WorldWideScience

Sample records for replacement level fertility

  1. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  2. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  3. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many changes which have characterized the second demographic transition, shifts in fertility and union formation have attracted a great deal of interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to below-replacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens' "pure relationship" concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are morel likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  4. Stationary populations with below-replacement fertility

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    Carl Schmertmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A population with sustained below-replacement fertility and constant immigration eventually becomes stationary. Stationary-through-immigration (SI populations have unusual age structures that depend on the distribution of immigrants' arrival ages. OBJECTIVE I summarize known formal relationships between the distribution of immigrants' entry ages and the long-run size and structure of SI populations. I clarify a previously published result about SI dependency ratios. RESULTS The long-run size and age structure of an SI population depend on the remaining life expectancies of arriving immigrants, but are also sensitive to the expected numbers of native children born after arrival. Numerical calculations with contemporary Austrian data show (1 contrary to previously published results, immigration flows need not be concentrated in early working ages in order to ensure low overall dependency, and (2 the SI dependency ratio is minimized when all immigrants are in their mid-30s.

  5. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

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    Andrea Ehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  6. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte H.;

    2017-01-01

    Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P......-uptake and mycorrhizal status were slightly enhanced with high ash applications. Changes to the mycorrhizal community composition were evident with high ash doses. Cadmium uptake in aboveground plant tissue was unaffected by ash treatments, but increased in roots with increasing doses. Consequently, we conclude...

  7. Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Velthof, G.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that mineral concentrates (MCs) produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen (N) cycle. Here, we quantified nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and N loss pathways associated with MCs, compared with inorganic fertil

  8. Overview Chapter 1: Fertility in Europe: Diverse, delayed and below replacement

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    Tomáš Sobotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Early in the 21st century, three-quarters of Europe's population lived in countries with fertility considerably below replacement. This general conclusion is arrived at irrespective of whether period or cohort fertility measures are used. In Western and Northern Europe, fertility quantum was slightly below replacement. In Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, fertility quantum as measured by the period total fertility rate (TFR and its tempo-adjusted version was markedly below replacement; in many countries it was around 1.5, and in some populations it was as low as 1.3 to 1.4 births per woman. Throughout Europe, a historic transformation of childbearing patterns characterised by a pronounced delay of entry into parenthood has been taking place. This secular trend towards later childbearing has greatly contributed to the decline and fluctuations in period fertility rates. Delayed births were being recuperated, especially among childless women, but the extent of recuperation differs by country and region. All in all, despite a recent upward trend in the period TFR, European fertility early in the 21st century was at its lowest point since the Second World War.

  9. Explaining Below-Replacement Fertility and Increasing Childlessness in Wealthy Countries: Legacy Drive and the “Transmission Competition” Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Aarssen, Lonnie W; Stephanie Tzipporah Altman

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel evolutionary perspective for explaining why, in most wealthy countries, female fertility has recently dropped below replacement level, with an increasing incidence of childlessness. Our hypothesis is based on the proposition that throughout human evolution, behaviors that promoted gene transmission (offspring production), and hence fitness, have involved not just those associated with a strong “sex drive,” but also those associated with a strong “legacy drive”—the desire to...

  10. Impact of maternal nutritional level on progeny ovarian development and fertility in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of replacement beef heifers on dietary energy levels to achieve 55 vs. 65% of mature body weight at 14 mo of age did not affect their ovarian follicular development or subsequent fertility (Eborn et al., 2013, J. Anim. Sci. 91:4168). Because bovine ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogene...

  11. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha(-1) urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  12. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  13. Below population replacement fertility rates:Can assisted reproductive technology (ART) help reverse the trend?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Blyth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper considers the potential contribution that assisted reproductive technology (ART) may make to population replenishment in countries that have experienced extended periods of below-population-replacement Total Fertility Rates (TFR), by focusing on the specific situation of Singapore, which has recorded ‘ultra-low’ TFRs for many years. Methods: The factors contributing to ultra-low TFRs in Singapore, the economic and social consequences of endemic below-population-replacement fertility rates and remedial measures initiated by the government are critically analysed, focussing specifically on the government’s subsided ART provisions of the ‘Marriage and Parenthood’ package. In addition the paper provides a close analysis of available contemporary data regarding ART and ART outcomes both in Singapore and internationally. Results: Despite limited public accessibility to data concerning ART outcomes in Singapore, it is possible to make some assessment of the potential contribution of publicly-funded ART provision and the possible extension of access to elective oocyte preservation to population replenishment. Conclusions: Subsidised ART can-at best-make a marginal contribution to government population policy.

  14. Explaining Below-Replacement Fertility and Increasing Childlessness in Wealthy Countries: Legacy Drive and the “Transmission Competition” Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie W. Aarssen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel evolutionary perspective for explaining why, in most wealthy countries, female fertility has recently dropped below replacement level, with an increasing incidence of childlessness. Our hypothesis is based on the proposition that throughout human evolution, behaviors that promoted gene transmission (offspring production, and hence fitness, have involved not just those associated with a strong “sex drive,” but also those associated with a strong “legacy drive”—the desire to “leave something of oneself for the future. Because of this intrinsic legacy drive, we argue, humans (and males, in particular have been inherently vulnerable for “side-tracking” into other activities that promote “meme transmission” — i.e., activities perceived as providing a lasting legacy of “self through investment in career development, accumulation of wealth and status, and several other activities that have potential to impact on the thoughts and actions of others in both current and future generations. Humans engage in meme transmission, therefore, at the potential expense of time, energy, and resources for investing in gene transmission. Based on evolutionary arguments, we discuss why realized competition between gene transmission and meme transmission has emerged significantly only in recent human history, why meme transmission is presently winning out in wealthy countries — thus accounting for below-replacement fertility and increasing childlessness — and why natural selection can be expected in the near future to generate a significant shift in the fertility-promoting behaviors of humans.

  15. Replacement

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    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  16. SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS IN AORTIC AND MITRAL VALVE REPLACEMENT SURGERIES

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    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The purpose of the study was to analyze serum magnesium concentration in patients undergoing Aortic and Mitral Valve replacement surgeries. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in 60 patients who underwent elective Aortic and Mitral va lve replacement surgeries. Blood samples from radial artery were collected just before induction of anesthesia and three days post - operatively for estimation of serum magnesium. RESULTS: Magnesium level was 2.02mg/dl at baseline, 2.28mg/dl, 2.08mg/dl and 1 .90mg/dl respectively on three consecutive days post - operatively. CONCLUSION: The lowering of serum magnesium in Aortic and Mitral valve replacement surgeries postoperatively recommends the use of routine serum magnesium determination and administration to prevent post - operative arrhythmias.

  17. Serum Testosterone Level, Testosterone Replacement Treatment, and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Atan; Altug Tuncel; Suleyman Yesil; Derya Balbay

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking testosterone (T) replacement treatment (TRT) due to a decrease in their blood T levels. Prostate cancer (PCa) is also an important issue in the same age group. However, we, urologists, are anxious about PCa development after T treatment. This is because it has been assumed that T may cause PCa or exacerbate insidious PCa which is already present. In this paper, recent developments regarding the relationship between serum levels o...

  18. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D

    1993-01-01

    "This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.

  19. Two-level cervical disc replacement: perspectives and patient selection

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    Narain AS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ankur S Narain, Fady Y Hijji, Daniel D Bohl, Kelly H Yom, Krishna T Kudaravalli, Kern Singh Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: Cervical disc replacement (CDR is an emerging treatment option for cervical degenerative disease. Postulated benefits of cervical disc replacement compared to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion include preserved motion at the operative segments and decreased motion at adjacent levels. Multiple studies have been performed investigating the outcomes of CDR in single-level pathology. The investigation of the use of CDR in two-level pathology is an emerging topic within the literature.Purpose: To critically evaluate the literature regarding two-level CDR in order to determine its utility compared to two-level cervical arthrodesis. Patient selection factors including indications and contraindications will also be explored.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for all articles published on the subject of two-level CDR up until October 2016. Studies were classified by publication year, study design, sample size, follow-up interval, and conflict of interest. Outcomes were recorded from each study, and included data on patient-reported outcomes, radiographic measurements, range of motion, peri- and postoperative complications, heterotopic ossification, adjacent segment disease, reoperation rate, and total intervention cost. Results: Fourteen studies were included in this review. All studies demonstrated at least noninferiority of two-level CDR compared to both two-level arthrodesis and single-level CDR. Patient selection in two-level CDR is driven by the inclusion and exclusion criteria presented in prospective, randomized controlled trials. The most common indication is subaxial degenerative disc disease over two contiguous levels presenting with radiculopathy or myelopathy. Furthermore, costs analyses trended toward at least noninferiority of two-level

  20. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

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    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  1. Serum Testosterone Level, Testosterone Replacement Treatment, and Prostate Cancer

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    Ali Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking testosterone (T replacement treatment (TRT due to a decrease in their blood T levels. Prostate cancer (PCa is also an important issue in the same age group. However, we, urologists, are anxious about PCa development after T treatment. This is because it has been assumed that T may cause PCa or exacerbate insidious PCa which is already present. In this paper, recent developments regarding the relationship between serum levels of sex hormone and prostate tissue, the causal relationship between T and development of PCa, the effect of TRT on the group of patients who are at high risk of developing PCa, the suitability of TRT for patients who have already been diagnosed with PCa, and the effect of TRT on serum prostate-specific antigen level are analyzed.

  2. Soil chemical properties as affected by plant derived ash to replace potassium fertilizer and its conversion value

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    John Bako Baon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride (KCl presently used as main source of K, tends to become more expensive, therefore, there is a need for a breakthrough in finding alternative materials to replace KCl. The aim of this paper is to present recent research on the use of plant derived ash to replace KCl fertilizer, especially in relation with soil chemical characteristics and its conversion value. Plant derived ash coming from palm sugar processing unit which use farm waste as main fuel was used in this experiment. Treatments investigated were no K2O application (control, applied with K2O in forms of both KCl and plant derived ash in dosages of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 air dry soil. The mixture of soil with those treatments were then incubated for one year. After incubation period, the soil in pots were divided into two parts, first part was added with 2g urea, while other part was added with 2 g SP 36. Both parts were incubated for two months. Results of this experiment showed that plant derived ash can be used to replaced KCl. To obtain similar soil K content, the amount of K2O in form of plant derived ash needed to be added or its conversion value is 1.44 times the amount of K2O in form of KCl. Use of plant derived ash also increased the content of soil Ca, available P, ratio of Ca/Mg and pH. Plant derived ash did not caused nitrogen loss. Key words: Potassium, fertilizer, plant derived ash, pH, soil.

  3. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

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    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  4. Biomechanical comparison of a two-level Maverick disc replacement with a hybrid one-level disc replacement and one-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Serkan; Rivera, Yamil; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir A; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2009-10-01

    Multilevel lumbar disc disease (MLDD) is a common finding in many patients. Surgical solutions for MLDD include fusion or disc replacement. The hybrid model, combining fusion and disc replacement, is a potential alternative for patients who require surgical intervention at both L5-S1 and L4-L5. The indications for this hybrid model could be posterior element insufficiency, severe facet pathology, calcified ligamentum flavum, and subarticular disease confirming spinal stenosis at L5-S1 level, or previous fusion surgery at L5-S1 and new symptomatic pathology at L4-L5. Biomechanical data of the hybrid model with the Maverick disc and anterior fusion are not available in the literature. To compare the biomechanical properties of a two-level Maverick disc replacement at L4-L5, L5-S1, and a hybrid model consisting of an L4-L5 Maverick disc replacement with an L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion using multidirectional flexibility test. An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. Six fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (L4-S1) were subjected to unconstrained load in axial torsion (AT), lateral bending (LB), flexion (F), extension (E), and flexion-extension (FE) using multidirectional flexibility test. Four surgical treatments-intact, one-level Maverick at L5-S1, two-level Maverick between L4 and S1, and the hybrid model (anterior fusion at L5-S1 and Maverick at L4-L5) were tested in sequential order. The range of motion of each treatment was calculated. The Maverick disc replacement slightly reduced intact motion in AT and LB at both levels. The total FE motion was similar to the intact motion. However, the E motion is significantly increased (approximately 50% higher) and F motion is significantly decreased (30%-50% lower). The anterior fusion using a cage and anterior plate significantly reduced spinal motion compared with the condition (pMaverick disc prosthesis and the hybrid model in terms of all motion types at L4-L5 level (p>.05). The Maverick disc

  5. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

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    Kazem Mohammad

    2002-12-01

    The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to be calculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates were found for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels are probably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately after the 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 had dropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This decline was probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularly since 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a baby boom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the coming decades.

  6. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

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    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  7. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than......OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  8. Education’s impact on fertility: The case of King Saud University Women, Riyadh

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    Rshood M. Khraif

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Thus, the improving educational levels at current pace shall bring down fertility remarkably warranting attention, policy measures and population programs to retain it above the replacement level.

  9. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  10. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  11. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  12. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women

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    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  13. Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2014-03-22

    Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way that is neither predicted by individual characteristics, nor by the level of economic modernization in a population. In 22 high-fertility communities in Poland, fertility converged on a smaller family size as average education in the community increased-indeed community-level education had a larger impact on fertility decline than did individual education. This convergence was not driven by educational levels being more homogeneous, but by less educated women having fewer children than expected, and more highly educated social networks, when living among more highly educated neighbours. The average level of education in a community may influence the social partners women interact with, both within and beyond their immediate social environments, altering the reproductive norms they are exposed to. Given a critical mass of highly educated women, less educated neighbours may adopt their reproductive behaviour, accelerating the pace of demographic transition. Individual characteristics alone cannot capture these dynamics and studies relying solely on them may systematically underestimate the importance of cultural transmission in driving fertility declines. Our results are inconsistent with a purely individualistic, rational-actor model of fertility decline and suggest that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual.

  14. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  15. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  16. EFFECT OF VARIOUS GROWING MEDIA AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH OF Antherura Rubra Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antherura rubra Lour is one of the critical plant at Cibodas Botanical Garden. Study of cultivation through vegetative propagation of A. Rubra is rare. Therefore, the research of A. rubra on various of media and inorganic fertilizers is required to conserve A.rubra at Cibodas Botanical Garden. This study was conducted at the Nursery - Cibodas Botanic Garden for 10 months. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD with four replications. Treatments consisted of three combinations of natural compost media with three levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, 1g/L, and 2g/L, three katalek compost combination with three levels of inorganic fertilizer and a control (top soil without inorganic fertilizers. Variable tested consists of plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight shoot and root as an indicator of growth A. rubra Lour The results showed that the growth of seedlings A. rubra Lour on katalek compost media's with one dose of levels inorganic fertilizer growth better than other treatments.

  17. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml (p value< 0.001, and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

  18. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  19. [Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-ju; Zhao, Min; Xiang, Xiao-liang; Wei, Dao-zhi

    2010-10-01

    Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage.

  20. Effect ofDifIerent Levels of Nitrogen FertiliZer on the Gnun Yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: N-fertilizer levels, maize, grain yield ... ing and that the second application should be ap- plete block design with five ..... No,ofbarren Length '" of N-o'~f cobs No of cobs','Ear " ',No of plant);o of E '''ii r. 'plant .... North Carolina agricul-.

  1. Three-parent in vitro fertilization: gene replacement for the prevention of inherited mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paula; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of nuclear genetic material between oocytes and embryos offers a novel reproductive option for the prevention of inherited mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a significant cause of a number of serious multiorgan diseases. Tissues with a high metabolic demand, such as brain, heart, muscle, and central nervous system, are often affected. Mitochondrial disease can be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. There is no curative treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease. Given the lack of treatments and the limitations of prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis, attention has focused on prevention of transmission of mitochondrial disease through germline gene replacement therapy. Because mitochondrial DNA is strictly maternally inherited, two approaches have been proposed. In the first, the nuclear genome from the pronuclear stage zygote of an affected woman is transferred to an enucleated donor zygote. A second technique involves transfer of the metaphase II spindle from the unfertilized oocyte of an affected woman to an enucleated donor oocyte. Our group recently reported successful spindle transfer between human oocytes, resulting in blastocyst development and embryonic stem cell derivation, with very low levels of heteroplasmy. In this review we summarize these novel assisted reproductive techniques and their use to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disorders. The promises and challenges are discussed, focusing on their potential clinical application.

  2. [Measurement of basal anti-Mullerian hormone level of healthy fertile women in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Ia; Tacheva, D; Kalinov, K; Ivanova, V A

    2006-01-01

    To establish mean and reference range of basal serum Anti-Mullerian hormona (AMH) levels in a group of healthy fertile Bulgarian women. The present report covers the results of 9 month's period in which 72 healthy fertile Bulgarian women, aged 20-40 years were selected to determinate a reference group of healthy fertile women with normal values of AMH. Blood samples were collected on early follicular phase of menstrual cycle (2-4 days). AMH was analyzed in duplicate with the use of a double-antibody ELISA. We established mean values of AMH -1,46 +/- 0,93 in a group of healthy fertile Bulgarian women with mean 31,4 years of age. The values of AMH, which we obtained in the 10th percentile, 10th - 0,61 ng/ml and in the 90th percentile was 2.94 ng/ml. The measurement of AMH is a test easy for performance, with reference values for healthy fertile Bulgarian women -1,46 +/- 0,93 ng/ml.

  3. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Lodging and Yield of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechuan YANG; Liquan WU; Xinfeng HAN; Hui SHAO; Jian KE; Rongfu WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer levels on lodging and yield of rice. [Method] A total of four treatments were de- signed and applied with 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. After seedling transplanting, the biological characteristics of rice at different growth stages in each treatment and the biological and economic characteristics of rice after lodg- ing were determined for statistical analysis. [Result] Application with 15 kg of nitro- gen fertilizer had significant promotion effect on the increase of rice yield; compared with the control (6 kg of nitrogen fertilizer), rice yield in three experimental treat- ments (9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively) increased by 50.74%, 89.11% and 94.48%, respectively; lodging-resistance mechanical strengths of the three experimental treatments were 103.97%, 132.01% and 89.83% of the control, respectively; rice lodging resistance of treatment C (12 kg of nitrogen fertilizer) was the strongest, with the highest yield. [Conclusion] This study provides reference data and technical support for the rational fertilization of rice production.

  4. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  5. Heavy Metal Level in Human Semen with Different Fertility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiantao; Yu, Guangxia; Zhang, Yucheng; Liu, Xi; Du, Chuang; Wang, Lu; Li, Zhen; Wang, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the heavy metal levels in human semen with different fertilities. The purpose of this analysis is to merge and analyze the differences of heavy metal lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) levels in male semen with normal and low fertilities. All documents in both Chinese and English were collected from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from inception date to February 19, 2016. We have used RevMan software (version 5.2) for the meta-analysis and Stata software (version 12.0) for the meta-regression and sensitivity analyses. A total of 20 literatures were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis indicate a significant difference between fertility with three metal ions (Pb, Cd, Zn) while no significant difference with copper, detailed as follows: (i) 10 studies on the lead concentrations with a standardized mean difference (SMD) = 2.07, 95 %CI (0.97, 3.17), P < 0.01; (ii) 13 studies on the cadmium concentrations with an SMD = 0.75, 95 %CI (0.44, 1.07), P < 0.01; (iii) 8 studies on the concentrations of zinc with an SMD = -0.61, 95 %CI (-1.08, -0.14), P < 0.01; and (iv) 9 studies on the copper concentrations with an SMD = 0.42, 95 %CI (-0.29, 1.13), P = 0.247. The results indicate that the men with low fertility have higher semen Pb and Cd levels and lower semen Zn levels; more studies are needed to indicate the association of the semen copper level with fertility.

  6. Melamine Impairs Female Fertility via Suppressing Protein Level of Juno in Mouse Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Sun, Shaochen; Xiong, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is an organic nitrogenous compound widely used as an industrial chemical, and it has been recently reported by us that melamine has a toxic effect on the female reproductive system in mice, and renders females subfertile; the molecular basis, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we explore the underlying mechanism regarding how melamine compromises fertility in the mouse. The data showed that melamine exposure significantly impaired the fertilization capability of the egg during in vitro fertilization. To further figure out the cause, we analyzed ovastacin localization and protein level, the sperm binding ability of zona pellucida, and ZP2 cleavage status in unfertilized eggs from melamine fed mice, and no obvious differences were found between control and treatment groups. However, the protein level of Juno on the egg plasma membrane in the high-dose feeding group indeed significantly decreased compared to the control group. Thus, these data suggest that melamine compromises female fertility via suppressing Juno protein level on the egg membrane.

  7. Effects of feeding level and protein content of milk replacer on the performance of dairy herd replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S J; Wicks, H C F; Fallon, R J; Twigge, J; Dawson, L E R; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that United Kingdom recommendations for feeding the neonatal calf (500 g milk replacer (MR)/day; 200-230 g CP/kg milk powder) are inadequate to sustain optimal growth rates in early life. The current study was undertaken with 153 high genetic merit, male and female Holstein-Friesian calves (PIN2000 = £48) born between September and March, with heifers reared and bred to calve at 24 months of age. Calves were allocated to one of four pre-weaning dietary treatments arranged in a 2 MR feeding level (5 v. 10 l/day) × 2 MR protein content (210 v. 270 g CP/kg dry matter (DM)) factorial design. MR was reconstituted at a rate of 120 g/l of water, throughout, and was offered via computerised automated milk feeders. Calves were introduced to pre-weaning diets at 5 days of age and weaned at day 56. During the first 56 days of life, calves offered 10 l MR/day had significantly higher liveweight gains (P calves fed 5 l MR/day. No significant differences in liveweight gain were found between calves fed 210 g CP/kg DM MR and those fed 270 g CP/kg DM MR from birth to day 56. Differences in live weight and body size due to feeding level disappeared by day 90. Neither MR feeding level nor MR CP content affected age at first service or age at successful service, and with no milk production effects, the results indicate no post-weaning benefits of increased nutrition during the milk-feeding period in dairy heifers.

  8. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  9. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P sperm count (P sperm (P sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  10. Effects of replacing marine fishmeal with graded levels of Tra Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, daily weight gain (ADG) was higher in TPH75 (655 g/day) and TPH100 ... a* (redness) in the longissimus dorsi muscle increased with TPH replacement level. ... but resulted in an increase in backfat thickness and fat content of meat.

  11. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  12. Studies on Soil fertility, Cow urine and Panchagavya levels on Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, N.; Subha, S; Rao, G.G.E.; ImranKhan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed that higher grain and stover yield, plant height and number of leaves in maize with panchagavya, cow urine but it was comparable to recommended fertilizer treatments at higher level (200% and 300%). It can be concluded that presence of rich plant growth substances, both major and micro nutrients, beneficial microbial population in organic liquid manures help to bring rapid changes in phenotypic characteristics of plants and also improves the growth and ultimately im...

  13. Dynamics of maize carbon contribution to soil organic carbon in association with soil type and fertility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition.

