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Sample records for replacement series study

  1. Competitive analysis of soybean and sudangrass using replacement series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Competition is the best known form of direct interference of weeds on agricultural crops. However, there is relatively little information on the competition of the weed sudangrass on soybean, which has been common in agricultural areas in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to evaluate the competition between sudangrass and soybeans using replacement series experiments. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean and sudangrass associations. The experimental units were 8-L plastic pots, in the proportions 0: 8, 2: 6, 4: 4, 6: 2, 8: 0, corresponding to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the crop and weed respectively. Shoot, root and total dry matter and plant height were analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement series and competitive indices. Soybean showed competitive superiority in coexistence with sudangrass in relation to shoot, root and total dry matter. The intraspecific competition was more significant for the crop and inter-specific competition was more important for the weed.

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  5. Tables of Replacement Parts for Vehicle Average Useful Life Study of Truck, 5 Ton, 6x6, M39A2 Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Logistics ,O. ABSTRACT (Continue , l ree e-•’oe d it neoeeaty and td --, flt, by block numb..) This report contains tables of replacement parts developed...8217 n4c 000’’n>,. _j.u0.too ~0 ~ 0 0’(0 49 43 :; S Z) c ;u 0tLu .. .!J, Lu0LU Lu j w - 1- a L tD 4 o cm 0 L Z ..J P- 3 > ..2c ~ ~ ~ ~ .. W . L4 IL l I 4m...WI z v ൌmi WKn z-zO. M~ 43 Km K: 0KK X 44ft4az-4O:tm 0 4.~4kmu Wtm4. ac o K 4 3m 6m-30 4 .9mgemm.94mN I..e "Mre-NaPIP-aa:m.9lop 040.9m.4r.. FA#..Ne

  6. (UBS Pensions series 8) UK Annuity Rates and Pension Replacement Ratios 1957 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Tonks

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  7. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  8. Series of selenoid valve pneumatic AC 220 volts with disposable contra angle as a replacement for micromotor in preclinic laboratory (experimental study on the health ministry of health polytechnic course D-III department of dental nursing Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyat Miko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To report on the essential performance characteristics of disposable air turbine handpiece and on aspect of their convenience and safety for preclinical use. The disposable handpiece is not recommended drilling in oral cavity. We use for student practical  in Operative Dentistry at preclinic laboratory. The other side micromotor low speed handpiece used as bur device on the phantom, the problem usually found in preclinik laboratory on practical conservation with the use of micromotor frequent damage to the handpiece (contra angel. Micromotor tend to heat up faster and have a low-speed, so it took a long time to complete the drilling, using the micromotor tend to be less safe because of the power generated from the flow of electricity at any time could damage. The price of  micromotor also is quite expensive. The limitations of the budget funds for maintenance, repair and procurement of mikromotor also became a problem. Based on these problems, the research team made a solution in the form of a replacement tool (substitute micromotor with the aim to resolve the existing problems as well as creating practices preclinic more effectively and efficiently. The use of a simple drill tool in the form of a series of Pneumatic Valve 220 volt (include electric compressor and Selenoid Disposible Handpiece Contra-angles as a new innovation in the laboratory of Dental Nursing. Majors preclinik Health Polytechnic Tasikmalaya  have been applied for last 3 years and have been able to more efficient cost of procurement tool of 70%. This disposible tool is apparently able to drill up to 20 times preparasicavity. This research uses descriptive method. Data collection techniques are used through the question form or questionnaire. Population and sample the study is a students collage 2nd years D-III of department of dental nursing Health Polytechnic Tasikmalaya. From the results of research that the majority of students expressed pleased and satisfied. This

  9. Repair of Physiologic Time Series: Replacement of Anomalous Data Points to Preserve Fractal Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Lowen, Steven B.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of fractal exponents via the slope of the power spectrum is common in the analysis of many physiological time series. The fractal structure thus characterized is a manifestation of long-term correlations, for which the temporal order of the sample values is crucial. However, missing data points due to artifacts and dropouts are common in such data sets, which can seriously disrupt the computation of fractal parameters. We evaluated a number of methods for replacing missing data in time series to enable reliable extraction of the fractal exponent and make recommendations as to the preferred replacement method depending on the proportion of missing values and any a priori estimate of the fractal exponent. PMID:28271060

  10. Sheehan's syndrome with pancytopenia--complete recovery after hormone replacement (case series with review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Khan, Raja Sultan Zaman; Lone, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2010-03-01

    Reports of pancytopenia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare, because the disorder is not commonly seen in western countries. A case series of pancytopenia in three patients of Sheehan's syndrome is presented. Three women aged 22, 30, and 34 years developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by post partum hemorrhage. During investigations, they were found to have pancytopenia with hypocellular marrow. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete recovery after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state. Review of literature revealed the rarity of the disorder, with only four cases reported so far. Multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in Sheehan's syndrome are responsible for pancytopenia; replacement of thyroid and cortisol hormones results in complete recovery.

  11. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  12. A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Implants Replacing Failed Implants in Grafted Maxillary Sinus: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Yifat; Chaushu, Gavriel; Lorean, Adi; Mijiritzky, Eithan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the survival rate of dental implants replacing failed implants in grafted maxillary sinuses using the lateral approach vs nongrafted posterior maxillae. A retrospective analysis was conducted to study the survival of secondary dental implants inserted in the posterior maxilla in previously failed implant sites between the years 2000 and 2010. The study group consisted of patients who had also undergone maxillary sinus augmentation, and the control group consisted of patients in whom implants in the posterior maxilla had failed. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed using a structured form. Seventy-five patients with a total of 75 replaced implants were included in the study. The study group comprised 40 patients and the control group, 35 patients. None of the replaced implants in the study group failed, resulting in an overall survival of 100%; three replaced implants in the control group failed (92% survival). The main reason for the primary implant removal was lack of osseointegration (35 [87.5%] of 40 study group implants and 23 [65.7%] of 35 control group implants [P = .027]). The difference between the groups with regard to the timing of primary implant failure was statistically significant. The study group had more early failures of the primary implant than did the control group (77% vs 62%; P = .038). Dental implants replaced in the posterior maxilla had a high survival rate. A higher rate of survival was found in augmented maxillary sinus sites. Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that previous implant failures in the grafted maxillary sinus should not discourage practitioners from a second attempt.

  13. Replacement collision sequence studies in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, M; Becquart, C S

    2002-01-01

    The properties of replacement collision sequences (RCS) in iron and their contribution to radiation damage are studied as they are generated in atomic collision cascades with the binary collision approximation Marlowe. Length distributions of RCS in collision cascades generated by primaries with a couple of ten keV kinetic energies are predicted short. Whatever the interatomic potential employed, at least 90% of the generated RCS have a length of no more than three successive collisions, whatever the directions. This property was found for all the known phases of iron at standard pressure (bcc and fcc). The RCS length distributions are not significantly influenced by the temperature nor by the accurate form of the model describing the energy loss in RCS. Close to 50% of the stable Frenkel pairs (FP) created result from RCS that are shorter than the vacancy-interstitial recombination distance estimated on the basis of molecular dynamics calculations. The other half results from longer RCS (about five successiv...

  14. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

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    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  15. Haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle treated by total ankle replacement: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, A; Elsner, A; Hefti, D; Hintermann, B

    2010-07-01

    The standard treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle joint in haemophilic patients has been fusion of the ankle joint. Total ankle replacement is still controversial as a treatment option. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the mid-term outcome in patients treated with total ankle replacement using an unconstrained three-component ankle implant. Ten haemophilic ankles in eight patients (mean age: 43.2 years, range 26.7-57.5) treated with total ankle replacement were followed up for a minimum of 2.7 years (mean: 5.6, range 2.7-7.6). The outcome was measured with clinical and radiological evaluations. There were no intra- or peri-operative complications. The AOFAS-hindfoot-score increased from 38 (range 8-57) preoperatively to 81 (range 69-95) postoperatively. All patients were satisfied with the results. Four patients became pain free; in the whole patient cohort pain level decreased from 7.1 (range 4-9) preoperatively to 0.8 (range 0-3) postoperatively. All categories of SF-36 score showed significant improvements in quality of life. In one patient, open ankle arthrolysis was performed because of painful arthrofibrosis. For patients with haemophilic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint, total ankle replacement is a valuable alternative treatment to ankle fusion.

  16. Anatomic Total Talar Prosthesis Replacement Surgery and Ankle Arthroplasty: An Early Case Series in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about specific outcomes and early experiences of total talar prosthesis replacement surgery in the current literature, and ankle arthroplasty in Southeast Asia. This study reported on four patients with talar loss or ankle arthritis. Patients were treated with a custom total talar prosthesis (anatomic-metallic version) replacement (TPR, n=1) or with total ankle replacement (TAR, n=3). Baseline data, including Visual-Analog-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) and Quality of Life scores via Short-Form-36 (SF-36), were collected for all patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.6 months. From preoperative to postoperative, VAS-FA score increased from 6.0 to 57.5, and SF-36 score increased from 19.3 to 73.7 in a patient with TPR. Mean VAS-FA scores increased from 51.5±15.6 to 85.7±4.7 (P=0.032), and mean SF-36 scores tended to increase from 65.2±13.3 to 99.3±1.2 (P=0.055) in TAR group. This study is the first report of anatomic-metallic TPR which appears to provide satisfactory outcomes for treatment of talar loss at a short-term follow-up. TAR also provides acceptable results for treatment of ankle arthritis at this point. PMID:25317313

  17. Anatomic total talar prosthesis replacement surgery and ankle arthroplasty: an early case series in Thailand

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    Chayanin Angthong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about specific outcomes and early experiences of total talar prosthesis replacement surgery in the current literature, and ankle arthroplasty in Southeast Asia. This study reported on four patients with talar loss or ankle arthritis. Patients were treated with a custom total talar prosthesis (anatomic-metallic version replacement (TPR, n=1 or with total ankle replacement (TAR, n=3. Baseline data, including Visual-Analog-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA and Quality of Life scores via Short-Form-36 (SF-36, were collected for all patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.6 months. From preoperative to postoperative, VAS-FA score increased from 6.0 to 57.5, and SF-36 score increased from 19.3 to 73.7 in a patient with TPR. Mean VAS-FA scores increased from 51.5±15.6 to 85.7±4.7 (P=0.032, and mean SF-36 scores tended to increase from 65.2±13.3 to 99.3±1.2 (P=0.055 in TAR group. This study is the first report of anatomic-metallic TPR which appears to provide satisfactory outcomes for treatment of talar loss at a short-term follow-up. TAR also provides acceptable results for treatment of ankle arthritis at this point.

  18. [Total reverse shoulder replacement. Evaluation of the clinical results and complications in a series of 52 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Sánchez, L; Mesa-Mateo, A; Barrionuevo-Sánchez, F J; García-Benítez, B; Expósito-Triano, S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results and analyse the complications of total reverse shoulder replacement performed in our centre over an 8 year period. A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients (52 shoulders), with a mean age of 70.15 years (range 51 to 84 years) between December 2004 and December 2012, who received a total reverse shoulder replacement, all performed by the same surgeon. The results have been evaluated according to clinical data, radiography study, a satisfaction scale, and the Constant scale, with a minimum follow-up of 16 months. Five of the cases (9.62%) had been intervened due to fractures of the proximal end of the humerus, 6 cases (11.53%) as surgical consequence of a prosthesis revision, 10 cases (19.23%) due to fracture sequelae, and 30 cases (59.62%) were patients with arthropathy due to a massive fracture of the rotator cuff. After a mean follow up of 35.78 months (range, 16-82), satisfactory clinical results were obtained in 80% of cases, with a mean preoperative Constant of 27.7 points, and reaching 67.1 points 12 months after the operation. On the visual analogue scale, 8.25 points were obtained before the surgery, which decreased to 2.25 points 12 months later. The complications rate was 15.38%, which were due to an intra-operative fracture (1.92%), deep infection (3.84%), instability (3.84%), and early mechanical loosening (3.84%). Scapular notching was observed in the radiographic study in 9 (17.3%) cases. After the results obtained, it could be said that total reverse shoulder replacement achieved encouraging results in the short term for the treatment of glenohumeral arthrosis and massive tears of the rotary cuff. On analysing our series, it can be seen that the complications rate is much higher when it is used to treat fracture sequelae in which there is a loss of proximal humerus bone stock. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Replacement Gastrostomy Tube Causing Acute Pancreatitis: Case Series with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish M Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG feedings are generally considered safe with few serious complications. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication associated with replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Case report We report two cases of acute pancreatitis induced by migrated replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Conclusions Migration of a balloon into the duodenum can result in external manipulation of the ampulla of Vater thereby disturbing the flow of pancreatic secretions leading to acute pancreatitis. Recognition of this complication is important and should be included as potential etiology of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feedings. Periodic examination and documentation of the distance of the balloon from the skin should be performed to document the position of the tubes or any inadvertent migration of the tubes. The use of Foley catheters as permanent replacement tubes should be considered medically inappropriate.

  20. Assessment of Sesame and Chickpea Yield and Yield Components in the Replacement Series Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    F. Pouramir; M. Nassiri Mahallati; A Koocheki; Ghorbani, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This experiment was carried out for assessment of sesame and chickpea intercropping under climatic condition of Mashhad. The Experiment included main factor A (planting methods) whit two levels a1(row planting) and a2(mixed planting) and factor B (replacement planting pattern) consisting of five levels b1 (chickpea monoculture), b2 (75% chickpea+25% sesame), b3 (50% chickpea+50% sesame), b4 (25% chickpea+75% sesame) and b5 (sesame monoculture) and was carried out in context of spl...

  1. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  2. Partial regimen replacement with aripiprazole reduces serum prolactin in patients with a long history of schizophrenia: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naono-Nagatomo, Keiko; Naono, Hisao; Abe, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Funahashi, Hideki; Uchimura, Daisuke; Ishida, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Aripiprazole (ARP) is a popular antipsychotic drug that has demonstrated ameliorative effects on hyperprolactinemia. However, no study to date has studied the utility of ARP in patients with a long history of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment. We therefore examined the effect of partial antipsychotic regimen replacement with ARP on hyperprolactinemia induced by chronic antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with a schizophrenia diagnosis (F2) based on the International Classification of Diseases (version 10) were recruited. At months 0, 1, 3, and 6 of the study, serum prolactin, body weight, and blood glucose were measured, and QOL and psychotic symptoms were assessed using Global Assessment of Functioning scores and Clinical Global Impressions of Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Nine patients with an average age of 46.7±9.6 years and mean disease duration of 15.9±10.4 years were included in the final analysis. Serum prolactin levels significantly decreased and GAF and CGI-I scores improved significantly over the 6-month period after partial replacement with ARP. Additionally, no changes were observed in body weight or blood glucose over the 6-month period. Partial antipsychotic regimen replacement with ARP improves hyperprolactinemia, and may improve the QOL of patients with a long history of schizophrenia. Japan Medical Association, Center for clinical trials D: JMA-IIA00245. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  4. Replacement of traditional lectures with computer-based tutorials: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Lavelle

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot project with a group of 60 second-year undergraduates studying the use of standard forms of contract in the construction industry. The project entailed the replacement of two of a series of nine scheduled lectures with a computer-based tutorial. The two main aims of the project were to test the viability of converting existing lecture material into computer-based material on an in-house production basis, and to obtain feedback from the student cohort on their behavioural response to the change in media. The effect on student performance was not measured at this stage of development.

  5. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  6. The Comparative study of Automated Face replacement Techniques for Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmesh Sanghvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For entertaining purposes, a computerized special effect referred to as “morphing” has enlarged huge attention and face replacement is one of the interesting tasks. Face replacement in video is a useful application in the amusement and special effect industries. Though various techniques for face replacement have been developed for single image and generally applied in animation and morphing, there are few mechanisms to spread out these techniques to handle videos automatically. Face replacement in video automatically is not only a fascinating application, but a challenging problem. For face replacement in video, the frame-by-frame manipulation process using the software is often time consuming and labor-intensive. Hence, the paper compares numerous latest Automatic face replacement techniques in video to understand the various problems to be solved, their shortcomings and benefits over others.

  7. A retrospective study: osteoporosis and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. June Kuczynski

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this stud y was to determine i f women who undergo hormone replacement therapy postmenopausally, will demonstrate less osteoporosis than women who do not undergo H R T. The osteoporosis subjects were 195 women who volunteered to participate in an NIHsponsored double-blind clinical trial entitled Safely and Efficacy of Fluoride Therapy in Osteoporosis. A convenience sample of 78 controls was obtained by inviting women seeking regular medical attention to join an epidemiological investigation of osteoporosis. The data were analyzed using Chisquare and Student’s t-ratio. The study concludes that future retrospective and prospective analyses appreciate the com plexity of the problem in terms of individual risk for osteoporosis.

  8. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.

    The investigations described in this thesis were

  9. Differences in the stress distribution in the distal femur between patellofemoral joint replacement and total knee replacement: a finite element study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Innocenti, B.; Gervasi, G.L.; Labey, L.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. However, results of later conversion to total knee replacement may be compromised by periprosthetic bone loss. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a decrease in distal fe

  10. Community reintegration following a total joint replacement: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Grigorovich, Alisa

    2014-06-01

    To examine community reintegration following a hip or knee total joint replacement (TJR) from the perspective of rehabilitation clients. A phenomenological frame of reference guided the present study. Ten participants who received inpatient rehabilitation completed semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore their experiences with reintegrating back into their chosen communities and the meanings that they ascribed to their reintegration. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. Demographic data, and information regarding participants' living situation and supports were extracted from existing databases and used to characterize the sample. Participants revealed that reintegration after a TJR encompassed two key elements of meaning: i) engagement in meaningful activities; and ii) satisfaction levels. Additionally, the following five factors were identified as facilitators or barriers to community reintegration following a TJR: i) ongoing preparation and education; ii) confounding health issues; iii) driving and transportation; iv) personal facilitators; v) access to supports from professionals, family and friends, and community programmes. The present study highlights the significance of engaging in meaningful activities and being satisfied in one's level of engagement to achieving a sense of community reintegration following a TJR. This suggests that reintegration post-TJR has broader meanings than just improvements in functional abilities. Practitioners are encouraged to inquire about patients' meaningful activities, support their preparedness throughout the rehabilitation process, to identify confounding health issues that may limit reintegration, consider patients' fears and anxieties and establish supports to enhance their feelings of self-efficacy and abilities to cope following a TJR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Wear study of Total Ankle Replacement explants by microstructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrino, S; Fabrègue, D; Cowie, A P; Besse, J-L; Tadier, S; Gremillard, L; Hartmann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The implantation of Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) prostheses generally gives satisfactory results. However, a high revision rate is associated with the Ankle Evolutive System (AES) implant, due to periprosthetic osteolysis that generates significant cortical lesions and bone cysts in the periprosthetic region. Radioclinical and histological analyses of peri-implant tissues show the presence of numerous foreign particles that may come from the implant. It is known that a precocious wear of materials may lead to an important rate of foreign body in tissues and may generate osteolysis lesions and inflammatory reactions. Thus the objectives of this retrospective study of 10 AES TAR implants (recovered after revision surgeries) are to understand how the prostheses wear out, which part is the most stressed and to determine the nature and size of foreign body particles. A better understanding of friction mechanisms between the three parts of the implant and of the nature and morphology of foreign particles generated was needed to explain the in vivo behavior of the implant. This was achieved using microstuctural and tomographic analysis of both implants parts and periprosthetic tissues.

  12. Aortic replacement in aorto-occlusive disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many patients with aorto-occlusive disease, where stent deployment is not possible, surgery remains the only treatment option available. The aim of this study was to assess the results of aortic reconstruction surgery performed in patients with critical ischaemia. Methods All patients with critical ischaemia undergoing surgery during 1991–2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Mortality data was verified against death certificate data. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the clinical notes and the radiology database. Disease was classified as: type I – limited to aorta and common iliac arteries; type II – external iliac disease and type III combined aortic, iliac and infra-inguinal disease. Results 86 patients underwent aortic replacement surgery all of whom had critical ischaemia consisting of: type I (n = 16; type II (n = 37 and type III (n = 33. The 30-day mortality rate was 10.4%, the one-year patient survival was 80%, and the 1-year graft survival was 80%. At 2 years the actual patient survival was 73% and no additional graft losses were identified. All patients surviving 30 days reported excellent symptomatic relief. Early, complications occurred in 6 (7% patients: thrombosis within diseased superficial femoral arteries (n = 4; haemorrhage and subsequent death (n = 2. Ten (14% late complications (> 12 months occurred in the 69 surviving patients and included: anastomotic stenosis (n = 3; graft thrombosis (n = 4, graft infection (n = 3. Four patients developed claudication as a result of more distal disease in the presence of a patent graft, and 1 patient who continued smoking required an amputation for progressive distal disease. Conclusion Aortic reconstruction for patients with extensive aorto-occlussive disease provides long-standing symptomatic relief for the majority of patients. After the first year, there is continued patient attrition due to co

  13. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  14. A clinical comparative study of anatomic parameters before and after total hip replacement on congenital dysplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Yonggang; Chai, Wei; Ji, Weiping; Cui, Guopeng; Ma, Miaoqun; Zhu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To study preoperative and postoperative hip circumference data of varioustypes of congenital dysplasia of the hip treated with total hip replacement, including thefemoral offset, femoral neck length...

  15. Area Handbook Series: Cambodia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    throne ’ -il was right with the world." Low literacy rates, which the French were extremely reluctant to improve, also insulated the great major- ity of...replaced him with a more pliable monarch; however, the military situation was deteriorating throughout Indochina, and the French government, on July 3...tile floors, depending upon the economic status of the owner. Urban housing and commercial buildings may be of brick, masonry, or wood . Diet Dietary

  16. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Peggy Pixley. David P. Cabitto, who was assisted by Sandra K. Cotugno and Kimberly A. Lord, provided invaluable graphics support. Stan- ley M. Sciora...Right Wing in Finland (Rus- sian and East European Series, 22.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962. Runeberg, Carl Michael. Finlands Historia

  17. A comparison of leg length and femoral offset discrepancies in hip resurfacing, large head metal-on- metal and conventional total hip replacement: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katie A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A discrepancy in leg length and femoral offset restoration is the leading cause of patient dissatisfaction in hip replacement surgery and has profound implications on patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to compare biomechanical hip reconstruction in hip resurfacing, large-diameter femoral head hip arthroplasty and conventional total hip replacement. Method Sixty patient's post-operative radiographs were reviewed; 20 patients had a hip resurfacing (HR, 20 patients had a Large Head Metal-on-metal (LHM hip replacement and 20 patients had a conventional small head Total Hip Replacement (THR. The leg length and femoral offset of the operated and unoperated hips were measured and compared. Results Hip resurfacing accurately restored hip biomechanics with no statistical difference in leg length (P = 0.07 or femoral offset (P = 0.95 between the operated and non-operative hips. Overall HR was superior for reducing femoral offset discrepancies where it had the smallest bilateral difference (-0.2%, P = 0.9. The traditional total hip replacement was least effective at restoring the hip anatomy. Conclusion The use of a larger-diameter femoral head in hip resurfacing does not fully account for the superior biomechanical restoration, as LHM did not restore femoral offset as accurately. We conclude that restoration of normal hip biomechanics is best achieved with hip resurfacing.

  18. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  19. Study on the applicability of the desk replacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displace-ment ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV co

  20. THE IMPACT OF AN EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION SERIES, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MERRILL, I.R.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER WHETHER THE DOCUMENTARY TV FILM SERIES, "COUNTY AGENT," HAD APPEAL FOR AND IMPACT UPON A GENERAL AUDIENCE AND WHETHER A SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN THE METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION USED. THE TV SERIES, BROADCAST OVER WKAR-TV, CONSISTED OF 13 PROGRAMS ABOUT PROJECTS SPONSORED BY THE…

  1. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Southeast Asian Studies, 1987. Villanueva , Honesto A. "The Independence Mission 1919: In- dependence Lies Ahead," Asian Studies [Manila], 9, No. 3...26, No. 5, May 1986, 501-17. Majul, Cesar Abid. "The Moros of the Philippines," Conflict, 8. Nos. 2-3, 1988, 169-84. Malajacan, Marcelino Q., Jr

  2. Planning for Study Abroad. Fastback Series 228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Alice K.

    A guide for students of all ages anticipating a period of study abroad contains useful information about its benefits, the value of establishing purposes and setting goals, and other matters that would be of concern to the first-time student abroad. Topics discussed are: considerations in the selection of programs for study abroad, ways of gaining…

  3. In Vitro Fatigue Failure of Cemented Acetabular Replacements: A Hip Simulator Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zant, N.; Heaton-Adegbile, P.; Hussell, J.; Tong, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Although hip simulators for in vitro wear testing of prosthetic materials used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been available for a number of years, similar equipment has yet to appear for endurance testing of fixation in cemented THA, despite considerable evidence of late aseptic loosening as one of the most significant failure mechanisms in this type of replacements. An in vitro study of fatigue behavior in cemented acetabular replacements has been carried out, utilizing a newly develo...

  4. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  5. Hypogonadal men with psoriasis benefit from long-term testosterone replacement therapy - a series of 15 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Haider, A; Gooren, L

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is increasingly recognised as a skin disease with far-reaching systemic effects, associated with a high prevalence of comorbid disease such as cardiometabolic dysfunction, shifting the focus from a single organ disease confined to the skin to a systemic inflammatory condition. Chronic and systemic inflammation plays a major role in the development of these diseases, and there are striking similarities between the molecular and inflammatory pathways in psoriasis and atherosclerosis. In a single-centre, cumulative, prospective registry study of 347 hypogonadal men (total testosterone ≤12.1 nmol l(-1) ), fifteen men with psoriasis could be studied. Upon testosterone administration, the skin disease improved considerably. Scores on the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Physician Global Assessment for Psoriasis showed significant improvement for the first 24 months. Thereafter, these improvements were sustained. Upon testosterone treatment, C-reactive protein declined significantly. There were significant improvements of obesity and of lipid profiles. Adipose tissue is now regarded as a source of inflammatory factors. These preliminary results deserve to be studied in a specifically designed study to investigate the effects of testosterone on psoriasis and its associated immunopathology.

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  7. Area Handbook Series: Yugoslavia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Center Press, 1988. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and Prospects for Economic Re- form in Yugoslavia," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, Winter...1988, 94-114. 312 Bibliography Bukowski , Charles J., and Mark A. Cichock (eds.). Prospects for Change in Socialist Systems. New York: Praeger, 1987...67. Biberaj, Elez. "Yugoslavia: A Continuing Crisis?" Conflict Studies [London], 225, October 1989, 1-22. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and

  8. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  9. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1972. Kundera , Milan . "The Czech Wager," New York Review of Books, 27, Nos. 21 and 22, January 21, 1981, 21-22. 369 Czechoslovakia.: A Country Study...1916, together with Eduard Bene§ and Milan Steffinik (a Slovak war hero), Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council. Masaryk in the United...Czechoslovakia’s aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935 Beneg succeeded Masaryk as president, and Prime Minister Milan Hod.a took over the Ministry

  10. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    University of New Mexico Press, 1978. Wilgus, A. Curtis. Historical Atlas of Latin America: Political, Geo- graphic, Economic, Cultural . New York...34 Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35, No. 3, April 1987, 601-27. Benftez, Luis G. Historia de la educacin paraguaya. Asunci6n: In- dustrial... cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the

  11. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    left in Bas-Zaire. 69 I- ________________________ Zaire: A Country Study In the east, the appropriation of land for ranching and planta - tions in the...tests positive for the AIDS virus ) in Kinshasa for the general popula- tion in 1987 were 6 to 8 percent; among prostitutes the figure was as high as 30...56 Kenya 550-77 Chile 550-81 Korea, North 550-60 China 550-41 Korea, South 550-26 Colombia 550-58 Laos 550-33 Commonwealth Caribbean, 550-24 Lebanon

  12. Dieulafoy's lesion: A case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Walmsley; Yuk-Tong Lee; Joseph JY Sung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) accounts for 1-5.8% of cases of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Its mortality is high, approaching 20%, despite recent advances in endoscopic therapy. We aimed to report our experience in the treatment of DL.METHODS: A retrospective case study of all patients with DL between January 1993 and January 2003 was done. Characteristics, treatment methods, success rates and 30-d mortality of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were noted to have DL in the study period. Thirty-three records were available for assessment in which 35 DL were identified. The median age of the patients was 67 years with male to female ratio of 5.6:1. Significant comorbidities existed in 69% of the patients. Eighty-nine percent of the DL was found at first endoscopy, three DL at laparotomy. Significant coexistent endoscopic findings existed in 23%. Hemostasis was achieved in 88% by using adrenaline injection, or in combination with heater probe application at first endoscopy. Four cases had re-bleeding, all were successfully treated endoscopically. The 30-d mortality rate was 23%.CONCLUSION: Successful endoscopic hemostasis could be achieved in 100% of cases of DL. The overall mortality may still remain high, mainly due to the comorbidities and age of these patients.

  13. Preparation and evaluation at the delta opioid receptor of a series of linear leu-enkephalin analogues obtained by systematic replacement of the amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Kristina; Proteau-Gagné, Arnaud; Bourassa, Philippe; Nadon, Jean-François; Côté, Jérome; Bournival, Véronique; Gobeil, Fernand; Guérin, Brigitte; Dory, Yves L; Gendron, Louis

    2013-08-21

    Leu-enkephalin analogues, in which the amide bonds were sequentially and systematically replaced either by ester or N-methyl amide bonds, were prepared using classical organic chemistry as well as solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The peptidomimetics were characterized using competition binding, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, receptor internalization, and contractility assays to evaluate their pharmacological profile over the delta opioid receptor (DOPr). The lipophilicity (LogD7.4) and plasma stability of the active analogues were also measured. Our results revealed that the last amide bond can be successfully replaced by either an ester or an N-methyl amide bond without significantly decreasing the biological activity of the corresponding analogues when compared to Leu-enkephalin. The peptidomimetics with an N-methyl amide function between residues Phe and Leu were found to be more lipophilic and more stable than Leu-enkephalin. Findings from the present study further revealed that the hydrogen-bond donor properties of the fourth amide of Leu-enkephalin are not important for its biological activity on DOPr. Our results show that the systematic replacement of amide bonds by isosteric functions represents an efficient way to design and synthesize novel peptide analogues with enhanced stability. Our findings further suggest that such a strategy can also be useful to study the biological roles of amide bonds.

  14. Differences in the stress distribution in the distal femur between patellofemoral joint replacement and total knee replacement: a finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Jonbergen Hans-Peter W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. However, results of later conversion to total knee replacement may be compromised by periprosthetic bone loss. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a decrease in distal femoral bone mineral density after patellofemoral joint replacement. It is unclear whether this is due to periprosthetic stress shielding. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the stress shielding effect of prosthetic replacement with 2 different patellofemoral prosthetic designs and with a total knee prosthesis. Methods We developed a finite element model of an intact patellofemoral joint, and finite element models of patellofemoral joint replacement with a Journey PFJ prosthesis, a Richards II prosthesis, and a Genesis II total knee prosthesis. For each of these 4 finite element models, the average Von Mises stress in 2 clinically relevant regions of interest were evaluated during a simulated squatting movement until 120 degrees of flexion. Results During deep knee flexion, in the anterior region of interest, the average Von Mises stress with the Journey PFJ design was comparable to the physiological knee, while reduced by almost 25% for both the Richards II design and the Genesis II total knee joint replacement design. The average Von Mises stress in the supracondylar region of interest was similar for both patellofemoral prosthetic designs and the physiological model, with slightly lower stress for the Genesis II design. Conclusions Patellofemoral joint replacement results in periprosthetic stress-shielding, although to a smaller degree than in total knee replacement. Specific patellofemoral prosthetic design properties may result in differences in femoral stress shielding.

  15. Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylde Vikki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over

  16. Studies on termite hill and lime as partial replacement for cement in plastering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olusola, K.O.; Olanipekun, E.A.; Ata, O.; Olateju, O.T. [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria). Department of Building

    2006-03-15

    This study investigated the compressive strength and water absorption capacity of 50x50x50mm mortar cubes made from mixes containing lime, termite hill and cement and sand. Two mix ratios (1:4 and 1:6) and varying binder replacements of cement with lime or termite hill amounting to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used. Test results showed that the compressive strength of the mortar cubes increases with age and decreases with increasing percentage replacement of cement with lime and termite hill. However, for mix ratio 1:6, up to 20% replacement of cement with either lime or termite hill, all the mortar cubes had the same strength; subsequently, the termite hill exhibited a higher compressive strength. For mix ratio 1:4, mortar cubes made from lime/cement and termite hill/cement mixtures had the same strength at 50% replacement. Generally, water absorption is higher in mixtures containing lime (18.10% and 14.20% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level) than those containing termite hill (16.10% and 13.02% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level). Termite hills seem to be promising as a suitable, locally available housing material for plastering. (author)

  17. A 5-year prospective study of single-tooth replacements supported by the Astra Tech implant: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported single-tooth replacements are an increasingly used method to replace teeth, especially in young patients. Therefore, long-term validation of different treatment modalities with different implant systems is of great importance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study wa...

  18. A 5-year prospective study of single-tooth replacements supported by the Astra Tech implant: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported single-tooth replacements are an increasingly used method to replace teeth, especially in young patients. Therefore, long-term validation of different treatment modalities with different implant systems is of great importance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...

  19. Comparative study of series of solar radiation; Estudio comparativo de series de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, Agustin; Cesari, Daniela; Lema, Alba; Galimberti, Pablo; Barral, Jorge [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    In any team or solar device that it seeks to be designed and dedicated to the use of the solar energy it will be had the most appropriate information on the radiation levels. Being this source of dependent energy of the atmospheric and meteorological fluctuations, it is that requires have the information best regarding the quantity and variability of the available solar energy. A road is already the statistical treatment of the data available, so much of solar radiation as of hours of sun. This focus generates a lot of expectation for the biggest quantity in information regarding the hours of existent sun. This bigger information of hours of sun is due to that the mensurations are carried out with instruments called heliografos with a level of complexity and much smaller cost that the instruments of radiation mensuration. Among the heliografos the most used one is that of Campbell-Stokes, and it is the one that you had installed in most of the meteorological stations of Argentina and the World, for what the information of hours of sun is the one that more is plentiful. The present work has for objective to find an interrelation between the measured series of hours of sun and irradiation. The study is carried out using models of temporary series and the pattern of Angstrom-Page. The are carried out a study of the generation of radiation sequences using models of temporary series and the pattern of Angstrom-Page. They are carried out a study of the generation of radiation sequences using the concept of the Chains of Markov. Rio Cuarto's series are analyzed for being determined the transfer function among both series, and the values of global solar radiation are obtained for towns of the same region. They are the coefficients of Anstrom-Page's Equation for Rio Cuarto. They are the values monthly means for these two methods and results are compared. [Spanish] En cualquier equipo o dispositivo solar que pretenda ser disenado y destinado al aprovechamiento de

  20. Fluid replacement and exercise stress. A brief review of studies on fluid replacement and some guidelines for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Noakes, T D

    1991-07-01

    Fluid ingestion during exercise has the twin aims of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. Increasing the carbohydrate content of drinks will increase the amount of fuel which can be supplied, but will tend to decrease the rate at which water can be made available; where provision of water is the first priority, the carbohydrate content of drinks will be low, thus restricting the rate at which substrate is provided. The composition of drinks to be taken will thus be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water, this in turn depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise task, on the ambient temperature and humidity, and on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the individual athlete. Carbohydrate ingested during exercise appears to be readily available as a fuel for the working muscles, at least when the exercise intensity does not exceed 70 to 75% of maximum oxygen uptake. Carbohydrate-containing solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. Water and electrolytes are lost form the body in sweat: although the composition of sweat is rather variable, it is invariably hypotonic with respect to plasma. Sweat rate is determined primarily by the metabolic rate and the environmental temperature and humidity. The sweat rate may exceed the maximum rate of gastric emptying of ingested fluids, and some degree of dehydration is commonly observed. Excessive replacement of sweat losses with plain water or fluids with a low sodium content may result in hyponatraemia. Sodium replacement is essential for postexercise rehydration. The optimum frequency, volume and composition of drinks will vary widely depending on the intensity and duration of the exercise, the environmental conditions and the physiology of the individual. The athlete must determine by trial and error

  1. Study on Behaviour of Concrete Mix Replaceing Fine Aggregate With Steel Slag At Different Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Sateesh Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study experimentally, the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate by steel slag (ss, on the various strength and durability properties of concrete by using the mix designs .the optimum percentage of replacement of fine aggregate by steel slag is found. Workability of concrete gradually decreases, as the percentage of replacement increases which is found using slump test. Compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and durability tests such as acid resistant’s, using HCL,H2SO4 and rapid chloride penetration, are experimentally investigated. The results indicate that for conventional concrete, partial replacement of concrete by steel slag improves the compressive, tensile, flexural strength. The mass loss in cubes after immersion in acids is found to be very low. Deflection in the RCC beams gradually increases, as the load on the beam increases, for the replacement. The degree of fluoride ion penetrability is assessed based on the limits given in ASTM C 1202. The viability of use of steel slag in concrete is found. Waste management is one of the most common and challenging problems in the world. The steel making industry has generated substantially solid waste. Steel slag is a residue obtained in steel making operation. This paper deals with the implementation of steel slag as an effective replacement for sand. Steel slag ,which is consider as the solid waste pollutant, can be used for road construction ,clinker raw materials, filling materials etc. In this work, steel slag used as replacement for sand, which is also major component concrete mixture. This method can be implement for producing hallow blocks, solid blocks, paver blocks, concrete structures etc. Accordingly, advantages can be achieved by using steel slag instead of natural aggregates this will also encourage other researchers to find another field of using steel slag.

  2. Study on Strength of Concrete Using Robo Sand as a Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rukmangadhara Rao,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Robo sand is one of the most used among such materials to replace river sand, which can be used as an alternative to fine aggregate in concrete. In the present investigation workability and strength of concrete was evaluated by replacement of natural sand by Robo sand in proportions of 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% is studied for M25and M35grade concrete cubes, cylinders and prisms. Slump cone method is taken for finding workability. For strength parameters for each grade of concrete Cubes, Cylinders and Prisms were casted and tested at the age of 7 and 28 days. In this present experimental study on concrete having grades of M25 and M35 are prepared by replacing natural sand by Robo sand. Concrete specimens were tested for evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption.

  3. Unilateral vs one stage bilateral total knee replacement in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A controversy exists regarding simultaneous or staged bilateral total knee replacement. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral and 50 undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were evaluated prospectively to compare the clinical, radiological results and complication rates. Eighty-four patients belonged to ASA category II or III preoperatively. The study included a high proportion of rheumatoid patients and osteoarthritis patients with severe deformities. Results: Bilateral group had greater blood loss and required more blood transfusion, but there was no difference in requirement of postoperative intensive care and the complication rates. Rheumatoid knees had lower pre and postoperative knee score and functional score as compared to osteoarthritic knees. Morbidity and mortality of one stage bilateral knee replacement was no greater than unilateral operation. Conclusion: Simultaneous bilateral knee replacement in younger patients with advanced rheumatoid arthritis is safe and effective

  4. The methodology of self-controlled case series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Heather J; Hocine, Mounia N; Farrington, C Paddy

    2009-02-01

    The self-controlled case series method is increasingly being used in pharmacoepidemiology, particularly in vaccine safety studies. This method is typically used to evaluate the association between a transient exposure and an acute event, using only cases. We present both parametric and semiparametric models using a motivating example on MMR vaccine and bleeding disorders. We briefly describe approaches for interferent events and a sequential version of the method for prospective surveillance of drug safety. The efficiency of the self-controlled case series method is compared to the that of cohort and case control studies. Some further extensions, to long or indefinite exposures and to bivariate counts, are described.

  5. Patients' Perceptions of Joint Replacement Care in a Changing Healthcare System: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Fiona; Bremner, Samantha; Katz, Joel; Watt-Watson, Judy; Kennedy, Deborah; Sawhney, Mona; McCartney, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ontario has introduced strategies over the past decade to reduce wait times and length of stay and improve access to physiotherapy for orthopaedic and other patients. The aim of this study is to explore patients' experiences of joint replacement care during a significant system change in their care setting.

  6. Collaborative study for the calibration of a replacement International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Rob; Stickings, Paul; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Iwaki, Masaaki; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a collaborative study for the establishment of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Two candidate preparations were included in the study, one of which was established as the 4th IS for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed at the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2010. This preparation was found to have a unitage of 490 IU/ampoule, based on calibration in guinea pig challenge assays. Results from mouse challenge assays suggest that the relative performance of two candidate preparations may differ significantly between guinea pigs and mice. The authors note that the number of laboratories that performed guinea pig challenge assays, which are used to calibrate and assign IU, is much lower than in previous collaborative studies and this may have implications for calibration of replacement standards in the future. The issue of assigning separate units to the IS for guinea pig and mouse assays is discussed. The study also assessed performance of the replacement standard in serological assays which are used as alternative procedures to challenge assays for tetanus potency testing. Results suggest that the replacement standard is suitable for use as the reference vaccine in serological assays.

  7. Valvular repair or replacement for mitral endocarditis: 7-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Gamble, Greg; Kang, Nicholas; Pemberton, James

    2014-10-01

    A few studies have compared mitral valve repair and replacement in the setting of infective endocarditis, with varying results. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in endocarditis patients. All patients undergoing mitral valve repair or replacement for active mitral endocarditis during 2005-2011 were included. Operative and follow-up mortality, composite morbidity, recurrent endocarditis, and redo operations were prespecified endpoints for analyses. There were 25 and 35 patients undergoing mitral valve repair and replacement, respectively. They were followed-up for 3.9 ± 2.5 years. Valve replacement patients were older (p = 0.029), had a higher prevalence of intracardiac abscess (p = 0.035), previous endocarditis (p = 0.036), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.001), worse renal function (p = 0.013), higher risk scores (p = 0.004-0.020), and longer operation times (p endocarditis (p = 0.081), and redo operations (p = 0.813). Independent predictors of operative mortality were preoperative inotropic or intraaortic balloon pump support. The independent predictor of mortality during follow-up was dialysis. Independent predictors of composite morbidity were intracardiac abscess and hypercholesterolemia. The independent predictor of recurrent endocarditis was previous endocarditis, and the independent predictor of redo operation was previous stroke. Mitral valve replacement candidates had more baseline risk factors and higher raw rates of postoperative mortality and morbidity, which did not reach statistical significance. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Study on concrete with partial replacement of cement by rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Increase in the demand of conventional construction materials and the need for providing a sustainable growth in the construction field has prompted the designers and developers to opt for ‘alternative materials’ feasible for use in construction. For this objective, the use of industrial waste products and agricultural byproducts are very constructive. These industrial wastes and agricultural by products such as Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash, Silica Fume, and Slag can be replaced instead of cement because of their pozzolanic behavior, which otherwise requires large tract of lands for dumping. In the present investigation, Rice Husk Ash has been used as an admixture to cement in concrete and its properties has been studied. An attempt was also done to examine the strength and workability parameters of concrete. For normal concrete, mix design is done based on Indian Standard (IS) method and taking this as reference, mix design has been made for replacement of Rice Husk Ash. Four different replacement levels namely 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% are selected and studied with respect to the replacement method.

