beam current for starting oscillations. The principle is based on super synchronous operation of an electron beam interacting with four degenerate electromagnetic modes in a slow-wave structure (SWS). The four mode super synchronous regime is associated with a very special degeneracy condition in the dispersion diagram of a cold periodic SWS called degenerate band edge (DBE). This regime features a giant group delay in the finitelength SWS and low starting-oscillation beam current. The starting beam current is at least an order of magnitude smaller compared to a conventional backward wave oscillator (BWO) of the same length. As a representative example we consider a SWS conceived by a periodically-loaded metallic waveguide supporting a DBE, and investigate starting-oscillation conditions using Pierce theory generalized to coupled transmission lines (CTL). The proposed super synchronism regime can be straightf...

  14. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  15. Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet provides information on demographics, state allocations, program statistics, and program enrollment history.

  16. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms...

  17. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient ou...

  18. OPTIMAL STARTING PRICE FOR EBAY-LIKE ONLINE AUCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai YU; Shouyang WANG; Chuangyin DANG

    2006-01-01

    Reserve price auctions are one of hot research issues in traditional auction theory. Here we study the starting price in an online auction, the counterpart of the public reserve price in a traditional auction. By considering three features of eBay-like online auctions: stochastic entry of bidders (subject to Poisson process), insertion fee proportional to the starting price, and time discount, we have analyzed the properties of extremum points of the starting price for maximizing the seller's expected revenue,and found that, under certain conditions, the optimal starting price should be at the lowest allowable level, which is contrary to the results from the classic auction theory and finds its optimality in reality.We have also developed a general extended model of multistage auctions and carried out analysis on its properties. At last, some directions for further research are also put forward.

  19. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always ... turns into a strong addiction—well before the age of 18—that can overpower the most well- ...

  20. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  1. Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163021.html Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start New technology ... 12, 2017 THURSDAY, Jan. 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wearable sensors to track things such as heart rate, activity ...

  2. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment What to Start: Choosing an HIV Regimen (Last updated 2/24/2016; last reviewed 2/24/ ... of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with ...

  3. Spring 
start-up for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new schedule for the commissioning of the LHC was presented to the Council at its Session in June. The start-up of the accelerator is scheduled for May 2008, to allow all technical problems to be resolved.

  4. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  5. Optimising Start-Up of a Crankshaft Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Skladchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to decrease energy consumption as well as acceleration and heat time of the engine of main drive crankshaft press when starting it up. Modern crankshaft press designs include a flywheel connected to the engine by a belt drive. The flywheel performing a process operation spends the reserved kinetic energy. By virtue thereof it should possess the significant moment of inertia. It defines duration of acceleration process. High starting currents of engines lead to their vigorous heating and energy consumption at acceleration.The literature describes the way for eliminating these shortcomings, which is confined to the start-up of the asynchronous engine with a phase rotor when the circuit of each rotor phase includes an additional stepped resistance. However, there are no proved recommendations to specified resistance values and duration of engine acceleration at each step.Research used mathematical modeling and process optimization of three-stage acceleration of engine possessing a flywheel with the following optimization criteria: energy consumption at start-up, an equivalent (heating current of engine, acceleration time. Values of additional resistance and start-up time at each step are chosen to be parameters of optimization.Obtained results show, that optimization of drive start-up allows us to reduce time of acceleration from 27.3s up to 11.24s, energy consumption from 4405930 Joule up to 2538400 Joule, and an equivalent (heating current from 60.34 up to 14.01 А.As a result of research it is found, that a preferable start-up is the press drive start-up in modes with optimum time of flywheel acceleration and an optimum equivalent current, as the most efficient according to all optimization criteria.

  6. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.;

    2002-01-01

    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  7. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristin

    2009-07-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  8. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  9. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  10. Subsidizing Start-Ups: Policy Targeting and Policy Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kösters, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Start-up subsidies are a frequently employed policy instrument, the use of which is justified by alleged market failure resulting from positive external effects and capital market imperfections. This article investigates whether the allocation of subsidies reflects a policy focus on addressing these market failure occurrences. However, using survey data from the East German state of Thuringia, logistic regressions reveal a rather random subsidization of start-ups. Furthermore, propensity scor...