  14. Effect Of Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels On Yield Of Maize Zea Mays L. As Winter Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab M. El Zubair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted for two consecutive seasons 20102011 and 20112012 at the Demonstration Farm of the college of Forestry and Range Sciences Sudan University of Science and Technology Soba Khartoum .the aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization levels on forage maize as a potential winter crop in central Sudan in terms on biomass yield. Three nitrogen fertilization levels were examined. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with four replicates. Parameters studied were plant density plant fresh weight g plant dry weight g and forage yield tonsha. Results obtained reveal that application did not significant affect forage plant density. Application of nitrogen increase fresh and dry weight per plant in all counts .fresh forage yield in terms of fresh forage and dry matter production was significantly increased with application of nitrogen .It was concluded that application of nitrogen fertilizer increase yield of forage maze during the winter season in central Sudan.

  15. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  16. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  17. 建设现代生育文化与稳定低生育水平%Building Modern Fertility Culture and Stabilizing Low-fertility Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鸣; 冯天丽

    2001-01-01

    从历史发展看,现代生育文化替代传统生育文化有其必然性,在社会转型期建设现代生育文化是完善社会主义市场经济、在计划生育领域实践“三个代表”思想的需要。因现代生育文化对人们生育观的形成和转变有着指导、改造、调控的功能,故建设现代生育文化是稳定低生育水平的治本之策。%Modern fertility culture performa the functions ofguiding,transforming and adjusting over people's birth conceptions. As the result, building modern fertility culture is the key strategy to stabilize low-fertility level.

  18. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  19. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité

  20. Autoregulation of nodulation interferes with impacts of nitrogen fertilization levels on the leaf-associated bacterial community in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Anda, Mizue; Inaba, Shoko; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Tadashi; Shinano, Takuro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-03-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha(-1)) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha(-1)) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (82% to 96%) than in Nod(+) soybeans (54%). The community structure of leaf-associated bacteria in Nod(+) soybeans was almost unaffected by the levels of nitrogen fertilization. However, differences were visible in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans. HN fertilization drastically decreased the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (46% to 76%) and, conversely, increased those of Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in these mutant soybeans. In the Alphaproteobacteria, cluster analyses identified two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Aurantimonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp.) that were especially sensitive to nodulation phenotypes under SN fertilization and to nitrogen fertilization levels. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection was not observed on the root tissues examined, presumably due to the rotation of paddy and upland fields. These results suggest that a subpopulation of leaf-associated bacteria in wild-type Nod(+) soybeans is controlled in similar ways through the systemic regulation of autoregulation of nodulation, which interferes with the impacts of N levels on the bacterial community of soybean leaves.

  1. Is Low Fertility Really a Problem? Population Aging, Dependency, and Consumption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Longer lives and fertility far below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman are leading to rapid population aging in many countries. Many observers are concerned that aging will adversely affect public finances and standards of living. Analysis of newly available National Transfer Accounts data for 40 countries shows that fertility well above replacement would typically be most beneficial for government budgets. However, fertility near replacement would be most beneficial for standards of living when the analysis includes the effects of age structure on families as well as governments. And fertility below replacement would maximize per capita consumption when the cost of providing capital for a growing labor force is taken into account. While low fertility will indeed challenge government programs and very low fertility undermines living standards, we find that moderately low fertility and population decline favor the broader material standard of living PMID:25301626

  2. Cadmium levels in soils and plants from some long-term soil fertility experiments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    Phosphate fertilizers contain varying amounts of Cd and other heavy metals as contaminants from phosphate rock (PR). To determine whether periodic applications of P fertilizers resulted in measurable accumulations of Cd in soils and in harvested crops, soil and plant tissue samples from nine long-term (>50 yr) soil fertility experiments in the USA were analyzed for Cd, as well as P and other elements. Annual Cd rates were estimated to range from 0.3 to 1.2 g ha/sup -1/ in these experiments. Plant tissues analyzed were corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves or grain, and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) forage. Results from these long-term experiments have shown that plant uptake of Cd contaminants in P fertilizers containing < 10 mg Cd kg/sup -1/ is negligible. While the Cd accumulations in soil in these experiments could not be calculated, they would approximate that accumulated in most agricultural soils in the USA at this time. About 70% of the P fertilizers is produced from Florida PR, which contains <10 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd, as compared with about 10% from the western USA, which contains higher Cd levels. Therefore, adding Cd to soils as a contaminant in P fertilizers at rates ranging from 0.3 to 1.2 g Cd ha/sup -1/ does not appear to result in increased Cd levels in plants as a result of long-term P fertilization.

  3. Recommendation of soil fertility levels for willow in the southern highlands of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Dresch Rech

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The species Salix x rubens is being grown on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina since the 1940s, but so far the soil fertility requirements of the crop have not been assessed. This study is the first to evaluate the production profile of willow plantations in this region, based on the modified method of Summer & Farina (1986, for the recommendation of fertility levels for willow. By this method, based on the law of Minimum and of Maximum for willow production for the conditions on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina, the following ranges could be recommended: pH: 5.0-6.5; P: 12-89 mg dm-3; Mg: 3.2-7.5 mg; Zn: 5.0-8.3 mg dm-3; Cu: 0.8-4.6 mg dm-3; and Mn; 20-164 mg dm-3. The Ca/Mg ratio should be between 1.2 and 2.9. For K and Ca only the lower (sufficiency level, but not the upper threshold (excess was established, with respectively 114 mg dm-3 and 5.3 cmol c dm-3. It was also possible to determine the upper threshold for Al and the Al/Ca ratio, i.e., 1.7 cmol c dm-3 and 0.28, respectively. For maximum yields, the clay in the soil surface layer should be below 320 g dm-3.

  4. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that uti......In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...... that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels....... Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate...

  5. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  6. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide.

  7. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  8. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  9. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  10. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tomato yield and nutrient uptake under different fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Nedorost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza on tomato plants (Lycopersicon lycopersicum in the pot experiment was studied. Three different fertilization regimes (optimum – H1, stress a – H2, stress b - H3 and three different mycorrhizal treatments (control – Ctrl, Glomus mossae – Gm, Glomus intraradices – Gi were used. Economical parameter (yield, nutritional characteristic (vitamin C content, phosphates and minerals content, total antioxidant capacity, and level of root colonization were studied. The yield of the tomatoes was influenced by the basic dose of the fertilization, especially in the H2 and H3 treatment. The highest yield was in the H2 treatment in Gm (938 g per plant. The positive effect of the inoculation resulted in the increased content of the vitamin C. The highest significant influence was observed in the H2 treatment (plants inoculated with Gi with the average content of the vitamin C 289 mg.kg−1. The average rate of the colonization was in the range from 39 % to 65 %.

  11. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  12. Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Chinese Red Soils with Varying Fertility Levels and Land Use Histories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was used to estimate the microbial community structures of eight Chinese red soils with different fertility levels and land use histories.The total amounts of PLFAs in the soils were significantly correlated with soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,microbial biomass C and basal respiration,indicating that total PLFA was closely related to fertility and sustalnability in these highly weathered soils.Soils for the eroded wasteland were rich in Gram-positive species.When the eroded soils were planted with citrus trees,the soil microbial population had changed little in 4 years but took up to 8~12 years before it reached a significantly different population.Multivariate analysis of PLFAs demonstrated that land use history and plant cover type had a significant impact on microbial community structure.However,the difference of soil microbial community structure in the paddy field compared to other land uses was not larger than expected in this experiment.

  13. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  14. China's far below replacement fertility and its long-term impact: Comments on the preliminary results of the 2010 census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government conducted its sixth national census in 2010 and released its major results in April 2011. According to the National Bureau of Statistics the quality of the census was very high. Although the currently released census results consist of limited statistics only, they shed new light on China's recent fertility levels, which have been debated among scholars and policy makers for more than a decade. The 2010 census results, however, also show considerable inconsistencies with those published by the United Nations Population Division recently. This paper will, on the basis of newly published census results and other available evidence, further examine China's recent fertility decline and its impact on the country's long-term development. It will also comment on the major discrepancies between the results of Chinese government recent population projection, the United Nations' World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision and China's 2010 census, and investigate the underlying causes that have led to these differences.

  15. Serum estrogen and SHBG levels and breast cancer incidence among users and never users of hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Anne Mette Lund; Tjønneland, Anne; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard;

    2012-01-01

    Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT.......Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT....

  16. Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Njiru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from 105 extension agents and 240 farmers. About 50.5% of the extension officers were certificate holders while 29.5% were diploma holders from agricultural institutes. Majority of the farmers had attained primary education (59.6% while 25.8% and 9.2% had attained secondary and post secondary education, respectively. Research institutions were the most accessible sources of information on soil fertility management practices by extension agents while internet and scientific conferences were the least scored as accessible sources of soil fertility management information by extension agents. Education levels significantly influenced preference of individual approach methods by farmers. There was a significant positive relationship between education and accessibility of internet as a source of information on green manure. The implication of the study was that education levels influenced the mode of communication used in the transfer of soil fertility research outputs to the end users. Consequently, it is extremely important to consider education levels in selection of dissemination pathways used in agriculture.

  17. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation.

  18. Andropause or male menopause? Rationale for testosterone replacement therapy in older men with low testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    To provide rationale for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in older men with low testosterone levels and symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency. The relevant literature was reviewed using PubMed. Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies indicate that total and free testosterone levels fall with aging, and they may be accompanied by symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency. Testosterone treatment of younger men with very low testosterone levels and hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease is associated with improvements in symptoms, body composition, bone density, and hematocrit/hemoglobin. Studies evaluating testosterone treatment of older men with low testosterone levels are limited, but they suggest some increase in fat free mass, some decrease in fat mass, and some increase in bone density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The Testosterone Trial should provide definitive information regarding the potential benefits of TRT in men ≥65 years of age. If efficacy is confirmed, we will still need more information regarding the risks of TRT in older men.

  19. Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C(r over 3-years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR using a Mobi-C(r Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C(r Cervical Artificial Disc was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR, or a two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF as control. The 234 TDR patients and 105 ACDF patients were followed up at regular time points for three years after surgery. Results: At 36 months, both groups demonstrated an improvement in clinical outcome measures and a comparable safety profile. NDI scores, SF-12 PCS scores, patient satisfaction, and overall success indicated greater statistically significant improvement from baseline for the TDR group, in comparison to the ACDF group. The TDR patients experienced lower subsequent surgery rates and a lower rate of adjacent segment degeneration. On average, the TDR patients maintained segmental range of motion through 36 months with no device failure. Conclusion: Results at three-years support TDR as a safe, effective and statistically superior alternative to ACDF for the treatment of degenerative disc disease at two contiguous cervical levels.

  20. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  1. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS FOR GRAIN AND STRAW YIELD IN LATE SOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUVARNA T. KALE1 * AND ANANT R. MALI2

    2014-10-01

    Response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on grain and straw yield of wheat was studied under late sown condition. The experimental design consists of split plot design with three replications comprising four levels of fertilizer and three varieties, thereby involving twelve treatment combinations. The fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha under late sown condition. The net monetary returns considering prevailing market prices were maximum with application of 120:60:60 kg NPK/ ha.

  2. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives.

  3. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  4. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2.

  5. Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and sowing dates on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh ehteramian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal level of nitrogen fertilizer and planting date for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. planting in Kooshkak region located in Doroodzan Dam Areas which represents a typical semiarid region. This research was carried out in the fall and winter 2000 and using a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized block design with nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0, 30, and 60 kg N ha-1 and sowing date (Nov. 6th, Dec. 21th, Feb. 6th, and March 6th in four replications. The effects of different nitrogen rates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and number of seed per umbrella, but it was not significant on number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The effects of sowing dates were significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant; 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield; but it was not significant on plant height and harvest index. The interaction of nitrogen rates and sowing dates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and seed yield, but it was not significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index. It was concluded that for obtaining the high cumin yield, application of 30 kg N ha-1 and the late planting date (February 6th and March 6th due to probable winter cold, are recommended for this region.

  6. Soil concentration of glyphosate and AMPA under rice cultivation with contrasting levels of fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Montoya, Tania; Micaela Biassoni, María; Graciela Herber, Luciana; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the world's most important crop species and occupies c. 150 mill ha. The province of Corrientes in Argentina leads the national production of rice cultivation. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide commonly used to control weeds. The molecule is inactivated once applied due to its adsorption in the soil, and once desorbed is degraded by soil microflora resulting in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphoric acid (AMPA) molecules. The objective of this investigation was to compare glyphosate and AMPA concentration in soil under different levels of fertilization along the growth season of the rice crop. A field experiment following a completely randomized design was carried out with four replicates. We evaluated four levels of fertilization (0-18-40): Control: 0 kg ha-1, Dose 1: 120 kg ha-1, Dose 2: 150 kg ha-1, Dose 3: 180 kg ha-1; and two levels of Glyphosate: with (Gly) or without (No) application. Four sampling moments were defined: pre-sowing (taken as reference), vegetative stage (V4, 30 days after application), in floral primordial differentiation-DPF (80 days post-application), and at physiological maturity-MF (125 days after application). Flooding was applied in V4 after sampling. The method used for determination and quantification was by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to ESI UHPLC-MS / MS tandem mass spectrometer (+/-) (Acquit-Quattro Premier). We found that glyphosate and AMPA varied their concentration in soil according to the time of sampling. Detected levels of both molecules at pre-sowing indicate the persistence of this herbicide from earlier crop seasons. The highest concentration was measured in MF followed by V4. Interestingly, AMPA concentration showed higher values in V4 without application compared to the treatment with glyphosate application. On the other hand, in flooded soil both molecules presented a decrease in their concentration probably because of their dilution in water, increasing it again after

  7. The fertilization and development of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus nudus under near-future level of pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Kang, S.; Lee, J.; Choi, S.; Hwang, J.; Inaba, K.; Shiba, K.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effects of pCO2 on the fertilization success rate and development of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus nudus, one of abundant and common organisms found in Korean coastal waters. We exposed sperms of S. nudus to seawater of different pCO2 levels ranging from 380 ppmv to 6000 ppmv, and found that the fertilization rate of the sea urchin was lowered drastically even at pCO2 level of about 500 ppmv, which we could reach as early as 2050s. When the egg of S. nudus was exposed to seawater of high pCO2, the fertilization success rate did not change, and we could conclude that the sperm is responsible for this unprecedented low fertilization success rate. This low rate, however, was not due to the motility of the sperms since the motility was rather insensitive to pCO2 within the range of our investigation. We further examined the effect of CO2 on the development using eggs fertilized under 380 ppmv. The eggs were divided into three groups. The first group was exposed to CO2 treated water until plutes stage, and the second one was exposed during hatching stage (from fertilization to hatching) and then returned to the water with the water treated at 380 ppmv. The third group was exposed to CO2 treated sea water after hatching. Under 550 ppmv the development rate was not affected by pCO2. At 750 ppmv the development rate was decreased, but the one exposed during the hatching stage was influenced less. As pCO2 becomes higher, the development rate becomes lower, but the one exposed during the hatching stage was affected less. This result shows that pCO2 has stronger effect on the fertilization stage than during development stage.

  8. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  9. A sow replacement model using Bayesian updating in a three-level hierarchic Markov process. I. Biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Søllested, Thomas Algot

    2004-01-01

    that really uses all these methodological improvements. In this paper, the biological model describing the performance and feed intake of sows is presented. In particular, estimation of herd specific parameters is emphasized. The optimization model is described in a subsequent paper......Several replacement models have been presented in literature. In other applicational areas like dairy cow replacement, various methodological improvements like hierarchical Markov processes and Bayesian updating have been implemented, but not in sow models. Furthermore, there are methodological...... improvements like multi-level hierarchical Markov processes with decisions on multiple time scales, efficient methods for parameter estimations at herd level and standard software that has been hardly implemented at all in any replacement model. The aim of this study is to present a sow replacement model...

  10. Measuring the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy Roll-Out on Population Level Fertility in Three African Countries.

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    Milly Marston

    Full Text Available UNAIDS official estimates of national HIV prevalence are based on trends observed in antenatal clinic surveillance, after adjustment for the reduced fertility of HIV positive women. Uptake of ART may impact on the fertility of HIV positive women, implying a need to re-estimate the adjustment factors used in these calculations. We analyse the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART provision on population-level fertility in Southern and East Africa, comparing trends in HIV infected women against the secular trends observed in uninfected women.We used fertility data from four community-based demographic and HIV surveillance sites: Kisesa (Tanzania, Masaka and Rakai (Uganda and uMkhanyakude (South Africa. All births to women aged 15-44 years old were included in the analysis, classified by mother's age and HIV status at time of birth, and ART availability in the community. Calendar time period of data availability relative to ART Introduction varied across the sites, from 5 years prior to ART roll-out, to 9 years after. Calendar time was classified according to ART availability, grouped into pre ART, ART introduction (available in at least one health facility serving study site and ART available (available in all designated health facilities serving study site. We used Poisson regression to calculate age adjusted fertility rate ratios over time by HIV status, and investigated the interaction between ART period and HIV status to ascertain whether trends over time were different for HIV positive and negative women.Age-adjusted fertility rates declined significantly over time for HIV negative women in all four studies. However HIV positives either had no change in fertility (Masaka, Rakai or experienced a significant increase over the same period (Kisesa, uMkhanyakude. HIV positive fertility was significantly lower than negative in both the pre ART period (age adjusted fertility rate ratio (FRR range 0.51 95%CI 0.42-0.61 to 0.73 95%CI 0.64-0.83 and when

  11. Hypophosphatemia on the intensive care unit: individualized phosphate replacement based on serum levels and distribution volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.; Blans, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Mulkens, C.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia occurs in about 25% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, a safe and validated phosphate replacement protocol is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an individualized phosphate replacement regimen. DESIGN: Fifty consecutive intensive care unit patie

  12. Unusually high serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase without perivalvular leakage following double valve replacement: predictor of tetany attack after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroe

    2006-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman who complained of exertional dyspnea was diagnosed as having severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent double valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Postoperative laboratory data showed unusually high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, even though no perivalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography. Tetany occurred suddenly owing to hypoparathyroidism, which seemed to be a late complication after thyroidectomy. After calcium administration, the symptoms dramatically diminished, as did the serum LDH levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be doubted if serum LDH levels increase higher than the normal range following valve replacement without obvious perivalvular leakage.

  13. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that uti......In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...

  14. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  15. Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrate fertilization on glucosinolate biosynthesis in mechanically damaged Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Jamuna Risal; Amirizian, Alexandre; Krosse, Sebastian; Giddings, Jessica; Ismail, Shoieb Akaram Arief; Xia, Jianguo; Gloer, James B; van Dam, Nicole M; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2016-03-22

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels predicted to occur before the end of the century will impact plant metabolism. In addition, nitrate availability will affect metabolism and levels of nitrogen-containing defense compounds, such as glucosinolates (GSLs). We compared Arabidopsis foliar metabolic profile in plants grown under two CO2 regimes (440 vs 880 ppm), nitrate fertilization (1 mM vs 10 mM) and in response to mechanical damage of rosette leaves. Constitutive foliar metabolites in nitrate-limited plants show distinct global patterns depending on atmospheric CO2 levels; in contrast, plants grown under higher nitrate fertilization under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions have a unique metabolite signature. Nitrate fertilization dampens the jasmonate burst in response to wounding in plants grown at elevated CO2 levels. Leaf GSL profile mirrors the jasmonate burst; in particular, indole GSLs increase in response to damage in plants grown at ambient CO2 but only in nitrate-limited plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions. This may reflect a reduced capacity of C3 plants grown under enriched CO2 and nitrate levels to signal changes in oxidative stress and has implications for future agricultural management practices.

  16. Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Neves Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days in a split-plot design with five replications. The following variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2, leaf area ratio (regrowth 1, leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2, specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2 and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2. The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2 and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2. The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1. For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1. The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1, and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

  17. The Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Levels in Men Being Treated for Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer. After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117–0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48–2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls. Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal. PMID:25621688

  18. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  19. The Effects of Chronic Ingestion of Mercuric Chloride on Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although male infertility is well researched, the effects of inorganic mercury on male reproduction and fertility are less well known. Studies pertaining to mercury and male fertility identified reduced concentration of testosterone in the serum of male workers, a toxic influence on fertility of organic mercury compounds within concentrations at the workplace, and increased days to pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of chronic mercuric chloride (HgCl2 exposure in male rats on reproductive endpoints. Thirty-day old male Sprague Dawley rats (n=31 were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day of HgCl2 via gavage. After 60 days exposure, they were housed with nonexposed females for 21 days. A survivor analysis revealed the exposed animals took longer to impregnate the females and had a lower rate of impregnation. Further statistical analysis revealed a lower correlation between testicular testosterone levels and days to impregnate, and also lower sperm counts in the epididymis head and body of the exposed males. The results indicate that HgCl2 exposure had significant adverse effects on male rat reproduction endpoints including fertility at a dose that was not clinically toxic.

  20. Response of maize to foliar application of zinc and azotobacter inoculation under different levels of urea fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of zinc and Azotobacter on maize production properties under different regime of urea as mineral fertilizer, an experiment was conducted at research field of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the cropping season of 2014. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer in 100, 200 and 300 amounts of kg urea ha-1, Azotobacter (inoculation and non-inoculation and foliar application of zinc (Zn1 = 1000 mg l-1 zinc sulfate, Zn2 = 500 mg l-1 zinc sulfate and Zn3 = 0 mg l-1 were considered as the applied treatments. Grain yield, biological yield (dry matter, and total protein content of each treatment were assessed. Results indicated that foliar applications of Zn had a significant effect on all studied traits. The highest grain yield was related to Zn1 treatment in each urea application and also between biological fertilizer treatments the highest yield was observed in inoculation treatment. Between all studied treatments the maximum grain yield (with 10.23 ton ha-1 was obtained through non-inoculation treatment × Zn1 for 300 kg urea ha-1. The highest biological yield was observed in Zn1 + inoculation treatment. There were no significant differences between Azotobacter inoculation and non-inoculation for each level of zinc applications in 300 kg urea ha-1 treatment. Finally, it might be concluded that using of mineral fertilizer could be reduced by combining some management strategies in maize production.

  1. USE OF VILLAGE LEVEL SOIL FERTILITY MAPS AS A FERTILIZER DECISION SUPPORT TOOL IN THE RED AND LATERITIC SOIL ZONE OF INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    IFTIKAR, WASIM; CHATTOPADHYAY, G N; Majumdar, Kaushik; SULEWSKI, GAVIN

    2009-01-01

    Soil test based fertilizer application is a widely accepted methodology for improved nutrient management. However, its applicability is severely curtailed in the developing countries due to lack of infrastructure and high cost of implementation. This is particularly true in the South and Southeast Asian countries where the size of holdings is typically low. Under such situation, Geographic Information System (GIS) based fertility maps could be used as a fertilizer decision support tool. The c...