  9. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  10. The regeneration blastema of lizards: an amniote model for the study of appendage replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E A B; Delorme, S L; Vickaryous, M K

    2015-04-01

    Although amniotes (reptiles, including birds, and mammals) are capable of replacing certain tissues, complete appendage regeneration is rare. Perhaps the most striking example is the lizard tail. Tail loss initiates a spontaneous epimorphic (blastema-mediated) regenerative program, resulting in a fully functional but structurally non-identical replacement. Here we review lizard tail regeneration with a particular focus on the blastema. In many lizards, the original tail has evolved a series of fracture planes, anatomical modifications that permit the tail to be self-detached or autotomized. Following tail loss, the wound site is covered by a specialized wound epithelium under which the blastema develops. An outgrowth of the spinal cord, the ependymal tube, plays a key role in governing growth (and likely patterning) of the regenerate tail. In some species (e.g., geckos), the blastema forms as an apical aggregation of proliferating cells, similar to that of urodeles and teleosts. For other species (e.g., anoles) the identification of a proliferative blastema is less obvious, suggesting an unexpected diversity in regenerative mechanisms among tail-regenerating lizards.

  11. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

  12. Quality of systematic reviews: an example of studies comparing artificial disc replacement with fusion in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, Osama A; El-Tumi, Hanan; Aneiba, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) is now an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Many studies have evaluated the efficacy of C-ADR compared with ACDF. This led to a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to evaluate the evidence of the superiority of one intervention against the other. The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the quality of these reviews and meta-analyses. Medline via Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords: (total disk replacement, prosthesis, implantation, discectomy, and arthroplasty) AND (cervical vertebrae, cervical spine, and spine) AND (systematic reviews, reviews, and meta-analysis). Screening and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Two reviewers then assessed the quality of the selected reviews and meta-analysis using 11-item AMSTAR score which is a validated measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Screening of full reports of 46 relevant abstracts resulted in the selection of 15 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses as eligible for this study. The two reviewers' inter-rater agreement level was high as indicated by kappa of >0.72. The AMSTAR score of the reviews ranged from 3 to 11. Only one study (a Cochrane review) scored 100% (AMSTAR 11). Five studies scored below (AMSTAR 5) indicating low-quality reviews. The most significant drawbacks of reviews of a score below 5 were not using an extensive search strategy, failure to use the scientific quality of the included studies appropriately in formulating a conclusion, not assessing publication bias, and not reporting the excluded studies. With a significant exception of a Cochrane review, the methodological quality of systematic reviews evaluating the evidence of C-ADR versus ACDF has to be improved.

  13. A 5 year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... postoperatively. RESULTS: Response rate at 5 years was 86%. At 6 months significant improvement was seen in all KOOS and SF-36 scores (P

  14. Radionuclide scanning after total knee replacement: correlation with pain and radiolucent lines. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Kjaer, L

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among Tc-99m radionuclide bone scan findings, pain, and radiolucent lines in 35 postsurgical knees. Our prospective study included bone scans, as well as radiographic and clinical examination three, seven, and 12 months after knee replacement surgery in 35...... and nonpainful knees, and the degree of isotope uptake did not correlate with the development of radiolucent lines around the prosthetic components....

  15. Comparative visualization for parameter studies of dataset series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Muddassir; Heinzl, Christoph; Eduard Gröller, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes comparison and visualization techniques to carry out parameter studies for the special application area of dimensional measurement using 3D X-ray computed tomography (3DCT). A dataset series is generated by scanning a specimen multiple times by varying parameters of an industrial 3DCT device. A high-resolution series is explored using our planar-reformatting-based visualization system. We present a novel multi-image view and an edge explorer for comparing and visualizing gray values and edges of several datasets simultaneously. Visualization results and quantitative data are displayed side by side. Our technique is scalable and generic. It can be effective in various application areas like parameter studies of imaging modalities and dataset artifact detection. For fast data retrieval and convenient usability, we use bricking of the datasets and efficient data structures. We evaluate the applicability of the proposed techniques in collaboration with our company partners.

  16. Two-year prospective study of outcomes following total temporomandibular joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, L M; Fakih-Gomez, N; Gonzalez-Perez-Somarriba, B; Centeno, G; Montes-Carmona, J F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year prospective study was to investigate outcomes achieved with a stock temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement system in the management of end-stage TMJ disorders. Fifty-two patients requiring reconstruction (36 unilateral/16 bilateral) were operated on during the period 2006-2012; 68 total prostheses were implanted (Biomet Microfixation TMJ Replacement System). The mean age at surgery was 52.6±11.5 years. Changes in the values of inclusion diagnostic criteria at entry were assessed. These included persistent and significant TMJ pain, functional impairment after failure of other surgical therapies, and imaging evidence consistent with advanced TMJ disease of more than 1-year duration. Subjects were excluded if they presented insufficient quantity/quality of bone to support the TMJ replacement, severe hyperfunctional habits, active infectious disease, or an inability to follow postoperative instructions. Over the 2 years of postoperative follow-up, mean pain intensity was reduced from 6.4±1.4 to 1.6±1.2 (P<0.001), and jaw opening was improved from 2.7±0.9cm to 4.2±0.7cm (P<0.001). During the study period, three of 68 implants (4%) were explanted and new TMJ replacements fitted. The results of this study support the view that the surgical placement of stock TMJ prostheses provides significant long-term improvements in pain and function, with few complications. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A method of meta-mechanism combination and replacement based on motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacking the effective methods to reduce labor and cost, many small- and medium-sized assembly companies are facing with the problem of high cost for a long time. In order to reduce costs of manual operations, the method of meta-mechanism combination and replacement is studied. In this paper, we mainly discuss assembling motion analysis, workpieces position information acquisition, motion library construction, assembling motion analysis by Maynard’s operation sequence technique, meta-mechanism database establishment, and match of motion and mechanism. At the same time, the principle, process, and system realization framework of mechanism replacement are introduced. Lastly, problems for low-cost automation of the production line are basically resolved by operator motion analysis and meta-mechanism combination and match.

  18. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  19. Use and discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy in women with myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Hansen, P. R.; Abildstrom, S. Z.

    2011-01-01

    center dot General use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) dropped drastically after 2002 when pivotal randomized trials showed increased risk of coronary artery disease and other complications with HRT. center dot HRT is not recommended for primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart...... disease and guidelines recommend discontinuation of HRT after myocardial infarction (MI). center dot It is unknown whether women actually discontinue HRT after MI. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS center dot Women who use HRT when they experience their MI generally continue using HRT. center dot We found a remarkably...... low increase in discontinuation after 2002, in contrast to the general drop in use of HRT. AIM To characterize the pattern of use and discontinuation of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with myocardial infarction (MI) before and after 2002, where the general use of HRT dropped...

  20. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦玉; 江涛; 张季平; 常文瑞; 梁栋材

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model, the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods. The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32, cell dimensions a = b = 10.53 nm, c = 18.94 nm, α =β = 90°, γ= 120°; there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell. The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1 % for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm. Using the results by molecular replacement, the initial model of APC-PY was built, and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-FC OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  1. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model,the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods.The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32,cell dimensions a=b= 10.53 nm,c=18.94 nm,α= β= 90°,γ=120°;there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell.The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1% for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm.Using the results by molecular replacement,the initial model of APC-PY was built,and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-Fc OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  2. Exploratory Study of Rubber Seed Shell as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being a major rubber trees growing country has been generating a large amount of rubber seed shell which regarded as waste. At the same time, the growing construction industry which boosts the concrete production trade has results in higher consumption of natural coarse aggregate which open the door for depletion of this material in future. This study focuses on investigating the possibility of integrating crushed rubber seed shell as partial coarse aggregate replacement material in concrete making. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed rubber seed shell as partial coarse aggregate replacement ranging from 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, respectively were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7 and 28 days. The workability test, compressive strength test and flexural strength test of the mixes was conducted in accordance to MS26 Part 1: Section 2, BSEN 12390 and ASTM 293-79 respectively. Generally, workability, compressive strength and flexural strength decrease with the increase in the crushed rubber seed shell replacement level. However, mix consisting around 10% of crushed rubber seed shell is suitable for the application in concrete work.

  3. Study on a hypothetical replacement of nuclear electricity by wind power in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Rachlew, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Swedish electricity supply system benefits strongly from the natural conditions which allow a high share of hydroelectricity. A complete supply is, however, not possible. Up to now, nuclear power is the other workhorse to serve the country with electricity. Thus, electricity production of Sweden is basically CO2 -free and Sweden has reached an environmental status which others in Europe plan to reach in 2050. Furthermore, there is an efficient exchange within the Nordic countries, Nordpol, which can ease possible capacity problems during dry cold years. In this study we investigate to what extent and with what consequences the base load supply of nuclear power can be replaced by intermittent wind power. Such a scenario leads unavoidably to high wind power installations. It is shown that hydroelectricity cannot completely smooth out the fluctuations of wind power and an additional back-up system using fossil fuel is necessary. From the operational dynamics, this system has to be based on gas. The back-up system cannot be replaced by a storage using surplus electricity from wind power. The surplus is too little. To overcome this, further strong extension of wind power is necessary which leads, however, to a reduction of the use of hydroelectricity if the annual consumption is kept constant. In this case one fossil-free energy form is replaced by another, however, more complex one. A mix of wind power at 22.3GW plus a gas based back-up system with 8.6GW producing together 64.8TWh would replace the present infrastructure with 9GW nuclear power producing 63.8TWh electricity. The specific CO2 -emission increases to the double in this case. Pumped storage for the exclusive supply of Sweden does not seem to be a meaningful investment.-1

  4. A 5-year retrospective study on Replace Select Tapered dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Pelle; Sennerby, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Long-term data regarding survival and crestal bone loss for Replace Select Tapered implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) are lacking. The study aims to present the 5-year outcomes from a retrospective analysis of Replace Select Tapered implants placed and restored in consecutive patients. A total of 88 consecutive patients (32 male, 56 female, mean age 65 ± 12 years) treated by one clinician (PP) were clinically and radiographically evaluated during at least 5 years of function. A total of 271 dental implants (Replace Select Tapered, Nobel Biocare AB) with an oxidized surface (TiUnite, Nobel Biocare AB) had been placed in both jaws (228 in the maxilla, 43 in the mandible). The majority of implants were placed in healed sites (n = 244), while 27 implants were immediately placed in extraction sockets. The majority of implants (n = 262) healed for 3 to 4 months prior to loading, and nine implants were immediately loaded. A total of 121 implant-supported restorations were delivered; 42 single tooth replacements, 61 fixed partial bridges, 14 fixed full bridges, and 4 fixed partial implant-tooth connected bridges. The marginal bone level was measured in intraoral radiographs taken after surgery (baseline), and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. Fifty-one patients with 160 implants were followed throughout the study. One implant failed at healing abutment connection 4 months after insertion, resulting in a cumulative survival rate of 99.6%. The average crestal bone loss was 0.9 ± 1.6 mm after 1 year and 0.1 mm ± 2.4 after 5 years. There were 14.8% of measured implants that showed more than 2 mm and 5.2% more than 3 mm bone loss after 5 years, with no progression since the 1-year examination. One patient (2.0%) treated with six implants presented with significant crestal bone loss and recurrent peri-implant purulent infections at all implants. The present retrospective 5-year study showed high survival rate and steady crestal bone

  5. Resurfacing hip replacement and cemented total hip replacement have equivalent outcome at one year in a disease matched population: a case-control study of patient reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robbie; Goudie, Ewan B; Jenkins, Paul; Gaston, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Resurfacing hip replacement has demonstrated good survival and outcomes for cohorts of younger male patients, but few controlled studies exist. In this study we compared patient reported outcome measures and satisfaction scores at one year following resurfacing hip replacement in 69 male patients with two control groups of equal numbers undergoing cemented total hip replacement: aged-matched patients and disease matched patients. At one year we found no difference in improvement in patient reported outcome measures between patients undergoing resurfacing hip replacement and disease matched patients, whereas patients undergoing resurfacing hip replacement had a statistically significant improvement in Oxford Hip Score compared to the age-matched controls (pResurfacing hip replacement and total 
hip replacement both confer increase in patient reported outcome scores and high patient satisfaction at one year. The results of this study will allow better counselling of patients and help inform 
treatment decisions.

  6. Earthquake forecasting studies using radon time series data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Arvind; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Chou, Kuang-Wu; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    For few decades, growing number of studies have shown usefulness of data in the field of seismogeochemistry interpreted as geochemical precursory signals for impending earthquakes and radon is idendified to be as one of the most reliable geochemical precursor. Radon is recognized as short-term precursor and is being monitored in many countries. This study is aimed at developing an effective earthquake forecasting system by inspecting long term radon time series data. The data is obtained from a network of radon monitoring stations eastblished along different faults of Taiwan. The continuous time series radon data for earthquake studies have been recorded and some significant variations associated with strong earthquakes have been observed. The data is also examined to evaluate earthquake precursory signals against environmental factors. An automated real-time database operating system has been developed recently to improve the data processing for earthquake precursory studies. In addition, the study is aimed at the appraisal and filtrations of these environmental parameters, in order to create a real-time database that helps our earthquake precursory study. In recent years, automatic operating real-time database has been developed using R, an open source programming language, to carry out statistical computation on the data. To integrate our data with our working procedure, we use the popular and famous open source web application solution, AMP (Apache, MySQL, and PHP), creating a website that could effectively show and help us manage the real-time database.

  7. Total hip replacements done without cement after acetabular fractures: a 4- to 8-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, M H; Solberg, B D; Zatorski, L E; Keggi, K J

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-one patients (21 hips) underwent cementless total hip replacement surgeries for previous acetabular fractures. The mean age at the time of hip replacement was 52 years (range, 23-78 years). The mean follow-up was 65 months (range, 48-104 months). One hip required revision of the stem secondary to a periprosthetic femur fracture from a fall at 3 months after surgery. Good to excellent clinical rating was achieved and maintained in 19 hips. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated stable cup and stem fixation in 17 and 15 hips. Only 1 patient with radiographic loosening of the components was sufficiently symptomatic. The results in this series appeared slightly better than those reported previously in hip replacements done with cement at comparable medium-term follow-up. The mechanical failure rates remained high in this patient population: 19% for the cups and 29% for the stems.

  8. Knee injury and obesity in patients undergoing total knee replacement: a retrospective study in 115 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Hjorth; Rofail, S

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and previous knee injury was assessed in a retrospective study of 115 patients under-going total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis. Obesity was considered a contributing factor in the development of osteoarthritis in 37% of the patients, and 33% of the patients had...... had an injury to the knee in question. Unilateral osteoarthritis was significantly more frequent than bilateral osteoarthritis among patients with a history of previous knee injury. The association of previous injury to the knee and unilateral osteoarthritis was stronger in men than women. Aggressive...... treatment of patients with knee injuries seems warranted....

  9. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  10. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  11. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  12. Bacterial contamination of suction catheter tips during aortic valve replacement surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Johanna; Sutherland, Sofia; Söderström, Åsa; Roman-Emanuel, Christine; Jeppsson, Anders; Olofsson, Elisabeth Hansson; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mediastinitis is a severe complication after open heart surgery. The infection causes prolonged hospitalization and an increased mortality risk. Observations from orthopaedic surgery showed that the suction catheter used during surgery is commonly contaminated with bacteria. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of suction catheter contamination in cardiac surgery and to study if suction time influences the contamination risk. Fifty suction catheter tips were collected during 25 aortic valve replacement operations. The suction tip was exchanged once during the operation (after aortotomy closure). The tips were subjected to bacterial contamination analysis. In 20 of the 25 investigated cases (80%), bacterial contamination was detected on one or both tips. The tip used during the beginning of the operation showed bacterial contamination in 13/25 cases (52%) and the second tip in 12/25 (48%). In 5/25 cases (20%) both tips were contaminated. There was no association between bacterial contamination and suction time. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the most commonly detected microorganism. The suction device should be considered as a potential source of bacterial contamination in cardiac surgery. The results suggest that the suction catheter should be replaced before key moments like valve implantation and sternal closure.

  13. A clinical comparative study of anatomic parameters before and after total hip replacement on congenital dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Yonggang; Chai, Wei; Ji, Weiping; Cui, Guopeng; Ma, Miaoqun; Zhu, Yin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] To study preoperative and postoperative hip circumference data of various types of congenital dysplasia of the hip treated with total hip replacement, including the femoral offset, femoral neck length, height, and hip abductor arm parameters. [Subjects and Methods] This study included seventy-eight cases of congenital dysplasia of the hip (I-III type). Furthermore, four parameters were measured, including the preoperative and postoperative femoral offset. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SPSS 13.0 software. [Results] The femoral offset was 33.3 ± 8.4 mm (preoperative) and 39.1 ± 7.1 mm (postoperative). The femoral head height was 59.5 ± 8.7 mm (preoperative) and 68.8 ± 11.0 mm (postoperative). The femoral neck length was 50.8 ± 10.8 mm (preoperative) and 61.5 ± 10.4 mm (postoperative). The hip abductor arm was 54.3 ± 9.6 mm (preoperative) 64.7 ± 10.1 mm (postoperative). The preoperative and postoperative parameters showed statistical differences. Furthermore, no significant differences were evidenced when comparing the postoperative hip parameters with the normal data parameters. [Conclusion] Total hip replacement on congenital dysplasia of the hip could lead to the rebuilt of an almost normal physiological anatomy for each hip case (type I-III).

  14. Quality of pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, S; Pettila, V; Kaukonen, K-M

    2012-02-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the preferred renal replacement therapy modality in the critically ill. We aimed to reveal the literature on the pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients receiving CRRT with special reference to quality assessment of these studies and the CRRT dose. We conducted a systematic review by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases to December 2009 and bibliographies of relevant review articles. We included original studies reporting from critically ill adult subjects receiving CRRT because of acute kidney injury with a special emphasis on drug pharmacokinetics. We used the minimum reporting criteria for CRRT studies by Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) and, second, the Downs and Black checklist to assess the quality of the studies. We calculated the CRRT dose per study. We included pharmacokinetic parameters, residual renal function, and recommendations on drug dosing. Of 182 publications, 95 were considered relevant and 49 met the inclusion criteria. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] number of reported criteria by ADQI was 7.0 (5.0-8.0) of 12. The median (IQR) Downs and Black quality score was 15 (14-16) of 32. None of the publications reported CRRT dose directly. The median (IQR) weighted CRRT dose was 23.7 (18.8-27.9) ml/kg/h. More attention should be paid both to standardizing the CRRT dose and reporting of the CRRT parameters in pharmacokinetic studies. The general quality of the studies during CRRT in the critically ill was only moderate and would be greatly improved by reports in concordant with the ADQI recommendations. © 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanistic study on the replacement reaction between silver nanostructures and chloroauric acid in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; Xia, Younan

    2004-03-31

    The replacement reaction between silver nanostructures and an aqueous HAuCl(4) solution has recently been demonstrated as a versatile method for generating metal nanostructures with hollow interiors. Here we describe the results of a systematic study detailing the morphological, structural, compositional, and spectral changes involved in such a heterogeneous reaction on the nanoscale. Two distinctive steps have been resolved through a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic methods. In the first step, silver nanostructure (i.e., the template) is dissolved to generate gold atoms that are deposited epitaxially on the surface of each template. Silver atoms also diffuse into the gold shell (or sheath) to form a seamless, hollow nanostructure with its wall made of Au-Ag alloys. The second step involves dealloying, a process that selectively removes silver atoms from the alloyed wall, induces morphological reconstruction, and finally leads to the formation of pinholes in the walls. Reaction temperature was found to play an important role in the replacement reaction because the solubility constant of AgCl and the diffusion coefficients of Ag and Au atoms were both strongly dependent on this parameter. This work has enabled us to prepare metal nanostructures with controllable geometric shapes and structures, and thus optical properties (for example, the surface plasmon resonance peaks could be readily shifted from 500 to 1200 nm by controlling the ratio between Ag and HAuCl(4)).

  17. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing

  18. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshotam Lal Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Total knee replacement (TKR is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV, half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student′s paired ′t′ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD, and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001. The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001. The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in

  19. The Study of Time Series Using the DMA Methods and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Agayan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discrete mathematical analysis (DMA is a series of algorithms aimed at the solution of basic problems of data analysis: clustering and tracing in multidimensional arrays, morphological analysis of reliefs, search for anomalies and trends in records etc. All the DMA algorithms are of universal nature, joined by the same formal foundation, based, in its turn, on fuzzy logic (FL and fuzzy mathematics (FM. The current study finalizes the search for the anomalies in one-dimensional time series within the scope of DMA: here the initial concept of an interpreter’s logic gets its additional development. First, the formal expert’s opinions are more fully expressed, and this is realized with the more complex measures of activity (the concept of straightenings (Gvishiani et al. 2003; Gvishiani et al. 2004; Zlotnicki et al. 2005 is replaced by the measures of activity which come to the fore: second, for the junction of anomalies, a recently created DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets algorithm is used DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets (Agayan et al. 2011; Agayan et al. 2014.

  20. Quasi-experimental study designs series - paper 1: history and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Røttingen, John-Arne; Rockers, Peter; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-07-07

    To contrast the historical development of experiments and quasi-experiments and provide the motivation for a journal series on quasi-experimental designs in health research STUDY DESIGN: A short historical narrative, with concrete examples, and arguments based on an understanding of the practice of health research and evidence synthesis RESULTS: Health research has played a key role in developing today's gold standard for causal inference - the randomized controlled multiply blinded trial. Historically, allocation approaches developed from convenience and purposive allocation to alternate and, finally, to random allocation. This development was motivated both by concerns for manipulation in allocation as well as statistical and theoretical developments demonstrating the power of randomization in creating counterfactuals for causal inference. In contrast to the sequential development of experiments, quasi-experiments originated at very different points in time, from very different scientific perspectives, and with frequent and long interruptions in their methodological development. Health researchers have only recently started to recognize the value of quasi-experiments for generating novel insights on causal relationships. While quasi-experiments are unlikely to replace experiments in generating the efficacy and safety evidence required for clinical guidelines and regulatory approval of medical technologies, quasi-experiments can play an important role in establishing the effectiveness of healthcare practice, programs and policies. The papers in this series describe and discuss a range of important issues in utilizing quasi-experimental designs for primary research and quasi-experimental results for evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Study on starch replacement by pro-healthy fibers in puddings concentrate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zychnowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a possibility of inulin and polydextrose using in pro-healthy pudding production was investigated. Sensory evaluation and physical properties analysis such as apparent viscosity, hardness and colour components of experimental puddings were carried out. Fibers application decreased hardness and apparent viscosity of the analysed puddings. Inulin and polydextrose replacement did not significantly affects the brightness of the puddings, with the exception of appendix polydextrose (in quantities of 3.5 and 4%, which reduced their brightness. Based on extensive studies it was found that it is possible to use inulin and polydextrose in the production of chocolate puddings. Puddings with improved properties can be obtained with lower concentrations of the fibers.

  2. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine W Chong

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49. Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02. The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured

  3. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be

  4. In vitro fatigue failure of cemented acetabular replacements: a hip simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zant, N P; Heaton-Adegbile, P; Hussell, J G; Tong, J

    2008-04-01

    Although hip simulators for in vitro wear testing of prosthetic materials used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been available for a number of years, similar equipment has yet to appear for endurance testing of fixation in cemented THA, despite considerable evidence of late aseptic loosening as one of the most significant failure mechanisms in this type of replacements. An in vitro study of fatigue behavior in cemented acetabular replacements has been carried out, utilizing a newly developed hip simulator. The machine was designed to simulate the direction and the magnitude of the hip contact force under typical physiological loading conditions, including normal walking and stair climbing, as reported by Bergmann et al. (2001, Hip 98, Freie Universitaet, Berlin). A 3D finite element analysis has been carried out to validate the function of the hip simulator and to evaluate the effects of boundary conditions and geometry of the specimen on the stress distribution in the cement mantle. Bovine pelvic bones were implanted with a Charnley cup, using standard manual cementing techniques. Experiments were carried out under normal walking and descending stairs loading conditions with selected load levels from a body weight of 75-125 kg. Periodically, the samples were removed from the test rigs to allow CT scanning for the purpose of monitoring damage development in the cement fixation. The hip simulator was found to be satisfactory in reproducing the hip contact force during normal walking and stair climbing, as reported by Bergmann et al. Finite element analysis shows that the stress distributions in the cement mantle and at the bone-cement interface are largely unaffected by the geometry and the boundary conditions of the model. Three samples were tested up to 17 x 10(6) cycles and sectioned post-testing for microscopic studies. Debonding at the bone-cement interface of various degrees in the posterior-superior quadrant was revealed in these samples, and the location

  5. Molecular Replacement Studies of Cucurmosin from Cucurbita Moschata: Structure Homology with Trichosanthin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Li(石小莉); Edward X. Zhou; YE Xiao-Ming(叶晓明); Edward J. Meehan; CHEN Ming-Huang(陈明晃); Liqing Chen(陈荔清)

    2003-01-01

    High diffraction quality crystals of cucurmosin, a type Ⅰ ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin), have been grown under newly optimised conditions. With in-house rotating anode X-ray source, these crystals diffract to 1.65 A resolution which is much higher than that of the previously reported crystals that diffracted only to 3 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 58.4 and c = 99.3 A. Molecular replacement studies indicate that the cucurmosin structure is homologous to trichosanthin. The initial structural model has been obtained and the model fitting/refinement is in progress.

  6. Exploratory survey study of long-term users of nicotine replacement therapy in Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Christrup, Lona Louring; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim

    Background Long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been approved in several countries for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. However, information on basic characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, health status and contentment with long-term use of NRT...... is scarce. The aim of this study was to collect information on the characteristics of long-term NRT users, having used NRT for at least 12 months, reasons for, and contentment with, their continued use of NRT including reasons for wishing to quit or sustain use and an estimation of their degree of nicotine...... to estimate nicotine dependence. Linear regression was used to test association between time to first NRT and daily dosage of NRT. Results A total of 92 respondents were included in the data analysis. A majority of 88% wished to quit NRT for the following reasons: costs of NRT, being tired of feeling addicted...

  7. Exploratory survey study of long-term users of nicotine replacement therapy in Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim; Tønnesen, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been approved in several countries for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. However, information on basic characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, health status and contentment with long-term use of NRT...... is scarce. The aim of this study was to collect information on the characteristics of long-term NRT users, having used NRT for at least 12 months, reasons for, and contentment with, their continued use of NRT including reasons for wishing to quit or sustain use and an estimation of their degree of nicotine...... to estimate nicotine dependence. Linear regression was used to test association between time to first NRT and daily dosage of NRT. Results: A total of 92 respondents were included in the data analysis. A majority of 88% wished to quit NRT for the following reasons: costs of NRT, being tired of feeling...

  8. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy, K.; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  9. Replacement of missing teeth in a southern region of Vietnam--a descriptive dental laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Tu, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether tooth replacement in a southern region of Vietnam is in line with the primary health care approach, aiming at health services for all people at affordable costs. METHODS: Tooth replacement was investigated by means of prostheses as delivered by four dental laboratories of whi

  10. Total ankle replacement: a population-based study of 515 cases from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivu, Helka; Eskelinen, Antti; Ikävalko, Mikko; Paavolainen, Pekka; Remes, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Although total ankle replacement (TAR) is a recognized procedure for treatment of the painful arthritic ankle, the best choice of implant and the long-term results are still unknown. We evaluated the survival of two TAR designs and factors associated with survival using data from the nationwide arthroplasty registry in Finland. Methods 573 primary TARs were performed during the period 1982–2006 because of rheumatic, arthritic, or posttraumatic ankle degeneration. We selected contemporary TAR designs that were each used in more than 40 operations, including the S.T.A.R. (n = 217) and AES (n = 298), to assess their respective survival rates. The mean age of the patients was 55 (17–86) years and 63% of operations were performed in women. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The effects of age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume were also studied. Results The annual incidence of TAR was 1.5 per 105 inhabitants. The 5-year overall survivorship for the whole TAR cohort was 83% (95% CI: 81–86), which agrees with earlier reports. The most frequent reasons for revision were aseptic loosening of one or both of the prosthesis components (39%) and instability (39%). We found no difference in survival rate between the S.T.A.R. and AES designs. Furthermore, age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume ( 100 replacements in each of 17 hospitals) did not affect the TAR survival. Interpretation Based on our findings, we cannot conclude that any prosthesis was superior to any other. A high number of technical errors in primary TARs suggests that this low-volume field of implant arthroplasty should be centralized to fewer units. PMID:20180720

  11. Can arsenates replace phosphates in natural biochemical processes? A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jissy, A K; Datta, Ayan

    2013-07-18

    A bacterial strain, GFAJ-1 was recently proposed to be substituting arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. We have performed theoretical calculations for analyzing this controversial hypothesis by examining the addition of phosphate to ribose and glucose. Dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in small molecules and QM/MM calculations on clusters derived from crystal structure are performed on structures involved in phosphorylation, considering both phosphates and arsenates. The exothermicity as well as the activation barriers for phosphate and arsenate transfer were examined. Quantum mechanical studies reveal that the relative stability of the products decrease marginally with successive substitution of P with As. However, simultaneously, the transition state barriers decrease with P replacement. This indicates that, kinetically, addition of As is more facile. Pseudorotation barriers for the pentavalent intermediates formed during the nucleophilic attack are also analyzed. A monotonic increase in barriers is observed for pseudorotation with the successive replacement of phosphorus with arsenic in methyl-DHP. A glucokinase crystal structure was chosen to construct a model system for QM/MM calculations. Free energy of the reaction (ΔG) reduces by less than 2.0 kcal/mol and the activation barrier (ΔG(‡)) decreases by ∼1 kcal/mol on arsenic incorporation. Thus, both DFT and QM/MM calculations show that arsenic can readily substitute phosphorus in key biomolecules. Secondary kinetic isotope effects for phosphorylation mechanism obtained by QM/MM calculations are also reported. The solvent kinetic isotopic effects (SKIE) for ATP and ATP (As) are calculated to be 5.81 and 4.73, respectively. A difference of ∼1.0 in SKIE suggests that it should be possible to experimentally determine the As-phosphorylation process.

  12. Comparative study of anticoagulation versus saline flushes in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarik Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic heparinization during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is associated with disadvantage of risk of bleeding. This study analyses the efficacy of frequent saline flushes compared with heparin anticoagulation to maintain filter life. From January 2004 to November 2007, 65 critically ill patients with acute renal failure underwent CRRT. Continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration (CVVHDF was performed using Diapact Braun CRRT machine. 1.7% P.D. fluid was used as dialysate. 0.9% NS with addition of 10% Ca Gluconate, Magnesium Sulphate, Soda bicarbonate and Potassium Chloride added sequentially in separate units were used for replacement, carefully monitoring their levels. Anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit was achieved with unfractionated heparin (250-500 units alternate hour in 35 patients targeting aPTT of 45-55 seconds. No anticoagulation was used in 30 patients with baseline APTT > 55 seconds and extracorporeal circuit was maintained with saline flushes at 30 min interval. 65 pa-tients including 42 males. Co-morbidities were comparable in both groups. HMARF was signifi-cantly more common in heparin group while Sepsis was comparable in both the groups. CRRT parameters were similar in both groups. Average filter life in heparin group was 26 ± 6.4 hours while it was 24.5 ± 6.36 hours in heparin free group ( P=NS. Patients receiving heparin had 16 bleeding episodes (0.45/patient while only four bleeding episodes occurred in heparin free group (0.13/patient, P< 0.05. Mortality was 71% in heparin group and 67% in heparin free group. Frequent saline flushes is an effective mode of maintainance of extracorporeal circuit in CRRT when aPTT is already on the higher side, with significantly decreased bleeding episodes.

  13. Study of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Coal Power Plant Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study comprises of concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement and with different configurations of fly ash by replacing cement and fine aggregate. To achieve the aim of this study, total 81 concrete cubes were cast. Among 81 cubes, 9 cubes were made with normal concrete, 36 cubes were made by replacing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fine aggregate with fly ash and 36 cubes were made by replacing 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of cement with fly ash. The cubes were 6\\" x 6\\" in cross-section, and the mix design was aimed for 5000 psi. After proper curing of all 81 cubes, they were tested at 3, 7 and 28 days curing age. The cubes were tested in Forney Universal Testing Machine. By analyzing the test results of all the concrete cubes, the following main findings have been drawn. The compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 100 % fine aggregate by fly ash was higher than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all 3, 7 and 28 days curing ages. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 10 % and 25 % cement by fly ash was slightly lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages, whereas, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 50 % and 75 % of cement by fly ash were quite lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages.

  14. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  15. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  16. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  17. The effectiveness of sublingual and topical compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Andres D; Daniels, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrated improved menopausal symptom relief following treatment with compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy; however, clinical effectiveness studies evaluating different routes of bioidentical hormone replacement therapy administration are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of sublingual and topical compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy for the treatment of vasomotor, mood, and other quality-of-life symptoms in post-menopausal women. This was a prospective, observational cohort study of women > or = 18 years of age who received a compounded sublingual or topical bioidentical hormone replacement therapy preparation between January 1, 2003 and October 1, 2010 in a community pharmacy. Data collection included patient demographics, comorbidities, hormone regimens, and therapeutic outcomes. Patients rated their vasomotor, mood, and quality-of-life symptoms as absent, mild, moderate, or severe at baseline, at one to three months follow-up, and three to six months follow-up. Baseline characteristics were compared using the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Symptom intensity between baseline and follow-up periods were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 200 patients met study criteria; 160 received topical bioidentical hormone replacement therapy, and 40 received sublingual bioidentical hormone replacement therapy. Most sublingually-treated patients (70%) received an estrogen combination and 100% received progesterone. Nearly half (43%) of the topically treated patients received an estrogen combination (43%) and 99% received progesterone. The percentage of sublingually treated patients reporting "moderate" or "severe" symptoms was significantly reduced at one to three months follow-up for the following target symptoms: hot flashes (31%, P = 0.04), night sweats (38%, P sublingual bioidentical hormone

  18. Maverick total disc replacement in a real-world patient population: a prospective, multicentre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaker, Richard; Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Vardon, Dominique; Litrico, Stéphane; Fuentes, Stéphane; Putzier, Michael; Franke, Jörg; Jarzem, Peter; Guigui, Pierre; Nakach, Gérard; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2015-09-01

    Controlled trials have shown that total disc replacement (TDR) can provide pain and disability relief to patients with degenerative disc disease; however, whether these outcomes can also be achieved for patients treated in normal surgical practice has not been well documented. This prospective, international study observed changes in disability and back pain in 134 patients who were implanted with Maverick TDR within the framework of routine clinical practice and followed for 2 years post-surgery. Primary and secondary outcomes were the differences from baseline to 6 months post-surgery in the means of the Oswestry Disability Index and the change in back pain intensity assessed on a 10-cm visual analogue scale, respectively. Mean patient age at surgery was 43 years, but ranged up to 65 years. One hundred twenty-three patients had an implant at one level, 10 patients at two levels, and one patient at three levels. Statistically significant improvements in mean disability (-25.4) and low back pain intensity (-4.0) scores were observed at 6 months postoperatively (P 10 TDRs per centre). During the study, 56 patients (42 %) experienced a complication or adverse event. This is the first international observational study to report outcomes of TDR in real-world clinical settings. We showed statistically significant improvements in disability and pain scores at 6 months following Maverick TDR, which were maintained for 2 years alongside an acceptable rate of perioperative complications. The safety and tolerability shown in this observational study were comparable to those from controlled trials.

  19. The Study of Cost Rate for Multiple Cold Standby System Replacement Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We consider a replacement policy for a multiple-component cold-standby system, and after we analyze this policy, we want to get the mean total cost rate and the preventive policy to make it the lowest. In this system, the failure rate of the component in operation is constant, and the inspection will control all the processes of the operation. The system is inspected at random points over time to determine whether it is to be replaced. During the process, the replacement decision is based on the number of failed components at the time of inspection.

  20. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  1. An Investigation of Topics and Trends of Tracheal Replacement Studies Using Co-Occurrence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Fariba; Feizabadi, Mansoureh; Farzanegan, Roya; Vaziri, Esmaeil; Samani, Saeed; Lajevardi, Seyedamirmohammad; Moradi, Lida; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated tracheal regeneration studies using scientometric and co-occurrence analysis to identify the most important topics and assess their trends over time. To provide the adequate search options, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS) were used to cover various categories such as keywords, countries, organizations, and authors. Search results were obtained by employing Bibexcel. Co-occurrence analysis was applied to evaluate the publications. Finally, scientific maps, author's network, and country contributions were depicted using VOSviewer and NetDraw. Furthermore, the first 25 countries and 130 of the most productive authors were determined. Regarding the trend analysis, 10 co-occurrence terms out of highly frequent words were examined at 5-year intervals. Our findings indicated that the field of trachea regeneration has tested different approaches over the time. In total, 65 countries have contributed to scientific progress both in experimental and clinical fields. Special keywords such as tissue engineering and different types of stem cells have been increasingly used since 1995. Studies have addressed topics such as angiogenesis, decellularization methods, extracellular matrix, and mechanical properties since 2011. These findings will offer evidence-based information about the current status and trends of tracheal replacement research topics over time, as well as countries' contributions.

  2. Study on the Utilization of Paper Mill Sludge as Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar A.M. Md

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A major problem arising from the widespread use of forestry biomass and processed timber waste as fuel is related to the production of significant quantities of ash as a by-product from the incineration of such biomasses. A major portion (approximately 70% of the wood waste ash produced is land-filled as a common method of disposal. If the current trend continues with waste products, such as paper mill sludge landfills, a large amount of space would be required by 2020. A revenue study was conducted as a result of investigations into the use of paper mill sludge as recycled materials and additives in concrete mixes for use in construction projects. The study had to provide the assurance that the concrete produced had the correct mechanical strength. Concrete mixes containing paper mill sludge were prepared, and their basic strength characteristics such as the compressive strength, flexural strength, ultra pulse velocity and dynamic modulus elasticity were tested. Four concrete mixes, i.e. a control mix, and a 10%, 20%, and 30% mix of paper mill sludge as cement replacement for concrete were prepared with a DoE mix design by calculating the weight of cement, sand and aggregate. The performance of each concrete specimen was compared with the strength of the control mix. As a result, when the percentage of paper mill sludge in the concrete increased, the strength decreased. Overall, a high correlation was observed between density and strength of the concrete containing paper mill sludge.

  3. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  4. "Forgotten knee" after total knee replacement: A pragmatic study from a single-centre cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymard, Florent; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chevalier, Xavier; Bercovy, Michel

    2015-05-01

    After total knee replacement (TKR), some patients find their operated knee totally natural and can be said to have "forgotten" it, while others, although satisfied with their results, remain conscious of their prosthesis. This is not well assessed on conventional end-points. Since 2001, we have studied the prevalence of "forgotten knee" (FK) after TKR in a prospective pragmatic cohort, with comparison to conventional scores. Patients undergoing TKR were enrolled between January 2001 and January 2008. Preoperative medical history and anthropometric and clinical data were recorded, and composite scores (Knee Society Score (KSS), Lequesne) were assessed. At each follow-up visit, FK acquisition was assessed by the closed question "Do you feel the operated knee to be always normal in all everyday activities?". Five hundred and eighty-four TKRs in 485 patients were included. Among the TKR, 91.6% were performed for severe osteoarthritis of the knee. FK frequency at a mean 75.8 months' follow-up was 42.9% while 86.1% of TKRs had excellent (KS Knee Score (KSKS)>80) or 34.9% perfect (KSKS=100) outcome. Only 66.1% of the 204 TKRs with perfect outcome on KSKS were reported as FK. Most patients achieved FK within 18 months. In this prospective study, 42.9% of TKRs were considered always forgotten in all everyday activities. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  6. AN ULTRASTRUTURAL STUDY OF HUMAN LUMINAL ENDOMETRIAL CELLS FOLLOWING DIFFERENT DOSES OF OESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARANI SH.A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of different doses of oestrogen on the endometrium of women with premature ovarian failure have been examined in this study. Materials and Methods: Four groups of women of reproductive age were studied; 1 normal fertile controls 2. patients given a standard, variable hormone replacement therapy (HRT 3. a group given a fixed daily dose of 1 mg of oestrogen and 4. a group given a fixed daily dose of 4 mg of oestrogen. Endrometrial diposises were taken at a bout 5-6 days after ovulation and tissue was prepared for light and electron microscopy. Morphometry was used to evaluate quantitatively various features of endometrial luminal epithelial cells. The volume fraction (Vv of nucleus to cell in the standard group was significantly larger than the 4 mg group. Results: The Vv of euchromatin to nucleus was larger in the controls and 4 mg group than the 1 mg subjects. The Vv of mitochondria to cell was largest in the control group. The ratio of desmosomes to surface membrane was increased (P<0.05 in the 1 mg subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that, while standard HRT is generally a good mimic of controls, the 1 mg fixed dose delayed some membrane features and the fixed 4 mg group showed advancement in some organelle growth.

  7. Current practice in continuous renal replacement therapy: An epidemiological multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasa Irriguible, T M; Sabater Riera, J; Poch López de Briñas, E; Fort Ros, J; Lloret Cora, M J; Roca Antònio, J; Navas Pérez, A; Ortiz Ballujera, P; Servià Goixart, L; González de Molina Ortiz, F J; Rovira Anglès, C; Rodríguez López, M; Roglan Piqueras, A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to ascertain the most relevant aspects of the current management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill patients, and to analyze renal function recovery and mortality in patients undergoing RRT. A non-interventional three-month observational study was made in 2012, with a follow-up period of 90 days, in 21 centers in Catalonia (Spain). Demographic information, severity scores and clinical data were obtained, as well as RRT parameters. patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and subjected to RRT. A total of 261 critically ill patients were recruited, of which 35% had renal dysfunction prior to admission. The main reason for starting RRT was oliguria; the most widely used RRT modality was hemodiafiltration; and the median prescribed dose at baseline was 35mL/kg/h. The median time of RRT onset from ICU admission was one day. The mortality rate at 30 and 90 days was 46% and 54%, respectively, and was associated to greater severity scores and a later onset of RRT. At discharge, 85% of the survivors had recovered renal function. Current practice in RRT in Catalonia abides with the current clinical practice guidelines. Mortality related to RRT is associated to later onset of such therapy. The renal function recovery rate at hospital discharge was 85% among the patients subjected to RRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  9. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Long-Term Outcomes of First-In-Man Experience with an Apically Tethered Device - A Case Series from a Single Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alison; Daqa, Anan; Yeh, James; Davies, Simon; Uebing, Anselm; Quarto, Cesare; Moat, Neil

    2017-08-13

    Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is a novel technique for treating mitral regurgitation. We report 18-month/2-year outcomes of the 5 first-in-man patients undergoing chronic TMVR with the Tendyne device. Five patients (STS score 14%-23%) underwent TMVR using a Tendyne system under compassionate use at a single centre. 1 patient (who was noncompliant with anti-coagulation) died 9 months after TMVR following a cerebrovascular accident. Whilst some of the remaining patients experienced recognised post-TMVR complications (left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, paravalvular leak, stent thrombosis), all patients alive at 18-months/2-years after TMVR reported significant reduction in NYHA Class and increase in exercise capacity compared to baseline. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated valve stability, absent transvalvular mitral regurgitation, and significant reductions in tricuspid regurgitation severity and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. Eighteen months/2 years after compassionate use of Tendyne TMVR in a highrisk surgical group, the majority of patients were alive, patient symptoms improved, and the device was stable with good haemodynamic function and no late migration. Continued follow-up of patients treated with Tendyne TMVR are required to further describe its safety and efficacy.