  11. Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    A model of start-up finance with double moral hazard is proposed. Entrepreneurs have ideas but lack their own resources as well as commercial experience. Venture capitalists provide start-up finance and managerial support. Both types of agents thus jointly contribute to the firm's success, but neither type's effort is verifiable. We find that the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capital support. In this situation, the capital gains tax is particularly harmful. Th...

  12. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Darnihamedani, Pourya; Block, Jörn; Hessels, Jolanda; Simonyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off costs, may reduce the entry of entrepreneurs whose ideas are not very promising, thus increasing the proportion of innovative entrepreneurs. Taxes, being recurring costs, may reduce the “prize” of innov...

  13. Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Shin, Sujung; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2014-04-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome.

  14. The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesus Karla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ~5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances

  15. A Novel method of Starting Induction Motor - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Chakrasali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphase induction motor, when started from rest with full voltage impressed, the starting current is 5 to 8 or more times the rated current. The large line current drawn by such a motor is objectionable because of the possible sharp drop in voltage of the supply circuit and undesired effects upon other connected loads/devices. Accordingly it is customary to start such motors at reduced voltage by using auto transformers, star delta starters etc. This paper deals with a new approach to start poly phase induction motors without using any primary voltage compensators thereby limiting the inrush of starting current. The rotor of the motor is driven at suitable speed in the specified direction of rotation by using crank driving mechanism. Then te rated voltage is applied to the motor. This is enunciated using a case study on a 3- phase, 5hp, NGEF make motor with oscillographic records obtained from the experimentation and is compared with the various starting techniques. Keywords: Induction motor, starter, inrush current, voltage dip, new approach

  16. Learning relay start strategies in swimming: What feedback is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Braun, Claudia; Kibele, Armin

    2017-04-01

    In the past, studies and book recommendations on relay starts in swimming have been predominantly focused on the change-over time (COT) as a performance criterion. Aside from the circular backswing start with parallel foot placement, few studies have analysed differences in the take-off movement including step approaches as well. Although trends could be identified, the results remained still somewhat inconclusive. In contrast, no study has examined as has examined whether a reduction of COT in between wall contact of the income swimmer and the take-off of the outgoing swimmer is an optimal relay start strategy, as advocated by various swimming experts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare two different relay start strategies: offensive strategy minimizing COT and conservative strategy to maximize horizontal peak force (HPF). In this regard, a learning intervention with 24 elite-level swimmers (12 females, 12 male) was conducted to compare both strategies regarding relay start time, HPF and COT. Subjects were randomly assigned to two feedback groups: COT versus HPF at take-off. The results of this study showed a clear advantage for HPF feedback for relay start performance measured by wall contact of the incoming swimmer and head passage at 7.5 m of the outgoing swimmer. In addition, similar reductions in COTs were found in both training groups. In conclusion, swimmers should focus on force production rather than minimizing COT. For the latter, deteriorating consequences for force production must be considered.

  17. Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Stefan; Hoffmann, Marian; Kurz, Gunther; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Haertel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjects' hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.

  18. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-09-01

    No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early following first psychiatric contact or a single manic/mixed episode is associated with increased probability of lithium response. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  19. A biomechanical analysis of four sprint start positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schot, P K; Knutzen, K M