  2. Comparative effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirasteh Anosheh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, environment protection and safe crop production are very important. The management of soil elements by bio-fertilizers is considered as important point for sustainable agriculture. Mode of action of fertilizers is very different in drought stress conditions. To evaluate biological fertilizers (agrohumic, nitroxin, superabsorbent and vermicompost and compare them with current chemical fertilizers (N, P and K in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at different drought stress levels (100% as control, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and 3 replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2010. Results showed that drought stress effect was significant on plant height, head diameter, biological yield (BY, grain yield (GY, and harvest index (HI; however, it did not affect oil percentage. Highest HI was obtained at 50% F.C, Also the highest grain yield and plant height were observed in bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizer, respectively. The most grain yield achieved under control and severe drought stress conditions were found in nitroxin and superabsorbent, respectively. Fertilizers had significant effect on plant height and grain yield. Generally, bio-fertilizers particularly superabsorbent and vermicompost had better responses to drought stress, compared to chemical fertilizers, which was due to higher ability of them in water maintenance. According to results of this investigation, bio-fertilizers seem to be useful under limited moisture conditions to alleviate water deficit effects.

  3. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized, double-blin

  4. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  5. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized,

  6. Evaluation of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Shoot and Root Characteristics of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza Goldani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple coneflower with scientific name Echinacea purpurea (L. is an herbaceous perennial plant native to North America and is the one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Root of Echinacea purpurea is commonly used around the world for stimulation of immune system. It is used as herbal medicine in respiratory infections, against malignant tumors and several inflammatory conditions However, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements that make up the proteins in plants and herbs for natural growth, especially is necessary in their productive organs. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus are important in continuation of flowering, the flowers fresh and dry weight and in essential oil. Fertilization of E. purpurea plants indicated that in absence or at low levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 and 100 kg acre-1, the addition of 50 and 100 kg acre-1 of potassium increased aerial parts, flower heads and root yield. Another report indicated that highest aerial biomass and root yield in E. purpurea was obtained with 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at constant rates of phosphorus and potassium. Polyphenol content was not influenced by nitrogen fertilization and values fluctuated between 2.4 and 5.4 % in the aerial part at flowering and between 1.6 and 3.5 % in the roots. Fertilization with nitrogen caused a decrease in the concentrations of echinoside. Echinoside content was 1.16 % without nitrogen fertilization, and 0.94 % with nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of coneflower, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were included three levels of nitrogen (0, 1 and 2 gr urea per kilogram of soil and three levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 0.75 and 1.5 gr of phosphate (P2O5 per kg of soil. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied

  7. A sow replacement model using Bayesian updating in a three-level hierarchic Markov process. II. Optimization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Søllested, Thomas Algot

    2004-01-01

    herds. It is concluded that the Bayesian updating technique and the hierarchical structure decrease the size of the state space dramatically. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among herds it is concluded that decision support concerning sow replacement only makes sense with parameters...... estimated at herd level. It is argued that the multi-level formulation and the standard software comprise a flexible tool and a shortcut to working prototypes...

  8. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  9. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  10. Effects of Replacing 50% Tobacco Compound Fertilizer by Yak Dung Organic Fertilizer in Tibetan Area on the Growth of Flue-cured Tobacco%藏区牦牛粪有机肥替代50%用量烟草复合肥对烤烟生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树成

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究烤烟生产中,利用无污染藏区牦牛粪发酵生产的有机肥,替代50%用量烟草复合肥的可行性。[方法]以烟草复合肥为对照,用750、1000和2250 kg/hm2牦牛粪有机肥和1500 kg/hm2商品有机肥替代50%用量复合肥,考察了烤烟生长农艺性状、病害调查、技术经济指标、化学成分和感官评吸质量。[结果]牦牛粪有机肥替代烟草复合肥50%用量促进了烤烟正常生长,减少病虫害发生,提高烟叶上中等烟比例,增加产量,调整烟叶化学成分和改善烟叶评吸质量,其中以1500 kg/hm2牦牛粪有机肥替代50%用量复合肥的效果最好。[结论]该研究为改善烟田环境,提高烟叶产量和品质提供了理论依据。%Objective] To research the possibility of replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by yak dung organic fertilizer in Tibetan Area during the production of flue-cured tobacco. [ Method] With tobacco compound fertilizer as the control, the 50% compound fertilizer was re-placed by 750, 1 000 and 2 250 kg/hm2 yak dung organic fertilizer and 1 500 kg/hm2 commercial organic fertilizers, respectively. Then, we investigated the agronomic characters, disease survey, technical and economical index, chemical component and sensory smoking quality of flue-cured tobacco. [ Result] Replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by yak dung organic fertilizer promoted the normal growth of flue-cured tobacco, reduced the occurrence of diseases and insect pests, enhanced the yield and proportion of first-and middle-class tobacco, ad-justed the chemical component of tobacco leaves, and improved the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. Among them, replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by 1 500 kg/hm2 yak dung organic fertilizer had the best effects. [ Conclusion] This research provides theoretical founda-tion for improving the environment of tobacco area and enhancing the yield and quality of tobacco leaves.

  11. Effects of utilisation intensity and fertilization level on forage production and quality of permanent grassland on a fluvisoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nerušil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003–2007 the issue of the forage production and quality on the permanent grassland was researched by the Crop Research Institute Prague, Research Station Jevíčko. The long-term small plot trials with tall oatgrass stand type (Arrhenatherion were established in 2003 on a fluvisoil. Four types of utilisation were used in the trial: 1. Intensive (I1 – 4 cuts per year (1st cut on 15th May, every next after 45 days; 2. Medium intensive (I2 – 3 cuts per year (1st cut on 30th May, every next after 60 days; 3. Low intensive (I3 – 2 cuts per year (1st cut on 15th June, 2nd after 90 days; 4. Extensive (I4 – 2 cuts per year (1st cut on 30th June, 2nd after 90 days and four levels of fertilizer application: F0 = no fertilization; FPK = P30K60N0; FPKN90 = P30K60+N90; FPKN180 = P30K60+N180. The overall average DM production of grasslands over five years was 7.19 t . ha−1. The lowest annual DM production is 6.77 t . ha−1 during the intensive utilisation (I1 and it increases towards the extensive (I4 utilisation to 7.62 t . ha−1, at all levels of fertilization. Application of phosphorus and potash fertilizers did not have significant effects on grassland DM yield. Application of N-fertilizer increased DM production (P0.01 already on the level FPKN90 to 8.49 t . ha−1, on the level FPKN180 DM matter still increased up to 9.51 t . ha−1. Forage quality was highest during the intensive (I1 utilisation and relatively lowest during the extensive (I4 utilisation. The intensive (I1 utilisation of permanent grassland improves OMD (P0.01, concentration of CP and NEL and decreases fiber concentration (P0.01 when compared with the extensive (I4 utilisation. Fertilizing did not affect quality significantly except for CP concentration which increases with N-fertilization while NEL concentration decreases. Optimal utilisation intensity for dairy cows with annual production of 7–8 thousand kg of milk seems to be the intensive (I1

  12. Repeated successful induction of fertility after replacing hydrocortisone with dexamethasone in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and testicular adrenal rest tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Otten, B.J.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report repeated successful induction of fertility in an adult male patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART). DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. PATIENT(S): A 23-year-old male CAH patient with bila

  13. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use efficiency were determined through the combination of three nitrogen fertilizers including urea, urea containing nitrification inhibitors (5:1 with urea and nitrification inhibitor and coated urea (slow fertilizer and their various levels with 0 kg/ha, 350 kg/ha, 550 kg/ha, 750 kg/ha. The results showed that the most 10,9000 kg/ha production was gained by the treatment of 550 kg/ha urea containing inhibitors, which could increase 41.5% of a yield, 15.2% of a cumulative water consumption that was at 462.0mm and 44.7% of a water use efficiency that is at 14.11kg (dry matter/(mm• ha, compared with that of control, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the application of moderate levels of urea containing nitrification inhibitor in greenhouse cucumber can gain higher yields and water use efficiency.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Flag Leaf of Super Hybrid Rice at Late Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Ji-rui; MA Guo-hui; WAN Yi-zheng; SONG Chun-fang; SUN Jian; QIN Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at six different levels on the flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice,a field fertilization experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y Liangyou 1 as a test material.The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),effective quantum yield (EQY),photochemical quenching coefficient (qp),and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of flag leaves were measured at the initial heading,full heading,10 d after full heading and 20 d after full heading stages.Results showed that the values of ETR,EQY and qp increased with rice development from initial heading to 20 d after full heading,whereas the NPQ decreased.During the measured stages,ETR,EQY and qp increased initially and then decreased as nitrogen application amount increased,but they peaked at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.The maximum ETR and EQY values appeared at the treatment of 135 kg/hm2 N.In conclusion,the optimum nitrogen amount for chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice was 135-180 kg/hm2.

  15. EFFECTS OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC-MINERAL PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS ON SOIL FERTILITY PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henriques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic sources can replace all or part of the mineral phosphorus used in fertilizer, providing significant changes in soil chemical properties. This research evaluated the effects of mineral and organic-mineral phosphorus on the soil fertility in maize tillage. The experiment was installed in a seedling nursery at Universidade do Oeste Paulista in Presidente Prudente-SP, in a complete randomized blocks design, with 9 treatments (different Biofós doses associated with different superphosphate doses and 4 replicates. As phosphorus fertilizer source was used the organic-mineral Biofós (3.8% P2O5 and simple superphosphate (18% P2O5. At 50 days after emergence of corn plants it was held soil sampling vessels for evaluation of phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, base saturation and soil pH. The fertilizer organic-mineral showed the same efficiency of simple superphosphate in soil fertility. The organo-mineral fertilizer showed the same efficiency of superphosphate on soil fertility, both of which promoted the same changes in pH. Higher Biofós doses should have high levels of soil organic matter, which was not observed. Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and base saturation level did not differ in all fertilizer sources and levels used.

  16. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Humid tropical forests are often characterized by large nitrogen (N) pools, and are known to have large potential N losses. Although rarely measured, tropical forests likely maintain considerable biological N fixation (BNF) to balance N losses. We estimated inputs of N via BNF by free-living microbes for two tropical forests in Puerto Rico, and assessed the response to increased N availability using an on-going N fertilization experiment. Nitrogenase activity was measured across forest strata...

  17. The Impact of the Depth of Embryo Replacement into the Uterine Cavity under Transabdominal Ultrasound Guidance on In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Ivanovski

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that depth of embryo replacement inside the uterine cavity may influence the pregnancy rates and should be considered as an important factor to improve the success of IVF cycles.

  18. [Humus composition of black soil and its organo-mineral complexes under different fertility level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanpo; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jingshuan; Liu, Shuxia; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhidan

    2005-01-01

    Determinations by Kumada method showed that with the improvement of black soil fertility, the free and combined humus contents in soil and its different size organo-mineral complexes increased, but the humification degree of free humus decreased, which was more obvious in silt and fine sand size complexes. The organic carbon content in complexes, humus extraction rate, free humus content, and humification degree of free humic acid decreased with the increasing particle size of complexes. All free humic acids in fertile soil were Rp type, while in unfertile soil, they were Rp and B type. With the increasing particle size of complexes, the type of free humic acids changed in the sequence A type (clay)-->B type (silt)-->Rp type (fine sand). Combined form humic acid mainly belonged to A type, no matter what particle size the complex was. The improvement of soil fertility could make the humification degree of free humus in soil and its complexes decrease, and furthermore, result in type change. In black soil, the type change of free humic acid mainly occurred in silt size complex, and that of combined form humic acid mainly occurred in fine sand size complex.

  19. [Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-01

    By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI.

  20. Influence of Feeding Pooled Colostrum or Colostrum Replacement on IgG Levels and Evaluation of Animal Plasma as a Milk Replacer Protein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Mowrey, Coleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Newborn Holstein (n = 48) and Jersey (n = 30) calves were studied to compare the absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from maternal colostrum (n = 39) or a colostrum replacement product derived from bovine serum (n = 39). Calves were also fed milk replacer with (n = 38) or without (n = 40) animal plasma to 29 d of age to determine the effect of plasma protein on IgG status, health, and growth. Colostrum or colostrum replacement was fed at 1.05 and 13.5 h of age and provided a total of 250, 18...

  1. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  2. Comparison of age-related changes in anti-Müllerian hormone levels and other ovarian reserve tests between healthy fertile and infertile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Banu; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Ahmet; Guler, Ismail; Mutlu, Ilknur; Oktem, Mesut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels vary between fertile and infertile populations and compare them with basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC). This was a prospective study that included 177 primarily infertile patients who underwent IVF treatment and 162 healthy fertile patients admitted to our clinic for benign diseases. FSH and AMH levels and the AFC of the infertile and fertile populations were compared between the age categories age were evaluated. AFC and AMH levels did not differ between the fertile and infertile groups in all age categories. AMH was inversely correlated with age in both the fertile and infertile populations. However, AFC revealed a stronger correlation with age in both the fertile and infertile populations compared with basal FSH and AMH. Age was positively correlated with basal FSH and inversely correlated with AMH and AFC. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between the fertile and infertile populations in terms of AMH or AFC. The decrease in ovarian reserve in infertile patients is directly related to age, not infertility.

  3. Impact of induced levels of specific free radicals and malondialdehyde on chicken semen quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Bruno R; Shibuya, Fábio Y; Kawaoku, Allison J T; Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Nichi, Marcilio; Pereira, Ricardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, scientists endeavored to comprehend oxidative stress in poultry spermatozoa and its relationship with fertilizing ability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), free-radical scavenging systems, and antioxidant therapy. Although considerable progress has been made, further improvement is needed in understanding how specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic byproduct of LPO) disrupt organelles in avian spermatozoon. Hence, this study examined functional changes in chicken spermatozoa after incubation with different ROS, and their implications for the fertility. First, semen samples from 14 roosters were individually diluted and aliquoted into five equal parts: control, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals, and MDA. After incubation with these molecules, aliquots were analyzed for motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and LPO and DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide was more detrimental for sperm motility than hydroxyl radicals, whereas the superoxide anion and MDA exhibited no differences compared with controls. In turn, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, LPO and DNA integrity rates were only affected by hydroxyl radicals. Thereafter, semen aliquots were incubated under the same conditions and used for artificial insemination. In accordance to our in vitro observations, H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals sharply reduced egg fertility, whereas superoxide anion and MDA only induced slight declines. Thus, chicken sperm function was severely impaired by H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals, but their mechanisms of action seemingly comprise different pathways. Further analysis regarding susceptibility of spermatozoon organelles to specific radicals in other poultry will help us to understand the development of interspecific differences in scavenging systems and to outline more oriented antioxidant approaches.

  4. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Agrotecnólogical characteristics of cane sugar at different times of suppression of irrigation and fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Meireles de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Agrotechnological two varieties of cane sugar influenced by different times of deletions irrigation and fertilization levels. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height (m, stem diameter (mm, number of tillers m- 1, Brix broth, sugar cane Pol, Pol broth, Sugar reducer, and overall productivity. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm area Unimontes in Janaúba in northern Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications in a split plot (2 x 3 x 6 , two varieties of cane sugar, RB85 and 5453 SP80 1816, three different times suppression of irrigation (DIAP and six different levels of NK fertilization. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant differences were the F test was performed to compare the means by Scott Knott (p<0.05 for all variables, using the software program SISVAR. The varieties showed different behavior at maturity, having variety RB85 5453 higher values in technological quality and productivity at lower rates. The varieties obtained overall average of 24.3 ° Brix, Pol 17.6 % of sugarcane, 21 % Pol broth, 0.6 % AR, 3:08 meters in height, 29.2 mm in diameter, 18.9 tillers m-1, 11.1 stems m-1, t ha-1 159.8 productivity. The varieties responded to different eras of suppression irrigation (DIAP. 6 The level of fertilization provided better performance in terms of this work. The RB85 - 5453 and SP80 -1816 varieties are promising for Nortemineira region.

  6. Level of response to telematic questionnaires on Health Related Quality of Life on total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalduch-Balaguer, M; Aguilera-Roig, X; Urrútia-Cuchí, G; Puntonet-Bruch, A; Jordan-Sales, M; González-Osuna, A; Celaya-Ibáñez, F; Colomina-Morales, J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaires measuring health-related quality of life are difficult to perform and obtain for patients and professionals. Computerised tools are now available to collect this information. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of patients undergoing total knee replacement to fill in health-related quality-of-life questionnaires using a telematic platform. Ninety eight consecutive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were included. Participants were given an access code to enter the website where they had to respond to 2 questionnaires (SF8 and the reduced WOMAC), and 3 additional questions about the difficulty in completing the questionnaires. A total of 98 patients agreed to participate: 45 males and 53 females (mean age 72.7 years). Fourteen did not agree to participate due to lack of internet access. Of the final 84 participants, 50% entered the website, and only 36 answered all questions correctly. Of the patients who answered the questionnaire, 80% were helped by a relative or friend, and 22% reported difficulty accessing internet. The use of telematic systems to respond to health-related quality of life questionnaires should be used cautiously, especially in elderly population. It is likely that the population they are directed at is not prepared to use this type of technology. Therefore, before designing telematics questionnaires it must be ensured that they are completed properly. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy: will it affect seizure control and AED levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L

    2008-03-01

    Interest in the years of reproductive changes for women with epilepsy (WWE), specifically perimenopause, menopause and postmenopause has been emerging in the epilepsy community. This article discusses evidence for changes in seizure frequency during perimenopause and postmenopause. Further, a catamenial epilepsy pattern during the reproductive years may be a hallmark for the observed seizure frequency change during these years; that is, an increase at perimenopause but a decrease at menopause. This finding implies that a subset of WWE are particularly susceptible to endogenous reproductive hormonal changes. An adverse effect on seizure frequency with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during postmenopause for WWE was reported in questionnaires, and was later borne out in a clinical trial. The laboratory counterpart of this human trial, HRT in ovariectomized rodent seizure models, shows that estrogen and progesterone are neuroprotective and do not uniformly increase seizure frequency. Possible reasons for the discrepancy between "the lab and the clinic" are presented. Strategies for managing HRT in symptomatic postmenopausal WWE using estrogenic and progestogenic compounds that may be less likely to promote seizures are discussed.

  8. B(a)P adduct levels and fertility: A cross‑sectional study in a Sicilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri Conti, Gea; Calogero, Aldo Eugenio; Giacone, Filippo; Fiore, Maria; Barchitta, Martina; Agodi, Antonella; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for human tissues. Still today it is not fully investigated if BaP can affect negatively the male fertility through the BaP‑DNA adducts production. In the present study, BaP Tetrol I‑1 (TI‑1) and BaP Tetrol II‑2 (TII‑2) BaP‑DNA adducts were investigated in spermatozoa of a Sicilian male population. Semen samples from 86 volunteers in two eastern Sicilian cities (Regalbuto and Melilli) were collected. The quality of semen was evaluated in all samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We analyzed BaP‑DNA adducts in extracted sperm cell DNA using the modified high‑performance liquid chromatography‑fluorescence method to detects both Tetrols. Differences between Tetrol levels were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed‑rank test and the Mann‑Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlation between semen quality parameters and Tetrol concentrations were analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Σ(TI‑1+TII‑2) were significantly higher in spermatozoa of volunteers from Regalbuto. Furthermore, a greater dispersion of the levels of adducts was observed in these specimens. TI‑1 adducts were higher than TII‑2 in Melilli samples (95% CI) and TII‑2 were higher than TI‑1 in Regalbuto semen samples (95% CI). A significant inverse correlation between sperm progressive motility and both TI‑1 and TII‑2 adducts was observed. The present study showed that BaP negatively affects male fertility by TI‑1 and TII‑2 DNA‑adduct production. These results suggest that DNA adducts could be used as biomarker to assess BaP exposure by air pollution. Further studies are needed to confirm if these findings could affect male fertility because of the growing impairment of this function observed in recent years.

  9. B(a)P adduct levels and fertility: A cross-sectional study in a Sicilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gea Oliveri; Calogero, Aldo Eugenio; Giacone, Filippo; Fiore, Maria; Barchitta, Martina; Agodi, Antonella; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for human tissues. Still today it is not fully investigated if BaP can affect negatively the male fertility through the BaP-DNA adducts production. In the present study, BaP Tetrol I-1 (TI-1) and BaP Tetrol II-2 (TII-2) BaP-DNA adducts were investigated in spermatozoa of a Sicilian male population. Semen samples from 86 volunteers in two eastern Sicilian cities (Regalbuto and Melilli) were collected. The quality of semen was evaluated in all samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We analyzed BaP-DNA adducts in extracted sperm cell DNA using the modified high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method to detects both Tetrols. Differences between Tetrol levels were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlation between semen quality parameters and Tetrol concentrations were analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Σ(TI-1+TII-2) were significantly higher in spermatozoa of volunteers from Regalbuto. Furthermore, a greater dispersion of the levels of adducts was observed in these specimens. TI-1 adducts were higher than TII-2 in Melilli samples (95% CI) and TII-2 were higher than TI-1 in Regalbuto semen samples (95% CI). A significant inverse correlation between sperm progressive motility and both TI-1 and TII-2 adducts was observed. The present study showed that BaP negatively affects male fertility by TI-1 and TII-2 DNA-adduct production. These results suggest that DNA adducts could be used as biomarker to assess BaP exposure by air pollution. Further studies are needed to confirm if these findings could affect male fertility because of the growing impairment of this function observed in recent years. PMID:28350051

  10. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  11. Probabilistic Projections of the Total Fertility Rate for All Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E.; Gerland, Patrick; Clark, Samuel J.; Pelletier, François; Buettner, Thomas; Heilig, Gerhard K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian projection model to produce country-specific projections of the total fertility rate (TFR) for all countries. The model decomposes the evolution of TFR into three phases: pre-transition high fertility, the fertility transition, and post-transition low fertility. The model for the fertility decline builds on the United Nations Population Division’s current deterministic projection methodology, which assumes that fertility will eventually fall below replacement level. It models the decline in TFR as the sum of two logistic functions that depend on the current TFR level, and a random term. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to project future TFR based on both the country’s TFR history and the pattern of all countries. It is estimated from United Nations estimates of past TFR in all countries using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The post-transition low fertility phase is modeled using an autoregressive model, in which long-term TFR projections converge toward and oscillate around replacement level. The method is evaluated using out-of-sample projections for the period since 1980 and the period since 1995, and is found to be well calibrated. PMID:21748544

  12. Differences in urinary prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement in relation to venous thromboembolism and bleeding events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borris, L C; Breindahl, M; Lassen, M R;

    2008-01-01

    events. PATIENTS/METHODS: This study was conducted in parallel with a prospective, dose-finding study evaluating the efficacy and safety of different doses of rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany) for thromboprophylaxis, relative to enoxaparin. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed......BACKGROUND: Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 is excreted in urine (uF1 + 2) as a result of thrombin generation and, therefore, may be a useful marker of coagulation status. OBJECTIVES: To assess uF1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding...

  13. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-03-22

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future.