  10. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  11. The Anatomic Study on Replacement of Artificial Atlanto-odontoid Joint through Transoral Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hu; Shuhua YANG; Hui XIE; Xianfeng HE; Rongming XU; Weihu MA; Jianxiang FENG; Qiu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide anatomical basis for transoral approach (TOA) in dealing with the ventro lesions of craniocervical junction, and the design and application of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint, microsurgical dissecting was performed on 8 fresh craniocervical specimens layer by layer through transoropharyngeal approach. The stratification of posterior pharyngeal wall, course of vertebral artery, adjacent relationship of atlas and axis and correlative anatomical parameters of replacement of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint were observed. Besides, 32 sets of atlanto-axial joint in adults' fresh bony specimens were measured with a digital caliper and a goniometer, including the width of bony window of anterior arch of atlas, the width of bony window of axis vertebra, the distance between superior and inferior two atlas screw inserting points, the distance between two axis screw inserting points etc. It was found that the width of atlas and axis which could be exposed were 40.2±3.5mm and 39.3±3.7mm respectively. The width and height of posterior pharyngeal wall which could be exposed were 40.1±5.2mm and 50.2±4.6mm respectively. The distance between superior and inferior two atlas screw inserting points was 28.0±2.9mm and 24.0±3.5mm respectively, and the distance of bilateral axis screw inserting points was 18.0±1.2mm. The operative exposure position through TOA ranged from inferior part of the clivus to the superior part of the C3 vertebral body. Posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of 5 layers and two interspaces: mucosa, submucosa, superficial muscular layer, anterior fascia of vertebrae, anterior muscular layer of vertebrae and posterior interspace of pharynx, anterior interspace of vertebrae. This study revealed that it had the advantages of short operative distance, good exposure and sufficient decompression in dealing with the ventro lesions from the upper cervical to the lower clivus through the TOA. The replacement of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint

  12. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  13. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  14. Variations of the 'grand-piano sign' during total knee replacement. A computer-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W-Q; Won, Y-Y; Baek, M-H; Kim, K-K; Cho, J-H

    2006-11-01

    The appearance of the 'grand-piano sign' on the anterior resected surface of the femur has been considered to be a marker for correct femoral rotational alignment during total knee replacement. Our study was undertaken to assess quantitatively the morphological patterns on the resected surface after anterior femoral resection with various angles of external rotation, using a computer-simulation technique. A total of 50 right distal femora with varus osteoarthritis in 50 Korean patients were scanned using computerised tomography. Computer image software was used to simulate the anterior femoral cut, which was applied at an external rotation of 0 degrees, 3 degrees and 6 degrees relative to the posterior condylar axis, and parallel to the surgical and clinical epicondylar axes in each case. The morphological patterns on the resected surface were quantified and classified as the 'grand-piano sign', 'the boot sign' and the 'butterfly sign'. The surgeon can use the analogy of these quantified sign patterns to ensure that a correct rotational alignment has been obtained intra-operatively.

  15. Materials characterization studies on LANA75/85 materials for replacement beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Kirk L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-30

    During FY15 and FY16, a purchase order (PO) was placed with Japan Metals and Chemicals, USA after an open bidding procurement process for 282 kg of LaNi4.25Al0.75 and 226 kg. of LaNi4.15Al0.85. These materials were to be used in Tritium Facility replacement beds for existing beds that have reached the end of their useful life. As part of the PO, a 100 g. sample of each material was delivered to the SRNL Hydrogen Processing Group for characterization studies as is typically done for all newly acquired hydride materials. The PO actually employed a “trust but verify” approach where JMCUSA was allowed to ship materials it felt met specifications without SRS confirmation, as long as the data used to do so was delivered to SRS as part of the PO documentation package. Subsequent SRNL analysis revealed that the material met all specifications and was of very high quality. This report documents those findings.

  16. Can electronic zoom replace magnification in mammography? A comparative Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M; Delis, H; Pascoal, A; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G

    2010-07-01

    Magnification, which is considered to be a relatively high "dose cost" mammographic technique, is a complementary examination performed on women exhibiting breast complaints or abnormalities. Particular attention is given to the imaging procedure as the primary aim is to confirm the existence of suspected abnormalities, despite the additional dose. The introduction of post-processing capabilities and the widespread use of digital mammography promoted some controversy in the last decades on whether electronic zoom performed on the derived initial screening mammogram can effectively replace this technique. This study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to derive simulated screening mammograms produced under several exposure conditions, aiming to electronically magnify and compare them to the corresponding magnification mammograms. Comparison was based on quantitative measurements of image quality, namely contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Results demonstrated that CNR was higher for geometric magnification compared to the case of electronic zooming. The percentage difference was higher for lesions of smaller radius and achieved 29% for 0.10 mm details. Although spatial resolution is maintained high in the zoomed images, when investigating microcalcifications of 0.05 mm radius or less, only with geometric magnification can they be visualised.

  17. What happens with cow behavior when replacing concrete slatted floor by rubber coating: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, S; Ahrens, F; Bendel, J; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

    2008-03-01

    An enhanced productive life cycle and improved animal welfare are aims pursued in dairy husbandry. This study assesses experimental observations on floor-associated behavior during the stepwise replacement of concrete slatted flooring by rubber mats. For this purpose, estrus (mounting) and hygiene behavior (licking while standing on 3 legs and caudal licking) within a herd of 50 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows were analyzed by video observation before and after floor reconstruction. Still photographs and pedometers were used to asses step length and number of steps, representing walking behavior. Compared with the concrete floor surface, rubber coating led to an increase in step length (58 +/- 1 vs. 70 +/- 1 cm; n = 35) and in steps per day (4,226 +/- 450 vs. 5,611 +/- 495; mean +/- SEM; n = 9). Mounting was higher on the flooring covered with rubber mats (23 vs. 112). Collapsing or slipping during mounting only occurred on concrete slatted flooring (in 19 out of 23 mounting actions). Licking while standing on 3 legs and caudal licking increased up to 4-fold (105 vs. 511 observations). In conclusion, improvements were found in behavior when rubber-coated slatted floor surfaces were used in dairy cattle housing in transition from concrete flooring. Disorders in estrus and hygiene behavior were associated with the flooring of the barn and were relatively easy to investigate within the framework of farm welfare assessments.

  18. Functional assessment of toad parotoid macroglands: a study based on poison replacement after mechanical compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Simone G S; Jared, Carlos; Egami, Mizue I; Mailho-Fontana, Pedro L; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Antoniazzi, Marta M

    2014-09-01

    Toads have a pair of parotoid macroglands behind the eyes that secrete poison used in passive defence against predators. These macroglands are composed of juxtaposed alveoli, each one bearing a syncytial gland, all connected to the exterior by ducts. When the parotoids are bitten, the poison is expelled on the predator oral mucosa in the form of jets, causing several pharmacological actions. After poison release, the empty secretory syncytia immediately collapse in the interior of their respective alveoli and gradually start refilling. After parotoid manual compression, simulating a predator's bite, we studied, by means of morphological methods, the replacement of the poison inside the alveoli. The results showed that after compression, a considerable number of alveoli remained intact. In the alveoli that were effectively affected the recovery occurs in different levels, from total to punctual and often restrict to some areas of the syncytia. The severely affected alveoli seem not recover their original functional state. The fact that only a part of the parotoid alveoli is compressed during an attack seems to be crucial for toad survival, since the amphibian, after being bitten by a predator, do not lose all its poison stock, remaining protected in case of new attacks.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  20. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  1. Alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacements: do they perform like natural joints? Prospective cohort study with a historical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczyńska, A; Leiggener, C S; Bredell, M; Ettlin, D A; Erni, S; Gallo, L M; Colombo, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the biomechanics of existing total alloplastic reconstructions of temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Fifteen patients with unilateral or bilateral TMJ total joint replacements and 15 healthy controls were evaluated via dynamic stereometry technology. This non-invasive method combines three-dimensional imaging of the subject's anatomy with jaw tracking. It provides an insight into the patient's jaw joint movements in real time and provides a quantitative evaluation. The patients were also evaluated clinically for jaw opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements, pain, interference with eating, and satisfaction with the joint replacements. The qualitative assessment revealed that condyles of bilateral total joint replacements displayed similar basic motion patterns to those of unilateral prostheses. Quantitatively, mandibular movements of artificial joints during opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion were all significantly shorter than those of controls. A significantly restricted mandibular range of motion in replaced joints was also observed clinically. Fifty-three percent of patients suffered from chronic pain at rest and 67% reported reduced chewing function. Nonetheless, patients declared a high level of satisfaction with the replacement. This study shows that in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of complex therapeutic measures, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Different strategies in solving series completion inductive reasoning problems : An fMRI and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A.; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Neural correlate of human inductive reasoning process is still unclear. Number series and letter series completion are two typical inductive reasoning tasks, and with a common core component of rule induction. Previous studies have demonstrated that different strategies are adopted in number series

  3. A kinetic study of the replacement of calcite marble by fluorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Pedrosa, Elisabete; Boeck, Lena; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Replacement reactions are relevant in any situation that involves the reequilibration between a solid and an aqueous fluid phase and are commonly controlled by an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism (Putnis and Putnis, 2007). These reactions control many large-scale Earth processes whenever aqueous fluids are available, such as during metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. An important consequence of coupled dissolution-precipitation is the generation of porosity in the product phase that then allows the infiltration of the fluid within the mineral being replaced. Understanding the mechanism and kinetics of the replacement of carbonates by fluorite has application in earth sciences and engineering. Fluorite (CaF2) occurs in all kinds of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) and its origin is commonly associated with hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, calcium carbonate has been suggested as a successful seed material for the sequestration of fluoride from contaminated waters (Waghmare and Arfin, 2015). The aim of the present work is to investigate aspects of the replacement of calcium carbonate by fluorite to better understand the mechanism and kinetics of this reaction. Small cubes (˜ 3 × 3 × 3 mm) of Carrara marble (CaCO3 > 99 %) were cut and reacted with a 4 M ammonium fluoride (NH4F) solution for different times (1 to 48 hours) and temperatures (60, 80, 100, and 140 ° C). The microstructure of the product phases was analysed using SEM. The kinetics of replacement was monitored from the Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the products as a function of temperature and reaction time. After reaction, all samples preserved their size and external morphology (a pseudomorphic replacement) and the product phase (fluorite) was highly porous. The activation energy Ea (kJ/mol) of the replacement reaction was empirically determined by both model-fitting and model-free methods. The isoconversional method yielded an

  4. Effects of Reiki on Pain, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Vitale, Anne; Brownell, Elise; Kryak, Elizabeth; Rand, William

    This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.

  5. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m, 4-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-7 m, 7-8 m, 8-10 m, and 10-12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  6. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  7. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03. The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007 and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047. The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037. In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032. Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight.

  8. Changes in Mitral Annular Geometry after Aortic Valve Replacement: A Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Chen, Tzong-Huei; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec® Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters. Results Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p <0.001), circumference (-8.9% p <0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p <0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 62%, p <0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Conclusion The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve. PMID:23409347

  9. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Scargle, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it - an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks (Scargle 1998) - that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multi-variate time series data, analysis of vari...

  10. Orthopedic Manifestations of Mobius Syndrome: Case Series and Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philip McClure; David Booy; Julia Katarincic; Craig Eberson

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mobius Syndrome is a rare disease defined by bilateral congenital 7th nerve palsy. We focus on reporting the prevalence of orthopedic disease in this population. Methods. Twenty-three individuals with Mobius Syndrome underwent orthopedic physical examination, and additional 96 patients filled out a survey for self-reported orthopedic diagnoses. Results. Clubfoot was present in 60% of individuals in the physical exam series and 42% of those in the survey. Scoliosis was present in 2...

  11. KARTAGENER’S SYNDROME : A CASE SERIES STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kartagener’s Syndrome is a rare Autosomal recessive disorder presents as a triad of Sinusitis, Bronchiectasis and Situs inversus. Chronic Rhino sinusitis is a common condition seen is ENT OPD routinely. Of the several causes of Sinusitis, Kartagener’s is rare entity and can remain undetected. This case series is to emphasize the diagnosis of the disease and alert the patient about it.

  12. Study of the Reaction Rate of Gold Nanotube Synthesis from Sacrificial Silver Nanorods through the Galvanic Replacement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out about the gold nanotube synthesis via a galvanic replacement reaction. The progress of the gold nanotube synthesis was investigated using electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the reaction rates of gold nanotube formation in the early stage of the reaction were studied. The chlorine ion concentration linearly increased with the gold precursor concentration but deviated from the stoichiometric amounts. This deviation was probably due to AgCl precipitates formed by the reaction of chlorine ions with dissolved silver ions. The replacement reaction was promoted with increased temperature and was nonlinearly proportional to the gold ion concentration. The outcomes of this research will enhance the current understanding of the galvanic replacement reaction.

  13. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comprehensive joint replacement program for total knee arthroplasty: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prefontaine Paul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The purpose of this study was to describe a TKA program – the Joint Replacement Program (JRP – and report post-surgical outcomes. Methods 74 candidates for a primary TKA were enrolled in the JRP. The JRP was designed to minimize complications and optimize patient-centered outcomes using a team approach including the patient, patient's family, and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The JRP consisted of a pre-operative class, standard pathways for medical care, comprehensive peri-operative pain management, aggressive physical therapy (PT, and proactive discharge planning. Measures included functional tests, knee range of motion (ROM, and medical record abstraction of patient demographics, length of stay, discharge disposition, and complications over a 6-month follow-up period. Results All patients achieved medical criteria for hospital discharge. The patients achieved the knee flexion ROM goal of 90° (91.7 ± 5.4°, but did not achieve the knee extension ROM goal of 0° (2.4 ± 2.6°. The length of hospital stay was two days for 53% of the patients, with 39% and 7% discharged in three and four days, respectively. All but three patients were discharged home with functional independence. 68% of these received outpatient physical therapy compared with 32% who received home physical therapy immediately after discharge. Two patients ( Conclusion The comprehensive JRP for TKA was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes, short lengths of stay, a high percentage of patients discharged home with outpatient PT, and minimal complications. This JRP may represent an efficient, effective and safe protocol for providing care after a TKA.

  15. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: Findings from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace-Bell Mark

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT while still smoking in the lead up to quitting could enhance success at quitting, one of the most cost-effective means of improving health, but little is known about its acceptability and tolerability. Aim To test the acceptability and tolerability of using NRT while smoking for two weeks before quitting, to inform a randomised controlled trial of pre-quitting NRT versus usual NRT-based quitting practice. Methods Prospective pragmatic uncontrolled clinic-based pilot study in which 14 adult smokers recruited from a smoking cessation clinic were prescribed nicotine patches or gum with follow up for two weeks. Data were collected on participants' concerns about smoking while using NRT, importance of quitting, urges to smoke, smoking behaviour, previous NRT use and the length of the pre-quitting period. Urine tests were collected weekly for cotinine, and participants recorded smoking activity and noted experiences and changes in their health in diaries. Results Only 21% of 14 participants expressed concerns about using NRT while smoking. All of the nine followed up used it as recommended, 56% of these reporting no unpleasant symptoms. Median urine cotinine levels declined over the two weeks. Urges to smoke averaged 1.8 on a 4-point scale. All participants decreased the number of cigarettes per day. Diary records showed wide variation in smoking and NRT use, with an increased sense of control and determination to quit. Conclusion Smokers using pre-quitting NRT over two weeks appeared to titrate nicotine levels and symptoms of toxicity were uncommon and of low intensity.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of cefetaxime in ICU-patients treated with continuous renal replacement : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-Swinkels, C.G.H.; Rijpstra, T.A.; Van Der Meer, B.J.M.; Touw, D.J.; van't Veer, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Data on the optimal dosage of cefotaxime (CTX) in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is sparse and equivocal [1]. We conducted a trial investigating the concentrations of CTX in general ICU and post-cardiac surgery ICU patients who were treated with CRRT bec

  17. Ultra Low-Dose Naloxone and Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Elderly Patients Undergoing Joint Replacement Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi N Imasogie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to assess whether both the rationale and feasibility exist for future randomized clinical trials to evaluate the combined use of naloxone infusion and tramadol/acetaminophen as opioid-sparing drugs in elderly patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery.

  18. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over fro

  19. Hormonal replacement therapy reduces forearm fracture incidence in recent postmenopausal women - results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Beck-Nielsen, H; Sørensen, O H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the fracture reducing potential of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in recent postmenopausal women in a primary preventive scenario. METHODS: Prospective controlled comprehensive cohort trial: 2016 healthy women aged 45-58 years, from three to 24 months past last menstrual ...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Joost B; Valk-Swinkels, Corinne G H; Rijpstra, Tom A; Touw, Daan J; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Voort, Peter H J; Van't Veer, Nils E; van der Meer, Nardo J M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to describe the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime (CTX) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) when treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center prospe

  1. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Norris, Jay P.; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks [Scargle 1998]-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piece- wise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by [Arias-Castro, Donoho and Huo 2003]. In the spirit of Reproducible Research [Donoho et al. (2008)] all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as auxiliary material.

  2. STUDIES IN ASTRONOMICAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. VI. BAYESIAN BLOCK REPRESENTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Norris, Jay P. [Physics Department, Boise State University, 2110 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725-1570 (United States); Jackson, Brad [The Center for Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, MH 308, San Jose, CA 95192-0103 (United States); Chiang, James, E-mail: jeffrey.d.scargle@nasa.gov [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by Arias-Castro et al. In the spirit of Reproducible Research all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as supplementary material.

  3. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  4. Randomized controlled trial of mailed Nicotine Replacement Therapy to Canadian smokers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable public health efforts are ongoing Canada-wide to reduce the prevalence of smoking in the general population. From 1985 to 2005, smoking rates among adults decreased from 35% to 19%, however, since that time, the prevalence has plateaued at around 18-19%. To continue to reduce the number of smokers at the population level, one option has been to translate interventions that have demonstrated clinical efficacy into population level initiatives. Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT has a considerable clinical research base demonstrating its efficacy and safety and thus public health initiatives in Canada and other countries are distributing NRT widely through the mail. However, one important question remains unanswered - do smoking cessation programs that involve mailed distribution of free NRT work? To answer this question, a randomized controlled trial is required. Methods/Design A single blinded, panel survey design with random assignment to an experimental and a control condition will be used in this study. A two-stage recruitment process will be employed, in the context of a general population survey with two follow-ups (8 weeks and 6 months. Random digit dialing of Canadian home telephone numbers will identify households with adult smokers (aged 18+ years who are willing to take part in a smoking study that involves three interviews, with saliva collection for 3-HC/cotinine ratio measurement at baseline and saliva cotinine verification at 8-week and 6-month follow-ups (N = 3,000. Eligible subjects interested in free NRT will be determined at baseline (N = 1,000 and subsequently randomized into experimental and control conditions to receive versus not receive nicotine patches. The primary hypothesis is that subjects who receive nicotine patches will display significantly higher quit rates (as assessed by 30 day point prevalence of abstinence from tobacco at 6-month follow-up as compared to subjects who do not

  5. Variability of indication criteria in knee and hip replacement: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasqueta Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee (TKR and hip (THR replacement (arthroplasty are effective surgical procedures that relieve pain, improve patients' quality of life and increase functional capacity. Studies on variations in medical practice usually place the indications for performing these procedures to be highly variable, because surgeons appear to follow different criteria when recommending surgery in patients with different severity levels. We therefore proposed a study to evaluate inter-hospital variability in arthroplasty indication. Methods The pre-surgical condition of 1603 patients included was compared by their personal characteristics, clinical situation and self-perceived health status. Patients were asked to complete two health-related quality of life questionnaires: the generic SF-12 (Short Form and the specific WOMAC (Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities scale. The type of patient undergoing primary arthroplasty was similar in the 15 different hospitals evaluated. The variability in baseline WOMAC score between hospitals in THR and TKR indication was described by range, mean and standard deviation (SD, mean and standard deviation weighted by the number of procedures at each hospital, high/low ratio or extremal quotient (EQ5-95, variation coefficient (CV5-95 and weighted variation coefficient (WCV5-95 for 5-95 percentile range. The variability in subjective and objective signs was evaluated using median, range and WCV5-95. The appropriateness of the procedures performed was calculated using a specific threshold proposed by Quintana et al for assessing pain and functional capacity. Results The variability expressed as WCV5-95 was very low, between 0.05 and 0.11 for all three dimensions on WOMAC scale for both types of procedure in all participating hospitals. The variability in the physical and mental SF-12 components was very low for both types of procedure (0.08 and 0.07 for hip and 0.03 and 0.07 for knee surgery patients

  6. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  7. Improvement with ongoing Enzyme Replacement Therapy in advanced late-onset Pompe disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laura E; Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P; Bali, Deeksha; DeArmey, Stephanie M; Mackey, Joanne; Kishnani, Priya S

    2008-12-01

    Benefits of enzyme replacement therapy with Myozyme (alglucosidase alfa), anecdotally reported in late-onset Pompe disease, range from motor and pulmonary improvement in less severely affected patients, to stabilization with minimal improvement in those with advanced disease. We report a case of a 63-year-old patient with significant morbidity who made notable motor and pulmonary function gains after two years on therapy. Thus, improvements in those with advanced disease may be possible after long-term treatment.

  8. MARC的功能替换研究%Study on the Replacement of MARC' s Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江波

    2011-01-01

    MARC具有数据描述、数据存取、数据交换三大功能。其学科二元性导致其功能边界模糊.语义、语法及物理结构捆绑。MARC的数据存取功能已经被RDBMS取代。LOC已确定用XML替换MARC的数据交换功能,并在近期提出对MARC数据描述功能的重新评估。MARC面临严峻的挑战,图书馆界最终彻底放弃MARC是可以预期的。%MARC has three major functions, including data description, data access, and data exchange. MARC' s duality of subject led to functional boundaries blurred, its semantics, syntax tied to the physical structure. MARC's function of data access has been replaced by RDBMS. LOC has been identified to replace MARC with XML in data exchange, and recently proposed of re-evaluate MARC' s function of data description. MARC facing serious challenges will be replaced.

  9. Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner in primary total hip replacement: one-year results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Moro, Toru; Kamogawa, Morihide; Oda, Hiromi; Morimoto, Shuhei; Umeyama, Takashige; Minami, Manabu; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Karita, Tatsuro; Kim, Juntaku; Koyama, Yurie; Ito, Hideya; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-06-01

    To control particle-induced osteolysis in total hip replacement (THR), we developed a new technique to graft poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) onto the surface of polyethylene liners. A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the clinical safety of this novel bearing surface. Between April 2007 and September 2008, we recruited a prospective consecutive series of 80 patients in five participating hospitals. These patients received a cementless THR; a 26-mm-diameter cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy ball and a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted cross-linked polyethylene liner were used for the bearing couplings. These individuals were followed a year postoperatively. An evaluation of clinical performance was conducted through an assessment of hip joint function based on the evaluation chart authorized by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. No patients were lost to follow-up. No adverse events were found to be correlated with the implanted liners. The average hip joint function score improved from 43.2 preoperatively to 91.7 postoperatively at 1 year. There was no implant migration nor periprosthetic osteolysis detected on radiographic analysis. On the basis of our results, we conclude that poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted cross-linked polyethylene liners are a safe implant option for hip replacement surgery for short-term clinical use.

  10. Survival and cardiovascular events in men treated with testosterone replacement therapy: an intention-to-treat observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Lo, Kirk; Lee, Yuna; Krakowsky, Yonah; Garbens, Alaina; Satkunasivam, Raj; Herschorn, Sender; Kodama, Ronald T; Cheung, Patrick; Narod, Steven A; Nam, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting evidence exists for the association between testosterone replacement therapy and mortality and cardiovascular events. The US Food and Drug Administration recently cautioned that testosterone replacement therapy might increase risk of heart attack and stroke, based on evidence from studies with short treatment duration and follow-up. No previous study has assessed the effect of duration of testosterone treatment on these outcomes. We aimed to assess the association between long-term use of testosterone replacement therapy and mortality, cardiovascular events, and prostate cancer diagnoses, using a time-varying exposure analysis. We did a population-based matched cohort study of men aged 66 years or older newly treated with testosterone replacement therapy and controls matched for age, region of residence, comorbidity, diabetes status, and index year from 2007-12 in Ontario, Canada, using data from the Ontario Drug Benefit database, the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Discharge Abstract Database, the CIHI National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database, the Ontario Myocardial Infarction Database, the Ontario Diabetes Database, the Ontario Cancer Registry, and the Registered Persons database. We assessed the association between cumulative testosterone replacement therapy exposure and mortality, cardiovascular events, and prostate cancer using marginal models with a time-varying testosterone exposure. We included 10 311 men treated with testosterone replacement therapy and 28 029 controls between Jan 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012. Over a median follow-up of 5·3 years (IQR 3·6-7·5) in the testosterone replacement therapy group and 5·1 years (3·4-7·4) in the control group, patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy had lower mortality than did controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·84-0·93). Patients in the lowest tertile of testosterone exposure had increased risk of mortality

  11. Orthopedic Manifestations of Mobius Syndrome: Case Series and Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McClure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobius Syndrome is a rare disease defined by bilateral congenital 7th nerve palsy. We focus on reporting the prevalence of orthopedic disease in this population. Methods. Twenty-three individuals with Mobius Syndrome underwent orthopedic physical examination, and additional 96 patients filled out a survey for self-reported orthopedic diagnoses. Results. Clubfoot was present in 60% of individuals in the physical exam series and 42% of those in the survey. Scoliosis was present in 26% and 28%, respectively. Poland’s Syndrome was present in 17% and 30%. In addition to these findings, 27% of patients reported having difficulty with anesthesia, including difficulty in intubation and airway problems. Conclusion. An increased prevalence of scoliosis, clubfoot, transverse limb deficiencies, and Poland’s Syndrome is identified in the setting of Mobius Syndrome. In the setting of several deformities often requiring surgical correction, a high incidence of anesthetic difficulty is noted and should be discussed with patients and other providers during surgical planning.

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, application of this method in health care practice is hampered because analyses are conducted manually and advanced statistical expertise is required. Objective This study aims to show how this limitation can be overcome by introducing automated vector autoregressive modeling (VAR) of EMA data and to evaluate its feasibility through comparisons with results of previously published manual analyses. Methods We developed a Web-based open source application, called AutoVAR, which automates time series analyses of EMA data and provides output that is intended to be interpretable by nonexperts. The statistical technique we used was VAR. AutoVAR tests and evaluates all possible VAR models within a given combinatorial search space and summarizes their results, thereby replacing the researcher’s tasks of conducting the analysis, making an informed selection of models, and choosing the best model. We compared the output of AutoVAR to the output of a previously published manual analysis (n=4). Results An illustrative example consisting of 4 analyses was provided. Compared to the manual output, the AutoVAR output presents similar model characteristics and statistical results in terms of the Akaike information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion, and the test statistic of the Granger causality test. Conclusions Results suggest that automated analysis and interpretation of times series is feasible. Compared to a manual procedure, the automated procedure is more robust and can save days of time. These findings may pave the way for using time series analysis for health promotion on a larger scale. AutoVAR was evaluated using the results of a previously conducted manual analysis

  13. Study on properties of rice husk ash and its use as cement replacement material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Abood Habeeb

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the properties of rice husk ash (RHA produced by using a ferro-cement furnace. The effect of grinding on the particle size and the surface area was first investigated, then the XRD analysis was conducted to verify the presence of amorphous silica in the ash. Furthermore, the effect of RHA average particle size and percentage on concrete workability, fresh density, superplasticizer (SP content and the compressive strength were also investigated. Although grinding RHA would reduce its average particle size (APS, it was not the main factor controlling the surface area and it is thus resulted from RHA's multilayered, angular and microporous surface. Incorporation of RHA in concrete increased water demand. RHA concrete gave excellent improvement in strength for 10% replacement (30.8% increment compared to the control mix, and up to 20% of cement could be valuably replaced with RHA without adversely affecting the strength. Increasing RHA fineness enhanced the strength of blended concrete compared to coarser RHA and control OPC mixtures.

  14. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10% combined with estriol (0.1% + estradiol (0.25% for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05 after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  15. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan, E-mail: marcobotelho@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia; Fechine, Pierre [Universidade Federal do Ceara (GQMAT/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica. Grupo Avancado de Biomateriais em Quimica; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFCT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Ruela, Ronaldo [Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada (INBIOS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jackson Guedes [Universidade Federal do Vale de Sao Francisco (UNIVALE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Quintans Junior, Lucindo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2014-06-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  16. Endocrine studies in postmenopausal women during oral replacement therapy with unconjugated oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, J M; Samaras, C A; Nezhat, C

    1982-01-01

    Two groups of postmenopausal women were seen at monthly intervals during a three-month trial of continuous therapy with oral unconjugated oestrogens. Ten women in the first group were administered daily Hormonin No. 1 containing oestriol (E3) 0.135 mg, oestradiol (E2) 0.3 mg and oestrone (E1) 0.7 mg. Eight women in the second group received Hormonin No. 2 containing E3 0.27 mg, E2 0.6 mg and E1 1.4 mg. E1, E2, E3 and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) as well as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Maturation index of vaginal smears and clinical effects were also evaluated. Oral replacement therapy with these unconjugated oestrogens produced a significant elevation of E1 (p less than 0.05) and E2 (p less than 0.05) to values corresponding well with the premenopausal range measured in our laboratory. Postmenopausal levels of FSH and LH showed only a moderate but significant decrease (p less than 0.05). There was consistent relief of vasomotor symptoms. One case of endometrial focal adenomatous hyperplasia uncovered during the period of treatment was transformed to functional secretory endometrium after an appropriate course with progestogens. Oral administration of unconjugated oestrogens and periodic withdrawal bleeding induced with a progestational agent seems to be an effective method of replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.

  17. Ultra Low-Dose Naloxone and Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Elderly Patients Undergoing Joint Replacement Surgery: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Imasogie, Ngozi N; Sudha Singh; Watson, James T.; Debbie Hurley; Patricia Morley-Forster

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to assess whether both the rationale and feasibility exist for future randomized clinical trials to evaluate the combined use of naloxone infusion and tramadol/acetaminophen as opioid-sparing drugs in elderly patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery.DESIGN: Ten patients 70 years of age or older undergoing either total knee (n=7) or total hip (n=3) arthroplasty were treated prospectively. Each patient received two tablets of tramadol/...

  18. Study of the Reaction Rate of Gold Nanotube Synthesis from Sacrificial Silver Nanorods through the Galvanic Replacement Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kwon; Hyunbae Dong; Sang-Yup Lee

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was carried out about the gold nanotube synthesis via a galvanic replacement reaction. The progress of the gold nanotube synthesis was investigated using electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the reaction rates of gold nanotube formation in the early stage of the reaction were studied. The chlorine ion concentration linearly increased with the gold precursor concentration but deviated from the stoichiometric amounts. This deviation was probably due to AgCl...

  19. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  20. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  1. Growth of epitaxial Pt1-xPbx alloys by surface limited redox replacement and study of their adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, M P; Plana, D; Fermίn, D J; Morgan, D; Vasiljevic, N

    2015-10-06

    The surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) method has been used to design two-dimensional Pt-Pb nanoalloys with controlled thickness, composition, and structure. The electrochemical behavior of these alloys has been systematically studied as a function of alloy composition. A single-cell, two-step SLRR protocol based on the galvanic replacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers of Pb with Pt was used to grow epitaxial Pt1-xPbx (x galvanic replacement step, the Pb atomic content can be controlled in the films. Electrochemical analysis of the alloys showed that the adsorption of both H and CO exhibits similar, and systematic, decreases with small increases in the Pb content. These measurements, commonly used in electrocatalysis for the determination of active surface areas of Pt, suggested area values much lower than those expected based on the net Pt composition in the alloy as measured by XPS. These results show that Pb has a strong screening effect on the adsorption of both H and CO. Moreover, changes in alloy composition result in a negative shift in the potential of the peaks of CO oxidation that scales with the increase of Pb content. The results suggest electronic and bifunctional effects of incorporated Pb on the electrochemical behavior of Pt. The study illustrates the potential of the SLRR methodology, which could be employed in the design of 2-dimensional bimetallic Pt nanoalloys for fundamental studies of electrocatalytic behavior in fuel cell reactions dependent on the nature of alloying metal and its composition.

  2. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of DesBl-B2 Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁家升; 万柱礼; 常文瑞; 梁栋材

    1997-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin (DPI) as the search model, the crystal structure of DesBl-B2 Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin (DesBl-2 DPI) has been studied by the molecular replacement method. There is one DesBl-2 DPI molecule in each crystallographic asymmetric unit. The cross rotation function search and the translation function search show apparent peaks and thus determine the orientation and position of DesBl-2 DPI molecule in the cell respectively. The subsequent three-dimensional structural rebuilding and refine-ment of DesBl-2 DPI molecule confirm the results by molecular replacement method.

  3. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-tao; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-fen; Lao, Xiang-qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-hua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. Methods and analysis This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. Trial registration number NCT02610322. PMID:27678545

  4. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias.

  5. Options Studied for Managing Space Station Solar Array Electrical Hazards for Sequential Shunt Unit Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Levy, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. solar array strings on the International Space Station are connected to a sequential shunt unit (SSU). The job of the SSU is to shunt, or short, the excess current from the solar array, such that just enough current is provided downstream to maintain the 160-V bus voltage while meeting the power load demand and recharging the batteries. Should an SSU fail on-orbit, it would be removed and replaced with the on-orbit spare during an astronaut space walk or extravehicular activity (EVA) (see the photograph). However, removing an SSU during an orbit Sun period with input solar array power connectors fully energized could result in substantial hardware damage and/or safety risk to the EVA astronaut. The open-circuit voltage of cold solar-array strings can exceed 320 V, and warm solar-array strings could feed a short circuit with a total current level exceeding 240 A.

  6. Pros and Cons of Long-Term use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Kaae, Susanne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, harm reduction has been increasingly suggested as a method to reduce the harm caused by smoking in smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit all nicotine products. One of these methods includes long-term substitution of tobacco with nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs......, including perceived pros and cons of using NRTs, the risk of relapse to smoking and their motivation to quit using NRTs. The results identified five major themes that entailed pros and cons of the long-term use of NRTs. These were the non-nicotinic factors of NRTs, health risks of NRTs vs. smoking......, intrapersonal processes, the social environment of smoking vs. NRTs and finances. None of the ex-smokers feared to relapse to smoking, and few were motivated to quit NRTs. Non-nicotinic factors were found to have an important role in developing an addiction to NRTs. The use of NRTs yields some of the expected...

  7. Prosthetic Aortic Valve Fixation Study: 48 Replacement Valves Analyzed Using Digital Pressure Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Candice Y; Wong, Joshua K; Ross, Ronald E; Liu, David C; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Martellaro, Angelo J; Gorea, Heather R; Sauer, Jude S; Knight, Peter A

    Prostheses attachment is critical in aortic valve replacement surgery, yet reliable prosthetic security remains a challenge. Accurate techniques to analyze prosthetic fixation pressures may enable the use of fewer sutures while reducing the risk of paravalvular leaks (PVL). Customized digital thin film pressure transducers were sutured between aortic annulus models and 21-mm bioprosthetic valves with 15 × 4-mm, 12 × 4-mm, or 9 × 6-mm-wide pledgeted mattress sutures. Simulating open and minimally invasive access, 4 surgeons, blinded to data acquisition, each secured 12 valves using manual knot-tying (hand-tied [HT] or knot-pusher [KP]) or automated titanium fasteners (TFs). Real-time pressure measurements and times were recorded. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D pressure maps were generated for all valves. Pressures less than 80 mm Hg were considered at risk for PVL. Pressures under each knot (intrasuture) fell less than 80 mm Hg for 12 of 144 manual knots (5/144 HT, 7/144 KP) versus 0 of 288 TF (P valves; 17 of 48 HT, 25 of 48 KP, and 12 of 96 TF for 12 × 4-mm valves; and 15 of 36 HT, 17 of 36 KP, and 9 and 72 TF for 9 × 6-mm valves; P manual versus TF. Annular areas with pressures less than 80 mm Hg ranged from 0% of the sewing-ring area (all open TF) to 31% (12 × 4 mm, KP). The average time per manual knot, 46 seconds (HT, 31 seconds; KP, 61 seconds), was greater than TF, 14 seconds (P valve replacement. This research encourages continued exploration of technical factors in optimizing prosthetic valve security.

  8. Methodology series module 7: Ecologic studies and natural experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data, then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not; changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars. We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  9. Analysis of health outcome time series data in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touloumi, G; Atkinson, R; Le Tertre, A; Samoli, E; Schwartz, J; Schindler, C; Vonk, JM; Rossi, G; Saez, M; Rabszenko, D; Katsouyanni, K

    2004-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants. These studies have been criticized for the statistical methods and for inconsistency in results between cities. An important development in air pollution epidemiology has come from

  10. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies. PMID:28216721

  11. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules - ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the "ecologic fallacy." The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In "natural experiments," the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  12. Minimum Cost Design of Distributed Energy Resources with Studying the Effect of Capital Cost and Replacement Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optimized design of HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, Diesel generator and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction. This study tested on case study network on Mardasht city in Iran.

  13. A Biomimetic Hip Joint Simulator and its Application in in vitro Study of the Integrity of Replacement Cemented Hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chao-zong; S.M.Green; N.D.Watkins; A.W.McCaskie

    2005-01-01

    A biomimetic hip joint simulator that can be used to evaluate the outcome of the cemented total hip replacement has been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The simulator produces motion in the extension/flexion plane, with a socket to rotate internal/externally. At the same time a dynamic loading cycle is applied. A validation test was performed on a cemented femoral stem within a novel composite femur. The bone quality has a strong effect on the stem migration and on the integrity of the interfaces. The migration of the stem is a combination of 3-D translation and rotation of the stem. Under the same loading conditions, weak bone allows more stem migration than strong bone. There is a great decrease in the strength of the stem-cement interface after the dynamic test, and the weak bone composite exhibited a greater reduction in interfacial strength than the strong bone composite. The decrease of the interfacial strength indicates that the primary bonding between the stem and the cement mantle had deteriorated and the integrity of stem-cement interface was damaged.The study demonstrates the value of using a hip joint simulator to investigate stem migration and interface integrity within the cemented hip replacement, suggesting that method can be used for in vitro evaluation of the biomaterials used in the cemented hip replacements.

  14. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing various percentage of POFA ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively by weight of cement. All the mixes were cast in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing until the testing date. The compressive strength test is conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390 (2009 at 7 and 28 days. From the results, it was observed that the combination of appropriate POFA content would enhance the compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Specimen produced using 20% POFA as partial cement replacement exhibit higher value of compressive strength than that of control OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. However, mixes consisting POFA up to 50% is also suitable for structural application.

  15. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement using a W-model valved stent: a preliminary feasibility study in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yuan; ZONG Gang-jun; WANG Yan-yan; JIANG Hai-bin; LI Wei-ping; WU Hong; ZHAO Xian-xian; QIN Yong-wen

    2009-01-01

    Background Percutaneous aortic valve replacement is a promising strategy in the treatment of patients with aortic valve stenosis. And many kinds of valved stents have been implanted in selected patients worldwide. However, the clinical experience is still limited. We developed a W-model valved stent and evaluated the feasibility and safety of percutaneous implantation of the device in the native aortic valve position.Methods A self expanding nitinol stent with W-model, containing porcine pericardium valves in its proximal part, was implanted in six sheep by means of a 14 French catheter through the right common lilac artery under guidance of fluoroscopy. During stent deployment the original aortic valve was pushed against the aortic wall by the self expanding force of the stent while the new valve was expanded. These sheep were followed up shortly after procedure with supra-aortic angiogram and left ventriculography. Additionally, one sheep was sacrificed after the procedure for anatomic evaluation.Results It was possible to replace the aortic valve in the beating heart in four sheep. The procedure failed in two sheep due to coronary orifice occlusion in one case and severe aortic valve regurgitation in the other case. One sheep was killed one hour after percutaneous aortic valve replacement for anatomic evaluation. There were no signs of damage of the aortic intima, or of obstruction of the coronary orifice.Conclusions Percutaneous aortic valve replacement with a W-model valved stent in the beating heart is possible. Further studies are mandatory to assess safety and efficacy of this kind of valved stent in larger sample size and by longer follow-up period.

  16. Finite case series or infinite single-case studies? Comments on "Case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology" by Schwartz and Dell (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Patterson, Karalyn; Plaut, David C

    2011-10-01

    In this commentary, though acknowledging that a case-series approach in neuropsychology is not always possible, we set out a series of considerations that in our view make this approach generally superior to single-case study. We argue that case-series designs are crucial for theory-testing, assessment of computational models, evaluation of inter-patient variation (including selection criteria, patient homogeneity/heterogeneity, premorbid individual differences, etc.) and to establish solid foundations for the interpretation of behavioural dissociations and associations. We conclude by suggesting that, alongside other neuroscience techniques, case-series cognitive neuropsychology provides a crucial contribution to the future of clinical and cognitive neuroscience.

  17. Queer Theory in Education. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses homophobia in the field of education and challenges established practices and theories. Chapters are: (1) "Constructing Knowledge: Educational Research and Gay and Lesbian Studies" (W. G. Tierney, P. Dilley); (2) "A Generational and Theoretical Analysis of Culture and Male (Homo)sexuality" (J. T. Sears); (3)…

  18. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  19. Rules: A Systematic Study. (Janua Linguarum Series Minor 96.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Joan Safran

    Rules in this study are limited to linguistic entities which are said to have truth value, to be followable and prescriptive, to have been adopted and remain in force until unadopted, and to be conditional. The concern is with the nominal referential use of rules rather than their verbal use. The book is divided into four sections. The first…

  20. Studies in tropical teratology, 2nd Series, No. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H.J.

    1937-01-01

    Dr J. J. Smith is best known by his studies about Orchidaceae. But since 1904 he published regularly in collaboration with Dr J. C. Costerus in the ”Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg“, the results of their researches in teratology of tropical plants. Some years ago, Dr J. J. Smith was so kin

  1. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  2. Maximum recovery after knee replacement – the MARKER study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little scientific evidence to support the usual practice of providing outpatient rehabilitation to patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery (TKR immediately after discharge from the orthopaedic ward. It is hypothesised that the lack of clinical benefit is due to the low exercise intensity tolerated at this time, with patients still recovering from the effects of major orthopaedic surgery. The aim of the proposed clinical trial is to investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of a novel rehabilitation strategy, consisting of an initial home exercise programme followed, approximately six weeks later, by higher intensity outpatient exercise classes. Methods/Design In this multicentre randomised controlled trial, 600 patients undergoing primary TKR will be recruited at the orthopaedic pre-admission clinic of 10 large public and private hospitals in Australia. There will be no change to the medical or rehabilitative care usually provided while the participant is admitted to the orthopaedic ward. After TKR, but prior to discharge from the orthopaedic ward, participants will be randomised to either the novel rehabilitation strategy or usual rehabilitative care as provided by the hospital or recommended by the orthopaedic surgeon. Outcomes assessments will be conducted at baseline (pre-admission clinic and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months following randomisation. The primary outcomes will be self-reported knee pain and physical function. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and objective measures of physical performance. Health economic data (health sector and community service utilisation, loss of productivity will be recorded prospectively by participants in a patient diary. This patient cohort will also be followed-up annually for five years for knee pain, physical function and the need or actual incidence of further joint replacement surgery. Discussion The results of this pragmatic clinical trial

  3. Longitudinal Deformation of Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseinsabet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:: In this study, pulmonary artery longitudinal deformation was evaluated and attempted to clarify pulmonary artery deformation. Methods:: Eight healthy men and seven healthy women with structurally normal hearts were enrolled. In the parasternal short axis view at the aortic valve level, longitudinal axis of pulmonary artery was obtained and color coded Doppler myocardial imaging applied. Results:: The systolic strain was positive in most the pulmonary segments, velocity and strain rate waves had three defined peaks, one positive in systole and two negative in diastole. Conclusions:: This study revealed for first time, deformation pattern of pulmonary artery by color coded Doppler myocardial imaging and can be basis for future researches in cardiopulmonary diseases.