    1992-06-01

    The sprint starts of 12 skilled collegiate sprinter/hurdlers were filmed for four different sprint start conditions. Ground reaction forces were collected for the first step out of the blocks and velocities through a 2-m speed trap immediately following the first support phase were recorded. The subjects employed their preferred right-left leg placement in the blocks, while the anterior-posterior spacing of the front block with respect to the starting line and the amount of forward lean in the set position were varied. Four positions were constructed that accounted for anthropometric differences. The four positions consisted of combinations of two arm orientations (forward lean and perpendicular to ground) and two front block to starting line distances (bunched and elongated). Kinematic data were reduced to provide center of mass position and velocity measures and analyzed for critical periods throughout the starting action. Selected critical events from the first step kinetic records were also analyzed. The results indicated that the elongated starting positions resulted in greater horizontal displacement, greater propelling impulse, increased first step toe-off velocity, and greater average velocity through a 2-m speed trap. Arm orientation effects were less well defined. Forward lean tended to result in greater vertical velocity at block clearance and horizontal velocity at first step toe-off, whereas perpendicular arm positioning resulted in greater 2-m speed trap velocity.

  20. Revision of the aseptic and septic total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Norman; Wirth, Stephan Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Total ankle replacement has become a popular treatment of symptomatic end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Contemporary total ankle replacement systems provide more anatomic and biomechanically sound function. However, longevity is still limited and long-term results of modern total ankle replacement designs are not available. In the case of failure, conversion into arthrodesis has remained the treatment of choice but at the cost of hindfoot function and potential degeneration of the adjacent joints. Thus, revision total ankle replacement by exchange of the prosthetic components represents an attractive solution. This article focuses on revision total ankle replacement and conversion to ankle arthrodesis.

  1. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  2. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found......Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  3. [Interventional mitral valve replacement. Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, G; Frank, D

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 30 % of patients suffering from severe valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve regurgitation are non-compliant to the gold standard of minimally invasive surgery, reconstruction or valve replacement. The number of these mostly old patients with severe comorbidities is increasing; therefore, transcatheter interventions have been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to the reference standard. Apart from the successful MitraClip therapy, alternative transcatheter reconstruction technologies are being developed. As with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures, the off-pump implantation of a valved stent into the mitral position mainly via a transapical approach will be of great benefit. Recently, the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valved stent implantation in high-risk patients has already been reported.

  4. Strategies for Revision Total Ankle Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Roukis, DPM, PhD, FACFAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the frequency of primary total ankle replacement (TAR continues to build, revision will become more commonplace. At present there are no “standard principles” associated with revision TAR. What is clear is that the current approaches are technically complex, fraught with complications and no one approach represents the only answer. Exchange of TAR metallic components to the same system standard or dedicated revision components are viable options with limited occurrence of complications. Explantation and conversion to custom-design long stemmed components has limited availability. Explantation and conversion to another TAR system is high-risk and has strong potential for complications. The use of metal reinforced polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation of failed TAR systems and tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis should be reserved for very select situations where other options are not possible. There is a real need for long-term survivorship following revision TAR and future efforts ought to be directed in this area.

  5. The cost of standing strong for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katy

    2015-03-01

    The testimonies of these individuals largely speak for themselves. The responses point to the importance of specific institutions or research groups that focus on the development and use of alternatives, and these should, of course, be better supported. Those who find themselves outside such institutions or teams, are more likely to feel stranded and isolated. Then again, Liz did have the support of a research group dedicated to replacement, but she has still had a significant struggle to find funding. The interviews with some of these particular young researchers indeed pointed toward a tangible ‘cost’ in terms of having to steer their career on the often difficult path toward the use of non-animal based methods.

  6. Stationary populations with below-replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schmertmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A population with sustained below-replacement fertility and constant immigration eventually becomes stationary. Stationary-through-immigration (SI populations have unusual age structures that depend on the distribution of immigrants' arrival ages. OBJECTIVE I summarize known formal relationships between the distribution of immigrants' entry ages and the long-run size and structure of SI populations. I clarify a previously published result about SI dependency ratios. RESULTS The long-run size and age structure of an SI population depend on the remaining life expectancies of arriving immigrants, but are also sensitive to the expected numbers of native children born after arrival. Numerical calculations with contemporary Austrian data show (1 contrary to previously published results, immigration flows need not be concentrated in early working ages in order to ensure low overall dependency, and (2 the SI dependency ratio is minimized when all immigrants are in their mid-30s.