  14. Expectations of European’s Towards Family Policy and the Impact of Desired Support on Fertility Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Avramov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of information gathered from 35,000 women and men across 14 European countries, we ? rst look at attitudes towards fertility, children, and population dynamics. Then we analyse the expectations about the number of children people wish to have and expectations towards public policies to support them as parents. Finally, we assess the possible demographic effects of policy measures that people wish and expect to bene? t from. Most people are in favour of many traditional family policy measures. The possible effects of such policies on fertility are estimated to be modest albeit not negligible. The general conclusion is that the overall effect of the 13 traditional policy measures on increasing the number of children may be estimated at between 6 percent and 13 percent. The general scienti? c insight leads us to a conclusion that a substantial and longlasting effect of policy measures to enable people to have the number of children they wish can only be expected from a comprehensive change in the labour market conditions and related enhancement of opportunities for individuals to manage their life course in innovative ways. An important asset over which people have relatively little control, up until the age at retirement, is time. Prolonged education, more-or-less long unemployment episodes, establishment in employment, postponement of parenthood, ? rst birth in late 20s and/or experience of sub-fecundity in mid-30, excessive pressure on time in mid-life, and long years of inactivity in retirement, are features of dysfunctional economy of time in modern society. The future fertility levels may be expected to be determined by the economy of time as lifes capital and not just by selected palliate measures.

  15. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  16. The effect of vitamin D replacement therapy on insulin resistance and androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, H; Duran, C; Kiyici, S; Ersoy, C; Guclu, M; Ozkaya, G; Tuncel, E; Erturk, E; Imamoglu, S

    2010-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the common features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and recent studies indicate the possible role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of IR and glucose metabolism. Aim of this study was aimed to determine the effect of vitamin D replacement therapy on glucose metabolism, insulin, and androgen levels in obese, insulin-resistant women with PCOS. Eleven women with PCOS were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 23.6+/-5.7 yr, body mass index 33.9+/-5.1 kg/m(2). Six patients (54.5%) had acantosis nigricans and 10 (90.9%) oligoamenorrhea. The mean Ferriman Gallwey score was 14.1+/-4.6. Only 2 women were within the normal limits of vitamin D levels as >20 ng/ml. Three weeks after the administration of the single dose of 300,000 units of vitamin D3 orally, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 significantly increased from 16.9+/-16 ng/ml to 37.1+/-14.6 ng/ml (p: 0.027) and only 2 women were detected to have vitamin D3 levels <20 ng/ml. Although glucose and insulin levels were decreased non-significantly, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR significantly decreased from 4.41+/-1.38 to 3.67+/-1.48 (p: 0.043). No significant alterations were witnessed at the levels of DHEAS, total and free testosterone, androstenedione. No correlation was found between vitamin D with HOMA and other hormonal parameters. In conclusion, women with PCOS have mostly insufficient vitamin D levels, and vitamin D replacement therapy may have a beneficial effect on IR in obese women with PCOS.

  17. Effects of Biofertilizer Application Method with Integrated Chemical Fertilizers on Maize Production and Some Chemical Characteristics of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ebrahimpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of integrated application of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of corn, an experiment was conducted in 2008 in Dezful city, (Khoozestan province in a factorial arrangement based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were integrated application of biological and chemical fertilizers in four levels (100% chemical fertilizer, 50% chemical fertilizer+ bio-fertilizer, 25% chemical fertilizer + bio-fertilizer and bio-fertilizer and bio-fertilizer application method in three levels (seed inoculation, fertigation, seed inoculation+fertigation. The results showed that highest and the lowest grain yield was obtained by application of 50% chemical fertilizer+ bio-fertilizer (10.7 t/ha and bio-fertilizer (5.2 t/ha, respectively. The greatest and the lowest harvest indices were recorded in chemical (0.59 and bio-fertilizer (0.45 treatments, respectively. Number of grain per row and row in ear had not significant differences in integrated and chemical treatments. Methods of bio-fertilizer application had not significant effect on maize yield and yield components. The results of soil analysis showed that bio-fertilizers increased P, K as well as other macro elements availability rather than N. The results revealed that although replacing chemical fertilizers by bio-fertilizers reduced maize growth, but integrated application of these sources produced highest grain yield, nitration elements availability and reduced substantially consumption of fertilizer. The results also indicated that non-chemical sources of crop nutrients can be considered as a reliable alternative for chemical fertilization in ecological production of crops in agro-ecosystems of Iran.

  18. Kinematic evaluation of one- and two-level Maverick lumbar total disc replacement caudal to a long thoracolumbar spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingan; Itshayek, Eyal; Jones, Claire F; Schwab, Timothy; Larson, Chadwick R; Lenke, Lawrence G; Cripton, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Adjacent level degeneration that occurs above and/or below long fusion constructs is a documented clinical problem that is widely believed to be associated with the considerable change in stiffness caused by the fusion. Some researchers have suggested that early degeneration at spinal joints adjacent to a fusion could be treated by implanting total disc replacements at these levels. It is thought that further degeneration could be prevented through the disc replacement's design aims to reproduce normal disc heights, kinematics and tissue loading. For this reason, there is a clinical need to evaluate if a total disc replacement can maintain both the quantity of motion (i.e. range) and the quality of motion (i.e. center of rotation and coupling) at segments adjacent to a long spinal fusion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally evaluate range of motion (ROM-the intervertebral motion measured) and helical axis of motion (HAM) changes due to one- and two-level Maverick total disc replacement (TDR) adjacent to a long spinal fusion. Seven spine specimens (T8-S1) were used in this study (66 ± 19 years old, 3F/4 M). A continuous pure moment of ±5.0 Nm was applied to the specimen in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR), with a compressive follower preload of 400 N. The 5.0 Nm data were analyzed to evaluate the operated segment biomechanics at the level of the disc replacements. The data were also analyzed at lower moments using a modified version of Panjabi's proposed "hybrid" method to evaluate adjacent segment kinematics (intervertebral motion at the segments adjacent to the fusion) under identical overall (T8-S1) specimen rotations. The motion of each vertebra was monitored with an optoelectronic camera system. The biomechanical test was completed for (1) the intact condition and repeated after each surgical technique was applied to the specimen, (2) capsulotomy at L4-L5 and L5-S1, (3) T8-L4 fusion and capsulotomy at L4

  19. PGPR 微生物肥代替部分化肥对豌豆生长的影响%Effect of partly replacing chemical fertilizer by PGPR biofertilizer on pea growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣良燕; 姚拓; 冯今; 杜笑村; 李儒仁; 陈龙

    2014-01-01

    The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)biofertilizer made from 5 phosphorous solving strains and 1 rhizobia was used to test the effect on pea growth through replacing 20% to 30% of chemical fer-tilizer under field condition.The results showed that 5 phosphorous solving strains (LM4-3,LH12-3,Lx1 91, Jm92,LHS1 1 and GDB27)did not show antagonistic effect each other and could be used for biofertilizer.The biofertilizer could replace 80% of chemical fertilizer and the height and seed yield of pea were increased by 6.3%and 3.2%,and the cost was reduced by 220 to 358 yuan/ha.%对前期从植物根际分离的促生菌(PGPR)进一步测定,筛选出5株优良溶磷菌株和1株根瘤菌株,并利用其制成 PGPR 微生物肥,研究其替代20%~30%化肥对豌豆生长及产量的影响。结果表明:菌株 LM4-3、LH12-3、Lx191、Jm92、LHS11与 GDB27互不产生拮抗,可制成 PGPR 微生物肥,研制的 PGPR 微生物肥替代20%化肥可使豌豆株高增加6.3%,经济产量提高3.2%,减少可购买性投入220.00~358.00元/hm2。

  20. Replacement of Dietary Barley Grain by Different Levels of Restaurant Waste and Its Effect on Hybrid Lambs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value of restaurant waste (RW, substituted with dietary barley grain and its effects on the performance of finishing lambs. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash content of RW were 33.4, 95.9, 15.1, 14.1 and 4 percent respectively. 36 male and female lambs, (initial weight of 33.4± 0.5 and 29.7± 0.5 kg respectively were used in the experiment. The experimental lambs were from three hybrid groups: Ghezel*Merino (n=12, Merino*Moghani (n=18 and Ghezel*Baluchi (n=6. Dietary barley grains at the levels of 50 and 100 percent were replaced with RW and along with control group (no RW compromised experimental treatments.. Experimental diets were offered three times daily at 6.00, 14.00 and 20.00 hours. Dry matter intake was not significantly different between the treatments. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were differ between sexes. Weight gain of male and female lambs during the fattening period was 250.3 and 171.6 g/day respectively. Replacement of barley grain with RW in the 3rd treatment significantly affected ruminal pH, N-NH3 and total volatile fatty acids content and fecal pH, as well as blood glucose and BUN comparing the control group. Replacement of RW with barley grain at levels of 50 and 100 percent reduced cost of the live weight gain up to 24 and 37.7 percent respectively versus control diet.

  1. Declines in fertility levels evident in Africa, notes UN Population Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu-amaah, V

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) African regional meeting that was held in November 1997. The meeting was attended by an assortment of UNFPA representatives and program staff. This meeting followed up the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and 1995 regional meetings on the 1994 Plan of Action. These prior meetings emphasized the link between population and development and the urgency of meeting the needs of individual women and men in a people-centered approach to development, rather than a target oriented one. The 1997 meeting reviewed the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1994 plan of action by the UNFPA. UNFPA aims to decentralize operations, to play a role in emergency situations, to encourage South-to-South cooperation, to advocate for reproductive rights, and to promote gender equity and women's empowerment. The meeting discussed UNFPA's role in reproductive health, population and development strategies, and advocacy in detail. Participants agreed that there were signs of fertility decline in Africa. Countries are beginning to adopt a reproductive health and rights approach and to address female genital mutilation as a human and reproductive right's issue. Population policies are being changed to include ICPD goals. 32 countries adopted new programs in 1996 and 1997, that integrated the 1994 strategies and selectively focused on issues of concern. Partnerships confirm that population issues are becoming an agenda for all. The major challenge ahead is the mobilization of resources, while dealing with civil strife and political instability.

  2. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  3. Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Levels on Soil NO3 (-)-N Content and Vertical Distribution in Greenhouse Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiukang; Xing, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil NO3 (-)-N content and vertical distribution under drip fertigation in greenhouse tomatoes. Randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisting of three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertilizer were used. Three irrigation levels were W1 (100%  ET0), W2 (75%  ET0), and W3 (50%  ET0) and fertilizer levels were F1 (N240-P2O5120-K2O150 kg hm(-2)), F2 (N180-P2O590-K2O112.5 kg hm(-2)), and F3 (N120-P2O560-K2O75 kg hm(-2)). The result demonstrates that dynamics of soil NO3 (-)-N and its response to drip fertigation and levels of N moved toward the fore soil moist, and the average soil NO3 (-)-N content with W3 treatment was 1.23 times higher than that of the W1 treatment in 0-60 cm at 43 days after transplanting. The negative correlation between N use efficiency and levels of fertilizer N and the N recovery efficiency was increased with increases of N fertilizer application. The fertilizer nitrogen rate greatly significantly influenced soil NO3 (-)-N content. Avoiding N leaching through controlled matching N fertilizer application and controlled irrigation to tomato N demand is the key to maintain crop yield and improve N use efficiency.

  4. Location change of center of rotation after single-level cervical total disc replacement with ProDisc-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jigang; Li, Huibo; Rong, Xin; Wu, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the location of the center of rotation (COR) at instrumented level after cervical total disc replacement (TDR) deviated from its preoperative location. However, currently, it is unknown whether the deviated COR is linked to the range of motion (ROM) at instrumented level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes after cervical TDR with ProDisc-C (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA), as well as investigate the location change of COR at instrumented level and its clinical significance. A total of 23 patients who underwent single-level cervical TDR with ProDisc-C were included. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used to assess clinical outcomes. Radiographic parameters such as cervical ROM, instrumented segmental ROM, adjacent segmental ROM, and intervertebral height were analyzed. Additionally, the location change of COR at instrumented level and its clinical significance were further analyzed by the alteration of its coordinates (COR-X, COR-Y). JOA scores increased significantly, while NDI scores decreased at final follow-up. No differences were found in cervical global ROM, instrumented segmental ROM, adjacent segmental ROM, and COR-Y at instrumented level between preoperative and final follow-up measurements (p>0.05); however, intervertebral height and COR-X increased significantly (plocation of COR at instrumented level shifted forward after cervical TDR.

  5. Fibrinogen as a therapeutic target for bleeding: a review of critical levels and replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jerrold H; Welsby, Ian; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2014-05-01

    Fibrinogen plays a critical role in achieving and maintaining hemostasis and is fundamental to effective clot formation. There is increasing awareness of the important role of fibrinogen as a key target for the treatment and prevention of acquired bleeding. Fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to fall to critically low levels (fibrinogen levels range from 2.0 to 4.5 g/L), and current guidelines recommend maintaining the plasma fibrinogen level above 1.5 g/L. Fibrinogen supplementation can be achieved using plasma or cryoprecipitate; however, there are a number of safety concerns associated with these allogeneic blood products and there is a lack of high-quality evidence to support their use. Additionally, there is sometimes a long delay associated with the preparation of frozen products for infusion. Fibrinogen concentrate provides a promising alternative to allogeneic blood products and has a number of advantages: it allows a standardized dose of fibrinogen to be rapidly administered in a small volume, has a very good safety profile, and is virally inactivated as standard. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate, often guided by point-of-care viscoelastic testing to allow individualized dosing, has been successfully used as hemostatic therapy in a range of clinical settings, including cardiovascular surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, and trauma. Results show that fibrinogen concentrate is associated with a reduction or even total avoidance of allogeneic blood product transfusion. Fibrinogen concentrate represents an important option for the treatment of coagulopathic bleeding; further studies are needed to determine precise dosing strategies and thresholds for fibrinogen supplementation.

  6. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    component of fertility adds another dimension to selection for fertility that can be used to change the negative genetic progress of reproductive performance presented in this population of Holstein cows. The use of a reaction norm model should allow producers to obtain more robust cows for maintenance of fertility levels along the whole productive life of the cows.

  7. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  8. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  9. Analysis of the influence of hormone replacement therapy on TNF-alpha serum levels in menopausal women 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Rahnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate and compare levels of TNF-α in serum of menopausal women treated and not treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT.Design:The study was designed to verify whether there is a correlation between the concentrations of this cytokine and bone mineral density (BMD.Material/Methods:The study was carried out on a group of 60 women during menopause – 30 untreated (control group and 30 treated with HRT (study group. Half of the patients were after natural menopause and the other half were after ovariectomy. Blood samples were collected. Densitometry was conducted on the vertebral column. To evaluate the results of densitometric examination the T-score index was calculated.Results:The T-score index of the control group reached values below –2. T-score results for the study group were significantly higher than in the control group. Hormone replacement therapy used by women from the study group caused a decrease in the TNF content in serum, compared with the control group.Conclusions:Beneficial effects of HRT on bone tissue may be exerted through decreased concentration of TNF-α in serum. The use of HRT allows constant bone mineral density to be maintained, which leads to prevention of osteoporotic changes. 

  10. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  11. Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

    2011-04-01

    leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

  12. Amelioration of serum 8-OHdG level by enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chien, Yueh; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Niu, Dau-Ming; Yu, Wen-Chung

    2017-04-29

    The level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosise (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the level of 8-OHdG in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy and the clinical evolution of Fabry cardiomyopathy. We measured the serum levels of 8-OHdG in 20 healthy control and 22 patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy before and after ERT. The mean lysoGb3 and 8-OHdG levels was significantly increased in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy compared with that of control subjects (lysoGb3, 3.6 ± 1.1 nM vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 nM, p cardiomyopathy (FC) and that successful management of FC with ERT is associated with a decrease in this oxidative stress marker. Serum 8-OHdG levels can be used not only as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress in patients with FC but also an objective and quantitative parameter in the follow-up of patients during ERT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, PL-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes in Fertility Decline in Rwanda: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Rutayisire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After having stalled in the 1990s, fertility in Rwanda resumed its downward trajectory between 2005 and 2010. The total fertility rate declined from 6.1 to 4.6 and modern contraceptive use increased. However, it is unclear which determinants lay behind the previous stall and the recent strong drop in fertility. This paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the impact of social upheavals on fertility decline. We use a decomposition analysis, focusing on the change in characteristics and reproductive behaviour of women and their contributions to levels of fertility during 1992–2000 and 2000–2010. Results show that due to widowhood and separation the proportion of women who were married decreased between 1992 and 2000, but their fertility increased in the same period due to replacement fertility and an unmet need for family planning. After 2000, postponement of marriage and lower infant mortality contributed to lower fertility, but the most important effect is the overall lower fertility due not only to improved family planning provision but perhaps also to the sensitizing campaigns of the Rwandan government.

  15. 不同施肥条件对芦荟生长的影响研究%Study on Influence of Aloe Growth Under Different Fertilizer Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美玲; 王希; 贾勇; 凌万波

    2012-01-01

    Scientific fertilization could not only rationally determine fertilization rate and nutrient ratio ,but also increase fertilizer efficiency ,with protecting ecology,coordinating nutrient,controlling pest and allocating limited resources.In order to explore the high yield and quality cultivation techniques of aloe in Chengdu plain, according to the principle of balanced fertilization, this test studied the conditions of plant height and crown width of two aloes under different fertilizer level The results showed that the optimum ratio of fertilization was PK+N ( 1:3 ).%科学施肥不仅可以合理地确定施肥量和肥料中营养元素比例,提高肥料利用率,还可以保护生态,协调养分,防治病虫和分配有限资源。为探寻芦荟在成都平原地区的高产优质栽培技术,依据平衡施肥原理,研究了不同施肥条件下2种芦荟株高和冠幅生长的情况,结果表明:芦荟的最佳施肥配比为PK+N(1:3)。

  16. Levels and associations among self-esteem, fertility distress, coping, and reaction to potentially being a genetic carrier in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Canadian Provincial Population Growth: Fertility, Migration, and Age Structure Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of changes in rates of mortality, fertility, and migration depend not only on the age-specific patterns and levels of these rates, but on the age structure of the population. In order to remove the influences of the age structure and concentrate on the impact of the demographic rates themselves, a common practice is to analyze the influences of the rates for a standard age structure. This paper adapts the general approach of using a standard age structure to a stationary population equivalent (SPE model, and analyzes current population change, using the SPE model, for provinces of Canada. Below-replacement fertility levels are only partially offset by net immigration. The SPE model evidences the decrease in the eventual provincial populations brought about by the below replacement fertility. Out-migration for some provinces to other areas of Canada accentuates their eventual population decreases.

  18. Effects of different levels of Farmax® nano fertilizer and foliar spraying time on growth and effective substance of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of foliar spraying times and different levels of Farmax® nano fertilizer on morphological characteristic and dry and fresh flower yield, essential oil and chamazulene percentage of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. CV. Bodegold was studied. The experiment was factorial in the bacic of randomized complete blocked design (RCBD with eight treatment and four replications. The treatments included four amounts of nano fertilizer (0, 1, 3 and 5ml\\l as first factor and two foliar spraying times (tiller stage and 2 after weeks as second factor. The results indicated that foliar spraying time had a significant effect on plant height, numbers of tiller, total fresh weight plant and dry flower yield. Different of levels Farmax® nano fertilizer had significant effect on majority characteristic. The interaction effect had significant effect on height plant and root and dry flower yield. So, maximum height plant (103.5cm and dry flower yield (174.38g/m2 were obtained at 2 foliar spraying times and 3ml/l nano fertilizer concentration and maximum height root was obtained at one foliar spraying times and 5 ml/l nano fertilizer concentration, but 2 foliar spraying times and 3ml/l nano fertilizer concentration treatment to be increased on the most of the characteristic especially essential oil percent (0.753 weight percent but do not have effect significant. The total results showed that 2 foliar sparing times and 3 ml/l nano fertilizer concentration was the best of treatment.

  19. Restoration of European yew (Taxus baccata L. in Mediterranean mountains: importance of seedling nursery fertilization and post-planting light levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Nicolás Peragón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We studied the influence of nursery fertilization and post-planting light environment on the growth and survival of out-planted two-year-old yew (Taxus baccata seedlings.Area of study: Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain.Materials and Methods: Seedlings were grown using the same seed-lot, container type and fertirrigation schedule. A soluble fertilizer with two contrasting doses resulting in 239 and 376 mg N per seedling was applied during the whole culture period. Seedlings grown under the highest level of fertilization had greater root collar diameter, height, shoot to root ratio, root and shoot mass, and root growth potential before planting. Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain. In each site, seedlings from both fertilization treatments were planted in three plots with contrasting light environment (full sunlight, and under Pinus sylvestris stands with moderate and deep shade conditions. Survival, diameter and height growth were monitored for six years.Main results: Nursery fertilization did not affect survival, but high fertilization enhanced post-planting growth. Survival was highest under deep shade conditions but growth in this microsite was lower than in higher light sites, revealing a trade-off for survival and growth across light levels.Research highlights: The lower fertilization rate used in this study was suitable to produce seedlings with acceptable quality. Planting under shaded conditions (light availability<30% is recommended to maximize the initial success of yew plantations in Mediterranean mountains.Keywords: Taxus baccata; plant quality; field growth; survival; reforestation.

  20. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  1. 不同施肥水平对甘蔗新品种生长的影响%Effects of Different Fertilization Level on New Sugarcane Variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓展云; 刘海斌; 徐林; 刘晓静; 李鸣; 陆建勋; 贤武

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The research aimed to study the effects of different fertilization levels on new sugarcane variety .and GT 21 ,GT26,GT 27 and GT 28 were used for materials,which were bred by Guangxi Sugarcane Research Institute. [Method] The low,medium and high fertilization levels were carried out due to the present fertilizer level.and the split plot design was adopted in plant cane experiments. [ Result] Under the different fertilization levels, the difference of cane yield and sugar yield of GT21 wasn' I significant. The cane yield and sugar yield under low and medium fertilization levels of GT26 and GT27 were significant or extremely significant compared with high fertilization level. The cane yield of GT28 had no obvious difference, but the sugar yield in low level and medium level was significant higher than (hat under high fertilization level. The sucrose content of sugarcane was affected by different fertilization levels,and the sucrose contents under low and medium fertilization levels which were 0.42% and 0.22% higher that under high fertilization level. [ Conclusion] The fertilizer for sugarcane should be applied based on the local condition.%[目的]探讨广西甘蔗研究所近年育成的桂糖21、桂糖26、桂糖27和桂糖28等甘蔗新品种对不同施肥水平的效应.[方法]以当前施肥水平为基础,采用裂区区组田间设计,设置低、中、高3个施肥水平进行了1年新植试验.[结果]在不同施肥水平下,桂糖21甘蔗产量和含糖量差异不显著;在低肥区、中肥区桂糖26和桂糖27的甘蔗产量和含糖量在0.05或0.01水平显著高于高肥区;在不同施肥水平下,桂糖28甘蔗产量差异不显著,含糖量则是低肥区、中肥区在0.05水平显著高于高肥区.不同施肥水平对甘蔗蔗糖分也有一定影响,低肥区、中肥区蔗糖分分别比高肥区高0.42%和0.22%.[结论]在生产上,要因地制宜对甘蔗进行施肥.