  4. Mathematical study on the guidance of the tibiofemoral joint as theoretical background for total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Christoph; Gezzi, Riccardo; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Wachowski, Martin Michael; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Dörner, Jochen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Nägerl, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical approach presented allows main features of kinematics and force transfer in the loaded natural tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) or in loaded knee endoprostheses with asymmetric condyles to be deduced from the spatial curvature morphology of the articulating surfaces. The mathematical considerations provide the theoretical background for the development of total knee replacements (TKR) which closely reproduce biomechanical features of the natural TFJ. The model demonstrates that in flexion/extension such kinematic features as centrodes or slip ratios can be implemented in distinct curvature designs of the contact trajectories in such a way that they conform to the kinematics of the natural TFJ in close approximation. Especially the natural roll back in the stance phase during gait can be reproduced. Any external compressive force system, applied to the TFJ or the TKR, produces two joint reaction forces which--when applying screw theory--represent a force wrench. It consists of a force featuring a distinct spatial location of its line and a torque parallel to it. The dependence of the geometrical configuration of the force wrench on flexion angle, lateral/medial distribution of the joint forces, and design of the slopes of the tuberculum intercondylare is calculated. The mathematical considerations give strong hints about TKR design and show how main biomechanical features of the natural TFJ can be reproduced.

  5. The ocular benefits of estrogen replacement therapy: a population-based study in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Sun Na

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elucidate the prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, pterygia, and diabetic retinopathy among Korean postmenopausal women with or without estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV (2007-2009 was used. Participants were interviewed for the determination of socioeconomic and gynecologic factors. Each woman also underwent an ophthalmologic examination and provided a blood sample for risk factor assessment. RESULTS: Of 3968 postmenopausal women enrolled, 3390 had never received estrogen, and 578 were undergoing estrogen treatment. After adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and high low-density lipoprotein levels, the prevalence of anterior polar cataract, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL defect, and flesh pterygium was higher in the non-ERT group (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.12-9.35, OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.78, OR 3.725; 95% CI, 1.21-11.45, respectively. Further, the prevalence of atrophic pterygium was lower in the non-ERT group compared to that in the ERT group (OR, 0.21, 95% CI, 0.07-0.63. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ERT has a protective effect against the development of anterior polar cataract, flesh pterygium, and RNFL defect.

  6. [Late ulnar paralysis. Study of a series of 17 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F

    1984-02-16

    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralyses are emphasized: very prolonged symptom free interval, rapid onset and severe involvement. Ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are undependable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal step of neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury.

  7. Intraoperative ultrasonography for presumed brain metastases: a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Picarelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases (BM are one of the most common intracranial tumors and surgical treatment can improve both the functional outcomes and patient survival, particularly when systemic disease is controlled. Image-guided BM resection using intraoperative exams, such as intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS, can lead to better surgical results. METHODS: To evaluate the use of IOUS for BM resection, 20 consecutives patients were operated using IOUS to locate tumors, identify their anatomical relationships and surgical cavity after resection. Technical difficulties, complications, recurrence and survival rates were noted. RESULTS: IOUS proved effective for locating, determining borders and defining the anatomical relationships of BM, as well as to identify incomplete tumor resection. No complications related to IOUS were seen. CONCLUSION: IOUS is a practical supporting method for the resection of BM, but further studies comparing this method with other intraoperative exams are needed to evaluate its actual contribution and reliability.

  8. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012, 17 October). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. Presentation at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Helsinki, Finland.

  9. Osseointegrated implants and auricular defects: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert F; Zemnick, Candice; Wazen, Jack J; Asher, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to report on the survival rate of 16 patients treated with extraoral implants in the auricular region, analyze treatment outcomes, and discuss important clinical variables encountered during treatment. Sixteen patients who received extraoral dental implants to retain auricular prostheses between 1987 and 2003 were followed retrospectively. The variables recorded were gender, initial diagnosis, number and size of implants, implant placement date, age at implant placement, history of radiation to the treated field, abutment size, design of initial prosthesis, age of initial prosthesis (when a remake was indicated), date of prosthesis delivery, soft tissue response, grafting procedure, date of last follow-up, and complications. All patients were thoroughly evaluated presurgically by the reconstruction team, which consisted of prosthodontists, a facial prosthetist, and an otolaryngologist. Surgical templates were used for all patients. The criteria for success of the prostheses included marginal accuracy, overall stability and function, symmetry/position, texture, color stability, and patient acceptance. Thirty-nine implants were placed in 16 patients. All 16 patients were completely satisfied with their reconstructions. No surgical complications, implant failures, or prosthetic failures were encountered. Therefore, the survival rate was 100%. Three patients (18.75%) had grade 0, seven (43.75%) had grade 1, five (31.25%) had grade 2, and one (6.25%) had grade 3 soft tissue inflammation. The inflammation completely resolved in 7 of the 13 patients (54%) with hygiene reinforcement or soft tissue reduction. The survival rate for bone-anchored titanium implants and prostheses was 100%. Bone-anchored titanium implants provided the 16 patients in this study with a safe, reliable, adhesive-free method to anchor auricular prostheses with recovery of normal appearance. Under the guidance of an appropriate implant team, proper positioning of

  10. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  11. Medicinal marijuana for epilepsy: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2014-11-01

    To describe the social, clinical and use-patterns characteristics of medicinal marijuana use among patients with epilepsy (PWEs). Eighteen PWEs with prescriptions for medicinal marijuana from a Canadian adult-epilepsy clinic were included in this study. Eighteen patients had a prescription of medicinal marijuana from a total population of 800 PWEs in our center (2.2%). Mean age of patients was 30±7.4 (19-50) years. Twelve (67%) patients were males. Eleven (61%) patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. Eleven (61%) patients suffered a psychiatric comorbidity and reported the use of illicit substances or heavy alcohol or tobacco consumption. Only two (11%) patients were married; the rest of patients (89%) were single or divorced. The drug use pattern was similar among patients. All patients asked for marijuana permission in the epilepsy clinic. Most (83%) had a previous history of marijuana smoking, with a mean of 6.6±3 (1-15) years. The mean consumption dose was 2.05±1.8 (0.5-8) grams per day. Ten (56%) patients reported withdrawal seizure exacerbation when they stopped the marijuana. Only two patients (11%) reported side effects, and all patients found medicinal marijuana very helpful for seizure control and improvement of mood disorder. PWEs using medicinal marijuana have a common profile. They are usually young single men with drug-resistant epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidity. Most used marijuana before formal prescription and all believe the drug was effective on their seizure control. Because of the concurrent use of other antiseizure medications, it is complex to estimate the actual effect of marijuana.

  12. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  13. Differences in health status of older people aged 65 and above after total hip replacement compared with the normal population: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the health status of older patients with osteoarthrosis following total hip replacement and to compare their health status with population norms in order to analyse the need for a rehabilitation programme after total hip replacement. Background.  Total hip...... replacement is a very efficient operation in terms of pain relief and improvement of walking ability. However, after the operation some patients still report low health status. Method.  A cross-sectional study including 287 older patients aged 65-74 and 75+ years who had had total hip replacement within...... reported significantly lower scores than the age specific norm population. Conclusion.  Our results indicate that health status is scored lower for patients after total hip replacement. This implies that there might be a need for further postoperative rehabilitation based on the identification of problems...

  14. Different strategies in solving series completion inductive reasoning problems: an fMRI and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-08-01

    Neural correlate of human inductive reasoning process is still unclear. Number series and letter series completion are two typical inductive reasoning tasks, and with a common core component of rule induction. Previous studies have demonstrated that different strategies are adopted in number series and letter series completion tasks; even the underlying rules are identical. In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different reasoning strategies for solving series completion tasks. The retrieval strategy, used in number series completion tasks, involves direct retrieving of arithmetic knowledge to get the relations between items. The procedural strategy, used in letter series completion tasks, requires counting a certain number of times to detect the relations linking two items. The two strategies require essentially the equivalent cognitive processes, but have different working memory demands (the procedural strategy incurs greater demands). The procedural strategy produced significant greater activity in areas involved in memory retrieval (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) and mental representation/maintenance (posterior parietal cortex, PPC). An ACT-R model of the tasks successfully predicted behavioral performance and BOLD responses. The present findings support a general-purpose dual-process theory of inductive reasoning regarding the cognitive architecture.

  15. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  16. [Total knee replacement induces peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis and it is not prevented by regional anesthesia - a randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosel, Juliusz; Rusak, Małgorzata; Gołembiewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowska, Milena; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cysts 87 m, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Total knee replacement induces peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis and it is not prevented by regional anesthesia - a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosel, Juliusz; Rusak, Małgorzata; Gołembiewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowska, Milena; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cytometry, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period that lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. STUDY ON PREDICTION METHODS FOR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS OF NONLINEAR CHAOTIC TIME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军海; 陈予恕; 辛宝贵

    2004-01-01

    The prediction methods for nonlinear dynamic systems which are decided by chaotic time series are mainly studied as well as structures of nonlinear self-related chaotic models and their dimensions.By combining neural networks and wavelet theories,the structures of wavelet transform neural networks were studied and also a wavelet neural networks learning method was given.Based on wavelet networks,a new method for parameter identification was suggested,which can be used selectively to extract different scales of frequency and time in time series in order to realize prediction of tendencies or details of original time series.Through pre-treatment and comparison of results before and after the treatment,several useful conclusions are reached:High accurate identification can be guaranteed by applying wavelet networks to identify parameters of self-related chaotic models and more valid prediction of the chaotic time series including noise can be achieved accordingly.

  19. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Santos, Thiago Rezende Dos; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce.This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care.The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model.An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates.In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates.

  20. Vision-based approach for long-term mobility monitoring: Single case study following total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dolatabadi, MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a single case study on the feasibility of using a low-cost and portable vision-based system (a Microsoft Kinect sensor to monitor changes in movement patterns before and after a total hip replacement surgery. The primary subject was an older male adult with total hip replacement who performed two different functional tasks: walking and sit-to-stand. The tasks were recorded with a Kinect multiple times, starting from 1 d before the surgery until 9 wk after the surgery. An automated algorithm has been developed to extract the important spatiotemporal characteristics from the video recorded functional tasks (walking and sit-to-stand. Statistical analysis was then performed by TryonC statistic to study changes in spatiotemporal characteristics between different stages before and after the surgery. The statistical analysis indicated significant difference and slight improvement between all measures from the presurgery to each postsurgery date. The study confirmed that the Kinect sensor and an automated algorithm have the potential to be integrated into a patient’s home to monitor changes in mobility during the recovery period.

  1. Subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy combined with cementless total hip replacement for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe; Vicenti, Giovanni; Picca, Girolamo; Carrozzo, Massimiliano; Moretti, Biagio

    2017-07-24

    Total hip replacement for high dislocation of the hip presents some difficulties, considering patients' young ages, the abnormal hip anatomy and the high rate of complications. In this study, we present our experience in terms of clinical and radiological results in the treatment of Crowe type IV hips with subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy and cementless total hip replacement. We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients with Crowe type IV hip dysplasia (two bilateral cases for a total of 17 hips) treated with cementless total hip replacement associated with shortening subtrochanteric osteotomies (nine transversal and eight Z-shape osteotomies) between March 2000 to February 2006. The mean follow-up was 88 months (range 63-133). Harris hip score, leg length discrepancy, neurological status, union status of the osteotomy and the component stability were the criteria of the evaluation. All complications were noted. The mean HHS improved from 38.3 (range 32-52) to 85.6 (range 69-90). The mean preoperative leg length discrepancy was of 45 mm (range 38-70) and reduced to a mean of 12 mm (range 9-1.6) postoperatively. All osteotomies resulted healed at an average of 12.3 weeks (range 10-15). No cases of delayed union or nonunion were detected. Two patients (11%) showed early symptoms of sciatic nerve palsy which resolved uneventfully in 6 months. There was no migrations and none of the implants required revision. Cementless THA with shortening subtrochanteric osteotomy is an effective method in the treatment of patients with Crowe type IV development dysplasia of the hip. IV.

  2. Star GK Bileaflet Mechanical Valve Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch After Mitral Valve Replacement: A Chinese Multicenter Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua; Qiu, Zhihuang; Chen, Liangwan; Chen, Daozhong; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and immediate and mid-term effects of heart valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after mitral valve replacement using the GK bileaflet mechanical valve. Material/Methods A total of 493 cases of mechanical mitral valve replacement were performed in the departments of cardiac surgery in 7 hospitals from January 2000 to January 2008. The patients included 142 men and 351 women ages 21 to 67 (average age, 48.75). The patients were followed for 3 years after surgery. The effective orifice area index (EOAI), ≤1.2 cm2/m2, was detected during the follow-up period and was defined as PPM. The patients were assigned to either the PPM group or the non-PPM group. Finally, the preoperative, perioperative and postoperative indexes of the 2 groups of patients were compared. Results A total of 157 patients had PPM 3 years after surgery. The incidence of PPM was 31.84%. Sixty-three patients in the PPM group received a 25-mm GK bileaflet valve (40.13%), 82 received a 27-mm valve (52.23%), and 12 (7.64%) received a 29-mm valve. There were significant differences in length of intensive care unit stay, duration of ventilator use, length of hospitalization, body surface area, EOAI, mean transmitral pressure gradient, and pulmonary artery pressure between the PPM and non-PPM group (P0.05). Conclusions PPM after mitral valve replacement influences postoperative hemodynamics. Thus, larger-sized GK bileaflet mechanical valves are often used to reduce the risk of PPM. PMID:26313311

  3. Guided Study and Homework. What Research Says to the Teacher Series. No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Ruth

    This booklet, one in a series entitled "What Research Says to the Teacher," deals with guided study and homework. The first section discusses the general topic of supervised and guided study; study methods and the psychology of learning are examined as are related factors. Section two takes up the topic of study at home: objectives of homework,…

  4. Maternal use of nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy and offspring birthweight: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina H; Madsen, Mia; Skovgaard, Lene T

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a well-established risk factor for fetal growth restriction and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, and nicotine may be one of the chemical compounds that drive these associations. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a smoking cessation aid, which can facilitate smoking cessation. It is......, however, unknown whether NRT used during pregnancy impairs fetal growth. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between the use of NRT during pregnancy and offspring birthweight. The study population consisted of 72 761 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996......, simultaneous use of more than one NRT product was associated with reduced birthweight (b = -10.73 g per week of NRT use [95% CI -26.51, 5.05]), although the association was not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that maternal use of NRT in pregnancy does not seriously affect...

  5. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  6. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CONTINUOUS FEMORAL NERVE BLOCKADE WITH EPIDURAL ANALGESIA FOR PAIN RELIEF AFTER TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rapolu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total knee replacement causes moderate-to-severe pain requiring effective analgesia. With use of ultrasound guidance, we may prove a more suitable approach compared with the epidural technique. Aim of this study is the comparison between Continuous Epidural Analgesia (CEA and Continuous Femoral Block (CFB techniques in Total Knee Replacement surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted on 60 adult male and female patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery for a period of 2 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group - 1: Continuous epidural analgesia patients, Group - 2: Continuous femoral blockage patients. All patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and investigated to rule out any systemic disease. RESULTS The mean age of patient in Group - 1 was 66.54 ± 4.98 and in Group - 2 was 66.98 ± 5.02 years. P value was > 0.05, which was not significant. No significant differences in gender is observed between the groups. VAS scores were significantly high (P < 0.05 in the femoral group at 6 h, after which there was a declining trend and scores were essentially similar from 24 h. The use of rescue analgesic was also higher in the femoral group. Analysis of side-effects showed that all the five common sideeffects were twice as common in the epidural group than in the femoral study group. Only one patient in the femoral group had urinary retention when compared with four in the epidural group. The differences were not statistically significant. Muscle power at 48 h, time getting out of the bed and time stay in hospital (days are significant in comparison in 2 groups, range of movement is insignificant in groups. Patient satisfaction score was measured on a scale of 1 - 10. Patients in the Femoral group were slightly more satisfied with a mean ± SD score of 8.1 ± 1.2 when compared with the epidural group 7.3 ± 1.01. CONCLUSION Continuous femoral blockade using US guidance provides equivalent analgesia

  7. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  8. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series of idle agriculture lands: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.; Piamduaytham, S.; Vaiphasa, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into

  9. Using Fractionalization Indexes: Deriving Methodological Principles for Growth Studies from Time Series Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedderke, Johannes; Luiz, John; de Kadt, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Recent cross-country growth studies have found that ethnolinguistic fractionalization is an important explanatory variable of long-run growth performance. This paper highlights some limitations of cross-country studies by focusing on the time series evidence for South Africa. In presenting variation over time in a number of social dimensions, this…

  10. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  11. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  12. Physiological growth hormone replacement and rate of recurrence of craniopharyngioma: the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Cote, David J; Jane, John A; Laws, Edward R

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to establish recurrence rates in patients with craniopharyngioma postoperatively treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) as a basis for determining the risk of rhGH therapy in the development of recurrent tumor. METHODS The study included 739 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who were naïve to GH upon entering the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) for treatment. Reoperation for tumor recurrence was documented as an adverse event. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were developed for time to recurrence, using age as the outcome and enrollment date as the predictor. Patients without recurrence were treated as censored. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the incidence of recurrence with adjustment for the amount of time at risk. RESULTS Fifty recurrences in these 739 surgically treated patients were recorded. The overall craniopharyngioma recurrence rate in the NCGS was 6.8%, with a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.7-6.4 years.). Age at the time of study enrollment was statistically significant according to both Cox (p = 0.0032) and logistic (p treatment era.

  13. An Evaluation of Outcomes Following the Replacement of Traditional Histology Laboratories with Self-Study Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; Lowrie, Donald J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in medical school curricula often require educators to develop teaching strategies that decrease contact hours while maintaining effective pedagogical methods. When faced with this challenge, faculty at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine converted the majority of in-person histology laboratory sessions to self-study modules…

  14. Comparative evaluation among different materials to replace soft tissue in oral radiology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Paula Caldas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish which materials afford better simulation of soft tissues in Oral Radiology studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample was composed of four materials in eleven different thicknesses to simulate the soft tissues of the face. The mean values of the relative amounts of radiographic contrast of the materials were determined and compared to a gold standard value, which was obtained from 20 patients who were referred to have periapical radiographs taken of the left mandibular molars. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with Dunnett's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean value of the relative amounts of contrast encountered in the patients was 0.47, with a range between 0.36 and 0.64 for all 44 material/thickness combinations. The majority of the tested materials showed values close to those of the patients' tissues, without statistically signifcant differences among them. The values of only three materials/thickness combinations differed statistically from those of the patients' tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the present study, it may be concluded that except for utility wax (4 mm and 8 mm and water (4 mm, all materials tested at different thickness could be used as soft tissue substitute materials in Oral Radiology studies.

  15. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis: results of preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S.; Ilgner, J. F. R.; Fadeeva, E.; Chichkov, B.; Prescher, A.; Bovi, M.; Westhofen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize titanium surfaces by means of Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser to improve the attachment of human cartilage cells on titanium prosthesis in middle ear surgery. The application of microstructures on titanium samples was evaluated and the influence of these microstructures on human auricular chondrocytes was studied in-vitro. After establishing the ear chondrocyte cell culture, cells were seeded on titanium platelets with selected microstructure patterns. Whereas the phenotype of cells seeded on unstructured titanium was similar to cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces, the morphology of chondrocytes grown on structured titanium samples was influenced by the pattern. For future titanium middle ear prosthesis structural optimizations will be developed to promote chondrocyte growth and adhesion while impeding fibrocyte proliferation to avoid scarring on implant interfaces.

  16. Impending sources of energy to replace fire wood in semi arid climatic zones: A case study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study paper shows an alternative source of energy that can decrease the extensive use of fire wood in Ethiopia. The country’s entire rural area and significant part of urban population is completely dependent on fire wood as a source of energy. This practice takes its own toll, the forest is on the verge of being wiped out and as a result a clear change of climate and loss of natural biodiversity resources is visible. Fire wood is not the only source of energy available in the country. In this paper, based on their low cost, construction material availability and the required unskilled labor it is shown that biogas and solar energy are potentially feasible source of energy to replace firewood for cooking.

  17. Lightweight concrete with Algerian limestone dust. Part II: study on 50% and 100% replacement to normal aggregate at timely age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kitouni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A control lightweight concrete (LWC mixture made with 50% and 100% of limestone as a replacement of coarse aggregates in weight was prepared. Limestone is used for economical and environmental concern. The concrete samples were cured at 65% relative humidity at 20 ºC. The compressive and flexural tensile strengths, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of hardened concrete were measured. Laboratory compressive and tensile strength tests results showed that LWC can be produced by the use of limestone. The aim of this study is twofold: one is to design a lightweight concrete with the use of limestone that will provide an advantage of reduction in dead weight of a structure; and second is to obtain a more economical LWC mixture with the use of limestone.

  18. Case study of physiotherapy treatment of a patient with the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis and status after total replacement of hip joint

    OpenAIRE

    Chlebečková, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Title: Case study of physiotherapy treatment of a patient with the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis and status after total replacement of hip joint Summary: This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis and the effects of this disease. General part focuses on describing the theoretical knowledge of ankylosing spondylitis and possible methods for its treatment, and the implantation of hip replacement and subsequent rehabilitation. The special part p...

  19. Can visual aides influence rehabilitation and length of stay following knee replacement? A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Abson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthroplasty is increasingly performed within Australia, with a 2.7% rate increase of total knee arthroplasty (TKR over the last year. With an increasing burden on the public health system and increasing waiting lists, all efforts are being made to decrease length of stay and improve the post operative rehabilitation process. There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about visual aids and improved goal attainment post TKR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate one such visual aid clinical photographs of patients knee range of motion (ROM pre- and post-operatively and their effect on length of stay. Photographs of knee range of motion were obtained pre and post-operatively while the patient was anesthetized. In this study, a randomized, single blinded design allocated patients to either be shown or not shown their photographs on day 1 post operatively. Primary outcome measures were the number of days the patient remained in hospital. Secondary measures were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores, Oxford Knee Scores, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score and knee ROM. Thirty-two patients (3 exclusions were randomized to the photo group and 27 patients (4 exclusions were randomized to the no photo group. The median length of stay between groups was not significantly different. Currently there is not enough evidence to conclude that visual aids effect length of stay or rehabilitation pathways. Further assessment with larger cohort groups is needed. Preoperative targeting and rehabilitation for patients with lower functional status may shorten post operative length of patient stay in our institution.

  20. Hormone replacement therapy and risk for coronary heart disease. Data from the CORA-study--a case-control study on women with incident coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Eberhard; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Eidenmüller, Britta; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-07-20

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been suggested to prevent cardiovascular disease, while some intervention studies have shed doubt on this concept. Thus, uncertainty remains whether current HRT use is beneficial as to cardiovascular disease or may even be harmful. This research investigates the association of hormone replacement therapy, risk factors and lifestyle characteristics with the manifestation of coronary heart disease in current HRT users versus never users. The coronary risk factors for atherosclerosis in women study (CORA-study) provide clinical and biochemical parameters and data on lifestyle in 200 consecutive pre- and postmenopausal women with incident coronary heart disease compared to 255 age-matched population-based controls, of which 87.9% were postmenopausal. Significantly more controls than cases used currently HRT for a median of 9.5 years (32.9% versus 20.2%), while 50.0% of cases and 42.5% of controls had never used HRT (pCORA-study are not compatible with an adverse impact of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular disease, rather support the notion of beneficial effects of HRT on weight, central adiposity, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Yet, the data do not support the presumption of a general healthy user effect in women on HRT either. Rather, in some women adverse lifestyle habits, especially intense smoking, appear to counteract possible beneficial effects of HRT.

  1. Instability of total hip replacement: A clinical study and determination of its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra-Herrando, L; Seral-García, B; Quilez, M P; Pérez, M A; Albareda-Albareda, J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with prosthetic dislocation and simulate a finite element model to determine the safe range of movement of various inclination and anteversion cup positions. Retrospective Case Control study with 46 dislocated patients from 1994 to 2011. 83 randomly selected patients. Dislocation risk factors described in the literature were collected. A prosthetic model was simulated using finite elements with 28, 32, 36 mm heads, and a 52 mm cup. Acetabular position was 25°, 40°, and 60° tilt and with 0°, 15° and 25° anteversion. In extension of 0° and flexion of 90°, internal and external rotation was applied to analyze the range of movement, maximum resisting moment, and stress distribution in the acetabulum to impingement and dislocation. There was greater dislocation in older patients (p=0.002). Higher dislocation in fractures than in osteoarthritis (p=0.001). Less anteversion in dislocated patients (p=0.043). Longer femoral neck in dislocated patients (p=0.002). Finite element model: lower dislocation when there is more anteversion, tilt and bigger femoral heads. Advanced age and fractures are the major risk factors for dislocation. "Safe zone" of movement for dislocation avoidance is 40°-60° tilt and 15°-25° anteversion. Both the defect and excess of soft tissue tension predispose to dislocation. Bigger femoral heads are more stable. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormonal Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Lung Cancer in Women: An Adaptive Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of lung cancer cases occur in never-smokers. Hormonal factors have been suggested to lead to an elevated risk of lung cancer in women. This systematic review (SR) aimed to investigate the association between hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) and the risk of lung cancer in women using cohort studies. We first obtained previous SR articles on this topic. Based on these studies we made a list of refereed, cited, and related articles using the PubMed and Scopus databases. All cohort studies that evaluated the relative risk of HRT exposure on lung cancer occurrence in women were selected. Estimate of summary effect size (sES) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 14 cohort studies were finally selected. A random effect model was applied due to heterogeneity (I-squared, 64.3%). The sES of the 14 articles evaluating the impact of HRT exposure on lung cancer occurrence in women indicated no statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk (sES, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.09). These results showed that HRT history had no effect on the risk of lung cancer in women, even though the sES of case-control studies described in previous SR articles indicated that HRT had a protective effect against lung cancer. It is necessary to conduct a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

  3. Morbimortality study of infection in patients undergoing different types of dialysis in a renal replacement therapy center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridão Curty, Natália Fabiane; da Silva Martins, Lucilene Fagundes; Sanches Ito, Carmen Antônia; Schafranski, Marcelo; Brites, Dorelayne Aparecida; Busato, César Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy is the treatment of end-stage chronic kidney disease and can be performed through dialysis catheters, arteriovenous fistulas/grafts, and peritoneal dialysis. Patients are usually immunocompromised and exposed to invasive procedures, leading to high rates of infection and increased mortality. To compare the prevalence of infection and related deaths, as well as the sensitivity profile of the putative bacteria in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis and catheter hemodialysis. This is case-control study. Six hundred forty-four patients undergoing renal replacement therapy were selected. Patients were divided into three groups according to the modality of dialysis treatment: peritoneal dialysis (126 patients), arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis (326 patients), and catheter hemodialysis (192 patients). One hundred sixteen patients (18.01%) developed infection. There was a higher incidence of infection in the peritoneal dialysis group (44 patients; 34.92%; OR: 3.32; CI 95%=2.13-5.17; p=0.0001). In the catheter hemodialysis group, 48 patients (25%) had infection (OR: 1.88; CI 95%: 1.24-2.85; p=0.0035). In the arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group, 24 patients (7.36%) developed infection (OR: 0.19; CI 95%: 0.12-0.31; p=0.0001). Five patients (4.31%) died due to infection (four in the peritoneal dialysis group and one in the catheter hemodialysis group). There were no deaths due to infection in the arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group. Peritoneal dialysis is the treatment with greater risk of infection and mortality, followed by catheter hemodialysis. The lowest risk of infection and mortality was observed in arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. A case-series study of cerebral venous thrombosis in women using short course oral contraceptive

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Khomand; Kambiz Hassanzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: We report a case series of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) in women who used oral contraceptive pill (OCP) in the Muslims Ramadan and fasting month.Methods: This study was a retrospective case series of 9 patients with diagnosis of CVT, who admitted in the neurology ward of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, in July-August 2014-2015.Results: Patients had no history of thrombosis before. They were treated with oral contraceptive more than 1 month to be able to fast during Ramadan. Th...

  5. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI Time-Series of Idle Agriculture Lands: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into a time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images before the investigation. It can be visually observed that the NDVI time series of the Idle Agriculture Land (IAL has the NDVI values closed to zero. In other words, the trend of the NDVI values remains, approximately, unchanged about the zero level for the whole period of the study time. In contrast, the non-idle areas hold a higher level of the NDVI variation. The NDVI values above 0.5 can be found in these non-idle areas during the growing seasons. Thus, it can be hypothesized that the NDVI time-series of the different land cover types can be used for IAL classification. This outcome is a prerequisite to the follow-up study of the NDVI pattern classification that will be done in the near future.

  6. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 232-235). October, 16-18, 2012,

  7. Moving up: applying aggregate level time series analysis in the study of media coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the advantages of aggregate level time series analysis for the study of media coverage are discussed. This type of analysis offers the opportunity to answer questions relating to causes and effects of media attention for issues and all kind of other content characteristics. Data that

  8. Moving up: applying aggregate level time series analysis in the study of media coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the advantages of aggregate level time series analysis for the study of media coverage are discussed. This type of analysis offers the opportunity to answer questions relating to causes and effects of media attention for issues and all kind of other content characteristics. Data that

  9. Application of a self-controlled case series study to a database study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Hanae; Hinotsu, Shiro; Tanaka, Shiro; Urushihara, Hisashi; Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawakami, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Post-marketing surveillance activities are particularly important for safety issues in children, the elderly, and patients with severe comorbidities since these populations are usually excluded from clinical trials. In addition, using electronic databases for monitoring of safety of marketed products has been of considerable interest. This study aimed to clarify the advantages and difficulties of the self-controlled case series method relative to cohort studies in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children, using an administrative database, and to explore the impact on results of handling the period eligible for analysis and recurrent events in different ways. Datasets of only individuals who had the outcome of interest were derived from an anonymized hospital administrative database in Japan from April 2003 through August 2011. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema related to palivizumab treatment in young children. The analysis included 'first diagnosed' events or 'multiple' events during an eligible period. An eligible period was defined in two ways: first-time inpatient periods of more than 3 continuous days (EPA); and a continuous period in cases where the interval between visits was below the 75th percentile of the interval between visits for patients with the same diagnosis (EPB). We extracted data for 70,771 patients and identified 641 who were exposed to palivizumab. The age-adjusted IRRs for diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema were 3.0 (95 % CI 1.7-5.4), 10.3 (95 % CI 8.0-13.2), and 16.9 (95 % CI 12-23), respectively, in multiple events and the EPB eligible period. The IRRs varied greatly between the two eligible periods. This method could be a useful tool in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children. Careful consideration in the handling of inpatient and outpatient periods, including sensitivity analyses, is necessary because this method is a within

  10. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Light-emitting diode, LED, lighting, fluorescent, waste reduction, energy conservation, net zero , mercury 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...Center (ATC) to assess the benefits of converting fluorescent tube lighting to light-emitting diode (LED) technology. The report documents the waste ...1-15 SECTION 2. SUBTESTS 2.1 HAZARDOUS WASTE REDUCTION

  11. Effects of long-term testosterone replacement therapy, with a temporary intermission, on glycemic control of nine hypogonadal men with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a series of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Farid; Yassin, Aksam; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with obesity and subnormal serum testosterone (T) levels. Until 5 years ago there was no indication that men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) had subnormal serum T. But recent studies indicate that about 10% of men with T1DM suffer from hypogonadism, as a rule aged men and men with obesity. While hypogonadal men with T2DM benefit from normalization of their serum T, this has not been investigated in men with T1DM. Nine men with T1DM, erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism (total testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/L) received testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In seven men TRT was intermitted: one man with prostate malignancy and six men because of problems of reimbursement. Incidentally, this provided an opportunity to monitor the effects of withdrawal and of the reinstatement of TRT. In all men, glycemic control (serum glucose and HbA1c), weight, waist circumference, lipid profiles and erectile function improved upon TRT. The seven men whose TRT was intermitted showed a deterioration which improved again upon reinstatement of TRT. The data suggest that aging and obese men with T1DM might have subnormal T levels and that their glycemic control, lipid profiles and erectile function might benefit from TRT.

  12. Comparison of radiographic joint space width and magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of knee replacement: A longitudinal case-control study from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang; Cotofana, Sebastian [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg Austria and Chondrometrics GmbH, Institute of Anatomy, Ainring (Germany); Boudreau, Robert [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Zhijie; Hannon, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh and Pittsburgh VAHS, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Duryea, Jeff [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nevitt, Michael [OAI Coordinating Ctr., UCSF, San Francisco, CA (United States); John, Markus R. [Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Ladel, Christoph [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany); Sharma, Leena [Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Hunter, David J. [University Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona, Division of Rheumatology and the University of Arizona Arthritis Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Collaboration: OAI Investigators

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate whether change in fixed-location measures of radiographic joint space width (JSW) and cartilage thickness by MRI predict knee replacement. Knees replaced between 36 and 60 months' follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative were each matched with one control by age, sex and radiographic status. Radiographic JSW was determined from fixed flexion radiographs and subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness from 3 T MRI. Changes between the annual visit before replacement (T{sub 0}) and 2 years before T{sub 0} (T{sub -2}) were compared using conditional logistic regression. One hundred and nineteen knees from 102 participants (55.5 % women; age 64.2 ± 8.7 [mean ± SD] years) were studied. Fixed-location JSW change at 22.5 % from medial to lateral differed more between replaced and control knees (case-control [cc] OR = 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.23-2.01) than minimum medial JSW change (ccOR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.71). Medial femorotibial cartilage loss displayed discrimination similar to minimum JSW, and central tibial cartilage loss similar to fixed-location JSW. Location-independent thinning and thickening scores were elevated prior to knee replacement. Discrimination of structural progression between knee pre-placement cases versus controls was stronger for fixed-location than minimum radiographic JSW. MRI displayed similar discrimination to radiography and suggested greater simultaneous cartilage thickening and loss prior to knee replacement. (orig.)

  13. Tribological characterization of surface-treated commercially pure titanium for femoral heads in total hip replacement: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotogno, G; Holzwarth, U; Franchi, M; Rivetti, S; Chiesa, R

    2006-12-01

    Most noncemented total hip replacements combine a titanium alloy stem, a CoCrMo femoral head and an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup. In spite of its nickel content of up to 1% and the resulting biocompatibility issues in some clinical situations, the higher cost and some difficulties in machining, CoCrMo alloy is preferred to titanium alloys thanks to its outstanding tribological properties, higher hardness and elastic modulus. Nowadays most of the heads of hip prostheses use CoCrMo as bearing material. The present study investigates the effect of various surface treatments and combinations of treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation (anodization), laser surface melting and barrel polishing, on the tribological properties of commercially pure grade 2 titanium. The aim of the study was to characterize surface treatments capable of improving the tribological properties of titanium surface to the same extent as CoCrMo. The tribological properties were characterized by multidirectional pin-on-flat screening wear tests, using UHMWPE pins as bearing surface. The experiments showed the possibility of improving the wear resistance of titanium to the degree of CoCrMo. Although further efforts will be required to optimize the treatments studied, the results are encouraging enough to warrant pursuing this direction of investigation.

  14. Best practices for the use of itraconazole as a replacement for ketoconazole in drug-drug interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichuan; Bello, Akintunde; Dresser, Mark J; Heald, Donald; Komjathy, Steven Ferenc; O'Mara, Edward; Rogge, Mark; Stoch, S Aubrey; Robertson, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Ketoconazole has been widely used as a strong cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A (CYP3A) inhibitor in drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. However, the US Food and Drug Administration has recommended limiting the use of ketoconazole to cases in which no alternative therapies exist, and the European Medicines Agency has recommended the suspension of its marketing authorizations because of the potential for serious safety concerns. In this review, the Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development's Clinical Pharmacology Leadership Group (CPLG) provides a compelling rationale for the use of itraconazole as a replacement for ketoconazole in clinical DDI studies and provides recommendations on the best practices for the use of itraconazole in such studies. Various factors considered in the recommendations include the choice of itraconazole dosage form, administration in the fasted or fed state, the dose and duration of itraconazole administration, the timing of substrate and itraconazole coadministration, and measurement of itraconazole and metabolite plasma concentrations, among others. The CPLG's recommendations are based on careful review of available literature and internal industry experiences.

  15. Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status : a large prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Dossus, Laure; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fournier, Agnes; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sund, Malin; Lenner, Per; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement

  16. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation after an unsuccessful surgical ablation and biological prosthetic mitral valve replacement: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey E. Mamchur

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Catheter ablation is an effective method for AF treatment following an ineffective surgical RF ablation procedure and biological prosthetic MV replacement. The use of bioprosthetic MVs allows for performing safe catheter ablation without subsequent prosthetic dysfunction.

  17. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Study on energy demand function of korea considering replacement among energy sources and the structural changes of demand behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, C.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    If the necessity of careful study on energy function is mentioned, it should be stressed that energy investment not only needs a long gestation period but also, acts as the bottleneck in the production capacity of an economy when investment is not enough. Thereby, the adverse effect of an energy supply shortage is very big. Especially, the replacement/supplemental relationship between energy and capital which corresponds to the movement on the iso-quanta curve is believed to have a direct relation with the answer as to whether long-term economic development would be possible under an energy crisis and its influence on technology selection. Furthermore, the advantages of technological advances which correspond to the movement on the iso-quanta curve has a direct relation with the question whether long-term economic development would be possible under an energy crisis depending on whether its direction is toward energy-saving or energy-consuming. This study tackles the main issues and outlines of the quantitative approach method based on the accounting approach method for modeling energy demand, quantitative economics approach method, and production model. In order to model energy demand of the Korean manufacturing industry, related data was established and a positive analytical model is completed and presented based on these. 122 refs., 10 tabs.

  19. A Comparative Study of Portmanteau Tests for Univariate Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Time series model diagnostic checking is the most important stage of time series model building. In this paper the comparison among several suggested diagnostic tests has been made using the simulation time series data.

  20. Pyrocarbon spacer as a trapezium replacement for arthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint; a follow-up study of 60 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Gabor; Meyer, Christof; Scheufens, Tanja; Schnettler, Reinhard; Christ, Ralph; Schleicher, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Rhizarthrosis is the most common degenerative joint disease of the hand, affecting about 10% of the population. We report our results with trapezium replacement using a pyrocarbon spacer. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 70 patients underwent trapeziectomy with interposition of a pyrocarbon spacer. Sixty patients were examined at an average follow-up of 23.6 (5-64) months after the operation. Six (8.6%) of the 70 implanted pyrocarbon spacers dislocated. Based on the assessment scale devised by Buck-Gramcko, 19 patients achieved a very good outcome (31.6%), 31 patients (51.6%) had a good outcome, six results were satisfactory (10%) and four patients (6.6%) had a poor result. In this study, trapeziectomy and implantation of a pyrocarbon spacer achieved good or very good results in 83.2% of cases. The high cost of the implant and the observed rate of spacer dislocation should however be considered critically. While the short-term results of this method are encouraging, long-term outcomes will show whether this technique can keep up with the good results of suspension arthroplasty.

  1. Factors that may be influencing the rise in prescription testosterone replacement therapy in adult men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Khan, Sobia; Sayal, Radha; Knowles, Sandra; Gomes, Tara; Moore, Julia E

    2016-06-01

    To explore and describe the factors that may be influencing the rise of prescribing and use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in adult men. A rapid qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews with providers and patients. Ontario, Canada. Nine men who have used TRT (referred to as "patients"), and six primary care clinicians and seven specialists (collectively referred to as "providers") who prescribed or administered TRT. Patients' and providers' perspectives were investigated through semi-structured interviews. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit all participants. We conducted qualitative analysis using the framework approach for applied health research. Participants perceived the following factors to have influenced TRT prescriptions and use in adult men: provider factors (diagnostic ambiguity of age-related hypogonadism and beliefs about appropriateness of TRT) and patient factors (access to information on TRT and drug seeking behavior). They perceived that these factors have perpetuated a rise in prescription in the absence of clear clinical guidelines and unclear research evidence on the safety and efficacy of TRT. The findings of this study highlight that much work still needs to be done to improve diagnostic accuracy and encourage appropriate TRT prescription in adult men. In addition, both patients and providers need more information about the risks and long-term effects of TRT in men.

  2. Variations in costs and use of provincially-funded testosterone replacement therapy across Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadrous, Mina; Martins, Diana; Lee, Kathy; Knowles, Sandra; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Provincial drug-program policies for the reimbursement of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) vary across Canada, which may result in marked regional variability in use. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional analysis of provincially funded TRT spending and utilization in eight provinces across Canada in 2012. We reported the annual cost per user, total cost, and rate of use of TRT overall and by formulation. We identified 23,544 provincially-funded recipients of TRT in 2012 in the eight provinces studied. Average annual cost per person varied by 3-fold, ranging from $173 (Prince Edward Island) to $485 (Ontario). Ontario also had the highest rate of use (1,105 users per 100,000 eligible) and the most liberal listing. Provinces with more restricted access (Alberta, British Columbia, and PEI) had lower annual costs per user ($293, $206, $173, respectively). Differing reimbursement policies for TRT products across Canada are likely contributing to variation in the rate of use and cost per recipient.

  3. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  4. A Study on Suitability of EAF Oxidizing Slag in Concrete: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Replacement for Natural Coarse Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic factors increasingly encourage higher utility of industrial by-products. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source for good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to fast pace of construction activities in India. EAF oxidizing slag as a by-product obtained during the process in steel making industry provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available coarse aggregates. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly ash. This study presents the experimental investigations carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 with three mixes: (i Mix A, conventional concrete mix with no material substitution, (ii Mix B, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash, and (iii Mix C, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF oxidizing slag. Tests were conducted to determine mechanical and durability properties up to the age of 90 days. The test results concluded that concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash (Mix C had greater strength and durability characteristics when compared to Mix A and Mix B. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash could be effectively utilized as coarse aggregate replacement and cement replacement in all concrete applications.

  5. A Study on Suitability of EAF Oxidizing Slag in Concrete: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Replacement for Natural Coarse Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Alan; Palaniswamy, Murthi; Balaraju, Sivagnanaprakash

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and economic factors increasingly encourage higher utility of industrial by-products. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source for good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to fast pace of construction activities in India. EAF oxidizing slag as a by-product obtained during the process in steel making industry provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available coarse aggregates. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly ash. This study presents the experimental investigations carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 with three mixes: (i) Mix A, conventional concrete mix with no material substitution, (ii) Mix B, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash, and (iii) Mix C, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF oxidizing slag. Tests were conducted to determine mechanical and durability properties up to the age of 90 days. The test results concluded that concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash (Mix C) had greater strength and durability characteristics when compared to Mix A and Mix B. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash could be effectively utilized as coarse aggregate replacement and cement replacement in all concrete applications.