  7. Replacement collision sequence studies in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, M; Becquart, C S

    2002-01-01

    The properties of replacement collision sequences (RCS) in iron and their contribution to radiation damage are studied as they are generated in atomic collision cascades with the binary collision approximation Marlowe. Length distributions of RCS in collision cascades generated by primaries with a couple of ten keV kinetic energies are predicted short. Whatever the interatomic potential employed, at least 90% of the generated RCS have a length of no more than three successive collisions, whatever the directions. This property was found for all the known phases of iron at standard pressure (bcc and fcc). The RCS length distributions are not significantly influenced by the temperature nor by the accurate form of the model describing the energy loss in RCS. Close to 50% of the stable Frenkel pairs (FP) created result from RCS that are shorter than the vacancy-interstitial recombination distance estimated on the basis of molecular dynamics calculations. The other half results from longer RCS (about five successiv...

  8. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  9. The Research of Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhua; Qiang Shenb

    2008-01-01

    Cervical arthroplasty after anterior decompression with insertion of a prosthetic total disc replacement has been suggested as an alternate to anterior cervical fusion. It develops quickly during recent years. Currently there are several cervical arthroplasty devices. Each device varies in terms of materials, range of motion and constraint. Early studies suggest that in the short term, the complication rate and efficacy is no worse than fusion surgery. Long-term results have not yet been reported. This review examines the current prostheses as well as discussing issues regarding indications and technique. It is hoped that an improvement of cervical arthroplasty occurs in terms of materials and design as spinal surgeons enter a new dines of the management of cervical spine disease.

  10. Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2014-12-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment.

  11. Renal Replacement Therapy in Austere Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobinuric renal failure is the classically described acute renal event occurring in disaster environments—commonly after an earthquake—which most tests the ingenuity and flexibility of local and regional nephrology resources. In recent decades, several nephrology organizations have developed response teams and planning protocols to address disaster events, largely focusing on patients at risk for, or with, acute kidney injury (AKI. In this paper we briefly review the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with dialysis-requiring AKI after such events, while providing greater focus on the management of the end-stage renal disease population after a disaster which incapacitates a pre-existing nephrologic infrastructure (if it existed at all. “Austere” dialysis, as such, is defined as the provision of renal replacement therapy in any setting in which traditional, first-world therapies and resources are limited, incapacitated, or nonexistent.

  12. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Borst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Borst, Thomas MulliganGeriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy.Keywords: aging, testosterone, hypogonadism, physical function

  13. Renal replacement therapy in Korea, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chan Jin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN launched the official end-stage renal disease (ESRD patient registry in 1985, and an Internet online registry program was opened in 2001 and revised in 2013. The ESRD Registry Committee of KSN has collected data on dialysis therapy in Korea through the online registry program in the KSN Internet website. The status of renal replacement therapy in Korea at the end of 2012 is described in the following. The total number of ESRD patients was 70,211 at the end of 2012, which included 48,531 hemodialysis (HD patients, 7,552 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients, and 14,128 functioning kidney transplant (KT patients. The prevalence of ESRD was 1,353.3 patients per million population (PMP, and the distribution of renal replacement therapy among ESRD patients was as follows: HD, 69.1%; PD, 10.8%; and KT, 20.2%. The number of new ESRD patients in 2012 was 11,742 (HD, 8,811; PD, 923; and KT, 1,738; the incidence rate was 221.1 PMP. The primary causes of ESRD were diabetic nephropathy (50.6%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis (18.5%, and chronic glomerulonephritis (18.1%. The mean urea reduction ratio was 67.9% in male and 74.1% in female HD patients. The mean Kt/V was 1.382 in male and 1.652 in female HD patients. The 5-year survival rates of male and female dialysis patients were 70.6% and 73.5%, respectively.