  2. Racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen levels in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Coward

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To observe hypogonadal men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy (TRT and assess racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 75 hypogonadal men were followed for an average 34 months after initiating TRT. Total testosterone and PSA levels were assessed every 6 months, and patients diagnosed with prostatitis or prostate cancer during treatment were excluded. RESULTS: For 16 African American men, the average age at diagnosis of hypogonadism was 53.5 years, compared with 57.8 years in 59 Caucasian men (p = NS. Pre- and post-treatment testosterone was 219 ng/dL and 310 ng/dL in African American men, and 247 ng/dL and 497 ng/dL in Caucasian men (p = NS. Symptomatic response was 81% in African American men and 93% in Caucasian men (p = NS. Baseline PSA level was 1.32 ng/mL in African American men and 1.27 ng/mL in Caucasian men, and there was no significant difference in PSA between racial groups at 6-month intervals, although there was a small decreasing trend in the PSA of African Americans compared with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Hypogonadal African American men have a similar normalization of testosterone and symptomatic response as hypogonadal Caucasian men, and PSA levels remain stable over time in both groups. In this hypogonadal cohort, in contrast to studies of eugonadal men, higher PSA levels in African Americans were not observed.

  3. The Impact of Serum Progesterone Levels on the Results of In Vitro Fertilization Treatments: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jaime Larach Del; Bousamra, Maroun; Fuente, Laura De La; Ruiz-Balda, Jose A; Palomo, Marissa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the relationship between preovulatory progesterone (P) rise and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy outcomes. It also investigates the sources and effects of rises in progesterone levels, including the underlying mechanisms and potential strategies in preventing its elevation during ovarian stimulation. Progesterone is produced in the early follicular phase in the adrenal gland, which shifts toward the ovaries prior to ovulation. Several factors contribute to the etiology of P level increase including the number of multiple follicles, the overdose of gonadotropins and poor ovarian response. Nowadays, the influence of the preovulatory P rise on IVF outcome remains controversial. Several authors have failed to demonstrate any negative impact, while others reported a detrimental effect associated with the rise of P. It seems that P rise (1.5 ng/ml or 4.77 nmol/l) may have deleterious effects on endometrial receptivity, namely, accelerating the endometrial maturation process that subsequently narrows the period for implantation and thus decreases pregnancy rates. Recent studies have proposed different cutoffs according to the ovarian response, which may be a little high in patients with high response in relation to those of normal response or low response. To prevent a P rise, it might be preferable to use milder stimulation protocols, earlier trigger of ovulation, cryopreservation of all embryos and transfer in the natural cycle.

  4. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chi Lee; Chung-Ming Chen; Shih-Tseng Lee; Kuo-Chen Wei; Ping-Ching Pai; Cheng-Hong Toh; Chi-Cheng Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective...

  5. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  6. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres, a

  7. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres,

  8. The Mobi-C cervical disc for one-level and two-level cervical disc replacement: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin MD

    2014-11-01

    with cervical degenerative disc disease. The Mobi-C CDA procedure is associated with high rates of HO. Two-level Mobi-C CDA may be superior to two-level ACDF. However, insufficient evidence exists, thereby mandating a need for unbiased, well-designed prospective studies with well-defined outcomes in the future.Keywords: Mobi-C, cervical disc arthroplasty, total disc replacement, ACDF, quality of life, outcomes, effectiveness, cervical spine

  9. Austria: Persistent low fertility since the mid-1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter offers an in-depth analysis of fertility in Austria, a country which has experienced a low and relatively stable fertility level and a gradual postponement of childbearing since the mid-1980s. We begin by summarising Austrian population trends in the post-World War II period and highlighting recent relatively high migration levels. We outline the long history of sub-replacement fertility and high childlessness in Austria and look in detail at recent parity-specific developments, trends in family size, delayed childbearing and persistent fertility differences by education level, country of origin and religious affiliation. The chapter then summarises main trends in family-related behaviour, including the changing patterns of leaving parental home, the rise in cohabitation, the decline in marriage and the rise of divorce and the diversity in non-marital childbearing, which has a long tradition in many parts of the country. We discuss the development of family policies in Austria and their relationship to fertility during the past decades. Social policies in Austria provide only a limited support for a reconciliation of childrearing and employment among mothers with children below the age of three. A combination of one of the highest family spending rates among the OECD countries and the low fertility rates indicate that structural constraints (such as the availability of childcare constitute part of the explanation of low fertility.

  10. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-11-05

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement.

  11. The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeke, Tanya E; Pace, Brian A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2011-02-01

    Crop plants genetically modified for the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins have broad appeal for reducing insect damage in agricultural systems, yet questions remain about the impact of Bt plants on symbiotic soil organisms. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of transgenic maize isoline Bt 11 (expressing Cry1Ab) and its non-Bt parental line (Providence) was evaluated under different fertilizer level and spore density scenarios. In a three-way factorial design, Bt 11 and non-Bt maize were inoculated with 0, 40, or 80 spores of Glomus mosseae and treated weekly with 'No' (0 g L(-1) ), 'Low' (0.23 g L(-1) ), or 'High' (1.87 g L(-1) ) levels of a complete fertilizer and grown for 60 days in a greenhouse. While no difference in AMF colonization was detected between the Bt 11 and Providence maize cultivars in the lower spore/higher fertilizer treatments, microcosm experiments demonstrated a significant reduction in AMF colonization in Bt 11 maize roots in the 80 spore treatments when fertilizer was limited. These results confirm previous work indicating an altered relationship between this Bt 11 maize isoline and AMF and demonstrate that the magnitude of this response is strongly dependent on both nutrient supply and AMF spore inoculation level. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormone replacement therapy increases levels of antibodies against heat shock protein 65 and certain species of oxidized low density lipoprotein

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    Uint L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy (HRT reduces cardiovascular risks, although the initiation of therapy may be associated with transient adverse ischemic and thrombotic events. Antibodies against heat shock protein (Hsp and oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL have been found in atherosclerotic lesions and plasma of patients with coronary artery disease and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of HRT on the immune response by measuring plasma levels of antibodies against Hsp 65 and LDL with a low and high degree of copper-mediated oxidative modification of 20 postmenopausal women before and 90 days after receiving orally 0.625 mg equine conjugate estrogen plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate per day. HRT significantly increased antibodies against Hsp 65 (0.316 ± 0.03 vs 0.558 ± 0.11 and against LDL with a low degree of oxidative modification (0.100 ± 0.01 vs 0.217 ± 0.02 (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, ANOVA. The hormone-mediated immune response may trigger an inflammatory response within the vessel wall and potentially increase plaque burden. Whether or not this immune response is temporary or sustained and deleterious requires further investigation.

  13. Distal determinants of fertility decline: Evidence from 640 Indian districts

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    Sanjay K. Mohanty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Districts in India exhibit enormous variation in the level of socioeconomic development and are at different stages of fertility transition. Though a large and growing body of literature has examined the proximate determinant of fertility at the state and individual levels, there are limited studies on distal determinants of fertility change in the districts (micro-regions of India. This is the first ever study to examine the association of fertility change with three key distal determinants, namely female literacy, under-five mortality, and poverty, over the last two decades in districts of India. Objective: To examine the association of female education, under-five mortality, and poverty in fertility reduction in the districts of India. Methods: Data from the census of India and large-scale population-based surveys are used. Difference-in-difference panel models are used to account for both initial conditions and contemporaneous changes in fertility reduction. Results: While one-third of the districts have reached below replacement level of fertility, under-five mortality and poverty level have reduced by half from the initial level and the female literacy level has almost doubled, suggesting a remarkable degree of convergence across all distal determinants but only limited evidence of convergence for fertility. The single largest predictor of fertility reductions in the districts of India was initial TFR (−0.83, followed by increase in female literacy (−0.76, the initial female literacy level (-0.43 and reduction in under-five mortality (-0.20. The effect of initial level of poverty on fertility reduction was 0.13, while that of reduction in poverty was −0.05. Given that the confidence intervals around both estimates are large, this suggests a rather limited role of poverty in fertility transition. Conclusions: Reduction in under-five mortality and female education explain the majority of the large fertility declines

  14. Is Two-Level Cervical Disc Replacement More Cost-Effective than Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion at 7 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; McAnany, Steven J; Albert, Todd J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2017-08-14

    Cost-effectiveness analysis. Investigate the 7-year cost-effectiveness of two-level cervical disc replacement (CDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). CDR and ACDF are both effective treatment strategies for managing degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. CDR has been shown to be a more-cost effective intervention in the short term, but the long-term cost-effectiveness has not been established. We analyzed 7-year follow-up data from the two-level Medtronic Prestige LP investigational device exemption study. Short-form 36 (SF-36) data were converted into health utility scores using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were based on direct costs from the payer perspective, and effectiveness was measured as quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The willingness to pay (WTP) threshold was set to $50,000/QALY. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Two-level CDR had a 7-year cost of $176,654.19, generated 4.65 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $37,993.53/QALY. Two-level ACDF had a 7-year cost of $158,373.48, generated 4.44 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $35,635.72. CDR was associated with an incremental cost of $18,280.71 and an incremental effectiveness of 0.21 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $89,021.04, above the WTP threshold. Our Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 simulations. Two-level CDR and ACDF are both cost-effective procedures at 7-year follow-up for treating degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Based on an ICER of $89,021.04/QALY, we cannot conclude which treatment is the more cost-effective option at 7-years. CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 iterations of our Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis. 3.

  15. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

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    Rajabzadeh Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone, altered in relation with noise stress. Materials and Methods: This study was targeted the 24 male rats that randomly were divided into four equal groups including one control group (unexposed to noise stress and three experimental groups pre-induced with noise stress for 50 days and then divided as: no treated, honey and vitamin E treated groups, respectively. Then, the blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken, and the serum level of the sexual hormones was analyzed. Finally, to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with the female ones. Results: Our results showed that FSH and LH level in noise stressed male rats raised, and the testosterone secretion decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, noise stress injury could reduce weight and the survival rate of the fetus. However, the honey and vitamin E improved the testosterone concentration, declined the plasma FSH and LH level in noise - exposed rats and enhanced the fertility rate. Conclusion: These findings may also spell out a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize of neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, i.e., noise and enhance the male fertility capacity.

  16. Nitrogen Fertilization for Optimizing the Quality and Yield of Shade Grown Cuban Cigar Tobacco: Required Nitrogen Amounts, Application Schedules, Adequate Leaf Nitrogen Levels, and Early Season Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers have a decisive influence on the yield and quality of tobacco. Yield, percentage of plant N, wrapper leaf quality, and nicotine content are all important quality characteristics in tobacco growing. This work is an attempt to provide a tool for optimizing mineral N nutrition for Cuban cigar tobacco, using a strategy that links N supply with leaf N concentration and wrapper yield. Similar approaches developed worldwide have mainly involved Virginia and Burley tobacco types but not Cuban cigar tobacco. The objective of the current work is to identify the effects of fertilizer N levels and timing of application on each of the mentioned quality factors for shade grown Cuban cigar tobacco. Another purpose is to explore the usefulness of a quick method of assessing the N status of plants based on measuring leaf transmission at two different wavelengths (650 and 940 nm. The experiments were done in the main tobacco growing area of Cuba (Vueltabajo. In each experiment, nine separate treatments were used covering different levels and times of fertilizer N application. The same experiment was carried out in three different years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 but as the results were similar only one set of data is described (2006-2007. The patterns of response to N fertilizer of all four quality measurements, including yield and wrapper leaf quality, were similar in the different replications of the experiments. The optimal fertilizer level was 140-190 kg N/ha (40% applied on days 8-10 after transplanting and 60% on days 18-20 after transplanting. The optimal N concentration of leaves taken at the central foliar level of the middle stalk position was 4.3-4.7% at harvest time. Leaf transmission measurements by means of the SPAD-502 Chlorophyll Meter in the early stages of growth were correlated with leaf chlorophyll and N concentration and provide an excellent guide for predicting Cuban cigar tobacco wrapper leaf yield.

  17. [Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake.

  18. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

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    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  19. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLORA IN APPLE ROOT RHIZOSPERE WHEN FERTILIZING

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    Kuzin A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental safety of agricultural products and agro-technical measures is very urgent now. Various agrochemicals are widely used in agricultural production: plant protection preparations, fertilizers, stimulants and plant growth regulators, etc. One possible solution of this problem may be a partial replacement of mineral fertilizers by bacterial ones. The aim of our research was to determine the effect of different fertilizers and methods of their application on the quantity of microorganisms in the apple root rhizosphere soil. The research was carried out according to conventional methods. In our experiment, we determined the number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of the roots of apple trees, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the leaves; hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in soil and crop yield. The highest yield was obtained by fertigation in our research. Application bacterial fertilizer to the soil ensured yield increase at the level of mineral fertilizer application. Application of fertilizers in general, in the studied application rates provided optimum level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the leaves and soil. By use of fertigation and bacterial fertilizers were high and relatively stable numbers of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of the apple trees. The number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere had a positive correlation with yield and the content of nutrients in soil and in leaves

  1. Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels

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    Carlos Alberto de Bastos Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1. As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão.The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the production, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá. The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level

  2. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

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    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  3. Influence of plant population and nitrogen-fertilizer at various levels on growth and growth efficiency of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajul, M I; Alam, M M; Hossain, S M M; Naher, K; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate plant population and N-fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). Three levels of plant populations (53000, 66000, and 800,000 plants ha⁻¹ corresponding to spacings of 75 × 25, 60 × 25, and 50 × 25 cm) and 4 doses of N (100, 140, 180, and 220 kg ha⁻¹) were the treatment variables. Results revealed that plant growth, light interception (LI), yield attributes, and grain yield varied significantly due to the variations in population density and N-rates. Crop growth rate (CGR) was the highest with the population of 80,000 ha⁻¹ receiving 220 kg N ha⁻¹, while relative growth rate (RGR) showed an opposite trend of CGR. Light absorption was maximum when most of densely populated plant received the highest amount of N (220 kg N ha⁻¹). Response of soil-plant-analysis development (SPAD) value as well as N-content to N-rates was found significant. Plant height was the maximum at the lowest plant density with the highest amount of N. Plants that received 180 kg N ha⁻¹ with 80,000 plants ha⁻¹ had larger foliage, greater SPAD value, and higher amount of grains cob⁻¹ that contributed to the maximum yield (5.03 t ha⁻¹) and the maximum harvest index (HI) compared to the plants in other treatments.

  4. Influence of Plant Population and Nitrogen-Fertilizer at Various Levels on Growth and Growth Efficiency of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Tajul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate plant population and N-fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.. Three levels of plant populations (53000, 66000, and 800000 plants ha−1 corresponding to spacings of 75 × 25, 60 × 25, and 50 × 25 cm and 4 doses of N (100, 140, 180, and 220 kg ha−1 were the treatment variables. Results revealed that plant growth, light interception (LI, yield attributes, and grain yield varied significantly due to the variations in population density and N-rates. Crop growth rate (CGR was the highest with the population of 80,000 ha−1 receiving 220 kg N ha−1, while relative growth rate (RGR showed an opposite trend of CGR. Light absorption was maximum when most of densely populated plant received the highest amount of N (220 kg N ha−1. Response of soil-plant-analysis development (SPAD value as well as N-content to N-rates was found significant. Plant height was the maximum at the lowest plant density with the highest amount of N. Plants that received 180 kg N ha−1 with 80,000 plants ha−1 had larger foliage, greater SPAD value, and higher amount of grains cob−1 that contributed to the maximum yield (5.03 t ha−1 and the maximum harvest index (HI compared to the plants in other treatments.

  5. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  6. Paleocommunity Replacements of Benthic Brachiopod in the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan Area, Southwestern China: Responses to Sea Level Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuanren; LI Xianghui

    2005-01-01

    Twelve paleocommunities dominated by benthic brachiopod are recognized in the Givetian-Frasnian stages of the Devonian in the Longmenshan area, southwestern China, in which two kinds of brachiopod community replacement are classified. One is the abrupt replacement, represented by abrupt alternation between the Leiorhynchus community and Zhonghuacoelia-Striatopugnax community in the Frasnian Tuqiaozi Formation. The other is the gradual one, developed in the Givetian Guanwushan Formation, which had been completed by the shift of the Independatrypa lemma-Uncinulus heterocostellis-Emanuella takwanensis community via the Sinospongophyllum irregulare-Pseudomicroplasma fongi community to the Clathrocoilona spissa-Hexagonaria composite reef community. According to analyses of the paleocommunities, either the abrupt or gradual paleocommunity replacement of the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan area is suggested as a response to the 5th-order sea level fluctuation due to the replacements of the paleocommunities in a tracts-system of depositional sequence. It is supposed that changes of paleocommunity diversity,one of the results of paleocommunity replacement, are depended on the range and magnitude of sea level fluctuation, but there is not a linear relationship between them. Furthermore, a suggestion is proposed that the concept of paleocommunity succession seem to be abandoned in the paleocommunity analysis because it almost never be practiced to recover the information of community succession in the geological record at present.

  7. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Navarro, A.; Barbera, G. G.; Albaladejo, J.

    2009-07-01

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Fertility and contraception in Europe: the case of low fertility in southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I

    1997-03-01

    Demographic trends in Europe can be summarized in terms of a declining proportion of its population in the world total, low fertility, and a slow population growth. Fertility in Western Europe was already below the replacement level in 1970-75 and has remained low. Fertility has substantially declined in Eastern and Southern Europe, with Italy and Spain recording one of the lowest levels (1.2 children per woman) in 1994. Some explanations of the dramatic fertility decline in Southern Europe are: (1) The emancipation of women and their increased participation in the labor force; (2) Economic aspects such as costs for child care and education; and (3) The couple's motivation for low fertility because of the expanded choices for travel and leisure and their concerns for improving their standard of living. Social pressures on childbearing outside marriage remain quite strong; cohabitation and extramarital births is Southern Europe are not as prevalent as in other European regions and there is a trend toward delaying the birth of the first child rather than foregoing childbearing.

  9. Mitochondrial replacement therapy in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes, such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST), or polar body (PBT) transfer, could prevent second-generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization.

  10. Study of qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response of seed inoculation with PGPR in various levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nazarly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR under various levels of nitrogen fertilizer, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in field experimental University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during growing season of 2009-2010. Factors were nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 as urea and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing, without inoculation (as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas strain 186. Results indicated that nitrogen levels and seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR had significant effects on all of characteristics studied (except grain 1000 weight and stem diameter. Grain yield, plant height, head diameter, seed number per head, , yield and oil percentage, yield and protein percentage increased with increasing of nitrogen fertilizer and application of seed inoculation with PGPR. Response of grain yield wasn't the same for various levels of nitrogen fertilizer and seed inoculation with PGPR. The highest grain yield belonged to application of 160 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation with Azotobacter. Means comparison showed that treatment compounds N160 × without inoculation with PGPR and N80 × seed inoculation with PGPR Azotobacter had similar grain yields. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield seed should be inoculated with Azotobacter bacteria × 80 kg N/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  11. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal.

  12. Cognitive and psychiatric effects of vitamin B12 replacement in dementia with low serum B12 levels: a nursing home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Christopher H.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Siegal, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine whether B12 replacement would ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in elderly subjects with dementia and low serum B12 levels. Methods A test group (n=28) of nursing home residents with low serum B12 levels (B12 levels (>300 pg/mL) were evaluated by blinded raters while the test group received intramuscular (IM) B12 replacement therapy. All subjects were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks with the Dementia Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Although B12 replacement produced significant improvement in hematologic and metabolic parameters, it yielded no significant effect on cognitive or psychiatric variables. A few subjects evidenced notable individual treatment responses; however, these were not statistically more frequent than in the normal B12 group. Conclusions These results suggest that B12 replacement is unlikely to benefit cognitive or psychiatric symptoms in the vast majority of elderly dementia patients with low serum B12 levels. PMID:18925978

  13. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  14. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  15. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen supply (N is a very important issue concerned to plant growth and the environment healthy. For farmers, to know how much N the plant requires enables the application of appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, maximizing the use of this material. The availability of N has been identified as one of the main limiting factors, but also a management tool in the production of grasses. The nitrogen in the soil either, as a constituent of organic matter or in the mineral form (ammonium and nitrate, has a limited supply and can be depleted rapidly in a few crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sources and nitrogen levels in four genotypes of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata and two interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria spp on the total and the leaf dry matter production, leaf percentage and leaf: stem ratio. The soil was an Psament-Entisol, coming from a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with low organic matter content. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, from October 2009 to April 2010. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks and the treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 2 x 4, four genotypes of Brachiaria , two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate and four nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150 or 225 mg dm-3 with five replicates, totaling 160 pots with a capacity of 3.34 dm3 of soil. Two cuts were performed in the plants. After the second cut a soil sample was collected from each experimental unit. Two evaluations were performed on plants. The first one 52 days after sowing, and the second 56 days after the first cut. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative factors were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative factor were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. The variables

  16. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether...... conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cm-1, 2.50 mS·cm-1, 3.75 mS·cm-1, 5.00 mS·cm-1, and 6.25 mS·cm-1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly...... affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cm-1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads...

  17. Socioeconomic fertility differentials in a late transition setting: A micro-level analysis of the Saguenay region in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Vézina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, the French Canadian population of Quebec, Canada, is known for its high fertility, which lasted well into the 20th century, and for its late fertility transition. Within Quebec, regions such as Saguenay are known for having experienced an even more delayed fertility transition. Objective: In Quebec, as elsewhere, various factors modulated the transition, and differential behaviors and timing can be observed across socioeconomic groups. These factors are studied here in the context of the Saguenay region, where particularly rich data are available. The region was mostly rural at first, but industrialization and urbanization occurring since the beginning of the 20th century allow us to study socioeconomic reproductive differentials before and during the transition. Methods: To do so, we rely on the BALSAC database, which contains all church and civil records from the onset of colonization around 1840 up to 1971. In addition to the usual descriptive statistics, we use Cox models to analyze the probability of having a first birth and higher order births among four socioeconomic groups defined with HISCLASS coding. Results: The results demonstrate the late timing of the transition and a clear progression from the non-manual and skilled workers, who show the first signs of declining fertility during the 1930s, to the farmers, who do the same only at the end of the 1950s. As a result, socioeconomic fertility differentials widened during the transition period. Conclusions: Even in a context where the transition was significantly delayed compared to most other regions studied in this issue, some socioeconomic differentials were observed prior to the transition, and they widened during the transition due to the differential progression of contraceptive practices among couples.

  18. [The decline of fertility in Western Europe. II. Which fertility rate would be desirable in France? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calot, G

    1977-01-01

    A way to try and assess the significance of such or such level in long term fertility is to work out population projections based on a variety of assumptions and to compare their different implications. The age pyramids of France until 2100 that derive from four contrasted evolutions of fertility are studied in the present article: completed fertility in birth cohorts ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 children per woman. While some demographic parameters are not much sensitive to the assumption made for the fertility level (e.g. percent of economically active people in total population), others are closely related to fertility (such as total number of inhabitants, percent of younger people or of older people in total population, annual rate of entry into economically active population). In France, where population density is much lower than in most neighbouring countries, a fertility level that would lay at -- or a little higher than -- replacement (i.e. 2.1 children per woman) can be considered as a desirable target.