  6. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2012-09-20

    Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations when properly implemented

  7. Fatty replacement of rotator cuff in brain-injured patients is associated with hemiplegic arm function, but not with tendon tear: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Jang, Hye Jin; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-01-01

    The association between fatty replacement of rotator cuff and hemiplegic upper extremity function has not been defined yet. Moreover, the relationships among rotator cuff tears, shoulder pain, spasticity, and fatty replacement were not clearly studied. We investigated the association of fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with tendon tear in stroke or brain-injured patients. A total of 72 hemiplegic patients were enrolled in 3 hospitals, and ultrasonography of both shoulders was performed once. Fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was graded by the visibility of outer contours, pennate pattern, central tendon, and echogenicity. Fatty replacement was observed in 22 (30.6%) out of the 72 patients (in 18 supraspinatus muscles and 12 infraspinatus). Inter-rater agreement (kappa value) between the 2 physiatrists was 0.530 for the supraspinatus, and 0.411 for the infraspinatus. The Fugl-Meyer assessment score, Brunnstrom stage, and modified Barthel index were significantly lower in patients with fatty replacement of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus (group 1) than in those without (group 2). The motor power of both shoulders, the pain-free range of motion, spasticity, and hemiplegic shoulder pain were comparable between the two groups. The tear rate of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, or subscapularis tendon at the hemiplegic side was higher than that at the contralesional side in each group, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. Disuse leading to muscle atrophy rather than rotator cuff tear might be the cause of fatty replacement of these muscles, which may be associated with decreased function of the hemiplegic upper extremities.

  8. MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF A SERIES OF AZOBENZENE-CONTAINING SIDE-ON LIQUID CRYSTALLINE TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Deng; Annie Br(u)let; Pierre-antoine Albouy; Patrick Keller; Xiao-gong Wang; Min-hui Li

    2012-01-01

    A series of azobenzene containing side-on liquid crystalline ABA triblock copolymers were investigated.This triblock series possesses the same central liquid crystal block B and various lengths of the amorphous block A.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),small angle X-rays and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) were used to study their morphologies.Aider annealing the samples over weeks at a temperature within the nematic temperature range of block B,different morphologies (disordered,lamellar,perforated layer and hexagonal cylinder) were observed by TEM.The alignment behavior of these azo triblock copolymers in the magnetic field for artificial muscle application,as well as the phase period and the order-disorder transition (ODT) were studied in situ by SANS.

  9. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of life

  10. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  11. Pilot Study of the Pharmacokinetics of Cefotaxime in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Treated with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Joost B.; Valk-Swinkels, Corinne G. H.; Rijpstra, Tom A.; Touw, Daan J.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Van Der Voort, Peter H. J.; Van 't Veer, Nils E.; Van Der Meer, Nardo J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime (CTX) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) when treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU). This single-center prospective observational pilot study was

  12. Outcomes of mitral valve repair compared with replacement in patients undergoing concomitant aortic valve surgery: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Alok; Alla, Venkata Mahesh; Kaushik, Manu; Hunter, Claire C; Mooss, Aryan V

    2015-09-01

    Long-term superiority of mitral valve (MV) repair compared with replacement is well established in degenerative MV disease. In rheumatic heart disease, its advantages are unclear and it is often performed in conjunction with aortic valve (AV) replacement. Herein, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes of MV repair vs replacement in patients undergoing concomitant AV replacement. PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were searched up to 25 January 2014 for English language studies comparing outcomes of MV repair vs replacement in patients undergoing simultaneous AV replacement. Data of selected studies were extracted. Study quality, publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Analysis was performed using a random effects model (meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology recommendation). A total of 1202 abstracts/titles were screened. Of these, 20 were selected for full text review and 8 studies (3924 patients) were included in the final analysis: 1255 underwent MV repair and 2669 underwent replacement. Late outcome data were available in seven studies (cumulative follow-up: 15 654 patient-years). The early (in hospital and up to 30 days post-surgery) mortality [risk ratio (RR): 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.87, P = 0.003] and late (>30 days post-surgery) mortality (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90 P = 0.001) were significantly lower in the MV repair group compared with the MV replacement group. The MV reoperation rate (RR: 1.89, 95% CI: 0.87-4.10, P = 0.108), thromboembolism (including valve thrombosis) (RR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.13, P = 0.128) and major bleeding rates (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.49-1.57, P = 0.659) were found to be comparable between the two groups. In a separate analysis of studies with exclusively rheumatic patients (n = 1106), the early as well as late mortality benefit of MV repair was lost (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.44-1.90, P = 0.81 and RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.39-1.22, P = 0.199, respectively

  13. Theoretical study on second-order nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU, Wei; FENG, Ji-Kang; YU, Kun-Qian; REN, Ai-Min; CUI, Meng

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Z1NDO methods, according to the sum-overstates (SOS) expression, the progran for the calculation of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities βuk and βμ ofmolecules was devised, and the structures and nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives were studied. The influence of the molecular conjugated chain lengths, the donor and the acceptor on βμwas examined.

  14. Fixed-altitude stair-climbing test replacing the conventional symptom-limited test. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Nuria M; Rodríguez, María; Gómez, M Teresa; Jiménez, Marcelo F; Varela, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether a patient's maximum capacity is comparable in 2 different stair-climbing tests, allowing the simplest to be used in clinical practice. Prospective, observational study of repeated measures on 33 consecutive patients scheduled for lung resection. Stair-climbing tests were: the standard test (climb to 27 m) and the alternative fixed-altitude test (climb to 12 m). In both cases, heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored before and after the test. The power output of stair-climbing for each test (Watt1 for the standard and Watt2 for the fixed-altitude test) was calculated using the following equation: Power (watt)=weight (kg)*9.8*height (m)/time (sec). Concordance between tests was evaluated using a regression model and the residuals were plotted against Watt1. Finally, power output values were analyzed using a Bland-Altman plot. Twenty-one male and 12 female patients (mean age 63.2±11.2) completed both tests. Only 12 patients finished the standard test, while all finished the fixed-altitude test. Mean power output values were Watt1: 184.1±65 and Watt2: 214.5±75.1. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) in the linear regression was 0.67. No fixed bias was detected after plotting the residuals. The Bland-Altman plot showed that 32 out of 33 values were within 2 standard deviations of the differences between methods. The results of this study show a reasonable level of concordance between both stair-climbing tests. The standard test can be replaced by the fixed-altitude test up to 12 m. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Stage progression and need for renal replacement therapy in a renal protection programme in Colombia. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes Delgado, Carlos Enrique; Pérez Dávila, Sara; Montoya Jaramillo, Marcela; Orrego Orozco, Beatriz Elena

    Due to the global burden represented by chronic kidney disease (CKD), the World Health Organization encouraged the implementation of renal protection programmes (RPP) to affect its incidence through prevention and control measures. To assess the effectiveness of a Colombian RPP in terms of its effect on the stage progression of CKD and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). An analytical study that monitored 2cohorts of patients diagnosed with CKD. The study compares the behaviour of clinical and renal impairment indicators from patients exposed to a RPP with that of patients following conventional treatment (CT). The population of both intervention groups was considered when determining the sample size. The incidence rate was calculated as well as patient survival (Kaplan Meier). In addition, a multivariate analysis (Cox) was used to calculate the influence that exposure to the RPP had on the outcomes of the patients following the RPP and those following CT. The patients exposed to the RPP took longer to advance to the next CKD stage and require RRT. The incidence rate for progression is higher for the patients following CT (0.050, IC 95%: 0.040-0.064) compared to those in the RPP (0.034, IC 95%: 0.030-0.039). The ratio of incidence rates was 1.480 (IC 95% 1.21-1.90). The hazard of progression was lower for the RPP (HR: 0.855, IC 95%: 0.74- 0.98), as was the hazard of requiring RRT (HR: 0.797, IC 95%: 0.606-1.049). The RPP is a secondary prevention strategy against CKD which has an effect on the stage progression of CKD and the need for RRT. Early patient detection has a positive effect on the outcomes studied. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of total knee replacement among Chinese in Singapore, the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Allen, John Carson; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-01-01

    Association between diabetes mellitus (diabetes) and risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is confounded by high body mass index (BMI), a strong risk factor for both conditions. We evaluated the association between diabetes and incidence of total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe KOA in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women, aged 45–74 years at recruitment in 1993–1998, and re-interviewed in 1999–2004. Height, weight, lifestyle factors and history of diabetes were obtained through in-person interviews at recruitment and re-interview. Incident cases of TKR were identified via record linkage with nationwide hospital discharge database. Subjects with/without prevalent diabetes had comparable BMI (24.0 kg/m2 versus 23.0 kg/m2). After an average of 14-years, 1,973 subjects had TKR attributable to KOA. Compared to subjects without diabetes, hazard ratio (HR) of TKR for subjects with diabetes was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.75] after controlling for BMI and other risk factors. An inverse association was also observed between incident diabetes at re-interview and subsequent risk of TKR (HR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.58–0.94). The inverse diabetes-TKR risk association was similar by gender and across three categories of BMI. Our study does not support diabetes as a risk factor of KOA. PMID:28084472

  17. Determinants of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return after primary total hip replacement: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2016-08-08

    Surveys of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return can be used for the optimization of processes, improving their quality, and increasing the satisfaction and loyalty in customers. This study looked at the factors significantly associated with patient satisfaction after primary total hip replacement (THR), and which affect the patients' willingness to return to the same hospital for future treatment, even when unrelated to their THR. Data for the study was collected by written survey from 810 patients of 43 hospitals following their THR. Satisfaction and willingness to return were measured using a validated, multidimensional questionnaire, primarily based on six-point scales, which were then evaluated together with routine hospital data, according to bivariate and multivariate analyses. The bivariate analysis showed a strong correlation between satisfaction or willingness to return and the health condition before hospitalization as well as the perceived length of stay. In contrast, the patient's gender and the number of inpatient cases in a hospital with THR had no influence. The binary logistic regression analyses identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction and seven predictors associated with willingness to return. The strongest factor for both dependent variables was the perceived length of stay, and the weakest factor for satisfaction was the treatment outcome. Overall, with all of the medical and service-related issues considered, high levels of satisfaction were reached. Despite the high satisfaction scores, probable causes for declining the willingness to return were identified. The results provide incentives for hospitals and medical professionals to attain a high satisfaction levels in their THR patients.

  18. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  19. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Wu, Bao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98%) of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10%) were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, Pdosing adjustment, which was 8.93 days vs 7.68 days (P=0.26) and 30.10% vs 27.36% (P=0.39), respectively. Pharmacist dosing adjustment for patients receiving CRRT was well accepted by physicians, and was related with lower adverse drug event rates and ICU cost savings. These results may support the development of strategies to include a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary ICU team.

  20. Predictive time-series modeling using artificial neural networks for Linac beam symmetry: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongge; Chan, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    Over half of cancer patients receive radiotherapy (RT) as partial or full cancer treatment. Daily quality assurance (QA) of RT in cancer treatment closely monitors the performance of the medical linear accelerator (Linac) and is critical for continuous improvement of patient safety and quality of care. Cumulative longitudinal QA measurements are valuable for understanding the behavior of the Linac and allow physicists to identify trends in the output and take preventive actions. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time-series prediction modeling techniques were both applied to 5-year daily Linac QA data. Verification tests and other evaluations were then performed for all models. Preliminary results showed that ANN time-series predictive modeling has more advantages over ARMA techniques for accurate and effective applicability in the dosimetry and QA field.

  1. Vibrational resonance: a study with high-order word-series averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murua, Ander

    2016-01-01

    We study a model problem describing vibrational resonance by means of a high-order averaging technique based on so-called word series. With the tech- nique applied here, the tasks of constructing the averaged system and the associ- ated change of variables are divided into two parts. It is first necessary to build recursively a set of so-called word basis functions and, after that, all the required manipulations involve only scalar coefficients that are computed by means of sim- ple recursions. As distinct from the situation with other approaches, with word- series, high-order averaged systems may be derived without having to compute the associated change of variables. In the system considered here, the construction of high-order averaged systems makes it possible to obtain very precise approxima- tions to the true dynamics.

  2. Statistical models and time series forecasting of sulfur dioxide: a case study Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, S; Hosseinibalam, F; Alizadeh, R

    2009-08-01

    This study performed a time-series analysis, frequency distribution and prediction of SO(2) levels for five stations (Pardisan, Vila, Azadi, Gholhak and Bahman) in Tehran for the period of 2000-2005. Most sites show a quite similar characteristic with highest pollution in autumn-winter time and least pollution in spring-summer. The frequency distributions show higher peaks at two residential sites. The potential for SO(2) problems is high because of high emissions and the close geographical proximity of the major industrial and urban centers. The ACF and PACF are nonzero for several lags, indicating a mixed (ARMA) model, then at Bahman station an ARMA model was used for forecasting SO(2). The partial autocorrelations become close to 0 after about 5 lags while the autocorrelations remain strong through all the lags shown. The results proved that ARMA (2,2) model can provides reliable, satisfactory predictions for time series.

  3. Study of the U and Th series in Crassostrea mangle shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Wellington M.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: wellington.m@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Simone, Luiz R.L.; Amaral, Vanessa S., E-mail: lrsimone@usp.br, E-mail: vanessamolusco@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Zoologia

    2015-07-01

    Foraminifera, corals and mollusks shells have been used as proxies for environmental, paleoenvironmental and climatic change studies in marine system by using elemental and isotopic ratios as recorder of such events. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the U and Th radionuclides decay series applied on those fields. In this sense, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the activity concentrations of the U and Th nuclide decay series in Crassostrea mangle shell samples as a function of the geographic location. Samples from Sao Paulo, Parana, Alagoas, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco states were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Gross Alpha and Beta Counting. Statistical analysis applied to the obtained results allowed differencing samples coming from Sao Paulo from that coming from Parana. (author)

  4. Spouses’ involvement in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement using case management intervention. A study protocol of the SICAM-trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2015-01-01

    Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part......-test measures (protocol approved in November 2012). Methods A total of 120 patients aged 65 years or older going through a fast-track programme for a total hip replacement and their spouses will be recruited from one Danish orthopaedic ward. We will initially include the control group for data collection...

  5. ECHO Project: a series of tools for studying and characterizing seismic sequences evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Giuseppe; De Santis, Angelo; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Cianchini, Gianfranco; Murru, Maura; Calderoni, Giovanna; Lucente, Pio Francesco; De Gori, Pasquale; Frepoli, Alberto; Signanini, Patrizio; Rainone, Mario; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    One of the most ubiquitous problems in seismology is to discriminate between seismic sequences (a series of small-to-moderate earthquakes that culminate with a mainshock) and swarms (diffuse seismicity w/o mainshock), that can be easily done only after a certain class of earthquakes have occurred. We propose to put these phenomena under the same framework provided by the geosystemics (De Santis, 2009, 2014), where the planet Earth and its processes are seen from a holistic point of view, and the New Geophysics (Crampin et al., 2013), where fluid-saturated microcracks in almost all crustal rocks are so closely-spaced they verge on failure and hence are highly-compliant critical systems (Signanini and De Santis, 2012). In this context, nonlinear concepts typical of Chaos and Information theories are fundamental to study and characterize the various features of the series of seismic events, and, eventually, to discriminate between seismic sequences and swarms. The two theories imply the use of non-linear techniques which are innovative in seismology. The project ECHO ("Entropy and CHaOs: tools for studying and characterizing seismic sequences evolution"), a recent INGV-funded project, would aim at applying the above approaches in a more integrated way mainly to establish a suite of effective tools to disclose and characterise the principal features of the series of earthquakes which are of interest. In our view this will represent the very first step before to face the more challenging (but longer-term) problem of discriminating between the two kinds of series of seismic events. This poster will describe these kinds of preliminary activities and relative results in the framework of the project.

  6. Does preservation of the sub-valvular apparatus during mitral valve replacement affect long-term survival and quality of life? A Microsimulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtuza Bari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Techniques to preserve the sub-valvular apparatus in order to reduce morbidity and mortality following mitral valve replacement have been frequently reported. However, it is uncertain what impact sub-valvular apparatus preservation techniques have on long-term outcomes following mitral valve replacement. This study investigated the effect of sub-valvular apparatus preservation on long-term survival and quality of life following mitral valve replacement. Methods A microsimulation model was used to compare long-term survival and quality-adjusted life years following mitral valve replacement after conventional valve replacement and sub-valvular apparatus preservation. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative analysis were performed to investigate uncertainty associated with the results. Results Our Analysis suggests that patients survive longer if the sub-valvular apparatus are preserved (65.7% SD 1.5%, compared with 58.1% SD 1.6% at 10 years. The quality adjusted life years gained over a 10 year period where also greater after sub-valvular apparatus preservation. (6.54 QALY SD 0.07 QALY, compared with 5.61 QALY, SD 0.07 QALY. The superiority of preservation techniques was insensitive to patient age, parameter or model uncertainty. Conclusion This study suggests that long-term outcomes may be improved when the sub-valvular apparatus are preserved. Given the lack of empirical data further research is needed to investigate health-related quality of life after mitral valve replacement, and to establish whether outcomes differ between preservation techniques.

  7. Ultra low-dose naloxone and tramadol/acetaminophen in elderly patients undergoing joint replacement surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasogie, Ngozi N; Singh, Sudha; Watson, James T; Hurley, Debbie; Morley-Forster, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess whether both the rationale and feasibility exist for future randomized clinical trials to evaluate the combined use of naloxone infusion and tramadol/acetaminophen as opioid-sparing drugs in elderly patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery. Ten patients 70 years of age or older undergoing either total knee (n=7) or total hip (n=3) arthroplasty were treated prospectively. Each patient received two tablets of tramadol/acetaminophen (Tramacet; Janssen-Ortho Inc, Canada) preoperatively and every 6 h postoperatively, as well as a naloxone infusion started preoperatively at 0.25 microg/kg/h and continued up to 48 h postoperatively. In addition, standard intraoperative care was provided with 0.2 mg of intrathecal morphine, 1.4 mL of 0.75% bupivacaine, and an intra-articular infiltration of 100 mL of 0.3% ropivacaine and 30 mg of ketorolac, as well as standard postoperative morphine via patient-controlled analgesia orders and celecoxib 200 mg twice daily for five days. Compared with seven historical controls, also 70 years of age or older, who had undergone either a total knee (n=4) or total hip (n=3) arthroplasty, postoperative opioid use was reduced by 80%. Except for transient nausea and vomiting in 40% and 20% of patients, respectively, the 10 patients on tramadol/acetaminophen and naloxone tolerated the new regimen without difficulty. Consequently, a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial comparing standard therapy versus standard therapy plus these two drugs seems warranted. In such a trial, it would require approximately 20 subjects per treatment arm to detect a 80% decrease in morphine use.

  8. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA: A CASE STUDY IN STRUCTURAL TIME SERIES MODELLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhard THURY

    2003-01-01

    Industrial production series are volatile and often cyclical. Time series models can be used to establish certain stylized facts, such as trends and cycles, which may be present in these series. In certain situations, it is also possible that common factors, which may have an interesting interpretation, can be detected in production series. Series from two neighboring countries with close economic relationships, such as Germany and Austria, are especially likely to exhibit such joint stylized facts.

  9. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy on survival in adults with Pompe disease: Results from a prospective international observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Güngör (Deniz); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); I. Plug (Iris); R.B. D'Agostino (Ralph); M.L.C. Hagemans (Marloes); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a rare metabolic myopathy for which disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. ERT has shown efficacy concerning muscle strength and pulmonary function in adult patients. However, no data on the effect of ERT on the survi

  10. Cocaine phenomenology study: results of a third in a series of field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Ricard, Steve; Hoglund, David E.; Drolet, Gerry; Neudorfl, Pavel; Hupe, Michael; Kunz, Terry D.; Ulvick, Sydney J.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick; Wingo, Jeff J.

    1997-01-01

    To form an understanding of the environment in which non- intrusive detection and inspection technologies are required to operate, the Narcotic Detection Technology assessment Team has undertaken a series of field studies. These field studies have focused on the phenomenology, fate and behavior of narcotic residue in real world environments. The overall goal of the tests is to give Law Enforcement officers the ability to accurately differentiate between individuals involved in the smuggling process and individuals innocently contaminated with narcotics. The latest filed study in this series was conducted in Miami, FL in February 1996. The field study comprised several individual tests. The first was a contamination and transfer study which focuses on human contamination resulting from contact with actual kilos of cocaine and the mechanism by which this contamination transfers to surrounding objects, if at all. The second was a secondary contamination study which focused on determining the conditions under which cocaine contamination transfers from objects touched by individuals who handled narcotics to innocent passerbys. The third was a persistence study which focused on the persistence of cocaine contamination on people under a variety of conditions. An overview of the tests and their preliminary results will be discussed.

  11. The influence of hormone replacement therapy on the aging-related change in cognitive performance. Analysis based on a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, E; Pedersen, A T; Laursen, P;

    2002-01-01

    A maintenance and/or improvement of cognitive performance with postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is biological plausible. The objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of HRT on aging-related changes in cognitive performances, and to assess whether women who choose HRT have...... better cognitive performance prior to HRT....

  12. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Results show that the system flow rate is determined by the sliding vane pump. In order to ensure the stability of the series operation pumping system, the energy consumption required by the pipeline under the system flow should be greater than the pressure energy centrifugal pump can generate. Otherwise, the centrifugal pump can not operate stably, with reflux, swirl, gas-liquid two-phase flow in the runner and strong vibration and noise. The sliding vane pump can be in serial operation with the centrifugal pump under limited conditions.

  13. Preoperative irradiation for prevention of heterotopic ossification following prosthetic total hip replacement. Results of a prospective study in 462 hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbl, O.; Seufert, J.; Pohl, F.; Flentje, M. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Klinik and Poliklinik for Radiotherapy; Tauscher, A.; Springorum, H.W. [Caritas Hospital, Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Orthopedic Clinic; Lehmann, H. [Caritas Hospital, Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Inst. of Radiology

    2003-11-01

    Background: The effectiveness of pre- or postoperative radiotherapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip replacement (THR) has already been demonstrated in the past. Thereby, in most studies using preoperative radiotherapy patients were irradiated < 6 h before surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the effectiveness of preoperative irradiation on the evening before surgery and to identify risk factors for HO in a homogeneous collective of patients. Patients and Methods: From July 1997 to July 2001, 416 patients (462 hips; 235 males, 227 females) received preoperative radiotherapy of the hip on the evening before surgery with a 7-Gy single fraction. The patients' median age was 67.1 years. The most frequent indication for radiotherapy was hypertrophic osteoarthritis (383 hips, 82.9%). Treatment results were assessed by comparison of pre- and postoperative hip X-rays (immediately and 6 months after surgery). The analysis of radiographs was performed according to the Brooker score. Results: The overall incidence of HO was 18.1% (n = 84), Brooker score 1 12.3% (n = 57), score 2 3.9% (n = 18), score 3 1.5% (n = 7), and score 4 0.4% (n = 2). Sex, body height, hypertrophic osteoarthritis of higher degree, size of the femoral component of the prosthesis, previous ipsi- or contralateral HO, and short course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) therapy significantly influenced the HO rate in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, an interdependence of prosthesis size, sex and patient's height was found. From these three variables, only prosthesis size was statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The cumulative dose of diclofenac ({<=} 300 mg or > 300 mg) within the first 7 postoperative days and previous ipsi- or contralateral HO influenced the incidence of HO in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Preoperative radiotherapy on the evening before surgery is an effective treatment

  14. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  15. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  16. [Comparison of therapeutic effects between patella replacement and patella osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Bo; Dong, Pei-Long; Wang, Jian

    2014-04-01

    To compare therapeutic effects between patella replacement and patella osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty. From April 2004 to April 2011, 52 patients (54 knees) were enrolled in the clinical trail of total knee arthroplasty, who received patella replacement (24 knees, including 13 males and 11 females,ranging in age from 53 to 78 years old or patella osteotomy (30 knees,including 16 males and 12 females,ranging in age from 55 to 79 years old. The average follow-up period was 56 months,ranging from 20 to 80 months. The American HSS Score for knee, the Feller score for patella, range of motion (ROM) for knee, patient satisfaction and complications related to the patella were used to evaluate therapeutic effects. In the patella replacement group,the preoperative and final follow-up HSS scores of patients were 38.4 +/- 8.2 and 91.2 +/- 8.6 respectively; Feller scores were 13.6 +/- 6.2 and 25.2 +/- 4.2; scores of anterior knee pain were 3.9 +/- 3.2 and 11.2 +/- 3.7; ROM were (78 +/- 26) degrees and(108 +/- 18) degrees. In the patella osteotomy group,the preoperative and final follow-up HSS scores of patients were 39.5 +/- 8.4 and 91.0 +/- 8.5 respectively;Feller scores were 13.4 +/- 6.5 and 25.6 +/- 4.0; scores of anterior knee pain were 3.7 +/- 3.1 and 11.3 +/- 3.6; ROM were (76 +/- 27) degrees and (110 +/- 19) degrees. In the patella replacement group,patient's satisfaction was 91%, and complication related to the patella was 16.7%; in the patella osteotomy group, patient's satisfaction was 89%, and complications related to the patella was 10.0%. There were no statistically significant differeneces in final follow-up HSS scores, Feller scores, scores of anterior knee pain and ROM between the two groups. However,there was no significant difference of patient's satisfaction between them. There was statistically significant differenece of patella-related complications between the two groups, and the complication rate in the patella replacement group was higher than

  17. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  18. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  19. Study of cross-correlation in a self-affine time series of taxi accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebende, G. F.; da Silva, P. A.; Machado Filho, A.

    2011-05-01

    We study in this paper the cross-correlation between self-affine time series of real variables recorded simultaneously in cases of taxi accidents. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA method and show that the cross-correlation can be divided into three distinct groups, if we look for the detrended covariance function, i.e., long-range cross-correlations, short-range cross-correlations and no cross-correlations. Finally, it will be seen that the detrended covariance function is robust, if compared with other methods, in identifying these types of cross-correlations.

  20. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  1. Consistent forest change maps 1981 – 2000 from the AVHRR time series. Case studies for South America and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberenz, J.; Herold, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Wijaya, A.; Lindquist, E.; Defourny, P.; Gibbs, H.K.; Arino, O.; Achard, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts global forest cover change for the 1980s and 1990s from AVHRR time series metrics in order to show how the series of consistent land cover maps for climate modeling produced by the ESA climate change initiative land cover project can be extended back in time. A Random Forest mode

  2. Stochastic approaches for time series forecasting of boron: a case study of Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Omer Faruk

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a seasonal and non-seasonal prediction of boron concentrations time series data for the period of 1996-2004 from Büyük Menderes river in western Turkey are addressed by means of linear stochastic models. The methodology presented here is to develop adequate linear stochastic models known as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) to predict boron content in the Büyük Menderes catchment. Initially, the Box-Whisker plots and Kendall's tau test are used to identify the trends during the study period. The measurements locations do not show significant overall trend in boron concentrations, though marginal increasing and decreasing trends are observed for certain periods at some locations. ARIMA modeling approach involves the following three steps: model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking. In the model identification step, considering the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) results of boron data series, different ARIMA models are identified. The model gives the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) is selected as the best-fit model. The parameter estimation step indicates that the estimated model parameters are significantly different from zero. The diagnostic check step is applied to the residuals of the selected ARIMA models and the results indicate that the residuals are independent, normally distributed, and homoscadastic. For the model validation purposes, the predicted results using the best ARIMA models are compared to the observed data. The predicted data show reasonably good agreement with the actual data. The comparison of the mean and variance of 3-year (2002-2004) observed data vs predicted data from the selected best models show that the boron model from ARIMA modeling approaches could be used in a safe manner since the predicted values from these models preserve the basic

  3. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function.

  4. Cognitive and psychiatric effects of vitamin B12 replacement in dementia with low serum B12 levels: a nursing home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Christopher H.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Siegal, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine whether B12 replacement would ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in elderly subjects with dementia and low serum B12 levels. Methods A test group (n=28) of nursing home residents with low serum B12 levels (B12 levels (>300 pg/mL) were evaluated by blinded raters while the test group received intramuscular (IM) B12 replacement therapy. All subjects were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks with the Dementia Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Although B12 replacement produced significant improvement in hematologic and metabolic parameters, it yielded no significant effect on cognitive or psychiatric variables. A few subjects evidenced notable individual treatment responses; however, these were not statistically more frequent than in the normal B12 group. Conclusions These results suggest that B12 replacement is unlikely to benefit cognitive or psychiatric symptoms in the vast majority of elderly dementia patients with low serum B12 levels. PMID:18925978

  5. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  6. Antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and on continuous renal replacement therapy: can we resolve this problem with pharmacokinetic studies and dosing guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jason A; Roberts, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Dosing antibiotics in critically ill patients to achieve therapeutic concentrations is a significant challenge. The presence of septic shock and prescription of continuous renal replacement therapy introduces further complexities for the clinician. Unfortunately, this is a dilemma encountered daily by intensivists. Although small pharmacokinetic studies are emerging to provide data to help address this problem, the variability in results from these studies is profound. As such, effective anti...

  7. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-05-25

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance.

  8. Changes in bone mineral density of the acetabulum, femoral neck and femoral shaft, after hip resurfacing and total hip replacement: two-year results from a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, J O; Brixen, K; Varmarken, J E; Ovesen, O; Overgaard, S

    2012-08-01

    It is accepted that resurfacing hip replacement preserves the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur better than total hip replacement (THR). However, no studies have investigated any possible difference on the acetabular side. Between April 2007 and March 2009, 39 patients were randomised into two groups to receive either a resurfacing or a THR and were followed for two years. One patient's resurfacing subsequently failed, leaving 19 patients in each group. Resurfaced replacements maintained proximal femoral BMD and, compared with THR, had an increased bone mineral density in Gruen zones 2, 3, 6, and particularly zone 7, with a gain of 7.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 12.5) compared with a loss of 14.6% (95% CI 7.6 to 21.6). Resurfacing replacements maintained the BMD of the medial femoral neck and increased that in the lateral zones between 12.8% (95% CI 4.3 to 21.4) and 25.9% (95% CI 7.1 to 44.6). On the acetabular side, BMD was similar in every zone at each point in time. The mean BMD of all acetabular regions in the resurfaced group was reduced to 96.2% (95% CI 93.7 to 98.6) and for the total hip replacement group to 97.6% (95% CI 93.7 to 101.5) (p = 0.4863). A mean total loss of 3.7% (95% CI 1.0 to 6.5) and 4.9% (95% CI 0.8 to 9.0) of BMD was found above the acetabular component in W1 and 10.2% (95% CI 0.9 to 19.4) and 9.1% (95% CI 3.8 to 14.4) medial to the implant in W2 for resurfaced replacements and THRs respectively. Resurfacing resulted in a mean loss of BMD of 6.7% (95% CI 0.7 to 12.7) in W3 but the BMD inferior to the acetabular component was maintained in both groups. These results suggest that the ability of a resurfacing hip replacement to preserve BMD only applies to the femoral side.

  9. A Study of Time Series Model for Predicting Jute Yarn Demand: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, predicting sales for upcoming periods at right quantity is very crucial for ensuring product availability as well as improving customer satisfaction. This paper develops a model to identify the most appropriate method for prediction based on the least values of forecasting errors. Necessary sales data of jute yarn were collected from a jute product manufacturer industry in Bangladesh, namely, Akij Jute Mills, Akij Group Ltd., in Noapara, Jessore. Time series plot of demand data indicates that demand fluctuates over the period of time. In this paper, eight different forecasting techniques including simple moving average, single exponential smoothing, trend analysis, Winters method, and Holt’s method were performed by statistical technique using Minitab 17 software. Performance of all methods was evaluated on the basis of forecasting accuracy and the analysis shows that Winters additive model gives the best performance in terms of lowest error determinants. This work can be a guide for Bangladeshi manufacturers as well as other researchers to identify the most suitable forecasting technique for their industry.

  10. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data.

  11. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jorgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed......Background: Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated...... with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Methods/design: This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo...

  12. Série histórica de custos com terapia de substituição renal no município do Rio de Janeiro (1995-2009 Serie histórica de costes con terapia de reemplazo renal en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro (1995-2009 Time series of costs of renal replacement therapy in Rio de Janeiro city (1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis de Souza Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a tendência temporal do custo total de terapia de substituição renal e a proporção entre custo e solicitações de Autorizações de Procedimentos Ambulatoriais de Alta Complexidade/Custo no município do Rio de Janeiro, entre 1995 e 2009, em totais e segundo prestador. Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, tipo série temporal. Utilizaram-se informações referentes aos valores e quantidades de autorizações de procedimentos de alta complexidade para terapia de substituição renal por ano, disponíveis no DATASUS, coletadas entre fevereiro e março de 2011. Observou-se tendência crescente para o custo total e o total de autorizações destes procedimentos (y=3,8414x + 16,904, R²=0,9665 e y=14519x + 299719, R²=0,8835, respectivamente. Há uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (pEl objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la tendencia temporal del coste total de terapia de reemplazo renal y la proporción entre coste y solicitaciones de Autorizaciones de Procedimientos en Ambulatorio de Alta Complejidad/Coste en la cuidad de Rio de Janeiro, entre 1995 y 2009, en total y segundo proveedor. Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, de serie temporal. Se utilizó la información relativa a los valores y las cantidades de los procedimientos de permisos de alta complejidad para la terapia de reemplazo renal por año, disponible en DATASUS, recolectadas desde febrero y marzo de 2011. Se observó una tendencia creciente para el coste total y el total de permisos de estos procedimientos (y = 3,8414x + 16,904, R² = 0,9665 e y = 14519x + 299719, R² = 0,8835, respectivamente. Hay una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pThe study objective was to evaluate the temporal tendency of the final cost of renal replacement therapy and also to evaluate the ratio between a procedure cost and its requests on the High Complexity Outpatient Procedures Authorization/Cost in the city of Rio de Janeiro, between 1995 and 2009 in totals and as

  13. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of cytisine versus nicotine replacement therapy in people motivated to stop smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Natalie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers need effective support to maximise the chances of successful quit attempts. Current smoking cessation medications, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline, have been shown to be effective in clinical trials but are underused by smokers attempting to quit due to adverse effects, contraindications, low acceptability and/or high cost. Cytisine is a low-cost, plant-based alkaloid that has been sold as a smoking cessation aid in Eastern Europe for 50 years. A systematic review of trial evidence suggests that cytisine has a positive impact on both short- and long-term abstinence rates compared to placebo. However, the quality of the evidence is poor and insufficient for licensing purposes in many Western countries. A large, well-conducted placebo-controlled trial (n = 740 of cytisine for smoking cessation has recently been published and confirms the findings of earlier studies, with 12-month continuous abstinence rates of 8.4% in the cytisine group compared to 2.4% in the placebo group (Relative risk = 3.4, 95% confidence intervals 1.7-7.1. No research has yet been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of cytisine relative to that of NRT. Methods/design A single-blind, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial has been designed to determine whether cytisine is at least as effective as NRT in assisting smokers to remain abstinent for at least one month. Participants (n = 1,310 will be recruited through the national telephone-based Quitline service in New Zealand and randomised to receive a standard 25-day course of cytisine tablets (Tabex® or usual care (eight weeks of NRT patch and/or gum or lozenge. Participants in both study arms will also receive a behavioural support programme comprising an average of three follow-up telephone calls delivered over an eight-week period by Quitline. The primary outcome is continuous abstinence from smoking at one month, defined as not

  14. Synthesis of Ag-Au Nanoparticles by Galvanic Replacement and Their Morphological Studies by HRTEM and Computational Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic nanoparticles are important because they possess catalytic and electronic properties with potential applications in medicine, electronics, and chemical industries. A galvanic replacement reaction synthesis has been used in this research to form bimetallic nanoparticles. The complete description of the synthesis consists of using the chemical reduction of metallic silver nitrite (AgNO3 and gold-III chloride hydrate (HAuCl salt precursors. The nanoparticles display round shapes, as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. In order to better understand the colloidal structure, it was necessary to employ computational models which involved the simulations of HRTEM images.

  15. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang SP; Zhu ZY; Wu XL; Lu XY; Zhang XG; Wu BH

    2014-01-01

    Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated...

  16. ESR Studies on the Micellization Behaviors of a Series of Novel Asymmetric Gemini Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Yi-Tian(吴一天); WANG,Jin-Ben(王金本); LIU,Ming-Hua(刘鸣华); LIANG,Wen-Ping(梁文平)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis of a new series of asymmetric cationic gemini surfactant and the investigation of their miccellization behaviors by electronic spin resonance (ESR) as well as the surface tension measurements were reported. 4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (4-oxo-TEMPO) is used as the spin probe. The surfactants studied have the general formula [CnH2n+1 N+(CH3)2C6H12N+(CH3)2Cm H2m,1]Br2- , referred to as dimeric n-6-m surfactants, in which n and m are the numbers of carbon atoms in the asymmetric side alkyl chains. From the experimental data, rotational correlation time τc, surface tension and critical micelle concentration (cac) ,values, the physical properties of these new surfactants have preliminarily been evaluated. It is shown that this new series of asymmetric gmini surfactants has interesting micellization behaviors, and they are very different in aggregating tendency from their asymmetric analogues.

  17. Study in the natural time domain of the entropy of dichotomic geoelectrical and chaotic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Telesca, L.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    The so-called seismo-electric signals (SES) have been considered as precursors of great earthquakes. To characterize possible SES activities, the Natural Time Domain (NTD) (Varotsos et al., 2001) was proposed as adequate methodology. In this work we analyze two geoelectric time series measured in a very seismically active area of South Pacific Mexican coast, and a chaotic time series obtained from the Liebovitch and Thot (LT) chaotic map. The two analyzed geoelectric signals display possible SES activities associated with the earhquakes occurred on October 24, 1993 (M6.6, epicenter at (16.54N, 98.98W)) and on September 14, 1995 (M7.4, epicenter at (16.31N, 98.88W)). Our monitoring station was located at (16.50N, 99.47W) close to Acapulco city and the experimental set-up was based on the VAN methodology. We found that the correlation degree of the SES geoelectric signals increases before the occurrence of the seismic events with power spectrum and entropy calculated in NTD in good agreement with analogous studies in the field of earthquake-related phenomena. Such SES activity, analysed in NTD, can be discriminated from the LT- chaotic map and from artificial noises. Varotsos P.A., Sarlis N.V., Skordas E.S., Practica of Athens Academy 76, (2001) 294 Liebovitch S.L. and Thot T.I., J. Theor. Biol., 148(1991), 243-267

  18. Study and application of time series forecasting based on rough set and Kernel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑霞

    2008-01-01

    A support vector machine time series forecasting model based on rough set data preprocessing was proposed by combining rough set attribute reduction and support vector machine regression algorithm. First, remove the redundant attribute for forecasting from condition attribute by rough set method; then use the minimum condition attribute set obtained after the reduction and the corresponding initial data, reform a new training sample set which only retain the important attributes influencing the forecasting accuracy; study and train the support vector machine with the training sample obtained after reduction, and then input the reformed testing sample set according to the minimum condition attribute and corresponding initial data. The model was tested and the mapping relation was got between the condition attribute and forecasting variable. Eventually, power supply and demand were forecasted in this model. The average absolute error rates of power consumption of the whole society and yearly maximum load are respectively 14.21% and 13.23%. It shows that RS-SVM time series forecasting model has high forecasting accuracy.

  19. Hanford site: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-06

    The primary purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records which pertains to studies of worker health and mortality funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford site. Additionally, the guide provides information on the location and classification of the records and how they may be accessed. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and the Hanford site, and Hanford`s organizational structure. It provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe pertinent records stored in various onsite offices, in Hanford`s Records Holding Area (RHA), and at the Seattle Federal Records Center (SFRC). Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the record Series descrimations, and information on accessing records repositories.

  20. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis E in Singapore: A Case-Series and Viral Phylodynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Esmeralda Chi-Yuan; Tan, Boon-Huan; Purdy, Michael A; Wong, Pui-San; Ting, Pei-Jun; Chang, Pik-Eu Jason; Oon, Lynette Lin-Ean; Sue, Amanda; Teo, Chong-Gee; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2017-01-16

    The incidence of hepatitis E in Singapore appears to be increasing. A retrospective case-series study of patients diagnosed with hepatitis E in a tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Of 16 cases, eight (50%) were solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), and 14 (88%) were found infected by genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV-3). Bayesian inferences based on HEV subgenomic sequences from seven cases suggest that HEV-3 strains were introduced to Singapore as two principal lineages. Within limitations of the study, it can be inferred that one lineage, in the 3efg clade, emerged about 83 years ago, probably originating from Japan, whereas the other, in the 3abchij clade, emerged about 40 years ago, from the United States. Establishment and subsequent transmissions of strains from these two lineages likely contribute to the current endemicity of hepatitis E in Singapore.

  2. Tracheobronchial Mycosis in a Retrospective Case-Series Study of Five Status Asthmaticus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Garbo; Porter, Paul C.; Bandi, Venkata; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of status asthmaticus (SA), a complication of severe asthma, is unknown. Fungal exposure, as measured by fungal atopy, is a major risk factor for developing asthma, but the relationship of fungi in SA per se has not previously been reported. In this five patient retrospective case series study, lower respiratory tract cultures were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheal aspirate fluid, comparing standard clinical laboratory cultures with a specialized technique in which respiratory mucus was removed prior to culture. We show mucolytic treatment allows increased detection of fungal growth, especially yeast, from the lower airways of all SA patients. We also demonstrate that the yeast Candida albicans inhalation readily induces asthma-like disease in mice. Our observations suggest, SA may represent a fungal infectious process, and supports additional prospective studies utilizing anti-fungal therapy to supplement conventional therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotics and high-dose glucocorticoids, which can promote fungal overgrowth. PMID:23280490

  3. PEEK and CFR-PEEK as alternative bearing materials to UHMWPE in a fixed bearing total knee replacement: An experimental wear study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Claire L; Carbone, Silvia; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2017-03-15

    New bearing materials for total joint replacement have been explored as the need to improve longevity and enhance performance is driven by the changing demands of the patient demographic. Carbon-reinforced PEEK has demonstrated good wear characteristics in experimental wear simulation in both simple geometry pin-on-plate studies and in total hip joint replacement. Carbon reinforced PEEK CFR-PEEK has the potential to reduce tibial insert thickness and preserve bone in the knee. This study investigated the wear performance of PEEK and CFR-PEEK in a low conformity total knee replacement configuration. Custom-made flat inserts were tested against cobalt-chromium femoral bearings in a knee wear simulation for a period of three million cycles. Wear was assessed gravimetrically at intervals throughout the study. The wear rates of both PEEK and CFR-PEEK were very high and almost two orders of magnitude higher than the wear rate of UHMWPE under comparable conditions. Evidence of mechanical failure of the materials, including surface cracking and delamination was observed in both materials. This study highlights that these materials may not be suitable alternatives for UHMWPE in low-conformity designs.

  4. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study of flange and valve repair work and an assessment of exposure variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Devlin, Kathryn D; Perez, Angela L; Hollins, Dana M; Cowan, Dallas M; Scott, Paul K; White, Katherine; Cheng, Thales J; Henshaw, John L

    2015-02-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate worker and area exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the replacement of asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials from flanges and valves and assess the influence of several variables previously not investigated. Additionally, potential of take home exposures from clothing worn during the study was characterized. Our data showed that product type, ventilation type, gasket location, flange or bonnet size, number of flanges involved, surface characteristics, gasket surface adherence, and even activity type did not have a significant effect on worker exposures. Average worker asbestos exposures during flange gasket work (PCME=0.166 f/cc, 12-59 min) were similar to average worker asbestos exposures during valve overhaul work (PCME=0.165 f/cc, 7-76 min). Average 8-h TWA asbestos exposures were estimated to range from 0.010 to 0.062 f/cc. Handling clothes worn during gasket and packing replacement activities demonstrated exposures that were 0.71% (0.0009 f/cc 40-h TWA) of the airborne asbestos concentration experienced during the 5 days of the study. Despite the many variables considered in this study, exposures during gasket and packing replacement occur within a relatively narrow range, are below current and historical occupational exposure limits for asbestos, and are consistent with previously published data.