  14. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  15. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Siordia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR is a novel therapeutic intervention for the replacement of severely stenotic aortic valves in high-risk patients for standard surgical procedures. Since the initial PARTNER trial results, use of TAVR has been on the rise each year. New delivery methods and different valves have been developed and modified in order to promote the minimally invasive procedure and reduce common complications, such as stroke. This review article focuses on the current data on the indications, risks, benefits, and future directions of TAVR. Recently, TAVR has been considered as a standard-of-care procedure. While this technique is used frequently in high-risk surgical candidates, studies have been focusing on the application of this method for younger patients with lower surgical risk. Moreover, several studies have proposed promising results regarding the use of valve-in-valve technique or the procedure in which the valve is placed within a previously implemented bioprosthetic valve. However, ischemic strokes and paravalvular leak remain a matter of debate in these surgeries. New methods and devices have been developed to reduce the incidence of post-procedural stroke. While the third generation of TAVR valves (i.e., Edwards Sapien 3 and Medtronic Evolut R addresses the issue of paravalvular leak structurally, results on their efficacy in reducing the risk of paravalvular leak are yet to be obtained. Furthermore, TAVR enters the field of hybrid methods in the treatment of cardiac issues via both surgical and catheter-based approaches. Finally, while TAVR is primarily performed on cases with aortic stenosis, new valves and methods have been proposed regarding the application of this technique in aortic regurgitation, as well as other aortic pathologies. TAVR is a suitable therapeutic approach for the treatment of aortic stenosis in high-risk patients. Considering the promising results in the current patient population

  16. Human protein C: new preparations. Effective replacement therapy for some clotting disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    (1) Depending on its severity, congenital protein C deficiency can cause a variety of problems, such as increasing the frequency of venous thrombosis in high risk situations; recurrent venous thrombosis; skin necrosis at the start of treatment with a vitamin K antagonist; and severe thrombotic events in neonates. For many years the only available replacement treatment consisted of fresh frozen plasma which, among other adverse effects, carries a risk of hypervolemia. (2) Two human protein C concentrates prepared from donated blood have been given marketing authorisation in Europe for intravenous replacement therapy (Ceprotin from Baxter, and Protexel from LFB). (3) Their clinical files contain only retrospective case series (22 children with severe deficiency treated with Ceprotin; and 10 patients of various ages and with different degrees of severity treated with Protexel). The two preparations have not been compared with each other. (4) In patients with severe protein C deficiency, including neonates, replacement therapy with human protein C is effective, especially for treating cutaneous thrombosis and preventing thrombosis in high risk situations. (5) In patients with moderate deficiency, a short-course of human protein C prophylaxis reduces the frequency of thrombosis in high risk situations. (6) In long-term prophylaxis, human protein C replacement therapy, added to ongoing (but inadequately effective) vitamin K antagonist therapy, seems to reduce the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis even though it has some constraints. (7) The adverse effects of the two preparations are poorly documented. Allergic reactions and bleeding have been reported. Human protein C is a blood product, and therefore carries a risk of infection. (8) Ceprotin offers a small advantage, being available in two dose strengths: for a given dose the volume injected is halved. (9) In practice, Ceprotin and Protexel are the reference drugs for replacement therapy of constitutional protein C

  17. Urban chaos and replacement dynamics in nature and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-11-01

    Replacements resulting from competition are ubiquitous phenomena in both nature and society. The evolution of a self-organized system is always a physical process substituting one type of components for another type of components. A logistic model of replacement dynamics has been proposed in terms of technical innovation and urbanization, but it fails to arouse widespread attention in the academia. This paper is devoted to laying the foundations of general replacement principle by using analogy and induction. The empirical base of this study is urban replacement, including urbanization and urban growth. The sigmoid functions can be employed to model various processes of replacement. Many mathematical methods such as allometric scaling and head/tail breaks can be applied to analyzing the processes and patterns of replacement. Among varied sigmoid functions, the logistic function is the basic and the simplest model of replacement dynamics. A new finding is that replacement can be associated with chaos in a nonlinear system, e.g., urban chaos is just a part of replacement dynamics. The aim of developing replacement theory is at understanding complex interaction and conversion. This theory provides a new way of looking at urbanization, technological innovation and diffusion, Volterra-Lotka’s predator-prey interaction, man-land relation, and dynastic changes resulting from peasant uprising, and all that. Especially, the periodic oscillations and chaos of replacement dynamics can be used to explain and predict the catastrophic occurrences in the physical and human systems.