  19. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  20. Fecundidade abaixo da reposição, população estacionária por migração e efeitos sobre a estrutura etária Fecundidad por debajo de la reposición, población estacionaria por migración y efectos sobre la estructura etaria Fertility below replacement, stationary population through migration and effects of age structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Junqueira Caetano

    2008-12-01

    del número anual constante de entradas derivadas del retorno de la fecundidad al nivel de reposición. Esto también puede ocurrir debido a saldos netos migratorios positivos, constantes y con estructura etaria fija. Por lo tanto, para un determinado conjunto de tasas de salida existe un número infinito de poblaciones estacionarias equivalentes. Presuponiendo un régimen de fecundidad por debajo de la reposición, este trabajo utiliza el modelo teórico de Schmertmann (1992 para simular y examinar, comparativamente, la estructura etaria de la población del Estado de San Pablo, resultante de un aumento de la fecundidad hasta el nivel de reposición, y las estructuras etarias de esta misma población tornada estacionaria vía migración, asumiendo diferentes escenarios de fecundidad y estructura etaria de las inmigrantes.Due to its declining fertility rate, Brazil is closer to the demographic conditions that determine population zero or negative growth, on the long run. However, there are no reasonable grounds to assert that the fertility rate will stabilize at replacement level or just below it. There are indications that it will be likely to descend to very low levels in coming decades. Theoretically, a stable and closed population with fertility rates below replacement level can return to zero growth if the population is subjected to changes in the constant annual number of entries derived from the return of fertility to replacement level. This may also occur due to constant positive net migration with constant and fixed age structure. Therefore, for a given set of rates of exits, there are an infinite number of equivalent stationary populations. Given fertility below replacement level, the present study uses Schmertmann's theoretical model (1992 to simulate and examine, by comparison, (1 the age structure of the population of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, that has resulted from a rise in fertility to replacement level and (2 the age structures of this

  1. Effect of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphism on high density lipoprotein levels in response to hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nogueira-de-Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. However, HDL cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT. A significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. Therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphisms on HDL levels in response to postmenopausal HRT. We performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used HRT before the study and had no significant general medical illness. HRT consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. The lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of HRT. ESR1 polymorphism (MspI C>T, HaeIII C>T, PvuII C>T, and XbaI A>G frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A general linear model was used to describe the relationships between HDL levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. A significant increase in HDL levels was observed after HRT (P = 0.029. Women with the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype showed a statistically significant increase in HDL levels after HRT (P = 0.032. No association was found between other ESR1 polymorphisms and HDL levels. According to our results, the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype was associated with increased levels of HDL after 1 year of HRT.

  2. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  3. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cm-1, 2.50 mS·cm-1, 3.75 mS·cm-1, 5.00 mS·cm-1, and 6.25 mS·cm-1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly......Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether...... an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical...

  4. How does education change the relationship between fertility and age-dependency under environmental constraints? A long-term simulation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: When asked what a desirable fertility level for populations might be, most politicians, journalists, and even social scientists would say it is around two children per woman, a level that has been labelled by demographers "replacement-level fertility." The reasons given for considering this level of fertility as something to aim at usually include maintaining the size of the labour force and stabilizing the old-age-dependency ratio. Objective: In this paper, we scrutinize this wide-spread view by introducing education in addition to age and sex as a further relevant source of observable population heterogeneity. We consider several criteria for assessing the long-term implications of alternative fertility levels and present numerical simulations with a view on minimizing the education-weighted total dependency ratio and complement this with the goal of reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emission in the context of climate change. Methods: We perform thousands of alternative simulations for different fertility levels (assumed to be constant over time starting from empirically given population structures and derive the rate of fertility which yields the lowest level of our education-weighted dependency ratio. We study the sensitivity of our results to different parameter values and choose to focus on the actual populations of Europe and China over the course of the 21st century. Results: The results show that when education is assumed to present a cost at young age and results in higher productivity during adult age, then the fertility rate that on the long run keeps dependency at a minimum turns out to lie well below replacement fertility both in Europe and in China under a set of plausible assumptions. The optimal fertility level falls even lower when climate change is factored in as well. Conclusions: We conclude that there is nothing magical or particularly desirable about replacement level fertility.

  5. [Current situation on fertility preservation in cancer patients in Spain: Level of knowledge, information, and professional involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Colino, Carmen; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Vazquez, María Ángeles; Echevarria, Aizpea; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Andión, Maitane; Berlanga, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The estimated risks of infertility in childhood cancer due to radiation, chemotherapy and surgery are well known. The involvement of professionals and advances in the different methods of preservation are increasing. However, many patients do not receive information or perform any method of preservation. Questionnaires to paediatric onco-haematology institutions throughout Spain. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions assessing their usual practices and knowledge about fertility preservation. Fifty members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, representing 24 of 43 centres, responded. These represented 82% of centres that treated higher numbers of patients. The effect of treatment on fertility was known by 78% of those who responded, with 76% admitting not knowing any guideline on fertility in children or adolescents. As for the ideal time and place to inform the patient and/or family, only 14% thought it should be done in the same cancer diagnosis interview. In clinical practice, 12% of those surveyed never referred patients to Human Reproduction Units, another 12% only did so if the patients showed interest, and 38% only refer patients in puberty. Just over one-third (34%) of those referrals were going to receive highly gonadotoxic treatment. There are clear differences between pre-puberty and puberty patients. The frequency with which some method of fertility preservation is performed in patients is low. All respondents believe that the existence of national guidelines on the matter would be of interest. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Fertility and family policy in Norway - A reflection on trends and possible connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Below replacement fertility in many countries has lead to a renewed public interest in policies that may encourage young people to have more children. The Nordic countries are sometimes in focus in this respect, as their fertility rates remain relatively high in spite of very high female labour force participation. The key question is therefore whether there is a connection between generous public policies that facilitate childbearing and employment, and fertility. Using Norway as example and reviewing existing research evidence I conclude that generous family policies may be necessary, but not sufficient, to sustain fertility at a reasonable level. In particular, adverse macroeconomic conditions and rising unemployment have counteracting effects, as demonstrated by falling fertility rates in Sweden in the mid-1990s.

  7. An assessment of recent Iranian fertility trends using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013 a draft population bill was introduced in the Iranian Parliament. Based on the presumption that fertility in Iran had fallen to a very low level, the bill proposed a wide range of pronatalist policies with the aim of increasing fertility to 2.5 births per woman. The draft law called for restrictions on the employment of women and young single people and inducements for women to marry in their late teens. New estimates of fertility, such as those provided in this paper, cast doubt upon the view that fertility had fallen to a very low level. In May 2014 a statement issued by the Supreme Leader provided guidelines for a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility at around the replacement level. Objective: To measure the trend in fertility in Iran, especially from 2000 onwards. Methods: Using the 2010 IDHS, the synthetic cohort parity progression ratio method is used to measure the fertility trend in Iran. Synthetic parity progressions are compared with real cohort parity progressions to examine the presence of tempo effects. Comparison is made with age-based measures from surveys, censuses, and the birth registration system. Results: This paper demonstrates that fertility in Iran was constant for the decade 2000-2009, at a level of around 1.8-2.0 births per woman. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence supporting a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility in Iran at around the replacement level. Comments: The paper demonstrates the advantages of parity-based measurement over age-based measurement when tempo effects may be involved.

  8. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a

  9. Selenium fortification of an Italian rice cultivar via foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and its effects on human serum selenium levels and on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Minoia, Claudio; Ronchi, Anna; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2014-03-24

    Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha) vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 μg/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/g (p foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity.

  10. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  11. Analysis on Factors Influencing Organic Fertilizer Use in China : A case study on wheat farmers in six eastern provincial–level regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Song, Min; Chen, Tinggui; Li, Dongpo

    2014-01-01

    The overuse and residue of chemical fertilizer are becoming big problems in food safety and negatively affect the environment in China Organic fertilizer is considered less harmful to food safety, soil quality and environment than chemical fertilizer; however, it is not as widely used as chemical fertilizer The main research objective in this study is to examine the factors influencing organic fertilizer use in China In this research, the farmers who sell less agricultural products are measur...

  12. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  13. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Materials and methods: Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diest were- control diet (with 0% inclusion level boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal i.e., 100% soybean meal, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion level (total replacement of soya bean meal. The feeds were fed to C. gariepinus juveniles at 5% of their body weight for 84 days in an indoor partial flow through system. Weight and standard length of C. gariepinus juveniles were taken every fortnight and water quality parameters were monitored weekly. Results: Experimental fish fed diets with 0 and 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal gave the best results in terms of Mean Weight Gain (MWG (20.22 and 19.79 g, respectively, Specific Growth Rate (1.82 and 1.83 respectively, Protein Efficiency Ratio (2.75 and 2.00, respectively and the Lowest Feed Conversion Ratio (1.29 and 1.39 respectively. The lowest growth and feed utilization were observed in fish fed 100% inclusion level. The weight gain of fish decreased with increase in replacement level above 25%. There was no significant difference between control diet 0 and 25% inclusion level (P and #8805;0.05. Conclusion: Boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal is a nutritive source of plant protein and a good replacement for soybean meal at 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal in formulating catfish feed for C. gariepinus juveniles without any deleterious effect. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 345-352

  14. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  15. 不同施肥水平对紫云英鲜草产量的影响%Effect of Different Fertilizer Application Levels on Fresh Grass Yield of Chinese Milk Vetch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秉业

    2016-01-01

    通过不同施肥水平对紫云英鲜草产量影响的试验,结果表明:应用钙、镁、磷肥拌种,水稻收割后增施磷肥及开春后及时追施氮肥,能显著提高紫云英鲜草产量。%The effect of different fertilizer application levels on fresh grass yield of Chinese milk vetch was studied. The results showed that fresh grass yield of Chinese milk vetch significantly increased by using the method of applying fertilizer, i.e. seed dressing with calcium, magnesium, phosphate fertilizers, applying phosphate fertilizer after rice harvest, and timely topdressing nitrogen fertilizer after the spring.

  16. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.

  17. Fertility of Czech Females Could Be Lower than Expected: Trends in Future Development of Age-Specific Fertility Rates up to the Year 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šimpach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is an essential aspect of reproduction or population replacement of each country. The challenge for demographers is to model fertility and also to estimate its potential future level for the purposes of population projections. In the case of the Czech Republic we have the population projections provided by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO with overlooking of the total fertility rate in low, medium and high variant. These estimates despite being based on expert judgments, seem to be too positive compared to the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation of fertility in the Czech Republic, to analyse the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates using one-dimensional Box-Jenkins models and multidimensional stochastic Lee-Carter approach. Together with found trend in time series and principal components estimated by Lee-Carter’s model a forecasts of age-specific fertility rates up to the year 2050 is constructed. Th ese rates are lower than those provided by CZSO in its three variants of the Czech Republic’s population projection, and therefore we discuss the causes at the end of the paper. We would like to point out that the potential future development of Czech females fertility could be lower than which are currently expected.

  18. Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Serum Complement (C3,C4) and Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM) Levels in Post-menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi LIU; Liqun LV

    2008-01-01

    Serum C3, C4, IgG and IgM levels were evaluated in healthy post-menopausal women receiving short-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens and in untreated women. Serum C3, C4, IgM and IgG levels were assessed in 54 women receiving HRT therapy (CEE 0.625 mg+MPA 2.5 mg/day), and in 54 control women not receiving HRT. The results showed that the mean serum C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in women receiving HRT than those untreated women (P<0.01). There was significant difference in lgG and IgM levels between two groups. It was con-cluded that HRT might be involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases through inflamma- tory mechanisms, as suggested by increased serum levels of C3 and C4.

  19. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Postero-Lateral Disc Prosthesis Combined With a Unilateral Facet Replacement Device Maintains Quantity and Quality of Motion at a Single Lumbar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Aniruddh N.; Doarn, Michael C.; Gaskins, Roger B.; James, Chris R.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Castellvi, Antonio E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanically replacing one or more pain generating articulations in the functional spinal unit (FSU) may be a motion preservation alternative to arthrodesis at the affected level. Baseline biomechanical data elucidating the quantity and quality of motion in such arthroplasty constructs is non-existent. Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the motion-preserving effect of a posterior total disc replacement (PDR) combined with a unilateral facet replacement (FR) system at a single lumbar level (L4-L5). We hypothesized that reinforcement of the FSU with unilateral FR to replace the resected, native facet joint following PDR implantation would restore quality and quantity of motion and additionally not change biomechanics at the adjacent levels. Study Design In-vitro study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. Methods Six (n = 6) cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were evaluated using a pure-moment stability testing protocol (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (F/E), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Each specimen was tested in: (1) intact; (2) unilateral FR; and (3) unilateral FR + PDR conditions. Index and adjacent level ROM (using hybrid protocol) were determined opto-electronically. Interpedicular travel (IPT) and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) at the index level were radiographically determined for each condition. ROM, ICR, and IPT measurements were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) between the three conditions. Results Compared to the intact spine, no significant changes in F/E, LB or AR ROM were identified as a result of unilateral FR or unilateral FR + PDR. No significant changes in adjacent L3-L4 or L5-S1 ROM were identified in any loading mode. No significant differences in IPT were identified between the three test conditions in F/E, LB or AR at the L4-L5 level. The ICRs qualitatively were similar for the intact and unilateral FR conditions and appeared to follow placement (along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction) of

  1. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  2. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  3. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  4. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  5. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente

    2007-01-01

    Markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, are associated with the risk of atherothrombosis. Plasma levels of these markers of inflammation are affected by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and modulated by smoking. We studied whether genetic variation in the estrogen......). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p ... concentration (n.s.). Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, CRP and fibrinogen were not associated with an effect of HRT on the CRP and fibrinogen plasma levels, and no significant interaction with smoking was observed. In conclusion, higher plasma levels of CRP and lower plasma levels of fibrinogen were observed...

  6. Social mobility and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1 intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2 status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries. Therefore, the provocative idea of Ariès that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.

  7. Certain Less Invasive Infertility Treatments Associated with Different Levels of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety in Pregnancies Conceived via In Vitro Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Sloane, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research supports that in vitro fertilization causes anxiety and that anxiety can continue into the resulting pregnancy. Most women who have IVF will have a less invasive treatment for infertility prior to IVF; however, it is unclear if specific less invasive treatment cycles impact anxiety that is experienced in the pregnancy resulting from IVF. Methods: A prospective study was conducted for women who became pregnant via IVF, and data was collected about reported previous non-IVF treatment cycles as well as Pregnancy Related Anxiety Measure. Latent Class Analysis was conducted A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: 144 subjects participated and were highly educated, affluent, married, and primarily white. The LCA process yielded two groups that on average had similar levels on most items except for use of intra uterine insemination and/or ovarian stimulation. This information was used to generate four exhaustive and mutually exclusive groups: Stimulation Only (stim-only), Stimulation and Intra uterine Insemination (stim-IUI), Intra uterine Insemination only (IUI only), or No Treatment (No Tx). ANOVA found that those in the Stim Only group had statistically significantly higher PRAM scores than the Stim IUI (p=0.0036), the IUI only group (p=0.05), and the No Tx group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: Women who become pregnant via IVF and had a history of non-in vitro fertilization cycles that only involved ovarian stimulation experienced more pregnancy-specific anxiety in the pregnancy that results from in vitro fertilization.

  8. Effect of the levels of N fertilizer, grass and supplementary feeds on nitrogen composition and renneting properties of milk from cows at pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, J E; Ostersen, S; Aaes, O

    1994-05-01

    In a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design grazing experiment we investigated the effect of fertilizer (none or 240 kg N/ha), amounts of clover grass available (low or high) and type and level of daily supplementary feed for each cow (3.5 kg barley, 3.5 kg concentrate mixture rich in protein and fat, or both, 7 kg) on the protein composition and renneting properties of their milk. The experiment was carried out in two successive grazing seasons (years) and included a total of 79 Danish Holstein cows. The effect on milk protein composition was determined in both years whereas the effect on renneting properties was determined only in the second year. Fertilization of the clover grass significantly decreased total milk protein concentration (-1.4 g/kg; P whey protein N. Fertilization had no effect on renneting properties. Increased availability of clover grass significantly increased milk protein concentration (1 g/kg; P < 0.05) and resulted in significantly poorer renneting properties, that is increased clotting time (P < 0.01) and decreased coagulum development. These effects seemed to be mediated through an effect on the pH of the milk (+0.05; P < 0.05) as the effect was markedly reduced when statistical correction was made for the actual pH. Use of the protein- and fat-rich concentrate mix (3.5 kg) significantly reduced the total protein content of the milk (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of non-protein N (NPN) in total N compared with use of the other supplementary feeds (P < 0.05). We found no effect on renneting properties of the different supplementary feeds. Throughout the grazing season and independent of the main treatments, the NPN proportion of milk N increased at the expense of casein N. At the same time, renneting properties became poorer, especially with high clover grass availability.

  9. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  11. Use of Banking Services in Emerging Markets -Household-Level Evidence (Replaces EBC DP 2010-025)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses survey data for 60,000 households from 29 transition economies in 2006 and 2010 to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, as well as to bank ownership, deposit insurance and creditor protection. At the household level we find that the holding

  12. Use of Banking Services in Emerging Markets -Household-Level Evidence (Replaces CentER DP 2010-092)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses survey data for 60,000 households from 29 transition economies in 2006 and 2010 to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, as well as to bank ownership, deposit insurance and creditor protection. At the household level we find that the holding

  13. Scientific rationale for replacing macrokinetic problem mikrokinetic level solutions for modeling of drying of disperse materials in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Shishackij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the drying process in a fluidized bed can be investigated at the level of individual particles, since the entire set of particles is equal to the hydro-and heat and mass transfer conditions.

  14. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently decrease

  15. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil.

  16. Effects of human visitation on calf growth and performance of calves fed different milk replacer feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, N E; Antaya, N T; Cabral, R G; Whitehouse, N L; Earleywine, T J; Erickson, P S

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41. Visitation with calves occurred at 1030 and 1430h daily from d 1 to 56 and comprised verbal stimulation and stirring of starter grain. An opaque curtain divided the calf nursery, with calves in the front half assigned to visitation treatments and those in the rear half not assigned to visitation treatments. Calves were fed their MR treatment until d 43 (preweaning), after which all calves received half of their allotment of MR until d 49 (weaning). Calves were tracked for the next week until d 56 (postweaning). Starter grain and MR intakes were measured daily along with weekly body weight and skeletal measurements. One half of the calves on each treatment had blood samples taken via jugular venipuncture on d 41 (preweaning), 43, 45, 47, 49, and 51 (postweaning) to evaluate blood glucose, urea, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. During the preweaning and weaning phases, calves on A0 and A1 treatments consumed more MR, less starter, and weighed more than the C0 and C1 calves. Calves on A0 and A1 had greater average daily gain (ADG), hip and withers gain, were taller at the hip, and had larger girths during the preweaning phase. Overall, body weight, withers and hip heights, and heart girths were greater in A0 andA1 calves during the weaning week. Efficiency of utilization of estimated metabolizable energy (ME) intake (ADG/ME) were similar. Glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations

  17. Effects of different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residue silage replacement with forage part of ration on male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hashemi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing forage part of ration with different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residual silage (PRS on fattening performance of male buffalo calves. Twenty Four calves with 203 + 27.9 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 4 groups and 6 replicates. The four groups (1, 2, 3 and 4 included 0 (control, 20, 40 and 60 percent replacement of forage part of ration with PRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 4, respectively. Daily weight gain (DWG was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DWG were shown at the groups 3 and 2, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was not significantly different between the groups. But the best FCR was obtained at group 1. It may conclude that forage part of ration can be substituted with PRS at 60 % level with no negative effects on male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  18. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt;

    2007-01-01

    Markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, are associated with the risk of atherothrombosis. Plasma levels of these markers of inflammation are affected by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and modulated by smoking. We studied whether genetic variation in the estrogen...... receptor- 1 (ESR1), CRP and fibrinogen-beta genes influences the plasma levels of inflammation markers after HRT. Plasma CRP and fibrinogen were measured after five years follow-up in healthy postmenopausal women (per-protocol group) who were randomised to hormone therapy (n=187) or no treatment (n=249......). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p

  19. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  20. Could the laser tracker AT401 replace digital levelling and "ecartometry" for the smoothing and realignment of the LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Missiaen, D

    2012-01-01

    The laser tracker AT401 appeared on the market a couple of years ago with a very accurate distance meter, as a matter of fact the one of the Mekometer ME5000, and angular encoders almost as accurate as the ones of the best total stations. For the smoothing and realignment of the LHC components, the Survey team at CERN normally uses digital levelling measurements to determine the vertical position and offsets to a stretched wire measurements, also called “ecartometry”, for the horizontal one. During the last winter technical stop, a measurement of an LHC sector (3km) was realised using these three technologies in order to compare the AT401 capabilities with respect to the others. The paper will present the methodology applied, the data processing, the results obtained and the conclusions drawn for the future LHC realignment campaign which will take place during the long shut-down of 20 months starting at the end of 2012.

  1. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with

  2. The critical soil P levels for crop yield, soil fertility and environmental safety in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.H.; Li, H.G.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhou, B.K.; Shi, X.J.; Wang, B.R.; Li, D.C.; Shen, J.B.; Chen, Q.; Qin, W.; Oenema, O.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is important for achieving optimal crop production, but excessive soil P levels may create a risk of P losses and associated eutrophication of surface waters. The aim of this study was to determine critical soil P levels for achieving optimal crop yields and minimal P

  3. Autoregulation of Nodulation Interferes with Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Leaf-Associated Bacterial Community in Soybeans ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha−1) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha−1) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in Nod− an...

  4. Predictors of in vitro fertilization outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 12 IU/L: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina N Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels ≥ 12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF.A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters.The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval.Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF.

  5. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ehala‐Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    ...‐glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels...

  6. Auricular acupressure reduces anxiety levels and improves outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fan; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Lu-Ting; Wang, Fang-Fang; Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhu, Yi-Min; Ma, Chun-Mei; Huang, Yi-Ting; Ye, Xiao-Qun; Sun, Sai-Jun; Zheng, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Run-Ju; Xu, Jian; Xing, Lan-Feng; Huang, He-Feng

    2014-05-22

    The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Data of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) were obtained. The levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA. After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly lower, whereas CPR, IR, LBR and NPY levels in the follicular fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. We concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids.