  5. Study on Strength and Durability of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Affregate Using Crushed Spent Fire Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keerthinarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable and indispensable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. Umpteen varieties of concretes (FAC, HVFAC, FRC, HPC, HSC, and others were researched in several laboratories and brought to the field to suit the specific needs. Although natural fine aggregates (i.e., river sand are so far and/or will be superior to any other material in making concrete, their availability is continuously being depleted due to the intentional overexploitation through out the Globe. Hence, partial or full replacement of fine aggregates by the other compatible materials like sintered fly ash, crushed rock dust, quarry dust, glass powder, recycled concrete dust, and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. In this direction, an experimental investigation of strength and durability was undertaken to use “Spent Fire Bricks” (SFB (i.e. waste material from foundry bed and walls; and lining of chimney which is adopted in many industries for partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete.

  6. The natural course of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement--a 2 year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Stadeager, C

    1990-05-01

    In order to establish the natural course of radionuclide bone scanning images after total knee replacement 41 consecutive patients were scheduled for examination 3, 7, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The mean age was 69 years (range 50-80 years); the female:male ratio was 4:1. Thirty-two patients completed the entire program. A total of 143 99Tcm medronic acid complex scintigrams was performed. No significant difference between the grades of total scintigraphic uptake at any of the four examinations nor any difference between the first and the last examinations could be demonstrated (P = 0.58, Friedman test and P = 0.20, Wilcoxon test, respectively). Twelve months after surgery one fifth of the knees still demonstrated definitely increased scintigraphic uptake and 24 months after surgery 12.5% of the knees had definitely increased uptake. We believe that the increased uptake seen for a variable length of time after surgery limits the usefulness of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement.

  7. Complete replacement of metal in metal oxide nanowires via atomic diffusion: In/ZnO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shau-Chieh; Lu, Ming-Yen; Manekkathodi, Afsal; Liu, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Chiao; Li, Wun-Shan; Hou, Te-Chien; Gwo, Shangjr; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2014-06-11

    Atomic diffusion is a fundamental process that dictates material science and engineering. Direct visualization of atomic diffusion process in ultrahigh vacuum in situ TEM could comprehend the fundamental information about metal-semiconductor interface dynamics, phase transitions, and different nanostructure growth phenomenon. Here, we demonstrate the in situ TEM observations of the complete replacement of ZnO nanowire by indium with different growth directions. In situ TEM analyses reveal that the diffusion processes strongly depend and are dominated by the interface dynamics between indium and ZnO. The diffusion exhibited a distinct ledge migration by surface diffusion at [001]-ZnO while continuous migration with slight/no ledges by inner diffusion at [100]-ZnO. The process is explained based on thermodynamic evaluation and growth kinetics. The results present the potential possibilities to completely replace metal-oxide semiconductors with metal nanowires without oxidation and form crystalline metal nanowires with precise epitaxial metal-semiconductor atomic interface. Formation of such single crystalline metal nanowire without oxidation by diffusion to the metal oxide is unique and is crucial in nanodevice performances, which is rather challenging from a manufacturing perspective of 1D nanodevices.

  8. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However,

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, applicat

  10. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  11. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  12. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  13. Geochemical studies, magmatic evolution, microstructures and replacement mechanisms in Jebale-Barez granitoid Complex (East and Southeast Jiroft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rasouli

    2017-08-01

    samples and full matrix correction, the sum of all major oxides was equal to about 100 wt.%. The concentration of trace elements in the selected samples has been performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The uncertainty is <10% for trace element contents higher than 2 ppm (except for Pb, <15% and <15% for all the other trace elements. Results The microstructures observed in thin sections in this study were grouped into three types: (i magmatic microstructures; (ii submagmatic microstructures and (iii mylonitic microstructures. Magmatic and submagmatic microstructures occurred simultaneously with the emplacement of granitoid complex and mylonitic microstructures that occurred after emplacement of granitoid complex. The magma nature of these rocks is sub-alkaline-(calc-alkaline, which fall into calc-alkaline series with high potassium in SiO2-K2O plots. The geochemical variation diagrams of major oxides, the continuous spectrum of rock compositions has been carried out which indicates the crystallization of magmatic differentiation and extensive appendices. Field observations, petrographic and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks in this area have type I and CAG subsections. Studying the geochemical diagrams of the rocks in the studied area indicates that these rocks have been formed in active continental margin tectononic settings. It seems that the Jebale-Barez granitoid Complex is located within a shear zone. Magma has been percolated through Mijan caldera and emplacement Forms of Sill along the shear zone during various periods and the structural setting of granitoid complex in the Jebale-Barez is extensional-shear fractures which are the product of transpression tectonic regime. Discussion The JBPC is calc-alkaline, high-K, subalkaline, and mostly metaluminous except granite and alkali-granite units which are slightly peraluminous and I type in character. These geochemical properties of the studied granitoids suggest subduction

  14. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons; M. T. Murrell

    2001-05-31

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Time Series Model of Occupational Injuries Analysis in Ghanaian Mines-A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Aidoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study has modeled occupational injuries at Gold Fields Ghana Limited (GFGL, Tarkwa Mine using time series analysis. Data was collected from the Safety and Environment Department from January 2007 to December 2010. Testing for stationarity condition using line graph from Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 edition failed, hence the use of Box-Jenkins method of differencing which tested positive after the first difference. ARIMA (1,1,1 model was then applied in modeling the stationary data and model diagnostic was done to ensure its appropriateness. The model was further used to forecast the occurrence of injuries at GFGL for two year period spanning from January 2011 to December 2012. The results show that occupational injuries for GFGL are going to have a slight upward and downward movement from January 2011 to May 2011, after which there will be stability (almost zero from June 2011 to December 2012.

  16. A series of nickel(II complexes derived from hydrazide derivatives, electrochemical, thermal and spectral studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil A.A. Al-Hazmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni(II–hydrazide complexes were prepared using derivatives of hydrazide ligands. The variation of organic ligand elaborates the mode of coordination of the organic compound referring to the addition of coordinating sites besides the NH–NH–CO group. The octahedral configuration is the major form proposed with most isolated complexes. Mass spectra were used to assure the molecular formula proposed based on the elemental analysis data for most investigated compounds. Thermal analysis as well as kinetic data supports the formula of all investigated complexes especially the presence of coordinating water molecules with most of them. Electrochemical measurements assert the stability of Ni(II oxidation state during the complexation which may be affected during the coordination reaction. pH metric studies as well as the molecular modeling optimization reflect a shadow on the stability of the isolated complexes in solution or in solid state, respectively.

  17. Optical studies on a series of AlAs/GaAs short period superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, M S; Kim, Y D; Woo, D H; Koh, E H; Kim, S H; Kang, K N; Rhee, S J; Woo, J C

    1999-01-01

    We present optical studies of a series of GaAs/AlAs short period superlattices (SLs) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The structural properties were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. Quantum confinement of the electronic states was observed in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Spectroscopic ellipsometric (SE) measurements were also performed to determine energies of the interband transitions at room temperature. As n increase, we found that the lower transition energies (below 4.0 eV) decrease. The results are compared with low temperature photoluminescence measurements. We found a new structure at the lower E sub 2 peak, which demonstrates the best resolution of the E sub 2 structure in these SLs so far obtained by SE.

  18. Use of a relaxation technique by mothers of children with autism: a case-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gika, Danai M; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P; Papanikolaou, Katerina

    2012-12-01

    Mothers of children with autism are subject to considerable stress by having to adjust to the disorder and to cope with practical and social issues. Evidence on the effects of relaxation training on stress of these mothers is scarce. The purpose of this pilot case-series study was to examine the role of a simple 6-week daily stress management technique on mothers of children with autism. Mothers' stress measurements and children's functionality were assessed using validated instruments. Participants were 11 mothers of children with autism seen consecutively in the autism clinic of a children's hospital. Statistically significant median reductions of perceived and parental stress were noted after the 6-week intervention. Median stress scores were lower by 37.1% and 33% from the baseline values of the perceived stress scale and parental stress index, respectively. Stress was not significantly correlated with children's functioning. Stress management seems to have benefits for mothers of children with autism.

  19. [Single- and double-coated star total ankle replacements: a clinical and radiographic follow-up study of 109 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A

    2006-05-01

    An up to 12-year follow-up of 51 single-coated STAR revealed that 15 ankles had undergone fusion. The mean time from primary surgery to the first revision was median 51 months. In a series of 58 double-coated STAR ankles followed up to 5 years only one ankle had to be revised for component loosening. In this series the clinical survival rate was 98% and the radiographic survival rate 94% at 5 years. The radiographic survival rate, with component loosening as endpoint, was significantly better for the last 31 cases in the series of the single-coated prostheses. However, the loosening rate did not differ when these latter 31 cases were compared with the cases operated on with a double-coated prosthesis. One may conclude that improvement of the anchoring surfaces has had a limited influence on the radiographic survival of the STAR ankle. However, from the clinical survivorship figures it is obvious that the learning process continues as the difference in revision rate between the 31 last implanted single-coated and the later on implanted double-coated prostheses approached significance.

  20. Real-Time Dynamics of Galvanic Replacement Reactions of Silver Nanocubes and Au Studied by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Fen; Lin, Guanhua; Bosman, Michel; Mirsaidov, Utkur; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-08-23

    We study the galvanic replacement reaction of silver nanocubes in dilute, aqueous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA)-capped gold aurate solutions using in situ liquid-cell electron microscopy. Au/Ag etched nanostructures with concave faces are formed via (1) etching that starts from the faces of the nanocubes, followed by (2) the deposition of an Au layer as a result of galvanic replacement, and (3) Au deposition via particle coalescence and monomer attachment where small nanoparticles are formed during the reaction as a result of radiolysis. Analysis of the Ag removal rate and Au deposition rate provides a quantitative picture of the growth process and shows that the morphology and composition of the final product are dependent on the stoichiometric ratio between Au and Ag.

  1. A snow extent time series assimilation using MODIS images and temperature data, case study Koohrang, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, K.; Batelaan, O.

    2012-04-01

    A unique advantage of satellite data is the possibility for delineation of snow line and calculation of snow cover area. Recent availability of remote sensing data offers promise for better performance of hydrological models, which contain a snow component. The near-daily coverage of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data and its moderate resolution provide a powerful capability for time series analysis of snow cover area. However, because of several reasons like cloud cover, technical problems, etc., images are not available or usable. This paper suggests a regional solution to fill the gap of missing data for purpose of snow cover assessment. In this study 27 images of MODIS from NASA have been used to calculate basin scale snow cover area by applying NDSI technique. Also a temperature dataset was collected from the Koohrang station, which was measured by the Iranian meteorological organization for the period 2004-2008. The elevation of the Koohrang station is 2285 m above sea level and geographically it is located at latitude 32 26' and longitude 50 07'. The study considered snow cover derived from satellite imagery as dependent variable and temperature as independent variable. To find a relationship between snow extent and temperature we used the CURVEEXPERT 1.4 package. This program uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to solve nonlinear regressions by combination of steepest-descent method and a Taylor series technique. Our methodology is applied each time when snow extent is not available and it estimates snow extend based on the remaining data. A wide range of built in models were tested for this purpose but finally a Logistic, Exponential, Richards, Gompertz, Linear Fit and Exponential model were adopted because of high correlation relationship and low variance.

  2. Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Lourdes das Neves; Rodrigues, Eliete C A; Costa, Silvia F; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Dantas, Kátia C; Lobo, Renata D; Basso, Mariusa; Varkulja, Gláucia F; Krebs, Vera Lúcia Jornada; Gibelli, Maria Augusta Bento Cicaroni; Criado, Paulo R; Levin, Anna Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years. Design Case series study. Setting A 2000-bed tertiary-care university hospital at São Paulo, Brazil. Participants Neonates hospitalised in a 63-bed neonatal unit. Primary and secondary outcome measures We evaluated the incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit from 2002 through 2008 and the main microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease in neonates. During the study period an outbreak occurred, an infection control programme was implemented, and isolates from blood and hand healthcare workers (HCWs) were submitted to molecular typing. Results During 7 years, there were 36 cases of C parapsilosis fungaemia and annual incidence varied from 0 to 19.7 per 1000 admissions. Evaluating 31 neonates with fungemia, the mean age at diagnosis was 19 days. All children except for one were premature; all had received total parenteral nutrition and all but one had used central venous catheter. Three neonates had received antifungal treatment previously to the diagnosis. Thirty-day mortality was 45%. Only lower birthweight was associated with mortality. C parapsilosis species complex was isolated from hand cultures in eight (11%) of the HCWs (one isolate was identified as C orthopsilosis). By molecular typing no HCW isolate was similar to any of the blood isolates. Conclusions The incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit varied widely over 7 years. We observed in our series a higher death rate than that reported in European countries and the USA. PMID:22869093

  3. Efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism: A meta-analysis study of placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changcheng; Gu, Wenyu; Liu, Min; Peng, B O; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism. A search was conducted for appropriate randomized controlled trials and the data from 16 trials were pooled. The intended primary outcome of the present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy. The current data demonstrated that scores for Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) were significantly reduced following testosterone replacement therapy, with a mean decrease in AMS score of 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72 to 2.32; P=0.0002]. Testosterone replacement therapy increased lean body mass [mean difference (MD), 1.22; 95% CI, 0.33 to 2.11; P=0.007], reduced fat mass in a non-significantly manner (MD, -0.85; 95% CI, -1.74 to 0.04; P=0.06) and significantly reduced total cholesterol (MD, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.03; P=0.01). No significant differences were identified in body weight (MD, 0.09; 95% CI, -1.13 to 1.31; P=0.89), body mass index (MD, 0.10; 95% CI, -0.62 to 0.82; P=0.78) or bone mineral density (MD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.02; P=0.60). Average prostate volume increased (MD, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.6 to 2.56; P=0.002) following testosterone replacement therapy, but the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (MD, 0.10; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.22; P=0.14) and the International Prostate Symptom Scores (MD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.37 to 0.39; P=0.96) did not change. In conclusion, testosterone replacement therapy improves quality of life, increases lean body mass, significantly decreases total cholesterol, and is well-tolerated and safe for men with hypogonadism who are exhibiting PSA levels of <4 ng/ml.

  4. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  5. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunquan, E-mail: likunquan1987@gmail.com; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Li, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqli1979@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun, E-mail: msxjlai@scut.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic iron surfaces were prepared by etching and replacement method. • The fabrication process was simple, time-saving and inexpensive. • Galvanic replacement method was more favorable to create roughness on iron surface. • The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for

  6. Short- and long-term mortality following primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a Danish nationwide epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Baron, J A; Overgaard, S

    2011-01-01

    -term mortality in subjects under 60 years old, and among THR patients without comorbidity. Long-term mortality was lower among THR patients than in controls (mortality rate ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 0.7). Overall, THR was associated with lower short- and long-term mortality among patients......We evaluated the short-term of 0 to 90 days and the longer term, up to 12.7 years, mortality for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR) in Denmark in comparison to the general population. Through the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry we identified all primary THRs undertaken...... for osteoarthritis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006. Each patient (n = 44 558) was matched at the time of surgery with three people from the general population (n = 133 674). We estimated mortality rates and mortality rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals for THR patients compared with the general...

  7. Aerobic methane oxidation in a coastal environment with seasonal hypoxia - a time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Bethke, Christina; Schweers, Johanna; Bange, Hermann; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2014-05-01

    In the coastal ocean, methane is generally produced in anoxic sediments from where it can migrate through the water column to the atmosphere. A significant amount of methane is consumed along this passage by a series of microbial filter systems. Over the last 15 years, researchers focused on the first filter in marine sediments, the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Comparably little is known about the second filter, the aerobic methane oxidation (MOx), which is mediated by bacteria and takes place in the oxic water column. MOx is particularly important in shallow coastal environments that account for more than 75 % of the global oceanic methane emissions. Key environmental factors possibly controlling MOx in these systems are subjected to strong temporal variations since coastal regions are highly dynamic systems. We will present results from a time-series study on methane cycling in the water column of a coastal inlet in the southwestern Baltic Sea (Eckernförde Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station, 54°31.823 N, 10°02.764 E, 28m water depth; www.bokniseck.de). Results from monthly samplings for the last 8 years revealed year-round methane seepage from the seafloor and methane supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) of surface waters. Seasonal stratification during the summer months leads to intermittent oxygen depletion (hypoxic to anoxic) in bottom waters in late summer to early fall. The frequency of these low-oxygen events increased over the last 20 years. In addition to oxygen fluctuations, bottom water salinity can vary strongly (17-24 psu) due to regular inflows of salty North Sea water through the Kattegat. Over the course of one and a half years, we investigated MOx rates, the methanotrophic community, methane concentrations and physicochemical parameters of the water column on a quarterly basis. Albeit methane concentrations were high throughout the water column (20-120 nM), methane turnover showed a clear spatial pattern. That

  8. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood platelets in different types of renal replacement therapy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Cecerska-Heryć, Elżbieta; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Malinowska-Jędraszczyk, Alicja; Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The changes in redox status characterise physiological platelet activation. Increased oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with uremic toxicity and procedures of renal replacement therapy leads to the impairment of antioxidant properties of platelets. It may contribute to thrombosis and cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality among the CKD patients. The object of the research was to assess the influence of conservative treatment, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis on platelet prooxidative-antioxidative balance. The examined group consisted of 122 patients: 37 on regular haemodialysis (HD), 23 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 62 on conservative treatment with CKD stages 3-5 (CKD3-5). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transpherase (GST) in platelets were obtained using kinetic methods. The spectrophotometric method established the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). SOD activity in PD differs significantly from CKD3-5 (4.96 vs 1.66; p activity assessed in PD and CKD3-5 was significantly different from HD (0.82 and 0.8 vs 0.52 before and 0.35 after HD, respectively). GST activity reached the highest value in PD (1.62), and it was significantly different from CKD3-5 (0.23) and HD before haemodialysis (0.11). During haemodialysis therapy, there was a considerable increase in GST activity (0.11 vs 0.3; p = 0.02) and decrease in SOD activity (from 3.41 to 2.27; p = 0.01). The highest GSH concentrations were obtained in CKD3-5 and differ significantly from HD (4.12 vs 2.01; p = 0.02). The type of treatment, age and duration of renal replacement therapy determined significant changes in platelet antioxidative enzymes activities and concentration of GSH, which may enhance the thrombotic complications. PD is associated with lower platelet oxidative stress.

  9. An Experimental Study on the Flexibility of Prevention against Thrombosis Following Mechanical Valve Replacement by tPA Gene Transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangyi Ji; Jun Ji; Xiaohan Yang; Jiangan Yang; Xiaolei Wang; Wenping Ling; Yuping Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Use a gene suture immersed recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA)expression plasmid to transduce myocardia to prevent the thrombosis after mechanical tricuspid valve replacement in pigs. Methods A r-tPA gene plasmid was constructed and conjugated to a novel cationic phosphonolipid and a r-tPA gene suture was made. Eighteen pigs were selected and divided into two groups at randomization. There were 9 pigs in the experimental group and 9 in the control group, all the 18 pigs' tricuspids were replaced with mechanical valves. The gene threads were sutured into the right ventficular walls near mechanical valves and an ultrasound was used on the surfaces of the right ventricular walls for the gene transfer in the experimental group. Coagulative function, D-dimer level of the blood and the thrombosis on the surfaces of the valves were observed. Results r-tPA gene plasmid was successfully con-strutted and r-tPA protein was expressed in the ventricular cells around the gene sutures. D-dimer reached its peak level the experiment in experimental group. The thromboses around the valves were found in all the control group (100%)but only 1 (11.11%) case in experimental group. There were no changes in prothrombin time pre and post operation in two groups. Conclusions Using gene suture immersed r-tPA expression plasmid to transduce myocardia might be a best substitution for life long anti-coagulation therapy for the patients, who underwent operation.

  10. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  11. [Aortic valve replacement as an independent predictive factor for later development of aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Y; Simic, O; Bregenzer, T; Dresler, C; Haverich, A; Nienaber, C A

    1998-08-01

    Dissection of the ascending aorta (type A) following later after aortic valve replacement has been described with increasing frequency. This study analyzes the role of aortic valve replacement for the evolution of late dissection. In a series of 80 consecutive patients with type A dissection, a previous aortic valve replacement had been performed in 12 cases (15%). In addition to arterial hypertension (p syndrome (p factor for type A dissection. Dissection occurred 3 +/- 4 years after aortic valve replacement with a clinical and anatomical profile similar to classic dissection as proven by comparison to a group of 62 patients with classic dissection associated with arterial hypertension or Marfan syndrome. With 75% and 66%, respectively, 30 day and 1 year survival of patients with dissection following later after aortic valve replacement was similar to patients with classic type A dissection. Extensive thinning and/or fragility (p associated with a high risk for late dissection; this finding was substantiated by comparison to a control group of 10 consecutive patients with a similarly dilated aortic root but no dissection. Type and diameter of valve prostheses, cross-clamp time, NYHA functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were unrelated to late dissection. Previous aortic valve replacement is an independent predisposing factor for a dissection of the ascending aorta later. At the time of aortic valve replacement, prophylactic replacement or wrapping of the ascending aorta should be considered in patients with a thinned/fragile aortic wall even without a markedly dilated aortic root.

  12. Evaluation of total alloplastic temporo-mandibular joint replacement with two different types of prostheses: A three-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez-Somarriba, Borja; Centeno, Gabriel; Vallellano, Carpóforo; Montes-Carmona, Jose-Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) replacement has been used clinically for years. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes achieved in patients with two different categories of TMJ prostheses. Material and Methods All patients who had a TMJ replacement (TMJR) implanted during the study period from 2006 through 2012 were included in this 3-year prospective study. All procedures were performed using the Biomet Microfixation TMJ Replacement System, and all involved replacing both the skull base component (glenoid fossa) and the mandibular condyle. Results Fifty-seven patients (38 females and 19 males), involving 75 TMJs with severe disease requiring reconstruction (39 unilateral, 18 bilateral) were operated on consecutively, and 68 stock prostheses and 7 custom-made prostheses were implanted. The mean age at surgery was 52.6±11.5 years in the stock group and 51.8±11.7 years in the custom-made group. In the stock group, after three years of TMJR, results showed a reduction in pain intensity from 6.4±1.4 to 1.6±1.2 (p<0.001), and an improvement in jaw opening from 2.7±0.9 cm to 4.2±0.7 cm (p<0.001). In the custom-made group, after three years of TMJR, results showed a reduction in pain intensity from 6.0±1.6 to 2.2±0.4 (p<0.001), and an improvement in jaw opening from 1.5±0.5 cm to 4.3±0.6 cm (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences between two groups were detected. Conclusions The results of this three-year prospective study support the surgical placement of TMJ prostheses (stock prosthetic, and custom-made systems), and show that the approach is efficacious and safe, reduces pain, and improves maximum mouth opening movement, with few complications. As such, TMJR represents a viable technique and a stable long-term solution for cranio-mandibular reconstruction in patients with irreversible end-stage TMJ disease. Comparing stock and custom-made groups, no statistically significant differences were detected with respect to pain

  13. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  14. A study on herbaceous layer in an age series of restored mined land using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Uniyal Gairola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation may be described as the plant life of a region. The study of patterns and processes in vegetation at various scales of space and time is useful in understanding landscapes, ecological processes, environmental history and predicting ecosystem attributes such as productivity. Generalized vegetation descriptions, maps and other graphical representations of vegetation types have become fundamental to land use planning and management. They are widely used as biodiversity surrogates in conservation assessments and can provide a useful summary of many non-vegetation landscape elements such as animal habitats, agricultural suitability and the location and abundance of timber and other forest resources. Clustering vegetation data is well known machine learning problem which aims to partition the data set into subsets, so that the data in each subset share some common trait. Present study was done with an objective to study the successional changes in herbaceous vegetation in an age series of restored mined land and also analyzes them by subjecting the vegetation data to cluster analysis. The results of the study reveals that with widespread distribution and dominance of some of the prominent naturals invaders as component of both - the mined sites as well as the undisturbed natural site, the final composition of the community at the restored sites are compiled solely from the existing population of the species and the succession on restored area results in the similar community as that found on undisturbed forest in the same vicinity.

  15. STUDY OF MACHINING PROCESS MONITORING OF FMS BASED ON TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Libin; Su Jian; Liu Yumei; Jia Yazhou

    2004-01-01

    FMS is a sort of highly automatic machining system,how to ensure part quality is master key to system highly active running.At first, series of machining dimension and process capability of flexible manufacturing system(FMS), is analyzed.Result of its, strong self-correlation of data series shows that time series analysis is applicable to data series analyzed.Based on-line modeling and forecasting for data series, principle and method of feedback compensation control is proposed.On a foundation of the virtual instrument platform, Labview of national instrument (NI), FMS dimension and process capability monitoring system(monitoring system) is developed.In practice, it is proved that part quality and process capability of FMS are greatly improved.

  16. Comparison study of typical algorithms for reconstructing time series from the recurrence plot of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Shi Shu-Ting; Zhao Jun-Chan

    2013-01-01

    The three most widely used methods for reconstructing the underlying time series via the recurrence plots (RPs) of a dynamical system are compared with each other in this paper.We aim to reconstruct a toy series,a periodical series,a random series,and a chaotic series to compare the effectiveness of the most widely used typical methods in terms of signal correlation analysis.The application of the most effective algorithm to the typical chaotic Lorenz system verifies the correctness of such an effective algorithm.It is verified that,based on the unthresholded RPs,one can reconstruct the original attractor by choosing different RP thresholds based on the Hirata algorithm.It is shown that,in real applications,it is possible to reconstruct the underlying dynamics by using quite little information from observations of real dynamical systems.Moreover,rules of the threshold chosen in the algorithm are also suggested.

  17. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Model Peptides: Incorporation of Residues Replacing Gly within a Triple Helix Achieved by Renucleation and Local Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianxi; Madhan, Balaraman; Li, Yingjie; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Missense mutations, which replace one Gly with a larger residue in the repeating sequence of the type I collagen triple helix, lead to the hereditary bone disorder osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Previous studies suggest that these mutations may interfere with triple-helix folding. NMR was used to investigate triple-helix formation in a series of model peptides where the residue replacing Gly, as well as the local sequence environment, was varied. NMR measurement of translational diffusion coef...

  18. Spectroscopic study of mimetite-vanadinite solid solution series - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Urszula; Bajda, Tomasz; Topolska, Justyna; Manecki, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl and vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl are minerals from the Pb-apatites family which belong to the apatite supergroup. Most often they crystalize under hypergenic conditions, in oxidation zones of Pb ore deposits, where they form paragenesis with pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl. These minerals are used in the techniques of soils reclamation. Their crystal structure allows substituting of metal cations as well as of anionic complexes. Natural mimetite often contains admixture of phosphates and/or vanadates. Similarly, vanadinite contains admixtures of phosphates and/or arsenates. Among the lead apatites, properties of the minerals from pyromorphite-mimetite solid solution series are well known, while the knowledge about the mimetite-vanadinite series is incomplete. The aim of this research was synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of mimetite-vanadinite solid solution series. Mimetite, vanadinite and their solid solution were synthesized from aqueous solutions by dropwise mixing of Pb(NO3)2, Na3VO4, Na2HAsO4×7H2O and NaCl at 25 ºC and pH = 3.5. Products of the syntheses were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The precipitates formed in the syntheses were identified by the XRD method as mimetite, vanadinite and their solid solutions. Other crystalline phases were not present in synthetic precipitates within the detection limit of XRD. In the Mid-IR spectra of mimetite-vanadinite solid solutions series, bands characteristic for vibrations of As-O bonds of the AsO4 tetrahedra and vibrations of V-O bonds of the VO4 tetrahedra were observed. The band corresponding to stretching ν3vibrations of AsO4 and VO4 occured in the range 700-900 cm-1. In the Raman spectra, bands which are characteristic for vibrations of As-O bonds of the AsO4 tetrahedra and vibrations of V-O bonds of the VO4 tetrahedra were also observed. The bands attributed to vibrations in the AsO4 tetrahedra appeared at 880-740 cm

  19. Meditation and the Classroom: Contemplative Pedagogy for Religious Studies. SUNY Series in Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer-Brown, Judith, Ed.; Grace, Fran, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Meditation and the Classroom" inventively articulates how educators can use meditation to educate the whole student. Notably, a number of universities have initiated contemplative studies options and others have opened contemplative spaces. This represents an attempt to address the inner life. It is also a sign of a new era, one in…

  20. Meditation and the Classroom: Contemplative Pedagogy for Religious Studies. SUNY Series in Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer-Brown, Judith, Ed.; Grace, Fran, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Meditation and the Classroom" inventively articulates how educators can use meditation to educate the whole student. Notably, a number of universities have initiated contemplative studies options and others have opened contemplative spaces. This represents an attempt to address the inner life. It is also a sign of a new era, one in…

  1. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A. Cardinale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses.

  2. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Jean A.; Johnson, Bethany C.

    2017-01-01

    Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses. PMID:28904648

  3. TAC-TIC therapy with premature infants: a series of investigative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Róiste, Aine

    2004-12-01

    This article provides a synopsis of a series of studies exploring the effects of TAC-TIC (Touching And Caressing-Tender In Caring) therapy with premature infants. Study 1 looked at the short and long-term effects and found enhanced mental development in the stroked infants at 15 months. In study 2 the physiological effects of an abbreviated version of TAC-TIC with high-risk ventilated infants were examined and it was concluded that TAC-TIC exerted no harm to these vulnerable infants. The behavioural reactions of a sample of premature and low birthweight infants to TAC-TIC and parental responses to administering it were explored in study 3. The infants were found to respond predominantly with arm and leg movements to TAC-TIC while fathers and mothers reported enjoying performing TAC-TIC and elicited a similar pattern and frequency of behavioural reactions. In study 4 the question of whether TAC-TIC benefits preterm infant learning and/or sucking behaviour was investigated. The conclusion reached was that TAC-TIC may potentially benefit cognitive performance within the neonatal period and that this may be an early indicator of long-term cognitive gains reported by previous studies. Using a matched subjects design, study 5 explored the impact of TAC-TIC upon the digestive system by analysing gastric aspirates before and after TAC-TIC and a control period of time. It was concluded that TAC-TIC appeared to induce a more suitable stomach environment for digestion.

  4. Implant Optimisation for Primary Hip Replacement in Patients over 60 Years with Osteoarthritis: A Cohort Study of Clinical Outcomes and Implant Costs Using Data from England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon S Jameson

    Full Text Available Hip replacement is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide; hundreds of implant configurations provide options for femoral head size, joint surface material and fixation method with dramatically varying costs. Robust comparative evidence to inform the choice of implant is needed. This retrospective cohort study uses linked national databases from England and Wales to determine the optimal type of replacement for patients over 60 years undergoing hip replacement for osteoarthritis.Implants included were the commonest brand from each of the four types of replacement (cemented, cementless, hybrid and resurfacing; the reference prosthesis was the cemented hip procedure. Patient reported outcome scores (PROMs, costs and risk of repeat (revision surgery were examined. Multivariable analyses included analysis of covariance to assess improvement in PROMs (Oxford hip score, OHS, and EQ5D index (9159 linked episodes and competing risks modelling of implant survival (79,775 procedures. Cost of implants and ancillary equipment were obtained from National Health Service procurement data.EQ5D score improvements (at 6 months were similar for all hip replacement types. In females, revision risk was significantly higher in cementless hip prostheses (hazard ratio, HR = 2.22, p<0.001, when compared to the reference hip. Although improvement in OHS was statistically higher (22.1 versus 20.5, p<0.001 for cementless implants, this small difference is unlikely to be clinically important. In males, revision risk was significantly higher in cementless (HR = 1.95, p = 0.003 and resurfacing implants, HR = 3.46, p<0.001, with no differences in OHS. Material costs were lowest with the reference implant (cemented, range £1103 to £1524 and highest with cementless implants (£1928 to £4285. Limitations include the design of the study, which is intrinsically vulnerable to omitted variables, a paucity of long-term implant survival data (reflecting the

  5. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Dragutin T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose novel metrics based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We consider the origins of the Kolmogorov complexity and discuss its physical meaning. To get better insights into the nature of complex systems and time series analysis we introduce three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied to different time series originating from: a model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system, four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose and the economy (stock price dynamics. The results obtained offer deeper insights into the complexity of system dynamics and time series analysis with the proposed complexity measures.

  6. Auricular Acupressure for Managing Postoperative Pain and Knee Motion in Patients with Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Sham Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-hua Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR. Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a day for 3 days. A visual analog scale (VAS and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain intensity. Pain medication consumption was recorded, and the knee motion was measured using a goniometer. Results. The patients experienced a moderately severe level of pain postoperatively (VAS 58.66 ± 20.35 while being on the routine PCA. No differences were found in pain scores between the groups at all points. However, analgesic drug usage in the acupressure group patients was significantly lower than in the sham control group (<0.05, controlling for BMI, age, and pain score. On the 3rd day after surgery, the passive knee motion in the acupressure group patients was significantly better than in the sham control group patients (<0.05, controlling for BMI. Conclusion. The application of auricular acupressure at specific therapeutic points significantly reduces the opioid analgesia requirement and improves the knee motion in patients with TKR.

  7. Fatal pulmonary embolism following elective total knee replacement using aspirin in multi-modal prophylaxis - A 12year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, C; Bayley, E; Bhamber, N; Howard, P

    2017-06-13

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued guidelines on which thromboprophylaxis regimens are suitable following lower limb arthroplasty. Aspirin is not a recommended agent despite being accepted in orthopaedic guidelines elsewhere. We assessed the incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) and all-cause mortality following elective primary total knee replacement (TKR) with a standardised multi-modal prophylaxis regime in a large teaching district general hospital. We utilised a prospective audit database to identify those that had died within 42 and 90days postoperatively. Data from April 2000 to 2012 were analysed for 42 and 90day mortality rates. There were a total of 8277 elective primary TKR performed over the 12year period. The multi-modal prophylaxis regimen used unless contraindicated for all patients included 75mg aspirin once daily for four weeks. Case note review ascertained the causes of death. Where a patient had been referred to the coroner, they were contacted for post mortem results. The mortality rates at 42 and 90days were 0.36 and 0.46%. There was one fatal PE within 42days of surgery (0.01%) who was taking enoxaparin because of aspirin intolerance. Two fatal PE's occurred at 48 and 57days post-operatively (0.02%). The leading cause of death was myocardial infarction (0.13%). Fatal PE following elective TKR with a multi-modal prophylaxis regime is a very rare cause of mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. No drain, autologous transfusion drain or suction drain? A randomised prospective study in total hip replacement surgery of 168 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Graham; Carmont, Michael R; Bing, Andrew J F; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Alcock, Robert J; Graham, Niall M

    2010-10-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial to assess the differences in the use of a conventional suction drain, an Autologous Blood Transfusion (ABT) drain and no drain, in 168 patients. There was no significant difference between the drainage from ABT drains ( mean : 345 ml) and the suction drain (314 ml). Forty percent of patients receiving a suction drain had a haemoglobin level less than 10 g/dL at 24 hours, compared to 35% with no drain and 28% with an ABT drain. Patients that had no drains had wounds that were dry significantly sooner, mean 3.0 days compared to a mean of 3.9 days with an ABT drain and a mean of 4 days with a suction drain. Patients that did not have a drain inserted stayed in hospital a significantly shorter period of time, compared with drains. We feel the benefits of quicker drying wounds, shorter hospital stays and the economic savings justify the conclusion that no drain is required after hip replacement.

  9. Comparison of Balance, Proprioception and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Total Hip Replacement Patients With and Without Fracture: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there was a difference in balance, proprioception, and skeletal muscle mass among patients who undergo hip fracture surgery relative to and elective total hip replacement (THR). Methods Thirty-one THR patients were enrolled. The patients were categorized into two groups: fracture group (n=15) and non-fracture group (n=16). Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was used to balance the proprioception of the hip joint while a joint position sense (JPS) test was used to evaluate it. Skeletal muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and expressed as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Quality of life (QOL) was also assessed using a 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). All tests were assessed at 3 months after the surgery. An independent t-test was used to compare the fracture group and non-fracture group. Spearman correlation was used to identify the correlation of each variable. Results In an independent t-test, the BBS score of patients undergoing elective surgery was higher than the BBS score of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. There was a significant correlation between the BBS and JPS score after a THR. SMI also correlated with the score of BBS. Conclusion It seems that THR patients undergoing surgery for a hip fracture might have more trouble balancing than elective THR patients. Therefore THR patients undergoing hip fracture surgery might need more care during rehabilitation. PMID:28119837

  10. Hormone-replacement therapy influences gene expression profiles and is associated with breast-cancer prognosis: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoog Lambert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy (HRT increases breast-cancer risk. The influence of HRT on the biology of the primary tumor, however, is not well understood. Methods We obtained breast-cancer gene expression profiles using Affymetrix human genome U133A arrays. We examined the relationship between HRT-regulated gene profiles, tumor characteristics, and recurrence-free survival in 72 postmenopausal women. Results HRT use in patients with estrogen receptor (ER protein positive tumors (n = 72 was associated with an altered regulation of 276 genes. Expression profiles based on these genes clustered ER-positive tumors into two molecular subclasses, one of which was associated with HRT use and had significantly better recurrence free survival despite lower ER levels. A comparison with external data suggested that gene regulation in tumors associated with HRT was negatively correlated with gene regulation induced by short-term estrogen exposure, but positively correlated with the effect of tamoxifen. Conclusion Our findings suggest that post-menopausal HRT use is associated with a distinct gene expression profile related to better recurrence-free survival and lower ER protein levels. Tentatively, HRT-associated gene expression in tumors resembles the effect of tamoxifen exposure on MCF-7 cells.

  11. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Graphical representations of a television series: a study with deaf and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Cristina; Leal, Aurora; Silvestre, Núria

    2010-11-01

    The understanding of a television story can be very different depending on the age of the viewer, their background knowledge, the content of the programme and the way in which they combine the information gathered from linguistic, audio and visual elements. This study explores the different ways of interpreting an audiovisual document considering that, due to a hearing impaired, visual, audio and linguistic information could be perceived very differently to the way it is by hearing people. The study involved the participation of 20 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years who, after watching a fragment of a television series, were asked to draw a picture of what had happened in the story. The results show that the graphical representation of the film is similar for both groups in terms of the number of scenes, but there is greater profusion, in the deaf group, of details about the context and characters, and there are differences in their interpretations of some of the sequences in the story.

  13. Modeling time-series count data: the unique challenges facing political communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Brian J; Monogan, James E

    2014-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of proper model specification when analyzing time-series count data in political communication studies. It is common for scholars of media and politics to investigate counts of coverage of an issue as it evolves over time. Many scholars rightly consider the issues of time dependence and dynamic causality to be the most important when crafting a model. However, to ignore the count features of the outcome variable overlooks an important feature of the data. This is particularly the case when modeling data with a low number of counts. In this paper, we argue that the Poisson autoregressive model (Brandt and Williams, 2001) accurately meets the needs of many media studies. We replicate the analyses of Flemming et al. (1997), Peake and Eshbaugh-Soha (2008), and Ura (2009) and demonstrate that models missing some of the assumptions of the Poisson autoregressive model often yield invalid inferences. We also demonstrate that the effect of any of these models can be illustrated dynamically with estimates of uncertainty through a simulation procedure. The paper concludes with implications of these findings for the practical researcher.

  14. Gut microbiota trajectory in patients with severe burn: A time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Yang, Jianbo; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Li; Lei, Qiucheng; Jiang, Tingting; Zhou, Jihong; Yuan, Siming; Wang, Jun; Feng, Zhijian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-08-12

    This time series experiments aimed to investigate the dynamic change of gut microbiomes after severe burn and its association with enteral nutrition (EN). Seven severely burned patients who suffered from a severe metal dust explosion injury were recruited in this study. The dynamic changes of gut microbiome of fecal samples at six time points (1-3days, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6weeks after severe burn) were detected using 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing technology. Following the post-burn temporal order, gut microbiota dysbiosis was detected in the gut microbiome after severe burn, then it was gradually resolved. The bio-diversity of gut bacteria was initially decreased, and then returned to normal level. In addition, at the early stage (from 2 to 4weeks), the majority of those patients' gut microbiome were opportunistic pathogen genus, Enterococcus and Escherichia; while at the end of this study, the majority was a beneficial genus, Bacteroides. EN can promote the recovery of gut microbiota, especially in EN well-tolerated patients. Severe burn injury can cause a dramatic dysbiosis of gut microbiota. A trend of enriched beneficial bacteria and diminished opportunistic pathogen bacteria may serve as prognosis microbiome biomarkers of severe burn patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Study of structural break points in global and hemispheric temperature series by piecewise regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta

    2015-12-01

    The study of climate trends taking into consideration possible structural changes is important for understanding climate development characterized by a stochastic trend or by a determined one. In the paper global and hemisphere temperature anomalies are modeled by piecewise linear regression and break points in the temperature evolution are found. It was demonstrated that the used method allowed finding of breaks characterized by long time trends (low frequency processes) as well as abrupt changes (fast frequency processes). The obtained break points for slow temperature change are close to the ones found by other authors however additional conditions (as segment length, gradient and others) are not used here. The results for higher break point numbers are like the ones of step slope models. It was demonstrated that the successive phases of warming and cooling and most of the break points subdividing these periods in the Northern Hemisphere are introduced by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Because the strong quasi periodicity of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation the authors recommend the removal of its influence on the temperature from the temperature series before studies of trends or structural changes. The Northern Hemisphere temperature data after the removal of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation influence show structures like the Southern Hemisphere temperatures. Model selection by the Schwarz-Bayesian Information Criterion developed by Liu, Wu and Zidek (LWZ criterion) shows that models with only one break point are to be preferred.

  16. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume II: Report of the Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. This volume is a detailed elaboration of the study findings as well as a description of the study design,…

  17. Replacing paper data collection forms with electronic data entry in the field: findings from a study of community-acquired bloodstream infections in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thriemer Kamala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entering data on case report forms and subsequently digitizing them in electronic media is the traditional way to maintain a record keeping system in field studies. Direct data entry using an electronic device avoids this two-step process. It is gaining in popularity and has replaced the paper-based data entry system in many studies. We report our experiences with paper- and PDA-based data collection during a fever surveillance study in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods Data were collected on a 14-page case report paper form in the first period of the study. The case report paper forms were then replaced with handheld computers (personal digital assistants or PDAs. The PDAs were used for screening and clinical data collection, including a rapid assessment of patient eligibility, real time errors, and inconsistency checking. Results A comparison of paper-based data collection with PDA data collection showed that direct data entry via PDA was faster and 25% cheaper. Data was more accurate (7% versus 1% erroneous data and omission did not occur with electronic data collection. Delayed data turnaround times and late error detections in the paper-based system which made error corrections difficult were avoided using electronic data collection. Conclusions Electronic data collection offers direct data entry at the initial point of contact. It has numerous advantages and has the potential to replace paper-based data collection in the field. The availability of information and communication technologies for direct data transfer has the potential to improve the conduct of public health research in resource-poor settings.