  18. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiang He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively impact the internal structure and sensory property of sponge cake. Based on the result of this research, optimum content of egg replacer in sponge cake is 3.6 g. In the industrial production of sponge cake, different types of wheat flour and additives would be used. The optimum content of egg replacer may be different from the result of this research. Therefore, in the industrial production, the optimum content of egg replacer should be determined based on experiment.

  19. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation.

  20. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  1. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  2. Hormone replacement therapy diminishes hearing in peri-menopausal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katharine; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Guimaraes, Patricia F; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-06-01

    We recently discovered that progestin in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women has detrimental effects on the ear and central auditory system [Guimaraes, P., Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Tadros, S.F., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. - PNAS 103, 14246-14249]. To start determining the generality and neural bases of these human findings, the present study examined the effects of combination HRT (estrogen+progestin) and estrogen alone on hearing in peri-menopausal mice. Specifically, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs-sensitivity of the auditory system) and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs-cochlear outer hair cell system) were employed. Middle age female CBA mice received either a time-release, subcutaneous implanted pellet of estrogen+progestin, estrogen alone, or placebo. Longitudinal comparisons of ABR threshold data obtained at 4 months of treatment revealed statistically significant declines in auditory sensitivity over time for the combined estrogen+progestin treatment group, with the estrogen only group revealing milder changes at 3, 6 and 32 kHz. DPOAE testing revealed statistically significant differences for the estrogen+progestin treatment group in the high and middle frequency ranges (15-29 and 30-45 kHz) after as early as 2 months of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Statistically significant changes were also seen at 4 months of treatment across all frequencies for the combined HRT group. These data suggest that estrogen+progestin HRT therapy of 4 months duration impairs outer hair cell functioning and overall auditory sensitivity. These findings indicate that estrogen+progestin HRT may actually accelerate age-related hearing loss, relative to estrogen monotherapy; findings that are consistent with the clinical hearing loss observed in aging women that have taken combination HRT.

  3. Quantifying the benefit of early living-donor renal transplantation with a simulation model of the Dutch renal replacement therapy population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Y.S.; Wong, J.B.; Winkelmayer, W.C.; Weimar, W.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Charro, F.T. de; Kaandorp, G.C.; Stijnen, T.; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early living-donor transplantation improves patient- and graft-survival compared with possible cadaveric renal transplantation (RTx), but the magnitude of the survival gain is unknown. For patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), we aimed to quantify the survival benefit of ear

  4. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    . In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

  5. Sprint starts and the minimum auditory reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Matthew T G; Hibbs, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The simple auditory reaction time is one of the fastest reaction times and is thought to be rarely less than 100 ms. The current false start criterion in a sprint used by the International Association of Athletics Federations is based on this assumed auditory reaction time of 100 ms. However, there is evidence, both anecdotal and from reflex research, that simple auditory reaction times of less than 100 ms can be achieved. Reaction time in nine athletes performing sprint starts in four conditions was measured using starting blocks instrumented with piezoelectric force transducers in each footplate that were synchronized with the starting signal. Only three conditions were used to calculate reaction times. The pre-motor and pseudo-motor time for two athletes were also measured across 13 muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) synchronized with the rest of the system. Five of the athletes had mean reaction times of less than 100 ms in at least one condition and 20% of all starts in the first two conditions had a reaction time of less than 100 ms. The results demonstrate that the neuromuscular-physiological component of simple auditory reaction times can be under 85 ms and that EMG latencies can be under 60 ms.