  7. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  8. Where, in which way and to what extent can Italian fertility grow in the next 15 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Alessandro; Caltabiano, Marcantonio

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at analysing the recent trends in fertility in Italy and at discussing its possible future trends. We analyse the evolution of demographic indicators, such as the total fertility rate and the maternal age in Italy, in the last 30 years and we look for the most relevant determinants of birth postponement. We also discuss the most recent fertility forecasts for Italy and their implications. In Italy, the total fertility rate has declined sharply in the last 30 years, reaching a level among the lowest in the world. However, in the last decade a reversal in this trend has been recorded. We here show that, net of the effect of immigration, this reversal is mainly due to a recovery of postponed births after age 30. Nevertheless, this recovery is not sufficient to raise the total fertility rates up to the replacement level. The reasons for this insufficient recovery are related both to the marked delay in transition to adulthood and to the difficult reconciliation of work and maternity for Italian women, both hampering the fertility rates. The fertility decline in Italy has finally stopped in the last years even if the maternal age is continuously increasing. However, without ad hoc family policies the fertility recovery will be weak and limited to those areas of the country with a better welfare system and economically more developed.

  9. After the demographic transition: policy responses to low fertility in four Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1994-09-01

    In the low fertility countries of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Thailand, policy-makers are concerned about the consequences of low growth. In South Korea, a family planning (FP) program was instituted in the early 1960s, and fertility declined to 1.6 by 1987. Rural fertility is still higher at 1.96, and abortion rates are high. 32.2% of fertility reduction is accomplished through abortion. South Korean population will not stabilize until 2021, at 50.6 million people. The elderly are expected to increase and strain housing, energy, and land resources. Government support for FP is being reduced, while private sector services are being enhanced. Government sterilization programs have been reduced significantly, and revisions in the Medical Insurance Law will cover part of contraceptive cost. Integrated services are being established. Many argue for an emphasis on birth spacing, child and family development, sex education, and care of the elderly. In Taiwan, replacement level fertility was reached in 1983. Policy in 1992 recommended increasing fertility from 1.6 to 2.1. The aim was to stabilize population without pronatalist interventions. Regardless of policy decisions, population growth will continue over the next 40 years, and the extent of aging will increase. In Singapore since the 1960s, the national government focused on encouraging small families through fertility incentives, mass media campaigns, and easy access to FP services. Fertility declined to 1.4 in 1988. Since 1983, government has established a variety of pronatalist incentives. In 1989, fertility increased to 1.8. The pronatalist shift is viewed as not likely to succeed in dealing with the concern for an adequate work force to support the elderly and economic development. In Thailand, fertility declined the fastest to 2.4 in 1993. The key factors were rapid economic and social development, a supportive cultural setting, strong demand for fertility control, and a successful FP program. The goal

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OOCYTE MATURITY FOR FERTILIZATION AND PRE-OVULATORY FOLLICULAR FLUID HORMONE LEVELS IN INDUCED OVULATORYCY CLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYong

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between haman oocyte matarity for fcrtilization andpre-ovulalory follicular fluid hormone levels in induced ova]story cycle by trealmcm withclomiphenz+HMG or clomiphene+HMC+HCG. 32 hours after urine LH--surge or 34

  11. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ≥ 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels.

  12. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.

  13. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  14. The Influentials of Actual Birth Level in Low Desired Fertility Condition in Our Country: Using Bongaarts Low Fertility Model%我国实际低生育水平的影响因素分析——邦戈茨低生育率模型应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 彭云亮

    2012-01-01

    本文使用2010年江苏省六县市"生育意愿与生育行为研究"跟踪调查数据,应用邦戈茨低生育率模型,对已基本完成生育周期且可生育二孩妇女的实际生育水平的影响因素进行了分析。在以意愿生育水平为参照的条件下,研究发现,初育年龄推迟、教育水平提高,工作压力等都对妇女的实际生育水平产生了显著的抑制作用。%Based on the tracking survey data of "fertility desire and behavior" conducted in six counties and cities of Jiangsu province in 2010, this paper adopts the Bongaarts Low Fertility Model to analyze the influentials of actual birth level of Chinese women who have basically finished the fertility cycle and can give birth to a second-child. With the reference of the contemporary desired fertility level, the results show that the delay of initial reproductive age, the rising level of education and working pressure play a significantly negative effect on women's actual birth level.

  15. Slovenia: Generous family policy without evidence of any fertility impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoja Šircelj

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia was not a typical socialist country; the transformation that had started at the end of the 1980s did not cause such great turbulences as in other countries in transition. However, unfavorable consequences did accompany the transition, particularly for some segments of the population. Fertility trends in Slovenia, as seen in the total fertility rate, have not surpassed the replacement level since the end of the 1970s. The lowest level of 1.21 was reached during the 1999-2003 period. Since then, the total fertility rate has been increasing slightly. Postponement in childbearing began with cohorts born after 1960. In today's Slovenian society, on average young women achieve higher education than men, and they perceive (potential motherhood as a drawback in the labor market. Almost all parents in Slovenia are employed full-time, even those with small children. Nevertheless, the traditional gender-division of roles persists in the family. Extended education, relatively high unemployment among the young, and a shortage of adequate housing prolong the stay in the parental home. Together with insecure employment, a responsible parenthood norm, and the perceived high costs of children, this results in childbearing postponement and a lower final number of children. Slovenia has a relatively well-developed family policy, particularly on parental leave and pre-school childcare. Notwithstanding, almost no impact of family policy on fertility has ever been observed.

  16. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg......(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function...

  17. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  18. LEVELS OF CYTOKINES, Α2-MACROGLOBULIN, AND ITS ACTIVE TRANSPORT FORM IN THE WOMEN WITH TUBAL INFERTILITY DURING IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We performed measurements of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, interferon-γ (IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, as well as total contents of α2-macroglobulin (MG in blood and concentration of its active transport form, i.e., circulating complexes with plasmin (MG-PL in women at their reproductive age, suffering with tubal infertility, who participated in an in vitro fertilization (IVF program. We have found that the cohort of women with tubal infertility is initially heterogeneous and consists of persons with relative enhancement of either humoral, or cellular immune response. Stimulation of superovulation upon IVF in the women with increased humoral immune reactivity promotes normalization of cytokine levels, increases total contents of MG and maintains its active form (MG-PL, both by transporting bioactive substances, which are necessary to growth of the embryo, favors better access of MG-PL to cells due to reduction of IFNγ levels. Finally, it brings about positive results of the IVF procedure. In women with increased cellulartype immune reactivity, the MG levels are initially low, along with high IFNγ levels, thus diminishing transport of biologically active substances to the cells by MG-PL, as well as high and non-decreasing TNFα concentrations after stimulated superovulation, and, probably, an increased activity of NK-cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes. These factors minimize the possibility of favorable IVF outcome. With respect of the trends revealed, we would like to recommend determinations of serum cytokines and MG-PL complexes, as an additional prognostic tool when carrying out IVF programs.

  19. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones and liver tests were measured in 245 male partners of pregnant women at a University Hospital Andrology Centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that after adjustment for covariates GGT was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. These significant changes appeared from a GGT >35.5 U/L. Next to these changes ALT was not related to sperm parameters. Both enzymes, GGT and ALT, were not related to reproductive hormones. Alcohol consumption was positively related to GGT and in cases with elevated GGT alcohol use was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. Alcohol consumption was positively related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Our findings also confirm results of previous studies that BMI and WC are associated positively with ALT and GGT. According to the study, increased GGT activity might represent a possible connection between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and semen quality.

  20. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Prévot

    Full Text Available Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1 DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2 Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3 the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4 the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5 the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected.

  1. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates: A Nationwide Registry Based Study from 1901 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blomberg Jensen

    Full Text Available Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level.A descriptive nationwide Danish study using birth registries from 1901-2014.Information on women's age at childbirth was obtained by using records from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.Mothers to 8,024,969 live births.Mothers were stratified according to age at childbirth to determine total and age specific fertility rates.Total fertility rate (TFR decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than the corresponding five year younger age groups (25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively have had for the last 65 years. On average, women gave birth to two children after the age of 30 and one or more child after 35 years of age in the beginning of the 1900s. Furthermore, women more than 40 years of age accounted for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction.This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong determinants of fertility in women above 30 years of age.

  2. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated.

  3. High Levels of Bioplastic Are Produced in Fertile Transplastomic Tobacco Plants Engineered with a Synthetic Operon for the Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2011-01-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5′ end by the host plant’s psbA coding sequence and at the 3′ end by the host plant’s 3′ psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  4. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  5. Fertility, kinship and the evolution of mass ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2017-03-21

    Traditional human societies are organised around kinship, and use kinship networks to generate large scale community projects. This is made possible by a combination of linguistic kin recognition, a uniquely human trait, which is mediated by the reliability of kin as collaborators. When effective fertility falls, this results in two simultaneous effects on social networks: there are fewer kin that can be relied on, and the limiting effect of the local kin-clustering becomes stronger. To capture this phenomenon, we used a model of kinship lineages to build populations with a range of fertility levels combined with a behavioural synchrony model to measure the efficiency of collective action generated on kin networks within populations. Our findings suggest that, whenever effective cooperation depends on kinship, falling fertility creates a crisis when it results in too few kin to join the community project. We conclude that, when societies transition to small effective kin networks, due to falling fertility, increased relative distance to kin due to urbanisation or high mortality due to war or epidemics, they will be able to remain socially cohesive only if they replace disappearing kin networks with quasi-kin alternatives based on membership of guilds or clubs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulating county-level crop yields in the Conterminous United States using the Community Land Model: The effects of optimizing irrigation and fertilization: IMPROVING CROP YIELD SIMULATIONS IN CLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA; Huang, Maoyi [Earth System Analysis and Modeling Group, Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Yang, Qichun [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA; Rafique, Rashid [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA; Asrar, Ghassem R. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA; Ruby Leung, L. [Earth System Analysis and Modeling Group, Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-12-19

    Representing agricultural systems explicitly in Earth system models is important for understanding the water-energy-food nexus under climate change. In this study, we applied Version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM) at a 0.125 degree resolution to provide the first county-scale validation of the model in simulating crop yields over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). We focused on corn and soybean that are both important grain crops and biofuel feedstocks (corn for bioethanol; soybean for biodiesel). We find that the default model substantially under- or over-estimate yields of corn and soybean as compared to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) census data, with corresponding county-level root-mean square error (RMSE) of 45.3 Bu/acre and 12.9 Bu/acre, or 42% and 38% of the US mean yields for these crops, respectively. Based on the numerical experiments, the lack of proper representation of agricultural management practices, such as irrigation and fertilization, was identified as a major cause for the model's poor performance. After implementing an irrigation management scheme calibrated against county-level US Geological Survey (USGS) census data, the county-level RMSE for corn yields reduced to 42.6 Bu/acre. We then incorporated an optimized fertilizer scheme in rate and timing, which is achieved by the constraining annual total fertilizer amount against the USDA data, considering the dynamics between fertilizer demand and supply and adopting a calibrated fertilizer scheduling map. The proposed approach is shown to be effective in increasing the fertilizer use efficiency for corn yields, with county-level RMSE reduced to 23.8 Bu/acre (or 22% of the US mean yield). In regions with similar annual fertilizer applied as in the default, the improvements in corn yield simulations are mainly attributed to application of longer fertilization periods and consideration of the dynamics between fertilizer demand and supply. For soybean which is capable of

  7. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  8. Cervical anterior hybrid technique with bi-level Bryan artificial disc replacement and adjacent segment fusion for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Yu-Song; Sun, Qi; Li, Jin-Yu; Zheng, Chen-Ying; Bai, Chun-Xiao; Yu, Qin-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the preliminary clinical efficacy and feasibility of the hybrid technique for multilevel cervical myelopathy. Considering the many shortcomings of traditional treatment methods for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy, hybrid surgery (bi-level Bryan artificial disc [Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA] replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion) should be considered. Between March 2006 and November 2012, 108 patients (68 men and 40 women, average age 45years) underwent hybrid surgery. Based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom's criteria, the clinical symptoms and neurological function before and after surgery were evaluated. Mean surgery duration was 90minutes, with average blood loss of 30mL. Mean follow-up duration was 36months. At the final follow-up, the mean JOA (± standard deviation) scores were significantly higher compared with preoperative values (15.08±1.47 versus 9.18±1.22; P<0.01); meanwhile, NDI values were markedly decreased (12.32±1.03 versus 42.68±1.83; P<0.01). Using Odom's criteria, the clinical outcomes were rated as excellent (76 patients), good (22 patients), fair (six patients), and poor (four patients). These findings indicate that the hybrid method provides an effective treatment for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments, ensuring a good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize or whole-crop wheat silages on the performance and meat quality of beef cattle offered two levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Lively, F O; Kilpatrick, D J; Moss, B W

    2007-05-01

    A randomised design involving 66 continental cross beef steers (initial live weight 523 kg) was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of maize or whole-crop wheat silages in grass silage-based diets on animal performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of beef cattle. Grass silage was offered either as the sole forage or in addition to either maize or whole-crop wheat silages at a ratio of 40:60, on a dry matter (DM) basis, alternative forage: grass silage. For the grass, maize, and whole-crop wheat silages, DM concentrations were 192, 276, and 319 g/kg, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were 110, 90, and 150 g/kg nitrogen, starch concentrations were not determined, 225, and 209 g/kg DM and in vivo DM digestibilities were 0.69, 0.69, and 0.58; respectively. The forages were offered ad libitum following mixing in a paddle type complete diet mixer wagon once per day, supplemented with either 3 or 5 kg concentrates per steer per day, in two equal feeds, for 92 days. For the grass, grass plus maize and grass plus whole-crop wheat silage-based diets food intakes were 8.38, 9.08, and 9.14 kg DM per day, estimated carcass gains were 514, 602, and 496 g/day and carcass weights were 326, 334, and 325 kg; respectively. Altering the silage component of the diet did not influence carcass composition or meat eating quality. Increasing concentrate feed level tended ( P = 0.09) to increase estimated carcass fat concentration and increased sarcomere length ( P quality. It is concluded that replacing grass silage with maize silage increased carcass gain, and weight due to higher intakes, and improved utilisation of metabolisable energy. Whilst replacing grass silage with whole-crop wheat silage increased live-weight gain, the reduced dressing proportion resulted in no beneficial effect on carcass gain, probably due to increased food intakes of lower digestible forage increasing gut fill. Meat quality or carcass composition were not altered by the

  10. Effects of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivar Armaviresky in Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salati Momeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivarArmaviresky in Ardabil a randomized complete block design experiment factorial the four replications in 1394. The amount of potassium factor of 3 K1= 0kg/h, K2= 50kg/h and K3= 100kg/h, respectively. And the second factor consisted of drought stress levels D1=70mm evaporation, D2=140mm evaporation and the D3 =210 mm evaporation. Was used in this experiment was Armawireski. Overall, it was concluded that water stress, yield in oil yield significantly reduced. In this experiment, the highest grain yield D1= 70mm treatments, respectively (5021kg/h (5631/4 kg/h and the lowest yield of treatments and treatments D3=210 mm K1=0 kg/h, respectively (2481/3 kg/h and (2996/9 kg/h. The results suggest that treatment D1=70 mm increased number of seeds per heah was.The higher leaf area during this stage of growth. Environmental stress by limiting the supply of assimilates for grain filling, the number of seeds per head is affected. So the highest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (74/51gr, (938/26 number and (2457 kg/h from D1=70mm treatment and lowest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (50/29 gr, (number 628/60 and (1631 kg g/h of treatment K1=0 kg/h, respectively. If the highest oil percent (%59/74 of treatment K3=100 kg/h, respectively.

  11. Influence of Different Fertilization Levels on Sugarcane Growth and Rhizosphere Soil Microbial%不同施肥水平对甘蔗生长及根际土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯重阳; 汪茜; 龙艳艳; 张金莲; 廖楠; 谭裕模; 黄京华; 陈廷速

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the influence of different fertilization levels on sugarcane growth and rhizosphere soil microbial, we established an in-site observation base for investigating plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial under 4 levels of fertilization in plant crop of sugarcane. The results showed that the millable stalks, plant height, stalk diameter and cane yield had no difference for different fertilization levels. The chemical fertilization levels affected the microbial populations in rhizosphere soil and fungi colonization in sugarcane roots. The highest (54.97%) colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in sugarcane root was found in 50% chemical fertilization treatment while the highest (19.53%) Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE) in sugarcane root was observed in the treatments without chemical fertilization. The soil became more acidic with lower pH when increasing chemical fertilizer input.%为了探讨不同施肥水平对甘蔗生长和根际土壤微生物的影响,本研究建立了甘蔗原位观察试验基地,分析4个不同施肥水平下新植甘蔗根际土壤微生物的变化及甘蔗生长情况。研究结果表明:增大化肥用量并没有对大田甘蔗有效茎数、株高、茎径和实际产量造成显著的影响。但化肥的施用量会影响根际微生物种群,改变根系内生真菌的定殖率。在50%施肥水平上,甘蔗根系的丛枝菌根真菌(Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, AMF)定殖率最高,达到54.97%,而在不施肥的处理中,深色有隔真菌(Dark Septate Endophyte, DSE)的定殖率最高,为19.53%。随着化肥用量的增加,土壤酸化,pH值降低。

  12. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  13. The Fertility Transition in Bavaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, John C.; Timothy W. Guinnane

    2001-01-01

    The decline of human fertility that occurred in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, and elsewhere in the twentieth century, remains a topic of debate largely because there is no accepted explanation for the event. Disagreement persists in part because researchers have rarely used the detailed quantitative information necessary to form adequate tests of alternative theories. This paper uses district-level data from Bavaria to study the correlates of the decline of fertility in ...

  14. Effects of Different Fertilization Levels on the Biomass and Citronella Oil Output of Lemongrass%不同施肥水平对香茅草生物量及香茅油产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇树乾; 李岩; 王坚; 王志勇

    2014-01-01

    Lemongrass was selected as materials to study effect of different fertilizer application level on the biomass and citronella oil output under field conditions. The results indicated that a significant increase in biomass and citronella oil output at different fertilization levels was found. The best fertilization level is in the middle fertility zone which is potassium sulphate 400kg/hm2, calcium-magnesium phosphate 1 500 kg/hm2, urea 750 kg/hm2. The grass production and citronella oil output raise the maximum to respectively 60 622.2 kg/hm2 with 372.5 L/hm2 in the middle fertility zone.%在大田情况下,以香茅草为材料,研究了不同施肥水平对香茅草生物量和香茅油产量的影响。结果表明:施肥对香茅草生物量和香茅油产量都有明显的提高,最佳施肥水平在中肥区,即硫酸钾400 kg/hm2,钙镁磷肥1500 kg/hm2,尿素750 kg/hm2,此施肥水平鲜草产量和香茅油出油量最高,分别达60622.2 kg/hm2和372.5 L/hm2。

  15. Bayesian inference of baseline fertility and treatment effects via a crop yield-fertility model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungyen Chen

    Full Text Available To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM on maize (Zea mays, barley (Hordeum vulgare, and soybean (Glycine max yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer.

  16. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  17. Subreplacement fertility in the West before the baby boom: past and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jan

    2010-03-01

    Between 1920 and 1940, fertility dropped below replacement level in many Western countries. In today's scholarly literature, the drop is usually explained as a temporary reaction to the exceptional conditions of the inter-war period. This paper confronts that interpretation with the interpretations offered by scholars writing between the wars. According to leading demographers of the time, low fertility was due not to war or economic crisis, but rather to processes that now tend to be associated with the Second Demographic Transition, including secularization, individualization, rising consumerism, and women's emancipation. Since these were seen as structural features of modernization, most inter-war scholars argued that subreplacement fertility would remain an obstinate feature of modern society for an extended period of time.

  18. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and iron fertilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2015-06-01

    We developed and employed an earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus, reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, they led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- and 14C-depleted DIC to the ocean as recorded in benthic foraminifera signals. The other half of the glacial drop in pCO2 was linked to reduced deep ocean dynamics, a shoaling of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and a rise in iron fertilization. The increased transit time of deep waters in the glacial ocean led to significant 14C depletions with respect to the atmosphere. The deglacial rapid and stepwise rise in atmospheric pCO2 was induced by upwelling both in the Southern Ocean and subarctic North Pacific and promoted by a drop in dust-borne iron discharge to the Southern Ocean. The deglacial sea-level rise led to a gradual decline in nutrient, DIC, and TA stocks

  19. 家庭结构对妇女生育水平影响的研究%Study on the Effect of Family Structure on Women’s Fertility Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福林

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the effects of family structure on the fertility rate of women is based on the census data. The results show,the fertility level and family structure types is related. The family size and fertility and survival of children exist signifi-cant positive relationship,women’s family structure in the big family is higher than in the small family,there was significant difference with fertility pattern.%本文利用人口普查数据分析了家庭结构对妇女生育水平的影响。分析结果显示,妇女的生育水平和家庭结构类型有关。家庭规模大小和妇女的生育和存活子女数量存在着明显的正向关系,大家庭中育龄妇女总和生育率高于小家庭,不同结构类型家庭的育龄妇女生育模式存在明显差别。

  20. An application of a probabilistic fertility model to estimate some female family life cycle stages in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1994-01-01

    Women's life cycle involves reproduction, labor force, and inactivity. In developing countries with inadequate data, mathematical models can be used to analyze economic behavior of individuals and families in different stages of the life cycle. This study described a model and empirically tested the model on data from Paraguay. The model provided estimates of the mean age of women at first birth, the mean age of women at last birth, time spent in reproduction, and mean life after the birth of the last child for 1950-55, 1980-85, and projection to 2020-25. Values were generated from age-specific mortality and fertility rates. Simulations were performed with varying mortality and fertility schedules. The method was based on techniques developed by Krishnamoorty, who based his methods on models proposed by Hoem and Goodman, Keyfitz, and Pullum. The method was based on an assumption of a stable population with a fixed age pattern of mortality and fertility. An assumption was also that more and less fertile women had the same mortality risks, and fertility and mortality at any one age was applicable to all ages. The total and net fertility rates and life expectancy followed a linear pattern. Application of the method showed that the net fertility rate declined by 27% from 6.15 during 1950-55 to 4.49 during 1980-85, but the time spent in reproduction declined only by 15%, from 15.7 years to 15.9 years. The cause of fertility decline was not a shortened reproductive period, but birth spacing. Projections to 2020-25 showed a decline in the reproductive period of 7 years and a net fertility rate of 3.0 children per woman. When a simulation of one of the 8 UN models of fertility age structure was used to project future fertility, the results showed the reproductive period declined from 11.8 years to 9.7 years. When fertility was assumed to be 2.3, which was considerably lower than 4.49 during 1980-85, the results showed replacement level fertility during 2020-25 and an early

  1. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin sensitivity and decreases high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal young male patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-yan; MAO Jiang-feng; LU Shuang-yu; ZHANG Qian; SHI Yi-fan

    2009-01-01

    Background Many clinical studies suggest the inverse relationship between testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity in men, however the causative relationship of these two events is still not determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on insulin sensitivity, body composition, serum lipid profiles and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal (HH) puberty undeveloped male patients.Methods In this prospectively designed study, we compared homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curves (AUC) of 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and other metabolic parameters between 26 HH patients and 26 healthy men. The patients' HOMA-IR, insulin AUC, body composition, lipid profiles, hsCRP and other parameters were compared before and after nine-month TRT.Results The average levels of total testosterone (TT) in HH and healthy group were (0.9±0.6) nmol/L and (18.8±3.4) nmol/L, respectively. HOMA-IR in HH group was significantly higher than the healthy group (5.14±5.16 vs 2.00±1.38, P<0.005). Insulin AUC in 3-hour OGTT in HH group was significantly higher than the healthy group (698.6±414.7 vs 414.2±267.5, P<0.01). Fasting glucose level in HH group was significantly higher than control group ((5.1±0.6) mmol/L vs (4.7±0.3) mmol/l, P<0.005). Height, weight and grasp strength of the patients were significantly increased after 9-month TRT. Significant reductions in HOMA-IR (from 5.14±5.16 to 2.97±2.16, P<0.01), insulin AUC (from 698.6±414.7 to 511.7±253.9, P<0.01) and hsCRP (from (1.49±1.18) mg/L to (0.70±0.56) mg/L, P<0.05) were found after TRT. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglyceride were all decreased, albeit with no significant difference compared to the level prior to TRT.Conclusions HOMA-IR, insulin AUC and fasting glucose level in HH young male patients were significantly higher than

  2. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  3. [The decline of fertility in Western Europe. III. Some considerations on future evolution and on policy measures aiming at supporting fertility (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calot, G

    1977-06-30

    The analysis of recent fertility trends in France lead to hold as plausible that women born after 1950 will not reach replacement level. On the other hand, the period total fertility rate, which has not fallen as low as those observed in some neighbouring countries, might well continue to decline and thus disturb the alimentation of age-pyramid, despite its slower decrease in the course of 1976. Considering present fertility situation in France, an action of the State appears to be desirable. The factors which condition fertility fall largely out of the range of well-established knowledge. Though, it seems that they are deeply rooted in collective consciousness and that the possibilities they leave to voluntary action on fertility trends is relatively modest. Moreover, to be efficient, the means used must be important. The lines of possible action seem, in our view, to relate to two main fields: research of a better conciliation of professional activity and motherhood, increase of family benefits for second but specially for third and following children.