  18. The Study of a New Method for Forecasting Non-stationary Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method for forecasting non-stationary series is developed. Its steps are as follows: Step 1. Data delaminating. Non-stationary series is delaminated into several multi-scale steady data layers and one trend layer. Step 2. Modeling and forecasting each stationary data layer. Step 3. Imitating trend layer using polynomial. Step 4. Combining the forecasting layers and imitating layer into one series. The EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) method suitable to process non-stationary series is selected to delaminate data, while ARMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average) model is employed to model and forecast stationary data layer and least square error method for trend layer regression. Aiming at forecasting length, forecasting orientation and selective method, experiments are performed for SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Finally, an example is provided, in which the whole SAR image is restored via the method proposed by this paper.

  19. Histological study of granulocytic series in the bone marrow of adult goat (Caprus Hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Dahash Hamdi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion The developmental process of granulocytopioesis series of bone marrow in goat encompasses a lineage of successive morphological alterations involves nuclear and cytoplasmic changes as well as granule transformation resulting in the production of granulocytes.

  20. Volitional cycling augmented by functional electrical stimulation in hemiparetic adolescents: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a treatment based on volitional cycling augmented by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES on hemiparetic adolescents. Six chronic hemiparetic adolescents were included in a case series study. Patients underwent FES-cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling. The intervention consisted of 21 sessions lasting 30 minutes each. Patients were evaluated before, after training, and at a 3-month follow-up visit through clinical scales (Winter scale, observational gait scale, gross motor function measurement, Boyd test and Ashworth scale, a standard gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy control group (N=6. Two subjects withdrew the study before the completion of the intervention. Concerning the four remaining subjects, the clinical scales showed a slight level of disability already at baseline and no changes were observed after the intervention. In terms of walking ability, some significant improvements (Kruskal-Wallis test, p-value<0.05 were obtained after training in two out of four subjects: an increase of about 16% and 41% of the ankle range of motion and of about 18% and 33% of the ankle propelling power were achieved for two subjects, respectively. During pedaling, the work produced by the paretic leg while pulling the pedal significantly increased in 3 out of 4 subjects. In one subject a more symmetrical cycling movement was observed, whilst for another subject a significant improvement in terms of co-contraction between rectus femoris and biceps femoris was achieved. In conclusion, this study assessed the feasibility of FES-cycling training on hemiparetic adolescents, but did not provide evidences about the effectiveness of this intervention in improving motor recovery and walking ability. However, since only a small group of patients with a low level of disability was involved in the study, further investigations are needed to

  1. High-Performance and Distributed Computing in a Probabilistic Finite Element Comparison Study of the Human Lower Leg Model with Total Knee Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, Corneliu

    2016-01-01

    Reliability theory is used to assess the sensitivity of a passive flexion and active flexion of the human lower leg Finite Element (FE) models with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) to the variability in the input parameters of the respective FE models. The sensitivity of the active flexion simulating the stair ascent of the human lower leg FE model with TKR was presented before in [1,2] whereas now in this paper a comparison is made with the passive flexion of the human lower leg FE model with TKR. First, with the Monte Carlo Simulation Technique (MCST), a number of randomly generated input data of the FE model(s) are obtained based on the normal standard deviations of the respective input parameters. Then a series of FE simulations are done and the output kinematics and peak contact pressures are obtained for the respective FE models (passive flexion and/or active flexion models). Seven output performance measures are reported for the passive flexion model and one more parameter was reported for the active flexi...

  2. Design and baseline characteristics of the soy phytoestrogens as replacement estrogen (SPARE) study--a clinical trial of the effects of soy isoflavones in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Silvina; Strickman-Stein, Nancy; Doerge, Daniel R; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    Following the results of the Women's Health Initiative, many women now decline estrogen replacement at the time of menopause and seek natural remedies that would treat menopausal symptoms and prevent bone loss and other long-term consequences of estrogen deficiency, but without adverse effects on the breast, uterus, and cardiovascular system. The results of most soy studies in this population have had limitations because of poor design, small sample size, or short duration. This report describes the study rationale, design, and procedures of the Soy Phytoestrogens As Replacement Estrogen (SPARE) study, which was designed to determine the efficacy of soy isoflavones in preventing spinal bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the initial years of menopause. Women ages 45 to 60 without osteoporosis and within 5 years from menopause were randomized to receive soy isoflavones 200mg daily or placebo for 2 years. Participants have yearly measurements of spine and hip bone density, urinary phytoestrogens, and serum lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Menopausal symptoms, mood changes, depression, and quality of life are assessed annually. The SPARE study recruited 283 women, 66.1% were Hispanic white. With a large cohort, long duration, and large isoflavone dose, this trial will provide important, relevant, and currently unavailable information on the benefits of purified soy isoflavones in the prevention of bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the first 5 years of menopause. Given the high proportion of Hispanics participating in the study, the results of this trial will also be applicable to this minority group.

  3. Nonoperative Korean Medicine Combination Therapy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Retrospective Case-Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiok Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective case series exploring the therapeutic benefits and harm of nonoperative Korean medicine combination therapy for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS. The medical records of a total of 33 LSS patients, who were treated as inpatients at Mokhuri Neck and Back Hospital, Republic of Korea, from November 2010 to January 2012, were reviewed first and telephone survey on these patients was conducted after one year. Body acupuncture, pharmacoacupuncture, Chuna, and oral administration of herbal medicines were offered to all patients. A Visual analogue scale (VAS of pain and the walking duration without pain were used to assess the patients during the approximately 1-month treatment period. The average VAS score of pain and the walking duration improved significantly; the VAS score decreased from 9 (SD, 1.15 to 2.75 (2.22 (p<0.01, and the walking duration increased from 5.5 (6.66 to 16.75 (13.00 minutes (p<0.01. No adverse event was reported during the treatment. In addition, the decreased pain level and improved function continued for over one year. Although we did not find definitive evidence, the study results suggest that KM combination therapy may be beneficial for decreasing pain and improving function in LSS patients and may produce comparatively few adverse events.

  4. Regression model for generating time series of daily precipitation amounts for climate change impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buishand, T. A.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    1996-05-01

    The precipitation amounts on wet days at De Bilt (the Netherlands) are linked to temperature and surface air pressure through advanced regression techniques. Temperature is chosen as a covariate to use the model for generating synthetic time series of daily precipitation in a CO2 induced warmer climate. The precipitation-temperature dependence can partly be ascribed to the phenomenon that warmer air can contain more moisture. Spline functions are introduced to reproduce the non-monotonous change of the mean daily precipitation amount with temperature. Because the model is non-linear and the variance of the errors depends on the expected response, an iteratively reweighted least-squares technique is needed to estimate the regression coefficients. A representative rainfall sequence for the situation of a systematic temperature rise is obtained by multiplying the precipitation amounts in the observed record with a temperature dependent factor based on a fitted regression model. For a temperature change of 3°C (reasonable guess for a doubled CO2 climate according to the present-day general circulation models) this results in an increase in the annual average amount of 9% (20% in winter and 4% in summer). An extended model with both temperature and surface air pressure is presented which makes it possible to study the additional effects of a potential systematic change in surface air pressure on precipitation.

  5. [Association between temperature and daily mortality in Guangzhou, 2006-2009: a time-series study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-hua; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ma, Wen-jun; Xu, Yan-jun; Xu, Xiao-jun; Cai, Qiu-mao; Pan, Bo; Zeng, Si-qing

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between temperature and daily mortality from June 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009 in Guangzhou. Time series approach was used to estimate the impact of temperature on the rates of total and cause-specific daily mortality. We fitted generalized additive Poisson regression using non-parametric smooth functions to control for the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollution and other weather variables. A slight sloping U-like relationship between the total mortality and temperature was found, with an optimum average temperature (temperature with lowest mortality risk) value of 19.7°C in Guangzhou. For temperature above the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality increased by 3.0% (RR=1.030, 95%CI: 1.011-1.050) for each increase of degree in Celsius. For average temperature below the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality and diseases of circulatory system had a 3.3% (RR=0.967, 95%CI: 0.936-0.997) decrease and a 3.6% (RR=0.964, 95%CI: 0.935-0.994) increase, for each degree of Celsius increase, respectively. Our findings showed that the temperature had an impact on the daily mortality in Guangzhou. Countermeasures needed to be taken to reduce the temperature related mortality.

  6. Ophthalmic findings in acute mercury poisoning in adults: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Selim; Aksoy, Adnan; Ozdemir, Murat; Gizir, Harun; Yasar, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report ophthalmic findings of acute mercury poisoning in 48 adults referred to emergency department. Full ophthalmologic examination including the best corrected visual acuity, external eye examination, reaction to light, a slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, and visual field (VF) and color vision (CV) tests were performed at the presentation and repeated after 6 months. The parametric values of VF test, the mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were recorded in order to compare patients and the 30 healthy controls. The mean parameter of color confusion index in patients was found to be statistically different than controls (p < 0.01). The MD and PSD in patients were different from controls statistically significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between the ocular findings and the urine and blood mercury levels. Methyl mercury, held in the school laboratory for experimental purpose, may be a source of poisoning. In this case series, we showed that acute exposure to mercury had hazardous effect on the visual system, especially CV and VF. We propose that emphasizing the public education on the potential hazards of mercury is crucial for preventive community health.

  7. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  8. Extended homologous series of Sn-O layered systems: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Kirsten; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Apart from the most studied tin-oxide compounds, SnO and SnO2, intermediate states have been claimed to exist for more than a hundred years. In addition to the known homologous series (Seko et al., 2008 [27]), we here predict the existence of several new compounds with an O concentration between 50% (SnO) and 67% (SnO2). All these intermediate compounds are constructed from removing one or more (101) oxygen layers of SnO2. Since the van der Waals (vdW) interaction is known to be important for the Sn-Sn interlayer distances, we use a vdW-corrected functional, and compare these results with results obtained with PBE and hybrid functionals. We present the electronic properties of the intermediate structures and we observe a decrease of the band gap when (i) the O concentration increases and (ii) more SnO-like units are present for a given concentration. The contribution of the different atoms to the valence and conduction band is also investigated.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Photodegradation of Two Series of Cyclic Olefin Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H. Gutiérrez-Villarreal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of commercial cyclic olefin copolymers (COC, namely, ethylene-norbornene (E-NB and ethylene-tetracyclododecene (E-TD, were processed as thin films with thicknesses of 25 μm by an extrusion process. The photodegradation of neat and formulated films with different metal stearates (Fe, Co, and Mn was investigated using an ultraviolet (UV light lamp (340 nm for a period of 30 days in an accelerated weathering tester model QUV from Q-LAB according to the ASTM D 5208-01 standard practice. Changes in carbonyl index (CI and tensile properties were used to evaluate the photodegradation of the films and other properties, such as Tg variation by DSC, were also analyzed. The present study reveals that (E-NB copolymers show higher sensitivity to photodegradation than (E-TD resins, in the absence and presence of metal stearates. We also find that the Fe salt shows the highest oxidative activity.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIMULATION AND TIME SERIES MODEL IN QUANTIFYING BULLWHIP EFFECT IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. O. Fabson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullwhip (or whiplash effect is an observed phenomenon in forecast driven distribution channeland careful management of these effects is of great importance to managers of supply chain.Bullwhip effect refers to situations where orders to the suppliers tend to have larger variance thansales to the buyer (demand distortion and the distortion increases as we move up the supply chain.Due to the fact that demand of customer for product is unstable, business managers must forecast inorder to properly position inventory and other resources. Forecasts are statistically based and in mostcases, are not very accurate. The existence of forecast errors made it necessary for organizations tooften carry an inventory buffer called “safety stock”. Moving up the supply chain from the end userscustomers to raw materials supplier there is a lot of variation in demand that can be observed, whichcall for greater need for safety stock.This study compares the efficacy of simulation and Time Series model in quantifying the bullwhipeffects in supply chain management.

  11. Unplanned decannulation of tracheotomy tube in massive burn patients: a retrospective case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Dao-feng; MA bing; XIA Zhao-fan; L(U) Kai-yang; CHEN Xu-lin; YU Xi-ya; XI Hui-Jun; CHANG Fei; ZHU Shi-hui; TANG Hong-tai; LU Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Unplanned extubation is associated with adverse outcomes in intensive care unit.The massive burn patient differs from other critically ill patients in many ways.However,little is known about the unplanned decannulation (UD) in Burn Intensive Care Unit.This paper describes the special features of the circumstances and outcome of UD of tracheotomy tube in massive burn patients.Methods A case series study was performed between January 1999 and December 2008 and UD of tracheotomy tube was analyzed retrospectively.A total of 21 patients with 29 UD events were identified.Demographic data,diagnosis,intervention,UD events and outcome of UD patients were collected.Differences in proportions were compared using the chi-square (X2) or Fisher's exact test.Results Patients with UD were often burned with head and neck (67%) and combined with inhalation injury (62%).The majority of them (76%) were transferred patients,occurred early (55%) and were accidental UD (79%).UD events tended to happen in day shift (90%) and to be associated with the medical procedure that was performing by caregivers at besides (79%).Loose of the stabilizing rope,medical procedure and tracheotomy malposition were the main causes of UD.Early UD and reintubation failure were associated with patients' death.Conclusions UD happened to massive burn patients can lead to patient death.Careful management of respiratory tract was essential for massive burn patients.

  12. A time-series study of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale: premature adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Kian Nian; Angelini, Gianni D; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance in January 2005 and subsequent trial evidence on the adoption of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PCPFO). A retrospective time series study was conducted using the Inpatient Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) England. A total of 3801 patients, aged ≥18 and ≤60 years, who had PCPFO from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2012 in England. Percentage change annualised (PCA) in PCPFO procedure rates between initial NICE guidance and publication of trial results was analysed. Between Quarter 2, 2006 and Quarter 4, 2009, 2163 PCPFO procedures were performed, with an increasing PCA of 48.4%. The procedure rate peaked before the presentation of equivocal results from the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) in late 2010, and declined between Quarter 4, 2009 and Quarter 4, 2011 (PCA=-15.3%). Of more than 2300 patients recruited to three RCTs, only 71 were recruited in English hospitals. PCPFO was rapidly adopted after the publication of initial NICE guidance despite the absence of RCT evidence of efficacy. Very few English patients participated in international RCTs of PCPFO, suggesting that NICE recommendations also failed to encourage the generation of RCT evidence.

  13. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  14. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  15. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  16. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  17. Total ankle replacement for posttraumatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weme, Rebecca A Nieuwe; van Solinge, Guido; N Doornberg, Job; Sierevelt, Inger; Haverkamp, Daniël; Doets, H Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Most studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) have used a case mix of patients. We evaluated the outcome of TAR performed for end-stage arthritis either because of fracture or ligamentous injury. Patients and methods We prospectively followed 88 consecutive patients (50 postfracture ankles and 40 ankles with instability arthritis (2 bilateral)) who underwent TAR between 2001 and 2009. Mean follow-up for both groups was 5 years. Results Preoperative varus deformity of 10° or more was present in 23 ankles in the instability group. At 6 years, survival with revision or salvage fusion as an endpoint was 87% (95% CI: 74–99) in the postfracture group and 79% (95% CI: 63–94) in the instability group. Progressive periprosthetic osteolysis was seen in 23 ankles, and required salvage fusion in 6. The number of reoperations was similar in both groups. Clinical outcome, as assessed with 2 ankle scores and 2 questionnaires, showed good results and was similar at the latest follow-up. Interpretation The outcome was similar in the postfracture and instability groups and also similar to that reported in series including a case mix of patients. In contrast to earlier reports, preoperative frontal plane deformity in this series was not identified as a risk factor for failure. PMID:25772269

  18. OnabotulinumtoxinA in urinary incontinence: Prospective Study of a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, A; Fernández-Mederos, A; García-Hernández, J Á

    2017-09-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a single intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (OnaBTA) for treating urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in women. We performed a prospective case-series study of consecutive patients with refractory UUI treated with an intravesical injection of OnaBTA. The patients were administered 100 units of OnaBTA injected into the bladder wall following 4 weeks of flushing with anticholinergic agents or beta 3 agonists. The urodynamic and clinical endpoints were evaluated before and 6 months after the injection of OnaBTA. The primary study endpoint was the number of episodes of urinary leakage. A total of 204 of the 210 selected patients conducted a valid visit 6 months after the therapeutic application. At 6 months of treatment with OnaBTA, 110 (53.9%) patients remained continent and were considered a success. However, 57 (27.9%) patients experienced one episode of urinary leakage per day, and 37 (18.2%) had 2 or more. In terms of the urodynamic parameters, we observed the following changes: increase in maximum bladder capacity (P<.0001) and reduced maximum pressure of the detrusor (P<.0001). In terms of the safety profile, 8 (3.9%) patients had self-limiting haematuria during the procedure, which resolved spontaneously, and 9 (4.4%) patients had acute urinary retention that required intermittent catheterisation. This study supports the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA in patients with urge urinary incontinence that does not respond to medical treatment. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C K W Koh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birmingham is the largest UK city after London, and central Birmingham has an annual tuberculosis incidence of 80 per 100,000. We examined seasonality and sunlight as drivers of tuberculosis incidence. Hours of sunshine are seasonal, sunshine exposure is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the body and vitamin D plays a role in the host response to tuberculosis. METHODS: We performed an ecological study that examined tuberculosis incidence in Birmingham from Dec 1981 to Nov 2009, using publicly-available data from statutory tuberculosis notifications, and related this to the seasons and hours of sunshine (UK Meteorological Office data using unmeasured component models. RESULTS: There were 9,739 tuberculosis cases over the study period. There was strong evidence for seasonality, with notifications being 24.1% higher in summer than winter (p<0.001. Winter dips in sunshine correlated with peaks in tuberculosis incidence six months later (4.7% increase in incidence for each 100 hours decrease in sunshine, p<0.001. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A potential mechanism for these associations includes decreased vitamin D levels with consequent impaired host defence arising from reduced sunshine exposure in winter. This is the longest time series of any published study and our use of statutory notifications means this data is essentially complete. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that another factor closely correlated with the seasons, other than sunshine, is responsible. Furthermore, exposure to sunlight depends not only on total hours of sunshine but also on multiple individual factors. Our results should therefore be considered hypothesis-generating. Confirmation of a potential causal relationship between winter vitamin D deficiency and summer peaks in tuberculosis incidence would require a randomized-controlled trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on future tuberculosis incidence.

  20. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  1. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  2. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  3. UK annuity rates and pension replacement ratios 1957-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Edmund; Tonks, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  4. Mechanisms by which a lack of germinal vesicle (GV) material causes oocyte meiotic defects: a study using oocytes manipulated to replace GV with primary spermatocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Li, Qing; Wang, Tian-Yang; Sui, Hong-Shu; Wang, Jun-Zuo; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-10-01

    Oocytes with germinal vesicles (GVs) replaced with somatic nuclei exhibit meiotic abnormalities. Although this suggests an exclusive role for GV material in meiosis, mechanisms by which a lack of GV material causes meiotic defects are unknown. Knowledge of these mechanisms will help us to understand meiotic control, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, and cellular reprogramming. This study showed that although oocytes with prometaphase I chromosomes replaced with primary spermatocyte nuclei (PSN) did not, oocytes with GV replaced with PSN (PSG oocytes) did display meiotic defects. Among the defects, insufficient chromosome condensation with chromosome bridges was associated with spindle abnormalities. Abnormal spindle migration, cortical nonpolarization, and the aberrant spindle caused randomly positioning of cleavage furrows, leading to large first polar bodies (PB1) and unequal allocation of chromosomes and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) between oocyte and PB1. Spindle assembly checkpoint was activated but did not stop the incorrect division. The unequal MAPK allocation resulted in differences in pronuclear formation and PB1 degeneration; oocytes receiving more MAPK were more capable of forming pronuclear rudiments, whereas PB1 receiving more MAPK degenerated sooner than those that received less. Because none of the PSG oocytes or the enucleated GV oocytes injected with sperm heads showed cortical polarization in spite of chromosome localization close to the oolemma and because the PSG oocytes receiving more MAPK could form only pronuclear rudiments and not normal pronuclei, we suggest that the GV material plays essential roles in polarization and pronuclear formation on top of those played by chromosomes or MAPK. In conclusion, using PSG oocytes as models, this study has revealed the primary pathways by which a lack of GV material cause meiotic defects, laying a foundation for future research on the role of GV material in oocyte meiotic control.

  5. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume III: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. The case studies which comprise this volume function as a brief organizational analysis of the Mulligan Stew effort at…

  6. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  7. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G; McNaughton, Candace D; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B; Talbot, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique) and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. During the baseline period, 321 of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate and sustained

  8. Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Edirisinghe Arachchige Ranga Iroshanie Edirisinghe; Perera, Ponnamperuma Aratchige Jayasumana; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Tilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela Bandara; Weerakoon, Kosala; Siriwardhana, Dunusingha Asitha Surandika

    2017-03-29

    Environmental toxin/s is alleged to be the contributory factor for the chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water. Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods. Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of perceptions of care, medical advice, and hospital quality on patient satisfaction after primary total knee replacement: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the number of patients presenting with osteoarthritis in the past decade has led to a 32% increase in knee replacement surgeries designed to reduce restrictions on patient movement and improve their quality of life. Patient satisfaction is becoming an increasingly important indicator of quality of care. This study was designed to identify predictors of various service components in the treatment process and hospital key performance indicators significantly associated with patient satisfaction. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted with 856 patients having their primary total knee replacements at 41 hospitals. Patient satisfaction was queried via a validated, multidimensional questionnaire mainly using a six-point scale. In addition to bivariate calculations, patient satisfaction was the dependent variable in a binary logistic regression model. The bivariate analysis showed a strong association between satisfaction and sex (male or female), the patients' health before admission, and the length of stay. The number of cases treated at each hospital did not reveal any impact on satisfaction. The multivariate analysis identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction. The strongest factor was the treatment outcome and the weakest was the quality of food. It became apparent that the statutory procedure minimums were not being met. The relevant factors influencing patient satisfaction were partially the same as previous study results and allowed more detailed conclusions. The results provide suggestions across hospitals that could help health care providers better meet needs of patients after knee arthroplasties.

  10. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Fu Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, on the other hand, may alter the original time series. In this study, we propose a novel forecasting method based on least squares support vector machine (LSSVM. We employ the input patterns with the temporal information which is defined as local time index (LTI. Time series data as well as local time indexes are fed to LSSVM for doing forecasting without imputation. We compare the forecasting performance of our method with other imputation methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising and is worth further investigations.

  11. Neutron monitors and muon detectors for solar modulation studies: 2. $\\phi$ time series

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelfi, A; Cheminet, A; Derome, L; Hubert, G; Melot, F

    2016-01-01

    The level of solar modulation at different times (related to the solar activity) is a central question of solar and galactic cosmic-ray physics. In the first paper of this series, we have established a correspondence between the uncertainties on ground-based detectors count rates and the parameter $\\phi$ (modulation level in the force-field approximation) reconstructed from these count rates. In this second paper, we detail a procedure to obtain a reference $\\phi$ time series from neutron monitor data. We show that we can have an unbiased and accurate $\\phi$ reconstruction ($\\Delta\\phi/\\phi\\simeq 10\\%$). We also discuss the potential of Bonner spheres spectrometers and muon detectors to provide $\\phi$ time series. Two by-products of this calculation are updated $\\phi$ values for the cosmic-ray database and a web interface to retrieve and plot $\\phi$ from the 50's to today (\\url{http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb}).

  12. Neutron monitors and muon detectors for solar modulation studies: 2. ϕ time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelfi, A.; Maurin, D.; Cheminet, A.; Derome, L.; Hubert, G.; Melot, F.

    2017-08-01

    The level of solar modulation at different times (related to the solar activity) is a central question of solar and galactic cosmic-ray physics. In the first paper of this series, we have established a correspondence between the uncertainties on ground-based detectors count rates and the parameter ϕ (modulation level in the force-field approximation) reconstructed from these count rates. In this second paper, we detail a procedure to obtain a reference ϕ time series from neutron monitor data. We show that we can have an unbiased and accurate ϕ reconstruction (Δϕ / ϕ ≃ 10 %). We also discuss the potential of Bonner spheres spectrometers and muon detectors to provide ϕ time series. Two by-products of this calculation are updated ϕ values for the cosmic-ray database and a web interface to retrieve and plot ϕ from the 50's to today (http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb).

  13. Systematic studies in Turnera (Turneraceae. IV. Series Leiocarpae, Conciliatae and Sessilifoliae ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE. IV. SERIES LEIOCARPAE, CONCILIATAE Y SESSILIFOLIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the revision of the series Leiocarpae Urb. is presented, and Turnera callosa Urb. is chosen as lectotype. This series has a distribution similar to that of the genus Turnera in America, most species living in the Chaquean biogeographical region. It has 55 species, the following taxa being new: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita, T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata, T. jobertii, T. luetzelburgii var. dubia, T. melochioides var. rugosa, T. paradoxa, T. patens, T. rosulata, T. vallsii, T. venezuelana and T. vicaria. Two new series are also proposed, Conciliatae Arbo for T. rubrobracteata Arbo, a species with an unusual combination of characters, which does not fit in any other series, and Sessilifoliae Arbo, including T. dichotomaand T. revoluta which were excluded from Series Capitatae; the comparative analysis with the members of Leiocarpae has demonstrated that they neither belong to the last series. Keys to identify the different series of the genus and keys for the species of each series treated are provided, as well as morphological descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps

    En este trabajo se presenta la revisión de la serie Leiocarpae Urb., seleccionándose a Turnera
    callosa Urb. como lectotypus. Esta serie tiene una distribución similar a la del género Turnera
    en América; presenta 55 especies, la mayoría de las cuales vive en la región biogeográfica
    Chaqueña. Son nuevos los siguientes taxones: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita,
    T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata,
    T. jobertii, T

  14. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints.

  15. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  16. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by on-line hemodiafiltration: a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Mitsugi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that a good survival rate of patients with acute liver failure can be achieved by establishing an artificial liver support system that reliably compensates liver function until the liver regenerates or a patient undergoes transplantation. We introduced a new artificial liver support system, on-line hemodiafiltration, in patients with acute liver failure. Methods This case series study was conducted from May 2001 to October 2008 at the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care academic medical center. Seventeen consecutive patients who admitted to our hospital presenting with acute liver failure were treated with artificial liver support including daily on-line hemodiafiltration and plasma exchange. Results After 4.9 ± 0.7 (mean ± SD on-line hemodiafiltration sessions, 16 of 17 (94.1% patients completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy and maintained consciousness for 16.4 ± 3.4 (7-55 days until discontinuation of artificial liver support (a total of 14.4 ± 2.6 [6-47] on-line hemodiafiltration sessions. Significant correlation was observed between the degree of encephalopathy and number of sessions of on-line HDF required for recovery of consciousness. Of the 16 patients who recovered consciousness, 7 fully recovered and returned to society with no cognitive sequelae, 3 died of complications of acute liver failure except brain edema, and the remaining 6 were candidates for liver transplantation; 2 of them received living-related liver transplantation but 4 died without transplantation after discontinuation of therapy. Conclusions On-line hemodiafiltration was effective in patients with acute liver failure, and consciousness was maintained for the duration of artificial liver support, even in those in whom it was considered that hepatic function was completely abolished.

  17. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE II. SERIES ANNULARES, CAPITATAE, PAPILLIFERAE AND MICROPHYLLAE ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE II. SERIES ANNULARES, CAPITATAE, MICROPHYLEAE Y PAPILLIFERAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Turnera L. includes around 100 American species and two African ones, arranged in nine series. In this paper, the following four series embracing 21 species are revised: Annulares, Capitatae, Microphyllae and Papilliferae. Six new taxa are described: Thatschbachii, Thatschbachii var. miniata, Tmaracasana,and T.princeps of the seriesCapitatae, Tasymmetrica of the series Microphyllae, and Tcaatingana of the series Papilliferae. The species of these four series share the common features of simple and glandular hairs, generally well-developed floral peduncle, absent pedicel, linear or elliptic prophylls, generally warty or granulate fruit, and a floral tube, appendicular in nature, in that it is the product of the fusion of the lower part of the calyx and corolla, with the staminal filaments adnate only at the base. In the series Annulares,
    Microphyllae and Papilliferae the leaves and young stems are fragrant, the scent being produced by the glandular hairs, and the floral peduncle is shortly adnate to the petiole. Three
    series, Annulares, Capitatae and Microphyllae, have leaves with generally well developed stipules and a disjunct geographical distribution. The series Annulares and Capitatae have nectaries and villous or hirsute styles, while Microphyllae and Papilliferae lack nectaries and their styles are glabrous or somewhat pilose. In some species of Microphyllae the staminal filaments are joined at the base, forming an annular structure 0,05-0,50 mm high. The seeds are peculiar in Annulares, being very short, with a central, prominent and slightly concave chalaza. In the series Capitatae, the flowers are gathered in short, capitate inflorescences, the length of the peduncles being variable or sometimes wanting, and the seeds are obovoid, reticulate or striate. The leaves of Microphyllae are small, with the stipules adnate to the foliar
    base; setiform glandular hairs, similar to those of

  19. 机械瓣膜置换术后的随访研究%A follow- up study of patients treated with mechanical valve replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓; 刘建华; 张航; 李轰

    2013-01-01

    目的:总结心脏瓣膜病机械瓣膜置换术后疗效,旨在评价心脏瓣膜置换手术的效果及手术后的中长期效果。方法选择本院2000年-2012年我院确诊的心脏瓣膜病患者300例,观察本组患者心脏瓣膜病机械瓣膜置换术后的临床疗效,术后并发症的原因以及发病例数。结果患者的手术之后心功能随访显示,患者心功能与血液动力学出现了很大的改善,并且,大部分患者的劳动能力得到了很大的改善,生活的质量出现了明显的提高。结论我院心脏瓣膜病机械瓣膜置换手术预后整体效果较好,手术的死亡率是可以接受的,和国内的比较并无明显的差别,大部分的患者在手术之后的心功能和生活的质量得到了明显的改善。%Objective To investigate the postoperative efficacy of mechanical valve replacement in the treatment of valvular heart disease and to evaluate the middle- and long-term outcomes of patients treated with heart valve replacement. Method A total of 300 patients diagnosed with valvular heart disease in our hospital from 2000 to 2012 were included in the study. The clinical efficacy of mechanical valve replacement, causes of postoperative complications, and number of cases of complications were evaluated. Results Postoperative follow-up of cardiac function showed that the treated patients showed substantial improvements in cardiac function and hemodynamics and that most patients had greatly increased ability to work and significantly improved quality of life (QOL). ConclusionOverall, the patients with valvular heart disease have good outcomes after mechanical valve replacement in our hospital, and the operative mortality is acceptable, with no significant difference compared with the national level; most patients have significantly improved cardiac function and QOL after the operation.

  20. Decline in Health-Related Quality of Life reported by more than half of those waiting for joint replacement surgery: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Richard H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many healthcare systems, people with severe joint disease wait months to years for joint replacement surgery. There are little empirical data on the health consequences of this delay and it is unclear whether people with substantial morbidity at entry to the waiting list continue to deteriorate further while awaiting surgery. This study investigated changes in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL, health status and psychological distress among people waiting for total hip (THR and knee replacement (TKR surgery at a major metropolitan Australian public hospital. Methods 134 patients completed questionnaires including the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL instrument, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale after entering an orthopaedic waiting list (baseline and before surgery (preadmission. To quantify potential decline in wellbeing, we calculated the proportion of people experiencing clinically important deterioration using published guidelines and compared HRQoL and psychological distress outcomes with population norms. Results Most participants (69% waited ≥6 months for surgery (median 286 days, IQR 169-375 days. Despite poor physical and psychological wellbeing at baseline, there was an overall deterioration in HRQoL during the waiting period (mean AQoL change -0.04, 95%CI -0.08 to -0.01, with 53% of participants experiencing decline in HRQoL (≥0.04 AQoL units. HRQoL prior to surgery remained substantially lower than Australian population norms (mean sample AQoL 0.37, 95%CI 0.33 to 0.42 vs mean population AQoL 0.83, 95%CI 0.82 to 0.84. Twenty-five per cent of participants showed decline in health status (≥9.6 WOMAC units over the waiting period and prevalence of high psychological distress remained high at preadmission (RR 3.5, 95%CI 2.8 to 4.5. Most participants considered their pain (84%, fatigue (76%, quality of life (73% and confidence

  1. Project Management Series Case Study: The Office of Registration and Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of eight articles on project management (PM) in the academy. In this article, the authors describe the step-by-step implementation of a structural change to Indiana State University's (ISU's) Office of Registration and Records (ORR). The process described may vary as it is implemented elsewhere, but the authors…

  2. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  3. Measuring Economic Impact through Adoption: A Study of the Multi-County New Landowners Educational Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Philip; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dozier, Monty; Ripley, Jeff; Lockett, Landry

    2017-01-01

    The Multi-County New Landowners Educational Series is an Extension education program offered in Austin, Colorado, Fayette, and Washington Counties in Texas. We sent an online survey to past participants of the program (those who participated between 2006 and 2010; N = 162). Findings revealed significant adoption of several best management…

  4. Project Management Series Case Study: The Office of Registration and Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of eight articles on project management (PM) in the academy. In this article, the authors describe the step-by-step implementation of a structural change to Indiana State University's (ISU's) Office of Registration and Records (ORR). The process described may vary as it is implemented elsewhere, but the authors…

  5. A scalable database model for multiparametric time series: a volcano observatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Placido; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Prestifilippo, Michele; Cannata, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The variables collected by a sensor network constitute a heterogeneous data source that needs to be properly organized in order to be used in research and geophysical monitoring. With the time series term we refer to a set of observations of a given phenomenon acquired sequentially in time. When the time intervals are equally spaced one speaks of period or sampling frequency. Our work describes in detail a possible methodology for storage and management of time series using a specific data structure. We designed a framework, hereinafter called TSDSystem (Time Series Database System), in order to acquire time series from different data sources and standardize them within a relational database. The operation of standardization provides the ability to perform operations, such as query and visualization, of many measures synchronizing them using a common time scale. The proposed architecture follows a multiple layer paradigm (Loaders layer, Database layer and Business Logic layer). Each layer is specialized in performing particular operations for the reorganization and archiving of data from different sources such as ASCII, Excel, ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity), file accessible from the Internet (web pages, XML). In particular, the loader layer performs a security check of the working status of each running software through an heartbeat system, in order to automate the discovery of acquisition issues and other warning conditions. Although our system has to manage huge amounts of data, performance is guaranteed by using a smart partitioning table strategy, that keeps balanced the percentage of data stored in each database table. TSDSystem also contains modules for the visualization of acquired data, that provide the possibility to query different time series on a specified time range, or follow the realtime signal acquisition, according to a data access policy from the users.

  6. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T; Nikolic-Djoric, Emilija; Arsenic, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We have considered background of the Kolmogorov complexity and also we have discussed meaning of the physical as well as other complexities. To get better insights into the complexity of complex systems and time series analysis we have introduced the three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii) the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied on different time series originating from: the model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system), four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose) and economy (stock prices dynamics). Re...

  7. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  8. Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the…

  9. A Paradigm for Single-Case Research: The Time Series Study of a Long-Term Psychotherapy for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Enrico E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Study articulates model for single-case research in psychotherapy. Saw patient with major depressive disorder for 2.5 years of psychotherapy. Videotaped sessions and obtained assessments of change at regular intervals. Used time-series analysis to model fluctuations in therapy process. Bidirectional analysis of causal effects showed that influence…

  10. Synthesis of new series of 4, 5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives for the study of their liquid crystalline properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUMANA Y KOTIAN; NARAYANA U KUDVA N; K M LOKANATHA RAI; K BYRAPPA

    2016-07-01

    A new series of 4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized via [3+2] cycloaddition reaction between ethyl acrylate and nitrile oxide generated in situ in presence of Chloramine-T. The synthesized derivatives were characterized by Mass, IR and NMR Spectroscopy and their mesomorphic behavior were studied using DSC and Polarising Optical Microscopy.

  11. Advantages of the Multiple Case Series Approach to the Study of Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towgood, Karren J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Turner, Martha S.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    In the neuropsychological case series approach, tasks are administered that tap different cognitive domains, and differences within rather than across individuals are the basis for theorising; each individual is effectively their own control. This approach is a mainstay of cognitive neuropsychology, and is particularly suited to the study of…

  12. Do pollution time-series studies contain uncontrolled or residual confounding by risk factors for acute health events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John

    2008-07-01

    Acute health effects from air pollution are based largely on weak associations identified in time-series studies comparing daily air pollution levels to daily mortality. Much of this mortality is due to cardiovascular disease. Time-series studies have many potential limitations, but are not thought to be confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking status or hypertension) because these chronic risk factors are not obviously associated with daily pollution levels. However, acute psychobehavioral variants of these risk factors (e.g., smoking patterns and episodes of stress on any given day) are plausible confounders for the associations observed in time-series studies, given that time-series studies attempt to predict acute rather than chronic health outcomes. There is a fairly compelling literature on the strong link between cardiovascular events and daily "triggers" such as stress. Stress-related triggers are plausibly associated with daily pollution levels through surrogate stressors such as ambient temperature, daily workload, local traffic congestion, or other correlates of air pollution. For example, variables such as traffic congestion and industrial activity increase both stress-related health events and air pollution, suggesting the potential for classical confounding. Support for this argument is illustrated through examples of the well-demonstrated relationship between emotional stress and heart attack/stroke.

  13. Single Restorations in the Resorbed Posterior Mandible Supported by 6-mm Implants : A 1-Year Prospective Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix L.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this prospective case series study was to assess the clinical performance of single restorations in the posterior mandible supported by 6-mm implants. Materials and MethodsTwenty-one consecutive patients with one or more missing premolars or molars in the posterior mandible and wit

  14. Time-series studies of drainage pattern and morphological features along the Leitha river (Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Draganits, E.; Doneus, M.; Fera, M.; Griebl, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geomorphologic mapping and drainage network analysis was conducted in the Southern Vienna Basin on the Leitha and Fischa rivers. The study area belongs to an active pull-apart basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians that started to subside in Karpatian times (~ 17 Ma), but with still active faults, proven by fault scarps and earth quakes. The investigated rivers are important tributaries to the Danube river and run through a region that has been subject to settlement since Neoltihic times. Thus, interaction between land use, settlement pattern and river dynamics can be studied. Several datasets are integrated to perform a comprehensive overview of geomorphological, as well as river dynamic changes in the landscape. During an earlier stage of this investigation a map of paleochannel distribution including the location and shape of the paleochannels was extracted from color-infrared and RGB digital orthophotos. Based on this map the location, character and shape of palaeomeanders is studied on different georeferenced historic maps (Timár et al., 2006; Biszak et al., 2007) in order to derive a time-series study. The paleochannels extracted from the digital orthophotos show a good coincidence with the depicted rivers on the historic maps. This partly allows quite well constrained age estimates of the paleochannel sections. The investigated maps are the Walter maps, the First, Second and Third Military Survey of the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mapping of the Walter maps was conducted 1754-56 (Ulbrich, 1952), the First, Second and Third Military Surveys were mapped in this area in the time-span of 1782-1785, 1819-1869, and 1872-1873, respectively (Kretschmer et al., 2004). This sequence of georeferenced historical maps allows to study only a very short time-span (1755 - 1873) compared to the geological time scale. However, the characteristics of river dynamics special for the study area can be derived and, considering certain assumptions, extrapolated

  15. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  16. Evaluation of some in vitro tests to reduce and replace the sub-acute animal toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Rajendra S; Ress, Nancy B; Harbell, John W; Curren, Rodger D

    2004-06-01

    The toxicologic and carcinogenic potential of chemicals is usually determined through a sequence of acute, sub-acute (14-day), sub-chronic (90-day) and chronic (two-year) studies in rats and mice of both sexes. The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) does not conduct acute toxicity studies. Dose levels for 14-day toxicity studies are typically estimated from information in the literature, if available. The toxicology information obtained from 14-day studies is used in the selection of doses for 90-day studies. The protocol for 14-day studies consists of five doses and control groups and five animals per group of each sex and species, resulting in the use of 120 animals per study. At present, in addition to refining the current testing protocols, the NTP is evaluating the potential for in vitro test methods to partially or completely avoid the need for 14-day toxicity studies, especially for chemicals where the dermal route of exposure is used. The in vitro assays used were the EpiDerm bioassay to estimate dermal irritation, the neutral red uptake (NRU) bioassay to estimate systemic toxicity and the primary rat hepatocyte cytotoxicity (PRHC) assay to estimate hepatotoxicity. The purpose of using these assays was to assess their potential for predicting relative in vivo toxicity and to support dose selection decisions for 90-day studies. In general, based on these limited number of studies, the EpiDerm and NRU tests were predictive of the responses observed in in vivo studies. However, a larger comparative database is needed to derive definitive conclusions regarding the value of in vitro tests in the prediction of in vivo effects.

  17. Effect of estrogen replacement therapy on symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-depressive menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, Frederico Navas; Rennó, Joel; Gianfaldoni, Arlete; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Halbe, Hans Wolfgang; Filho, Antônio Hélio Guerra V; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for mood disturbances associated with menopause has yet to be firmly established. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ERT for improving mood and anxiety of non-depressive postmenopausal women. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved two treatment groups: one receiving conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs; 0.625 mg/day) and the other placebo, for six cycles of 28 days each. Subjects were hysterectomized, healthy, non-depressive (according to Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Life Time Version [SADS-L]) women. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), respectively. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and other scales were used to characterize symptoms. In both groups, BDI scores were significantly lower at cycles 1, 2, 3, and 6, compared with baseline assessments (pwomen.

  18. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  19. Sample correlations of infinite variance time series models: an empirical and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cohen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When the elements of a stationary ergodic time series have finite variance the sample correlation function converges (with probability 1 to the theoretical correlation function. What happens in the case where the variance is infinite? In certain cases, the sample correlation function converges in probability to a constant, but not always. If within a class of heavy tailed time series the sample correlation functions do not converge to a constant, then more care must be taken in making inferences and in model selection on the basis of sample autocorrelations. We experimented with simulating various heavy tailed stationary sequences in an attempt to understand what causes the sample correlation function to converge or not to converge to a constant. In two new cases, namely the sum of two independent moving averages and a random permutation scheme, we are able to provide theoretical explanations for a random limit of the sample autocorrelation function as the sample grows.

  20. Future mission studies: Forecasting solar flux directly from its chaotic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The mathematical structure of the programs written to construct a nonlinear predictive model to forecast solar flux directly from its time series without reference to any underlying solar physics is presented. This method and the programs are written so that one could apply the same technique to forecast other chaotic time series, such as geomagnetic data, attitude and orbit data, and even financial indexes and stock market data. Perhaps the most important application of this technique to flight dynamics is to model Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) output of residues between observed position of spacecraft and calculated position with no drag (drag flag = off). This would result in a new model of drag working directly from observed data.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR (TCR AND GTO CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR (GCSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI AGRAWAL,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the simulation of Thyristor controlled reactor (TCR and GTO Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC, equipment for controlled series compensation of transmission systems. The paper alsopresents experimental results of a TCR and GCSC connected to a single-phase system. The experiments are carried out in the FACTS lab of electrical engineering department. The TCR system is simulated using MATLAB and the simulation results are presented. The power and control circuits are simulated. The current drawn by the TCR varies with the variation in the firing angle. Stepped variation of current can be obtained using thyristor switched reactor. The simulation results are compared with the theoretical and practical results.Harmonics and its impact on the system are presented. This paper also presents the GCSC, its main components, principal of operation, typical waveforms and main applications. Duality of the GCSC with the well known thyristor controlled reactor is also discussed in this paper.