  6. Users contributions to an architectural project at the start up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sousa Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes to architectural projects can be seen as an ongoing process from design concept to use. This paper analyses a particular phase of an architectural project, the start-up, which is characterized by the initial occupation of a workplace by users and the start-up of services. This paper aims to show that the experiences in this phase are unique and may make specific contributions to the design process. Analysis during the start-up phase may reveal experiences and users'needs that have not been met by designers, as well as inadequacies in the newly built space. This paper presents the results of a case study carried out in a sector of a hospital dedicated to patients with HIV. The analysis of the start-up of this newly constructed centre was performed using two methodologies: Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Ergonomic Work Analysis. The results suggest that ergonomic interventions in projects should encompass the start-up phase.

  7. A novel induction motor starting method using superconduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.B.B., E-mail: flaviobarcelos@ifes.edu.br [Ifes – Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Industrial Automation, Serra, ES 29173087 (Brazil); UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Physics, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Fardin, J.F.; Simonetti, D.S. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Baldan, C.A. [EEL/USP – Engineering School from Lorena/University of São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Alternative method for starting up induction motor. • Based on using a high-temperature superconductor. • A prototype of the limiter was constructed with a 2G-YBCO tape. • Prototype was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz. • Offers reduced current waveform distortion compared to the soft starter method. - Abstract: In this paper, an alternative method for starting up induction motors is proposed, taking into account experimental measurements. The new starting current limitation method is based on using a high-temperature superconductor. A prototype of the superconducting starting current limiter was constructed with a commercially available second-generation high-temperature superconductor YBCO tape, and this was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz three-phase power grid. Performance evaluations of the superconducting limiter method (applied to startup of the induction motor) were performed and were compared with a direct-on-line starter and an electronic soft starter. In addition, a computational model was developed and used for electromagnetic torque analysis of the system. As significant characteristics, our method offers the ability to limit the starting current of the induction motor with greater electromagnetic torque, reduced current waveform distortion and therefore lower harmonic pollution during startup when compared to the soft starter method.

  8. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  9. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  10. Mineral replacement reactions and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    When a mineral is out of equilibrium with an aqueous fluid, reactions will take place in an attempt to reach a new equilibrium. Commonly in the Earth dissolution at a mineral-fluid interface initiates a coupled reaction involving dissolution and precipitation (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014). This is a ubiquitous reaction during such processes as metamorphism, metasomatism and weathering. When rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes are in contact with aqueous fluids (typically NaCl-rich) resultant new phases are formed and elements present in the parent mineral are released to the fluid and therefore mobilized for transport elsewhere. This has been shown in a number of systems such as the albitisation of feldspars (Hövelmann et al., 2010) when a Ca-bearing plagioclase is replaced by albite (NaAlSi3O8). However during this reaction not only is Ca released to the fluid but most other minor elements, such as Mg, Pb, rare earth elements amongst others, are almost totally mobilized and removed in solution. This interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction has many implications for the redistributon of elements in the crust of the Earth. It is also of note that albitisation occurs often in areas of high mineralization, such as in the Curnamona Province in S. Australia (Au-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn deposits) and the Bamble District of S. Norway. Secondly atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image these reactions at a nanoscale, especially at the calcite-fluid interface, such as the formation of apatite from phosphate-bearing solutions, and the sequestration of toxic elements, eg., Se and As. References Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. (2014) Coupled dissolution and precipitation at mineral-fluid interfaces. Chemical Geology, 383, 132-146. Putnis C.V. and Ruiz-Agudo E. (2013) The mineral-water interface: where minerals react with the environment. Elements, 9, 177-182. Hövelmann J., Putnis A., Geisler T., Schmidt B.C., Golla-Schindler U. (2009

  11. Start-Up Processes’ Efficiency of Turbine Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents diagnoses of example start-up processes of drive units built in military aircraft operated in the Dęblin's “School of Eaglets” during the flight. The significance of this process is very important, especially from the point of view of flight safety, especially as it concerns the training aircraft, on which officer cadets-candidates for pilots are trained. The diagnosis of the start-up process was conducted using data from on-board flight recorders recorded during a flight training, whose aim was an emergency launch of particular drive units, and with the help of the so-called phase mapping of the selected operating parameters of the particular flight drive systems. The standard diagram of typical start-up systems was shown, while presenting their base subassemblies. At the end, the obtained results and the main problems that need intervention were commented, as well as further preventive activities were proposed.

  12. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  13. Starting age and other influential factors: Insights from learner interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study uses oral interviews with foreign language learners in search of influential factors in their language learning histories. The sample for the study was drawn from a larger sample of intermediate/advanced learners of English as a foreign language with a minimum of 10 years of exposure/instruction. The sample includes 6 early learners (range of starting age: 3.2-6.5 and 6 late learners (starting age: 11+. Half of them in each group were among those with the highest scores on two English language tests in the larger sample and half among those with the lowest scores on those same tests. A qualitative analysis of the interviews of these learners yields insights into their experience of foreign language learning and the role played in it by starting age and other significant factors, such as motivation and intensive contact with the language.

  14. Early start of CAPD with the Seldinger technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banli, Oktay; Altun, Hasan; Oztemel, Aysegul

    2005-01-01

    The ideal method for inserting continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters remains debatable. Minimally invasive techniques are becoming more popular. The routine recommendation for starting PD is 4 - 6 weeks after catheter insertion. We planned a prospective study to evaluate whether this waiting period is necessary. From January 2003 to July 2004, 42 double-cuff Tenckhoff CAPD catheters were inserted into 41 patients. Percutaneous technique was used and PD was started on the sixth day. Only 2 pericatheter leakages (4.8%) were detected. This procedure is comparatively safe, simple, and less costly than surgical and peritoneoscopic placement. The rate of early pericatheter leakage may be lowered with this technique and PD may be started earlier.

  15. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  16. GABA transporter 1 transcriptional starting site exhibiting tissue specific difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    GABA transporter 1(GAT1)takes important roles in multiple physiological processes through the uptake and release of GABA,but the regulation of GAT1 gene expression in different tissues is rarely known.To address the question,first,5' Rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)was used to determine GAT1 transcriptional starting sites in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and intestine,adult mouse brain and adult rat testis.The products of 5'RACE were confirmed by DNA sequencing.We found that the transcript of GAT1 in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and adult mouse brain starts at the same site(inside of exon 1),while in mouse intestine,GAT1 starts transcription in intron 1,and in rat testis,the transcript of GAT1 has an additional untranslation exon to the 5' direction.

  17. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early...

  18. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58-14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70-12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D. Using the NAS dataset and a combination of factor analysis and multiple regression techniques, we explored the relationship between force characteristics and SP (quantified by normalized average horizontal block power). Start kinetics were subsequently compared between ASs and NASs who were matched based on their absolute 100 m PR and their 100 m PR relative to the world record in their starting class. In NASs, 86% of the variance in SP was shared with five latent factors on which measured parameters related to force application to the rear and front blocks and the respective push-off directions in the sagittal plane of motion were loaded. Mediolateral force application had little influence on SP. The SP of ASs was significantly reduced compared to that of NASs matched on the basis of relative 100-m PR (-33.8%; d = 2.11, p < 0.001), while a non-significant performance reduction was observed when absolute 100-m PRs were used (-17.7%; d = 0.79, p = 0.09). These results are at least partially explained by the fact that force application to the rear block was clearly impaired in the affected legs of ASs.

  19. Female Hires and the Success of Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Zulehner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between females among the first hires of start-up companies and business success. Our results show that firms with female first hires have a higher share of female workers at the end of the first year after entry. Further, we find that firms with female first hires are more successful and stay longer in the market. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that gender-diversity in leading positions is an advantage for start-up firms.

  20. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishler, Jeff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yun [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mishler, Jeff [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.