  2. Generating Hourly Rainfall Model using Bayesian Time Series Model (A Case Study at Sentral Station, Bondowoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entin Hidayah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation of hourly rainfall data is very important to fulfil the input of continual rainfall-runoff model, when the availability of automatic rainfall records are limited. Continual rainfall-runoff modeling requires rainfall data in form of series of hourly. Such specification can be obtained by temporal disaggregation in single site. The paper attempts to generate single-site rainfall model based upon time series (AR1 model by adjusting and establishing dummy procedure. Estimated with Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC the objective variable is hourly rainfall depth. Performance of model has been evaluated by comparison of history data and model prediction. The result shows that the model has a good performance for dry interval periods. The performance of the model good represented by smaller number of MAE by 0.21 respectively.

  3. A prospective randomised study comparing the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing for total hip and knee replacements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-08-01

    It is important to reduce potential wound complications in total hip and total knee arthroplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing.

  4. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  5. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  6. What's in a Name? The Incorrect Use of Case Series as a Study Design Label in Studies Involving Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Cullen, J N; Makielski, K M; Jones-Bitton, A

    2017-07-01

    Study design labels are used to identify relevant literature to address specific clinical and research questions and to aid in evaluating the evidentiary value of research. Evidence from the human healthcare literature indicates that the label "case series" may be used inconsistently and inappropriately. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of studies in the canine and feline veterinary literature labeled as case series that actually corresponded to descriptive cohort studies, population-based cohort studies, or other study designs. Our secondary objective was to identify the proportion of case series in which potentially inappropriate inferential statements were made. Descriptive evaluation of published literature. One-hundred published studies (from 19 journals) labeled as case series. Studies were identified by a structured literature search, with random selection of 100 studies from the relevant citations. Two reviewers independently characterized each study, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Of the 100 studies, 16 were case series. The remaining studies were descriptive cohort studies (35), population-based cohort studies (36), or other observational or experimental study designs (13). Almost half (48.8%) of the case series or descriptive cohort studies, with no control group and no formal statistical analysis, included inferential statements about the efficacy of treatment or statistical significance of potential risk factors. Authors, peer-reviewers, and editors should carefully consider the design elements of a study to accurately identify and label the study design. Doing so will facilitate an understanding of the evidentiary value of the results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Comparative study of NSB and UTB SOI MOSFETs characteristics by extraction of series resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsenty, A.; Chelly, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of two kinds of n-type SOI-MOSFETs are analyzed and compared in order to build a consistent model. The first kind is an Ultra-Thin Body (UTB) device for which the channel thickness is equal to the initial SOI wafer thickness value (here 46 nm). The second kind is what we refer to Nano-Scale Body (NSB) device for which the initial SOI channel is thinned down to 1.6 nm using a recessed-gate process. The drain current values were found surprisingly different by three orders of magnitude. Such a huge contrast was not found coherent with the literature, reporting the decrease of the electron mobility with the channel thickness. We interpret our result by the probable influence of an extreme drain-to-source series resistance rather than by vanishing carrier mobility. The interpretation is sustained experimentally by the Rm-L and C-V methods. By integrating a gate-voltage dependence to the series resistance, the linear and saturation regions of the output characteristics of the NSB can be analytically derived from the UTB ones. This simple modeling approach may be useful to interpret anomalous electrical behavior of other nano-devices in which series resistance is of a great concern.

  8. Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)

    2011-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...

  9. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  10. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  11. Phase II study results of a replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema with subcutaneous C1‐inhibitor concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Zuraw, B L; Cicardi, M; Longhurst, H. J.; Bernstein, J.A.; Li, H H; Magerl, M.; Martinez‐Saguer, I.; Rehman, S. M. M.; P. Staubach; Feuersenger, H; Parasrampuria, R.; Sidhu, J; Edelman, J; Craig, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent swelling attacks that can be disabling and sometimes fatal. Long‐term prophylaxis with twice‐weekly intravenous injections of plasma‐derived C1‐inhibitor (pdC1‐INH) has been established as an effective treatment. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of pdC1‐INH has not been studied in patients with HAE. Methods This open‐label, dose‐ranging, crossover study (COMPACT Phase II) was conducted in 18 ...

  12. Use of the self-controlled case-series method in vaccine safety studies: review and recommendations for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Y G; Whitaker, H J; Farrington, C P

    2011-12-01

    The self-controlled case-series method was originally developed to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, and is now commonly used for this purpose. This study reviews applications of the method to vaccine safety investigations in the period 1995-2010. In total, 40 studies were reviewed. The application of the self-controlled case-series method in these studies is critically examined, with particular reference to the definition of observation and risk periods, control of confounders, assumptions and potential biases, methodological and presentation issues, power and sample size, and software. Comparisons with other study designs undertaken in the papers reviewed are also highlighted. Some recommendations are presented, with the emphasis on promoting good practice.

  13. A Simulation Study of an ASEAN Monetary Union (Replaced by CentER DP 2011-098)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldea, O.; Engwerda, J.C.; Michalak, T.; Plasmans, J.E.J.; Salmah, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the pros and cons of a monetary union for the ASEAN1 countries, excluding Myanmar. We estimate a stylized open-economy dynamic general equilibrium model for the ASEAN countries. Using the framework of linear quadratic differential games, we contrast the potential gains or losses

  14. Severity of diabetes mellitus and risk of total hip or knee replacement: A population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Johannes T H; Van Den Bemt, B.; Lalmohamed, Arief; De Boer, A.; Boonen, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Emans, P.; De Vries, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is generally thought that people with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more likely to suffer from OA due to an increased Body Mass Index (BMI), resulting in the mechanical destruction of cartilage. However, previous studies have shown that DM could also be an independent risk factor for OA,

  15. Use of Renal Replacement Therapy May Influence Graft Outcomes following Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure: A Propensity-Score Matched Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Knight

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury is associated with a poor prognosis in acute liver failure but little is known of outcomes in patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure who require renal replacement therapy.A retrospective analysis of the United Kingdom Transplant Registry was performed (1 January 2001-31 December 2011 with patient and graft survival determined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were used together with propensity-score based full matching on renal replacement therapy use.Three-year patient and graft survival for patients receiving renal replacement therapy were 77.7% and 72.6% compared with 85.1% and 79.4% for those not requiring renal replacement therapy (P<0.001 and P = 0.009 respectively, n = 725. In a Cox proportional hazards model, renal replacement therapy was a predictor of both patient death (hazard ratio (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50, P = 0.044 but not graft loss (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10, P = 0.114. In groups fully matched on baseline covariates, those not receiving renal replacement therapy with a serum creatinine greater than 175 μmol/L had a significantly worse risk of graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy.In patients being transplanted for acute liver failure, use of renal replacement therapy is a strong predictor of patient death and graft loss. Those not receiving renal replacement therapy with an elevated serum creatinine may be at greater risk of early graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy. A low threshold for instituting renal replacement therapy may therefore be beneficial.

  16. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process

  17. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  18. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  19. Kinetics of methane-ethane gas replacement in clathrate-hydrates studied by time-resolved neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, M Mangir; Schmidt, Burkhard C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2010-01-14

    The kinetics of CH(4)-C(2)H(6) replacement in gas hydrates has been studied by in situ neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Deuterated ethane structure type I (C(2)H(6) sI) hydrates were transformed in a closed volume into methane-ethane mixed structure type II (CH(4)-C(2)H(6) sII) hydrates at 5 MPa and various temperatures in the vicinity of 0 degrees C while followed by time-resolved neutron powder diffraction on D20 at ILL, Grenoble. The role of available surface area of the sI starting material on the formation kinetics of sII hydrates was studied. Ex situ Raman spectroscopic investigations were carried out to crosscheck the gas composition and the distribution of the gas species over the cages as a function of structure type and compared to the in situ neutron results. Raman micromapping on single hydrate grains showed compositional and structural gradients between the surface and core of the transformed hydrates. Moreover, the observed methane-ethane ratio is very far from the one expected for a formation from a constantly equilibrated gas phase. The results also prove that gas replacement in CH(4)-C(2)H(6) hydrates is a regrowth process involving the nucleation of new crystallites commencing at the surface of the parent C(2)H(6) sI hydrate with a progressively shrinking core of unreacted material. The time-resolved neutron diffraction results clearly indicate an increasing diffusion limitation of the exchange process. This diffusion limitation leads to a progressive slowing down of the exchange reaction and is likely to be responsible for the incomplete exchange of the gases.

  20. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation--a case study using triplex-forming LNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Sujay P; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (K(eq)) and association/dissociation rate constants (k(on) and k(off)). The 'fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement' (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson-Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine.

  1. Association Between Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Incidence of DVT and Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Veterans Administration Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Oni, Olurinde A; Chen, Guoqing; Sharma, Mukut; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Sharma, Ram; Parashara, Deepak; Savin, Virginia J; Barua, Rajat S; Gupta, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) prescriptions have increased several-fold in the last decade. There have been concerns regarding a possible increased incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) with TRT. Few data support the association between TRT and DVT/PE. We evaluated the incidence of DVT and PE in men who were prescribed TRT for low serum total testosterone (sTT) levels. This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted using data obtained from the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure. We compared the incidence of DVT/PE between those who received TRT and subsequently had normal on-treatment sTT levels (Gp1), those who received TRT but continued to have low on-treatment sTT (Gp2), and those who did not receive TRT (Gp3). Those with prior history of DVT/PE, cancer, hypercoagulable state, and chronic anticoagulation were excluded. The final cohort consisted of 71,407 subjects with low baseline sTT. Of these, 10,854 did not receive TRT (Gp3) and 60,553 received TRT. Of those who received TRT, 38,362 achieved normal sTT (Gp1) while 22,191 continued to have low sTT (Gp2). The incidence of DVT/PE was 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.4% in Gp1, Gp2, and Gp3, respectively. Univariate, multivariate, and stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights analyses showed no statistically significant difference in DVT/PE-free survival between the various groups. This study did not detect a significant association between testosterone replacement therapy and risk of DVT/PE in adult men with low sTT who were at low to moderate baseline risk of DVT/PE. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  2. Modality of wound closure after total knee replacement: are staples as safe as sutures? A retrospective study of 181 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerberg E Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site wound closure plays a vital role in post-operative success. This effect is magnified in regard to commonly performed elective procedures such as total knee arthroplasty. The use of either sutures or staples for skin re-approximation remains a contested subject, which may have a significant impact on both patient safety and surgical outcome. The literature remains divided on this topic. Methods Two cohorts of patients at a level one trauma and regional referral center were reviewed. Cohorts consisted of consecutive total knee arthroplasties performed by two surgeons who achieved surgical wound re-approximation by either staples or absorbable subcuticular sutures. Outcome variables included time of surgery, wound dehiscence, surgical site infection per Center for Disease Control criteria and repeat procedures for debridement and re-closure. Results 181 patients qualified for study inclusion. Staples were employed in 82 cases (45.3% of total and sutures in 99 cases (54.7%. The staples group had no complications while the sutures group had 9 (9.1%. These consisted of: 4 infections (2 superficial, one deep, one organ/space; three patients required re-suturing for dehiscence; one allergic type reaction to suture material; and one gout flare resulting in dehiscence. The mean surgical time with sutures was 122.3 minutes (sd = 33.4 and with staples was 114 minutes (sd = 24.4. Conclusion This study demonstrated significantly fewer complications with staple use than with suture use. While all complications found in this study cannot be directly attributed to skin re-approximation method, the need for further prospective, randomized trials is established.

  3. The Effect of Patellar Denervation by Circumpatellar Electrocautery on Anterior Knee Pain Following Total Knee Replacement – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Zacharia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES Anterior knee pain is a common problem in patients who have undergone TKR which causes dissatisfaction among them. There are Various methods for prevention of anterior knee pain following TKR .The  objective of this study is to determine the  effect of circumpatellar electrocautery on anterior knee pain following TKR and to compare the results with that of those patients who have undergone TKR without circumpatellar denervation. METHODS This is a cohort study conducted in Dept. of Orthopedics, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode,kerala, 2014. Total sample size was 90.out of which 2 patients died during the study period. We lost follow up of 7 patients.  Among the remaining 81 patients 42 had undergone TKR with circumpatellar denervation using electocautery and 39 without circumpatellar denervation. They were kept under follow up. Patients were followed up postoperatively at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and at one year. At all postoperative visits, a clinical score was determined using the Knee Society score and the clinical anterior knee pain rating system described by Waters and Bentley RESULTS There is no statistically significant difference in AKP score between both groups.There is a statistically significant difference in the knee society score at 1st month(p value <.001.  But there is no difference on further follow up visits . CONCLUSION There is no statistically significant difference between final outcome of patients who underwent patella denervation using circumpatellar electrocauterisation and those without denervation  with respect to anterior knee pain among patients who have undergone TKR.

  4. Relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programme during total hip or knee replacement. A grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    was collected between 2010 and 2011 in the orthopaedic wards of two Copenhagen university hospitals, and guided by theoretical sampling. Study I: Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. Data consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 post-observational interviews, and five formal...... interviews. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives’ pattern of behaviour, through which they resolved their main concern; preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting mode, by providing loving...

  5. Comparative study of anterolateral approach versus posterior approach for total hip replacement in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; GU Gui-shan; LI Dan; SUN Da-hui; ZHANG Wei; WANG Tie-jun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical outcome of anterolateral minimally invasive approach versus conventional posterior approach for total hip replacement against femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.Methods: The retrospective study was carried out on 42 patients who suffered from displaced femoral neck fractures (19 cases of Garden type Ⅲ, 23 cases of Garden type Ⅳ) treated by total hip replacement via anterolateral minimally invasive approach or conventional posterior approach by the same experienced surgeon. The average age of the patients was 78.1 years (range: 65-89 years). They were divided into anterolateral mini-invasive group (22 cases) and posterior group (20 cases). The mean time of follow-up was 13 months (range: 6-36 months). The anterolateral approach described by Hardinge goes through between anterior 1/3 and posterior 2/3 of the gluteus medius muscle, reaching the femoral neck from anterior capsule. The traditional posterior approach described by Moore (Southern incision) goes through the insertions of short external rotation muscles,reaching the femoral neck from posterior capsule. The related variables under observation were length of incision,operation time, postoperative limp, length of hospital stay and bed stay and dislolcation rate.Results: The length of the skin incision varied between 7 cm and 12 cm with the anterolateral minimally invasive technique, compared to 15-22 cm in the conventional procedure. It took less time (average 15 minutes) to complete the anterolateral minimally invasive approach (72 min±15 min), compared with the conventional approach (87 min±10 min). The average Harris hip score was 91.23±10.20 inanterolateral approach, 90.03±11.05 in the posterior approach. The average length of hospital stay for patients with the anterolateral approach was (6.4±2.2) days (range:4-9 days), while that in posterior approach was (9.2 ±3.1)days (range: 6-13 days). The average length of bed stay was (3.4±1.1) days (range: 2

  6. Study on common seasonal signals in GPS time series and environmental loadings using Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczynska, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Analysis to determine common seasonal signals in two case studies with adopted a 3-years lag-window as the optimal window size. We also inferred the statistical significance of oscillations through the Monte Carlo MSSA method (Allen and Robertson, 1996). In the first case study, we investigated the common spatio-temporal seasonal signals for all stations. For this purpose, we divided selected stations with respect to the continents. For instance, for stations located in Europe, seasonal oscillations accounts for approximately 45% of the GPS-derived data variance. Much higher variance of seasonal signals is explained by hydrological loadings of about 92%, while the non-tidal oceanic loading accounted for 31% of total variance. In the second case study, we analysed the capability of the MSSA method to establish a causality between several time series. Each of estimated Principal Component represents pattern of the common signal for all analysed data. For ZIMM station (Zimmerwald, Switzerland), the 1st, 2nd and 9th, 10th Principal Components, which accounts for 35% of the variance, corresponds to the annual and semi-annual signals. In this part, we applied the non-parametric MSSA approach to extract the common seasonal signals for GPS time series and environmental loadings for each of the 250 stations with clear statement, that some part of seasonal signal reflects the real geophysical effects. REFERENCES: 1. Allen, M. and Robertson, A.: 1996, Distinguishing modulated oscillations from coloured noise in multivariate datasets. Climate Dynamics, 12, No. 11, 775-784. DOI: 10.1007/s003820050142. 2. Dong, D., Fang, P., Bock, Y., Cheng, M.K. and Miyazaki, S.: 2002, Anatomy of apparent seasonal variations from GPS-derived site position time series. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, No. B4, 2075. DOI: 10.1029/2001JB000573. 3. Rebischung, P., Altamimi, Z., Ray, J. and Garayt, B.: 2016, The IGS contribution to ITRF2014. Journal of Geodesy, 90, No. 7, 611-630. DOI:10.1007/s00190-016-0897-6.

  7. Lightweight concrete with Algerian limestone dust: Part I: Study on 30% replacement to normal aggregate at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kitouni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical characteristics of the lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC strongly depend on the proportions of aggregates in the formulation. In particular, because of their strong porosity, the lightweight aggregates are much more deformable than the cementations matrix and their influence on concrete strength is complex. This paper focuses on studying the physical performance of concrete formulated with substitution of 30% of coarse aggregates by limestone dust. In this article an attempt is made to provide information on the elastic properties of lightweight concrete (LWC from tests carried out under uniaxial compression conditions. The results of Young modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive and flexural tensile strength tests on concrete are presented. The concretes obtained present good mechanical performances reaching 34.99 MPa compressive strength, 6.39 MPa flexural tensile strength and in front of 36 MPa Young modulus.

  8. A Study on the Artemis Fowl Series in the Context of Publishing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Lindve, Katarina

    2007-01-01

    A close reading of a series of books by Eoin Colfer that enjoyed universal success showed a change in the language between the books especially with respect to minor linguistic features such as choice of location and abstract vs. concrete language. The books are about the boy Artemis Fowl, and were presumably conceived as children’s books. My original thesis was that the writer could not be sure of the success of the first book, but would definitely be aware of a worldwide audience for at lea...

  9. [Intrafemoral pressure measurement in different cement removal procedures during hip prosthesis replacement operations--experimental study with cadaver femora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, M; Schmidt, J; Brimmers, P; Menne, A; Merkle, W

    1998-03-01

    During primary hip arthroplasty an increase in intramedullary pressure (IMP) of up to 1000 mm Hg can be observed. As a result of this increased intrafemoral pressure, intramedullary constituents can pass into the venous circulation creating a risk of fat embolism syndrome (FES). In the present experimental study on 9 femora obtained from human corpses, we investigated the question as to whether various methods of cement removal during total hip revision arthroplasty are also associated with increased intramedullary pressure and a risk of FES. The IMP was recorded with a standardized experimental set-up during removal of cement from the proximal and distal regions, including removal of the cement "tip" and the intramedullary plug. The methods employed for this purpose included the osteotome and mallet, a compressed air powered chisel, and a modified intracorporal lithotripter. All the methods induced fluctuations in the IMP the highest values being recorded for the conventional method using the osteotome and mallet (45 mm Hg) and the lowest values for the intracorporeal lithotripter (7.5 mm Hg). Working on the distal cement caused higher fluctuations in comparison with the proximal region. The study failed to reveal any increase in mean IMP, and all measured values were in the low pressure range (considerably below 150 mm Hg). While there seems to be no apparent risk of an FES developing during removal of cement, careless manipulation of the distal cement plug may result in higher intrafemoral pressures--above 150 mm Hg--thus increasing the risk of a fat embolism syndrome.

  10. Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-Week Cumulative Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Tao; Shin, Yu Seob; Kim, Ji Yong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated if testosterone undecanoate attenuates anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism. A registry study consisted of 58 participants with a subnormal total testosterone level (less than 2.35 ng/ml) and at least mild symptoms of testosterone deficiency. All patients received an injection of 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate at the initial visit, followed by injection at 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. Serum hormones, hemoglobin, hematocrit, anemia risk factors, lipid profiles, whole blood viscosity and anthropometry were measured. Total testosterone (from mean ± SD 1.87 ± 1.09 to 5.52 ± 1.92 ng/ml, p testosterone (from 3.04 ± 2.03 to 7.23 ± 2.90 pg/ml, p testosterone undecanoate therapy. Hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased after testosterone undecanoate therapy by an average of 2.46 gm/dl (p testosterone undecanoate therapy (p = 0.047). A reduction in total cholesterol (from 165.89 ± 39.16 to 153.80 ± 154.27 mg/dl, p = 0.002), increased whole blood viscosity and increased hematocrit were observed until 54 weeks compared with baseline. However, whole blood viscosity and hematocrit stabilized after 18 weeks. After 54 weeks testosterone undecanoate decreased the prevalence of anemia and components of the metabolic syndrome. A longer duration of testosterone undecanoate therapy of more than 18 weeks may be effective and safe in reducing blood viscosity and improving anemia. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on Punching Shear Resistance of Two Way Slab Specimens with Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS with Different Edge Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Ravi Dakshina Murthy; Rao, M. V. S.; Grandhe, Veera Venkata Satya Naranyana

    2016-09-01

    The present work is an effort to quantify the punching shear load resistance effect on two way simply supported slab specimens with replacement of cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) with different edge conditions at various replacement levels and evaluate its efficiency. GGBS replacement has emerged as a major alternative to conventional concrete and has rapidly drawn the concrete industry attention due to its cement savings, cost savings, environmental and socio-economic benefits. The two way slab specimens were subjected to punching shear load by in house fabricated apparatus. The slab specimens were cast using M30 grade concrete with HYSD bars. The cement was partially replaced with GGBS at different percentages i.e., 0 to 30 % at regular intervals of 10 %. The test results indicate that the two way slab specimens with partial replacement of cement by GGBS exhibit high resistance against punching shear when compared with conventional concretes slab specimens.

  12. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Für die Unterrichtsgestaltung zur Einführung der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion stehen unterschiedliche Lernmethoden zur Verfügung. Diese Lernmethoden sollen dabei helfen, das Unterrichtsthema zu strukturieren und zu bewältigen. Der Einsatz eines Videofilms ist, durch die realen Darstellungsmöglichkeiten der praktischen Demonstration, eine Alternative zum konventionellen Unterricht. Ziel: Mit der vorliegenden Studie wird vergleichend untersucht, welche Vermittlungsform effektiver für das Erlernen und Anwenden der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion von Medizinstudenten im 1. Studienjahr ist: videobasierte Instruktion oder konventioneller Unterricht.Methodik: Insgesamt wurden 50 Medizinstudierende im 1. Studienjahr per Zufall entweder der Lerngruppe „konventionelle Instruktion“ (KI) oder der Lerngruppe „videobasierte Instruktion“ (VI) zugeordnet. Die konventionelle Instruktion erfolgte durch einen erfahrenen Nurse Preceptors/Nurse Educators für den Operationssaal, der die vorzubereitenden Massnahmen sowie die eigentliche Prozedur im Rahmen einer zweiminütigen Lektion vermittelte. Die zweite Gruppe sah eine Videosequenz von 2 Minuten mit identischen Inhalten. Beide Gruppen demonstrierten ihr akkumuliertes Wissen im Anschluss praktisch an einer einzelnen praktischen Prüfungsstation. Die Güte (a) der Vorbereitung und (b) der Prozedur wurde ebenso wie (c) die Qualität des Ergebnisses von 6 geblendeten Experten anhand einer Checkliste beurteilt. Die Akzeptanz der jeweiligen Vermittlungsform wurde mittels eines Fragebogens erfragt.Ergebnisse: Die Gruppenleistungen unterschieden sich weder in der Vorbereitung (t=-78, p<0.44) noch in der Qualität (t=-99, p<0.34). In Hinblick auf die Performanz konnte ein starker Treatment-Effekt nachgewiesen werden. In der Durchführung (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) sowie im Total Score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751) erzielte die Gruppe mit videobasierter Instruktion ein signifikant besseres Ergebnis. Auf die Frage

  13. Studies on the utilization of ensiled poultry excreta as a ration for replacement stock of cross-bred dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayal, M.M.; Jain, V.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1981-04-01

    Four silages, of green maize (silage A) and poultry excreta + green maize (silage B) in experiment (1), poultry excreta + Johnson grass (silage C) in experiment (2), and poultry excreta + green maize (silage D) in experiment (3), were studied. In silages (C) and (D) 8% molasses was added before ensiling. The pH ranged between 4.3 and 4.6 in the different silages. In experiment (1a) green maize silage was fed alone: the poultry excreta + green maize silage was fed along in experiment (1b) and with 1 kg molasses in experiment (1c); the silages were fed with 0.5 kg wheat bran in experiment (2) and with 0.5 kg crushed maize in experiment (3). The voluntary dry matter intake was lowest in experiment (2) and highest in experiment (3). The digestibility of proximate principles, except that of crude protein, improved on supplementation with molasses (1c). Supplementation with maize resulted in increased digestibility of proximate principles except crude fibre. The digestible crude protein content increased with the incorporation of poultry excreta and was proportional to the poultry excreta content of the silages. The balances of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were positive. The mean daily gain was 121, 91, 151, 194 and 218 g in experiments (1a), (1b), (1c), (2) and (3) respectively. Inadequate energy intake adversely affected the body weight gain. Such silages, being deficient in energy content, warrant supplementation with higher quantities of energy-rich feeds for supporting production functions.

  14. Acute regional improvement of myocardial function after interventional transfemoral aortic valve replacement in aortic stenosis: A speckle tracking echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattke Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is a promising therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS and high perioperative risk. New echocardiographic methods, including 2D Strain analysis, allow the more accurate measurement of left ventricular (LV systolic function. The goal of this study was to describe the course of LV reverse remodelling immediately after TAVI in a broad spectrum of patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and preserved LVEF underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation. We performed echocardiography at baseline and one week after TAVI. Echocardiography included standard 2D and Doppler analysis of global systolic and diastolic function as well as 2D Strain measurements of longitudinal, radial and circumferential LV motion and Tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results The baseline biplane LVEF was 57 ± 8.2%, the mean pressure gradient was 46.8 ± 17.2 mmHg and the mean valve area was 0.73 ± 0.27 cm2. The average global longitudinal 2D strain of the left ventricle improved significantly from -15.1 (± 3.0 to -17.5 (± 2.4 % (p Conclusion There is an acute improvement of myocardial longitudinal systolic function of the basal and medial segments measured by 2D Strain analysis immediately after TAVI. The radial, circumferential strain and LVEF does not change significantly in all patients acutely after TAVI. These data suggest that sensitive new echo methods can reliably detect early regional changes of myocardial function after TAVI before benefits in LVEF are detectable.

  15. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  16. Modeling of ionosphere time series using wavelet neural networks (case study: N-W of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-07-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) are important tools for analyzing time series especially when it is non-linear and non-stationary. It takes advantage of high resolution of wavelets and feed forward nature of neural networks (NNs). Therefore, in this paper, WNNs is used for modeling of ionosphere time series in Iran. To apply the method, observations collected at 22 GPS stations in 12 successive days of 2012 (DOY# 219-230) from Azerbaijan local GPS network are used. For training of WNN, back-propagation (BP) algorithm is used. The results of WNN compared with results of international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) and international GNSS service (IGS) products. To assess the error of WNN, statistical indicators, relative and absolute errors are used. Minimum relative error for WNN compared with GPS TEC is 6.37% and maximum relative error is 12.94%. Also the maximum and minimum absolute error computed 6.32 and 0.13 TECU, respectively. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from the WNN model and the IRI-2012 with GPS TEC revealed that the WNN provides more accurate predictions than the IRI-2012 model and IGS products in the test area.

  17. Study on Apparent Kinetic Prediction Model of the Smelting Reduction Based on the Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of direct smelting reduction experiment has been carried out with high phosphorous iron ore of the different bases by thermogravimetric analyzer. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG data have been obtained from the experiments. One-step forward local weighted linear (LWL method , one of the most suitable ways of predicting chaotic time-series methods which focus on the errors, is used to predict DTG. In the meanwhile, empirical mode decomposition-autoregressive (EMD-AR, a data mining technique in signal processing, is also used to predict DTG. The results show that (1 EMD-AR(4 is the most appropriate and its error is smaller than the former; (2 root mean square error (RMSE has decreased about two-thirds; (3 standardized root mean square error (NMSE has decreased in an order of magnitude. Finally in this paper, EMD-AR method has been improved by golden section weighting; its error would be smaller than before. Therefore, the improved EMD-AR model is a promising alternative for apparent reaction rate (DTG. The analytical results have been an important reference in the field of industrial control.

  18. Investigation of Noises in GPS Time Series: Case Study on Epn Weekly Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Kosek, Wieslaw; Gruszczynski, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    The noises in GPS time series are stated to be described the best by the combination of white (Gaussian) and power-law processes. They are mainly the effect of mismodelled satellite orbits, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric effects, antennae phase centre effects, or of monument instability. Due to the fact, that velocities of permanent stations define the kinematic reference frame, they have to fulfil the requirement of being stable at 0.1 mm/yr. The previously performed researches showed, that the wrong assumption of noise model leads to the underestimation of velocities and their uncertainties from 2 up to even 11, especially in the Up direction. This presentation focuses on more than 200 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) stations from the area of Europe with various monument types (concrete pillars, buildings, metal masts, with or without domes, placed on the ground or on the rock) and coordinates of weekly changes (GPS weeks 0834-1459). The topocentric components (North, East, Up) in ITRF2005 which come from the EPN Re-Processing made by the Military University of Technology Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC) were processed with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) using CATS software. We have assumed the existence of few combinations of noise models (these are: white, flicker and random walk noise with integer spectral indices and power-law noise models with fractional spectral indices) and investigated which of them EPN weekly time series are likely to follow. The results show, that noises in GPS time series are described the best by the combination of white and flicker noise model. It is strictly related to the so-called common mode error (CME) that is spatially correlated error being one of the dominant error source in GPS solutions. We have assumed CME as spatially uniform, what was a good approximation for stations located hundreds of kilometres one to another. Its removal with spatial filtering reduces the amplitudes of white and flicker noise by a

  19. An ethnomedicinal study of the Seri people; a group of hunter-gatherers and fishers native to the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Nemer E; Aguilar-Rosas, Luis Ernesto; Sánchez-Escalante, José Jesús; Waumann-Rojas, Dora Ofelia

    2015-08-11

    Worldwide, coastal communities' ethnomedicinal knowledge has been sporadically recorded and poorly understood. Based on the ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Seri people; a hunting-gathering and fishing society of Northwestern Mexico, this study assesses a) the biological richness of Seri ethnomedicinal knowledge, b) the fidelity level of Seri remedies, and c) the association between gender, age, years of formal schooling and Seri ethnomedicinal knowledge. To assess the degree of ethnomedicinal knowledge proficiency, we conducted 75 open-ended semi-structured interviews collecting information on ethnomedicinal knowledge of marine and terrestrial organisms and the socio-demographic profile of each collaborator. With the support of primary collaborators, we collected the materials to be used as stimuli along our interviews. A correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between gender, literacy and age with the ethnomedicinal knowledge proficiency. A paired t-test was used to determine differences in the number of remedies known by gender among members of the Seri community. A total of 28 medicinal specimens were presented as stimuli material. Marine remedies (12 species), were represented by 4 algae, 3 mollusks, 3 echinoderms, on reptile, and one annelid. Terrestrial plants (13 species) were distributed in 12 families. About 40 % of marine preparations used the organism in whole. In contrast, 29 % of of the remedies involving plants made use of leafy branches. Stimuli materials are used against 17 ailments mainly, being diarrhea, colds, menstrual problems, and swelling the ailments against most organisms (44 %) are used for. Marine organisms presented higher fidelity level values overall, suggesting that lower fidelity levels in terrestrial plants reflect a process of continuous and ongoing experimentation with easily accessible biological materials. Highest fidelity level values were recorded for Atriplex barclayana (93.87 %) Batis maritima (84

  20. 3DBMO: A time series canonical generator to study the PSD dimensional dependence for space physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovani, Paulo; Rosa, Reinaldo; Dantas, Murilo

    2016-07-01

    The study of density, magnetic and electric field fluctuations in real systems, such as nonlinear processes in the solar, magnetospheric and ionospheric environments, is generally analyzed using Power Spectrum Density (PSD) which is calculated from one-dimensional data in the form of time series. In this work we present a new simulation device of multi-dimensional harmonic mechanical oscillations (we call 3DBMO) for generate robust time series from selected elements, where the spectral analysis is used to determine the hypothesis of dependence variation of the power spectrum according to the structure of the generated system. The importance of this study is discussed into the context of turbulent process in space physics which is usually characterized by using PSD.

  1. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  2. Can a television series change attitudes about death? A study of college students and Six Feet Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B; Hewes, Dean E

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found on a number of measures. These results are similar to the effects of didactic death education courses.

  3. Current status of temporomandibular joint disorders and the therapeutic system derived from a series of biomechanical, histological, and biochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Tanne; Yuki Okamoto; Shao-Ching Su; Tomomi Mitsuyoshi; Yuki Asakawa-Tanne; Kotaro Tanimoto

    2015-01-01

    This article was designed to report the current status of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and the therapeutic system on the basis of a series of clinical, biomechanical, histological and biochemical studies in our research groups. In particular, we have focused on the association of degenerative changes of articular cartilage in the mandibular condyle and the resultant progressive condylar resorption with mechanical stimuli acting on the condyle during the stomatognathic function. In...

  4. Bayesian coclustering of Anopheles gene expression time series: Study of immune defense response to multiple experimental challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, Nicholas A.; Holmes, Christopher C.; Stephens, David A.; Hand, David J.; Dimopoulos, George

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for Bayesian model-based hierarchical coclustering of gene expression data and use it to study the temporal transcription responses of an Anopheles gambiae cell line upon challenge with multiple microbial elicitors. The method fits statistical regression models to the gene expression time series for each experiment and performs coclustering on the genes by optimizing a joint probability model, characterizing gene coregulation between multiple experiments. We compute the mo...

  5. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  6. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  7. Studying complex tourism systems: a novel approach based on networks derived from a time series

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    A tourism destination is a complex dynamic system. As such it requires specific methods and tools to be analyzed and understood in order to better tailor governance and policy measures for steering the destination along an evolutionary growth path. Many proposals have been put forward for the investigation of complex systems and some have been successfully applied to tourism destinations. This paper uses a recent suggestion, that of transforming a time series into a network and analyzes it with the objective of uncovering the structural and dynamic features of a tourism destination. The algorithm, called visibility graph, is simple and its implementation straightforward, yet it is able to provide a number of interesting insights. An example is worked out using data from two destinations: Italy as a country and the island of Elba, one of its most known areas.

  8. Experimental nonlinear dynamical studies in cesium magneto-optical trap using time-series analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, M., E-mail: mamalik2000@gmail.com; Islam, R.; Faisal, M. [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, PK (Pakistan); Sikandar, M.; Ahmed, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, PK (Pakistan)

    2015-03-30

    A magneto-optical trap of neutral atoms is essentially a dissipative quantum system. The fast thermal atoms continuously dissipate their energy to the environment via spontaneous emissions during the cooling. The atoms are, therefore, strongly coupled with the vacuum reservoir and the laser field. The vacuum fluctuations as well as the field fluctuations are imparted to the atoms as random photon recoils. Consequently, the external and internal dynamics of atoms becomes stochastic. In this paper, we have investigated the stochastic dynamics of the atoms in a magneto-optical trap during the loading process. The time series analysis of the fluorescence signal shows that the dynamics of the atoms evolves, like all dissipative systems, from deterministic to the chaotic regime. The subsequent disappearance and revival of chaos was attributed to chaos synchronization between spatially different atoms in the magneto-optical trap.

  9. [Orbit evisceration: retrospective study on a consecutive series of 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, I; Szabo, Bianca; Popescu, Livia Adriana; Petrescu, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exenteration of the orbit is challenging in its anatomical, surgical and postsurgical management-related issues. We describe a surgical series of 65 patients diagnosed at Neurosurgery and Ophthal-mology departments; between 2003 and 2012, 65 cases with intraorbital tumors were identified and underwent partial or total exenteration of the orbit. The most frequent dignosticated tumor which underwent exenteration were spinous and basal carcinoma of the orbit (41.5 %) followed by neurofibroma The most common preoperative sign was proptosis (100%), followed by ocular and orbital pain (6.1%) and visual acuity loss (3.07%). Preoperatively signs included alteration of the facial aspect (96.9%), behavioural, emotional and social difficulties, especially in young people (6,9%). Although there is an extremely mutilant surgical procedure, pain is often relieved. Therefore, the surgical aim should be life preserving and relief of leading symptoms; estetic aspect of the patients was also one of postoperative aims.

  10. Study on Body Form and Garment Size Series of the Middle Age and Aged People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 郁进明

    2003-01-01

    This paper was designed to analyze on the data,which was obtained from "National Physique Fitness Investigation Report (2000)".In order to get the typical body form and figure type of the middle age and aged people,it was focused on the body form data of this group (age 4060)[1].After calculation and analyzing,the distinguishing feature of body form and the distribution of figure type were deduced.Finally,the re-classification of body form for Chinese middle age and aged people was suggested.It as also suggested that a new garment size series especially for the middle age and aged should be built to fit for these people.This conclusion would be useful and significant to design and production for clothing company,especially that who take the aged people as their target consumer.

  11. An alternative approach to characterize time series data: Case study on Malaysian rainfall data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, P. [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)] e-mail: radha.krishnan@mmu.edu.my; Dinesh, S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka 75450 (Malaysia)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of time series rainfall data to understand the behavior in the Malaysian rainfall data. An analysis of the rainfall behavior of different time periods is also conducted. The rainfall data is rounded. A bar with a width of 12 pixels is drawn for each day in the data. The length of the bars drawn is equal to the corresponding rainfall value. Each bar is separated by a space of 2 pixels. Bars for data from different year are stored in different rows. Morphological opening is performed on the barcode image obtained, using line kernels of increasing length. Connected component-labeling algorithm is implemented on the resulting images to identify the individual bar codes and to compute the number of bars remaining after the opening process. A daily rainfall record for the duration of 30 years, obtained from the Melaka Meteorological Station, is analyzed. The results provide characterization of behavior in daily rainfall data.

  12. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  13. A systematic review of antibiotic dosing regimens for septic patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: do current studies supply sufficient data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A M M Y; Gomersall, C D; Choi, G; Tian, Q; Joynt, G M; Lipman, J

    2009-11-01

    Drug dosing for septic patients with acute renal failure receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is complicated, and failure to correctly dose may result in either drug toxicity or treatment failure and development of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to establish an ideal dataset that needs to be reported when presenting pharmacokinetic data for these patients and review current literature for completeness of this dataset. An ideal dataset was established of the parameters that should be reported when calculating a drug dosing regimen from first principles. A Medline search was performed of relevant literature producing 64 citations from which completeness of the specified criteria was examined. None of the studies analysed presented the full dataset that we established as necessary. Of concern, basic pharmacokinetic parameters such as volume of distribution (V(d)) and clearance (CL) were specified in only 79% and 81% of studies, respectively. A large proportion of current studies do not report key information necessary to devise a rational dosing regimen for patients with acute renal failure receiving CRRT, and we hope this dataset will be a useful guide when reporting future pharmacokinetic data.

  14. Prospective comparison study of one-year outcomes for all titanium total temporomandibular joint replacements in patients allergic to metal and cobalt-chromium replacement joints in patients not allergic to metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, O T; Sah, S; Sidebottom, A J

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to ascertain whether there are any early differences in outcome between all titanium temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prostheses in patients allergic to metal and standard cobalt-chromium prostheses in patients not allergic to metal. All patients who had primary TMJ prostheses placed with one-year follow-up between March 2003 and February 2011 were included. We reviewed the basic characteristics of patients. The outcome variables measured included disease, pain, mouth opening, and diet. A total of 55 patients with 77 joint replacements fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Forty patients had standard cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) prostheses (20 unilateral and 20 bilateral), and 15 had all titanium prostheses (13 unilateral and 2 bilateral). Osteoarthritis was the most common disease in both groups. There was significant improvement in pain score at reviews at 6 weeks (p=0.001) and 12 months (p=0.03). Values between groups were not significant (p=0.48 at 6 weeks, and p=0.10 at 1 year). Mouth opening in each group improved significantly with continued gains between assessments at 6 weeks and 12 months (p=0.001) but there were no significant differences between groups. Diet scores were significantly improved one year postoperatively in both groups (p=0.001), but differences between groups were not significant (p=0.90). At one year, outcomes for all titanium prostheses in patients allergic to metal were similarly favourable to those in patients who had no hypersensitivity to metal and had standard prostheses. No patient developed a hypersensitivity reaction, and no all titanium prosthesis failed during the one-year follow-up period. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  16. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Upper cervical spine injuries: a management of a series of 70 cases. El Fatemi ... women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. .... osteosynthesis is preferred to respect the biomechanics of the cervical spine ...

  17. On the use of financial analysis tools for the study of Dst time series in the frame of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potirakis, Stelios M; Balasis, Georgios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Technical analysis is considered the oldest, currently omnipresent, method for financial markets analysis, which uses past prices aiming at the possible short-term forecast of future prices. In the frame of complex systems, methods used to quantitatively analyze specific dynamic phenomena are often used to analyze phenomena from other disciplines on the grounds that are governed by similar dynamics. An interesting task is the forecast of a magnetic storm. The hourly Dst is used as a global index for the monitoring of Earth's magnetosphere, which could be either in quiet (normal) or in magnetic storm (pathological) state. This work is the first attempt to apply technical analysis tools on Dst time series, aiming at the identification of indications which could be used for the study of the temporal evolution of Earth's magnetosphere state. We focus on the analysis of Dst time series around the occurrence of magnetic storms, discussing the possible use of the resulting information in the frame of multidisciplina...

  18. A case-series study of cerebral venous thrombosis in women using short course oral ‎contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Khomand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case series of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT in women who used oral contraceptive pill (OCP in the Muslims Ramadan and fasting month.Methods: This study was a retrospective case series of 9 patients with diagnosis of CVT, who admitted in the neurology ward of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, in July-August 2014-2015.Results: Patients had no history of thrombosis before. They were treated with oral contraceptive more than 1 month to be able to fast during Ramadan. They did not have other possible risk factors for CVT. A headache was the most common in 9/9 patients (100% followed by vomiting and vertigo.Conclusion: We found that high rate of CVT in female population during Ramadan indicates that it needs be considered as a specific risk factor and should be considered by healthcare system.

  19. SOME PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLE TAYLOR SERIES AND RANDOM TAYLOR SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Some polar coordinates are used to determine the domain and the ball of convergence of a multiple Taylor series. In this domain and in this ball the series converges,converges absolutely and converges uniformly on any compact set. Growth and other properties of the series may also be studied. For some random multiple Taylor series there are some corresponding properties.

  20. Skew-t fits to mortality data--can a Gaussian-related distribution replace the Gompertz-Makeham as the basis for mortality studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeremy S C; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Mongiało, Zbigniew; Ignaczak, Paweł; Czajkowski, Andrzej A; Klęsk, Przemysław; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Gompertz-related distributions have dominated mortality studies for 187 years. However, nonrelated distributions also fit well to mortality data. These compete with the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham data when applied to data with varying extents of truncation, with no consensus as to preference. In contrast, Gaussian-related distributions are rarely applied, despite the fact that Lexis in 1879 suggested that the normal distribution itself fits well to the right of the mode. Study aims were therefore to compare skew-t fits to Human Mortality Database data, with Gompertz-nested distributions, by implementing maximum likelihood estimation functions (mle2, R package bbmle; coding given). Results showed skew-t fits obtained lower Bayesian information criterion values than Gompertz-nested distributions, applied to low-mortality country data, including 1711 and 1810 cohorts. As Gaussian-related distributions have now been found to have almost universal application to error theory, one conclusion could be that a Gaussian-related distribution might replace Gompertz-related distributions as the basis for mortality studies.