  4. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avi; Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production.The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species.They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  5. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  6. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for a higher milk yield increases metabolic load via a higher yield per se and/or via physiological processes that facilitate milk yield, and it is difficult to differentiate between these two. Here, we aim to identify important pathways that contribute to the reduction in fertility follow

  7. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's)

  8. Air pollution and human fertility rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-09-01

    Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. We assessed the association between traffic related air pollution and fertility rates in humans in Barcelona, Spain (2011-2012). We hypothesized that higher air pollution levels would be associated with lower fertility rates. We calculated the general fertility rate which is the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years per census tract. We used land use regression (LUR) modeling to estimate the air pollution concentrations (particulate matter, NO2/NOx) per census tract. We used Besag-York-Mollié models to quantify the relationship between air pollution and fertility rates with adjustment for a number of potential confounders such as maternal age and area level socio-economic status. We found a statistically significant reduction of fertility rates with an increase in traffic related air pollution levels, particularly for the coarse fraction of particulate matter (IRR=0.87 95% CI 0.82, 0.94 per IQR). This is the first study in humans to show an association between reduced fertility rates and higher traffic related air pollution levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2–19 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Design Cross-sectional modeling study. Setting Data from the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants A total of 8,112 children aged 2–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Analysis Survey-weighted linear regression models. Results Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107–119) and 77 (95% CI, 73–82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4–2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3–1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Conclusions Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient–rich beverages. PMID:25528079

  10. Potential population-level nutritional impact of replacing whole and reduced-fat milk with low-fat and skim milk among US children aged 2-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Cross-sectional modeling study. Data from the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 8,112 children aged 2-19 years. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Survey-weighted linear regression models. Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107-119) and 77 (95% CI, 73-82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient-rich beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of Different Fertilization Levels on the Growth of Yucca gloriosa Seedlings%不同施肥水平对干热河谷区剑麻幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志贤; 岳学文; 李纪潮; 纪中华; 奎建蕊; 易克贤

    2013-01-01

    采用盆栽试验方法,探讨不同施肥水平对剑麻根系和植株生长的影响。试验设4个处理,分别为B0(对照), B1(低肥)、 B2(中肥)、 B3(高肥)。试验研究结果表明:3种不同施肥处理对剑麻根系和地上部生长有一定影响;在低肥处理下,剑麻的根条数、根鲜重、根干重、剑麻株高、叶片数、单叶片长、单叶鲜重、株鲜重、株干重,在所有处理中最大;而随着施肥浓度的提高,剑麻的根条数,根鲜重、根干重、剑麻株高、叶片数、单叶片长、单叶鲜重、株鲜重、株干重与B1相比,都有明显下降。可见,低肥处理时最能促进剑麻的生长发育。%To explore the effects of fertilization on root and aboveground growth of Yucca gloriosa, individuals of Y . gloriosa was planted in pots under four level fertility treatments (i.e. Control B0; Low level B1; Middle leve; High level). The results showed that fertilization could affect the root and aboveground growth to some extent. The branches of roots, root fresh biomass, root dry weight, height, number of leaves, length of leaf, fresh biomass per leaf, total fresh biomass and dry weight were the largest under B1 treatment. Thereafter, they all decreased obviously with increasing fertilization level. In summary, the low level fertilization was the optimal treatment which could promote growth of Y . gloriosa.

  12. Function Differences Between Root and Crown of Three Apple Rootstocks with Different Fertility Levels%三种苹果砧木不同肥力条件下根冠功能差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳丽; 毛志泉; 李晓磊; 沈向; 束怀瑞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同肥力条件下苹果砧木根冠功能的差异.[方法]以平邑甜茶(Malus hupohensis‘Pingyitiancha')、八棱海棠(M.robusta)、莱芜难咽(M.micromalus ‘Laiwunanyan')一年生实生苗为试材,研究不同砧木类型根系和叶片在不同肥料水平下的功能差异.[结果]在地上部和地下部的比例上,随着土壤肥力的提高,根/冠比减小,但是减少的比例在不同物种之间存在差异.叶片净光合速率(Pn)日变化均表现双峰曲线,Pn日均值与施肥水平成正比,不同砧木间也有所不同,莱芜难咽明显高于其它两种砧木.根/冠比与水分利用效率(WUE)显著相关.叶绿素荧光参数测定表明,相同的砧木品种,在不同肥力条件下,其热耗散能力差异明显,可能与肥力供应水平改变了叶片光合色素的组成有关.[结论]针对不同苹果砧木,调节施肥水平,可以适度控制根系生长,调节根/冠比例,有助于减少冗余,是制定人工塑造树体结构技术重要步骤.%[Objective] The aim of this paper is to analyze the difference between root and shoot of apple rootstocks function with different fertility levels. [Method] One-year seedlings of Malus hupehensis ‘Pingyitiancha’, M. robusta, M. micromalus ‘Laiwunanyan’, were used as materials in the experiment. Root and leaf function difference of different apple rootstock seedlings among different fertilizer levels were studied. [Result] In the proportion of the above-ground part and underground part, with the enhancement of the soil fertility, the shoot/root ratio decreased. But the ratio's decrease in different species was different. In high soil fertility, the content of chlorophyll was rich. The result indicated that pigments degradation was affected by soil fertility. Diurnal changes of Pn were double peak curve; the average of Pn was proportional to soil fertility. There were many differences between different apple stocks. The Pn of ‘Laiwunayan’ was higher

  13. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  14. Period Fertility in Russia since 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a detailed demographic analysis of the change of period fertility that occurred since 1930, based on individual retrospective data, collected in the most recent (five percent microcensus of the Russian Federation from 1994. We assess the influence of external events on the level and distribution of (period fertility. For the years prior to 1950 our information on age specific fertility is not complete, but using fertility models acceptable estimates can be constructed. The Coale-Trussell model is particularly suited for producing detailed and robust estimates of interpretable parameters of the fertility distribution. Although none of the observed crises in Russia succeeded in exerting a decisive influence on the course of the fertility transition, political events often had profound short-term effects.

  15. [Fertility trends and socioeconomic development in the Philippines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebenfuhr, E

    1991-01-01

    In the Philippines the number of children per woman is envisioned to be 2 by the year 2000 to reach simple replacement level. The crude birth rate had dropped from 43.6% in 1960 to 32.3% during 1980-85 corresponding to 4.2 children/woman. However, the corresponding rates for Thailand and Malaysia were 28% and 32.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) was still a high 4.7% in 1988. In 1980 TFR was 3 in Manila, but 3/4 of the provinces still had TFR of 5-6.8 in 1985. Yet the World Fertility Survey of 1970 indicated that the total married fertility rate had decreased from 9.6 in 1970 to 9.1 in 1977. Married women had an average of 4.5 children in 1968 and still 4 children in 1983. Only 1/2 of married women aged 15-45 used contraception. In 1983, only 26.2% of all fertile married women used effective contraception. 63% of Moslim women, 70% of Catholics and Protestants, and 83% of members of the Church of Christ advocate modern contraceptives. From 1967 the National Population Outreach Program of the state sent out family planning advisers to unserviced areas. In 1983 only 37% of married women knew about such a service within their locality, and in 1988 a World Bank investigation showed that 67% could not afford contraceptives. The education, employment, income, urbanization of the household as well as medical care of women and children strongly influenced reproduction. The lifting of living standards and improvement of the condition of women is a central tenet of Philippine family planning policy. A multiple regression analysis of the World Fertility Survey proved that professional women tended to have smaller family size, however, most women worked out of economic necessity not because of avocation. The higher the urban family income, the lower marital fertility; but the reverse is true in rural areas where traditionally large families have had more income, and children have provided future material security. In 1983 1/3 of women with children over 18

  16. Variations in Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonné Ndaruhuye Muhoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution studies the variation in desired family size and excess fertility in four East African countries by analyzing the combined impact of wealth, education, religious affiliation, and place of residence. The findings show an enormous heterogeneity in Kenya. Wealthy and higher educated people have fertility desires close to replacement level, regardless of religion, while poor, uneducated people, particularly those in Muslim communities, have virtually uncontrolled fertility. Rwanda is at the other extreme: poor, uneducated people have the same desired fertility as their wealthy, educated compatriots, regardless of their religion—a case of “poverty Malthusianism.”. The potential for family planning is high in both countries as more than 50% of the women having 5 children or more would have preferred to stop at 4 or less. Tanzania and Uganda have an intermediate position in desired family size and a lower potential for family planning. Generally, the main factor that sustains higher fertility is poverty exacerbated by religious norms among the poor only.

  17. Do increased levels of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin affects pregnancy outcome in long agonist protocol in fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of elevated levels of serum progesterone (P 4 and estradiol (E 2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and their cut-off value on in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes is still not clear. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the association between serum P 4 , E 2 and progesterone/estradiol ratio (P 4 /E 2 on pregnancy outcome in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles with long agonist protocol. Setting and Design: Retrospective, single center, cohort study. Materials and Methods: A review of complete data of 544 women undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (539 cycles with long agonist protocol from January 2012 to February 2014 was done. Data were stratified into Three groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved: low (≤4 oocytes obtained, intermediate (5-19 oocytes obtained, and high ovarian response (≥20 oocytes obtained. Statistical Analysis: Fishers exact test/Chi-square was carried for comparing categorical data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value for P 4 and P 4 /E 2 detrimental for pregnancy. Results: A negative association was observed between pregnancy rate (PR and serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 levels with no effect on fertilization and cleavage rate. The overall cut-off value of serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 ratio detrimental for pregnancy was found to be 1.075 and ≥0.35, respectively. Different P 4 threshold according to the ovarian responders were calculated, 1.075 for intermediate and 1.275 for high responders. Serum E 2 levels were not found to be significantly associated with PR. Conclusion: Serum P 4 levels and P 4 /E 2 ratio are a significant predictor for pregnancy outcome without affecting cleavage and fertilization rate while serum estradiol levels do not seem to affect PR.

  18. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels=Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N on the agronomic performance of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos

  19. Fertility in the context of Mexican migration to the United States: A case for incorporating the pre-migration fertility of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mexican-American fertility is poorly understood because data limitations prevent researchers from accurately estimating the fertility levels of members of this group and from determining how their fertility changes within and across generations. Objective: Using binational data and an innovative methodological addressing key methodological limitations, I (1 estimate the fertility of Mexican Americans, (2 describe how selective Mexican migration to the United States is in terms of fertility, (3 document how Mexican-American fertility changes within and across generations, and (4 assess how educational selectivity and assimilation contribute to levels of fertility and fertility changes within and across generations. Results: My findings show that migration from Mexico to the United States is positively selective with respect to fertility. Among the migrants studied, there was a disruption in fertility in anticipation of migration, but a resumption of pre-migration fertility patterns and partial compensation for the earlier fertility loss after migration. Fertility levels among Mexican-Americans appear to be decreasing within and across generations, as immigrants deviate from their pre-migration fertility patterns and increasingly adopt those of whites. Nonetheless, Mexican-American fertility has not yet fully converged with white fertility. Educational assimilation explains a considerable portion of this fertility decline within and across generations. Comments: These findings highlight the importance of empirically observing the pre-migration fertility of immigrants.

  20. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented pub

  1. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  2. Age and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish. If the egg fertilizes ... produced by the testes that fertilize a woman’s egg. The sperm head carries genetic material (chromosomes), the midpiece produces ...

  3. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  4. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  5. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm In vitro fertilization (IVF) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg ...

  6. Detecting the Evolution of Deliberate Fertility Control before the Demographic Transition in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Amialchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pervious literature has established the existence of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control in pre-transitional populations. However, less focus has been given to the timing of its onset. In addition, previous studies focused on the changes in fertility in response to the local prices of grains, which may be endogenous. OBJECTIVE This paper studies the emergence and evolution of deliberate fertility control by investigating the link between child mortality and economic stress on the one hand and non-parity-specific birth control on the other, in historic German villages between 1700 and 1900. METHODS Birth histories from fourteen German villages (1700-1900 and rye price series are used in a micro-level event history analysis. The fertility response of second and higher-order births to the mortality of children over age two and exogenous fluctuations in rye price are used as measures of the extent of deliberate non-parity-specific birth control. RESULTS Over the course of the demographic transition, the effect of the death of children generally increases after controlling for the effect of the death of children less than two years old. The negative fertility response to high rye prices before and in the year immediately following the price change occurred only after 1800. CONCLUSIONS The replacement and insurance effects associated with child mortality generally increased before the demographic transition. The emergence of the negative effect of high rye prices on fertility after 1800 further supports the presence and evolution of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control before the demographic transition.

  7. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North ...

  8. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of clinical pregnancy in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer cycles in patients over 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Lyu, Sang Woo; Seok, Hyun Ha; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the predictive value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels for pregnancy outcomes in patients over 40 years of age who underwent in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 188 women aged 40 to 44 years who underwent IVF/ICSI-fresh ET cycles due to unexplained infertility in the fertility center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center. Patients were divided into group A, with AMH levels <1.0 ng/mL (n=97), and group B, with AMH levels ≥1.0 ng/mL (n=91). We compared the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in the two groups and performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors that had a significant effect on the CPR. The CPR was significantly lower in group A than group B (7.2% vs. 24.2%, p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, AMH levels were the only factor that had a significant impact on the CPR (odds ratio, 1.510; 95% confidence interval, 1.172-1.947). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for AMH levels as a predictor of the CPR was 0.721. When the cut-off level of AMH was set at 1.90 ng/mL, the CPR was 6.731-fold higher in the group with AMH levels ≥1.90 ng/mL than in the group with AMH levels <1.90 ng/mL (p<0.001). Our study showed that AMH levels were predictive of clinical pregnancy in infertility patients over 40 years of age. Further prospective studies should be conducted to validate the predictive capability of AMH levels for the outcome of clinical pregnancy.

  9. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  10. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Enzyme Activities and Soil Fertility for Black Farmlands Under Different Soil Matter Levels%长期施肥对不同有机质含量农田黑土土壤酶活性及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文婷; 付岩梅; 隋跃宇; 刘晓冰; 李建维

    2013-01-01

    The research investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities and soil fertility for the black farmlands under different soil organic matter levels. This study used the conventional analysis methods to test and analyze the activity of soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, protease and the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, available phosphorus in five black farmlands soil with different soil matter content of soil spatial shift long-term experiments in National Observation Station of Hailun Agro-ecology System. The results showed that, the application of chemical fertilizers could increase the nutrient content in different degree and soil enzyme activities of black soil. The order of the raise was Bei'an (SOM11)>Nenjiang (SOM6)>Helen (SOM5)>Dehui (SOM3) > Lishu (SOM1.7). Compared to other four soils, Bei'an (SOM11) reached significant difference level(P嫩江(SOM6)>海伦(SOM5)>德惠(SOM3)>梨树(SOM1.7),北安黑土与其他4种土壤之间达到了差异显著水平(P<0.05)。相关分析结果显示:土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蛋白酶、蔗糖酶与土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮显著相关,土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶可以反映不同有机质含量农田黑土长期施肥后土壤质量变化趋势。

  11. Mitochondrial replacement techniques and Mexico's rule of law: on the legality of the first maternal spindle transfer case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Arellano, María de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract News about the first baby born after a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT; specifically maternal spindle transfer) broke on September 27, 2016 and, in a matter of hours, went global. Of special interest was the fact that the mitochondrial replacement procedure happened in Mexico. One of the scientists behind this world first was quoted as having said that he and his team went to Mexico to carry out the procedure because, in Mexico, there are no rules. In this paper, we explore Mexico's rule of law in relation to mitochondrial replacement techniques and show that, in fact, certain instances of MRTs are prohibited at the federal level and others are prohibited at the state level. According to our interpretation of the law, the scientists behind this first successful MRT procedure broke federal regulations regarding assisted fertilization research. PMID:28852557

  12. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  13. 投入式液位计在液肥液位检测中的应用%Application of Input Level Gauge in Liquid Fertilizer of the Liquid Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文娟; 欧阳斌林; 雷冬阁; 赵健评; 任雪; 孙文峰

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the shortage of liquid fertilizer in agricultural machinery currently, liquid fertilizer precise, quantita-tive control is one of the limiting factors.This paper takes the microcontroller as the control core, using input liquid level to acquire data sensor, convert changed liquid level into voltage variation, then use A/D transform analog quantity into digital quantity, at the same time, processing through the MCU to convert voltage values into the corresponding capacity value and display.Finally using MATLAB analysis of test data, the results show that the measuring capacity value and the height of liquid level value error are concerned with the container, but the error meets the actual requirements, can be applied to the liquid fertilizer applicator.%针对当前液态施肥机在液肥的精确及定量控制等方面存在的不足,以单片机作为控制核心,采用投入式液位传感器进行数据采集,将液位的变化转换成电压变化,再利用 A/D 将模拟量转化成数字量;同时,通过单片机处理将电压值换算成相应的液位高度值及容量值并显示,并用 MatLab 分析试验数据。结果表明:液位高度值各容量值测量误差均满足实际要求,可应用于液态施肥机。

  14. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  15. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  16. Premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    patterns. Compared with the average pattern, outlier countries had either high levels of premarital fertility and ... KEY WORDS: Premarital fertility, Adolescent fertility, HIV-AIDS, Sexual behaviour, Contraception, sub-Saharan ... widespread knowledge of disease transmission and ways to prevent it, as shown by numerous.

  17. 长期不同施肥处理对华北潮土酶活性的影响%Soil Enzyme Levels in Fluvo-auic Soil with Different Long-term Fertilization in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 张佳宝; 信秀丽; 张丛志; 宁琪; 赵金花; 吴其聪; 赵占辉; 蔡太义; 聂广森

    2015-01-01

    activity, 81.3%, 180% respectively. And (6) there was a positive correlation among urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and invertase activity, and urease activity and invertase activity positively related to soil organic matter and total N, respectivly. The result suggested that compost and straw application made the soil enzyme activity remain at a high level and contributed to improvement of soil fertility compared with mineral fertilization treatment, and the ratio of N/K exerted an significant influence on soil enzyme activity.

  18. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  19. The Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Intercropped with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. and Affected by Weed Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abadian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of basil (Ocimum basiilicum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  L. under different levels of nitrogen supply and weed competition conditions, a field experiment was carried out in split-split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 and 2011 at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University. Experimental factors included weed treatment (weed free and weed infested, three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1, and different planting ratios (monoculture of cowpea and basil, additive planting ratio 25, 50 and 75% basil. In weed control conditions, the maximum yield of cowpea (684 kg ha-1 and dry matter yield of basil (420 kg ha-1 were belonged to 20, 50 percent of basil ratio and 50 and100 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizers, respectively. The highest amount of essence yield in weed free and weed infested were 69.24 and 70.40 percent as compared to the basil monocropping which belonged to 50 and 25 percent of additive basil intercropping with 100 kg ha-1 nitrogen application, respectively. Also, the dry weight of shoot and oil yield in monoculture treatments were significantly higher than intercropping. The leaf percent and the ratio of leaf and flower to stem in basil plant were significantly lower in monocropping than intercropping. In weed infested conditions, the highest percentage of stem (62.18 and basil dry yield (160 kg ha-1 were recorded in 25 percent of basil ratio and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen application. Also, the highest system productivity index (1517 and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.31 were belonged to 50 percent of basil ratio and 50 kg ha-1of nitrogen fertilizer in weed free conditions which shows that intercropping is more efficient than monocropping.

  20. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  1. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  2. Comparing Two Types of Fertilizer Distributor (centrifuge in Order to ptimize the Pattern of Fertilizer Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for food production in the recent years has raised the usage of granular fertilizers. Consequently, the growing use of fertilizers has reduced the quality and quantity of crop production. In addition pollution problems such as soil and water (surface and subterranean water contaminations has increased. Consistent spreading of fertilizers in the farmlands is of fundamental rules in conventional framings. In present study, the effects of the number and the arrangement (position of blades of a single disk fertilizer distributer and for two different fertilizers were investigated in order to obtain optimized distribution of fertilizer. The tests were conducted in factorial arrangement and in a completely randomized model. The variables were the number of blades in three levels of 4, 6 and 8, the blade position angles (in two patterns of radial and non-radial and the type of fertilizer (phosphate and nitrate. Statistical analysis of results indicated that the number of blades on the disk and type of fertilizer are not effective parameters in order to reach a consistent distribution pattern of fertilizer while the position of blades on the disk has significant influence for this purpose. The best pattern of distribution was obtained from the disk with four non-radial blades and nitrate fertilizer.

  3. 不同水分下腐殖酸对杨树生长和土壤肥力的影响%The Effects of Humic Acid Under Different Water Levels on Poplar Growth and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬敏; 桑茂鹏; 刘春生; 邢尚军

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore poplar high-yield water and fertilizer condition, the effect of humic acid and inorganic fertilizer on poplar growth and soil fertility were conducted under low, normal and high three different water levels by pot experiment. The result showed that: there was no significant difference on the dry weight under low water treatment between the application of humic acid and inorganic fertilizer, but had significant difference under regular and high water treatment. Under the three different water levels, total average dry weights were 14.60 g, 96.03 g and 230.00 g respectively which had significant difference between them. Compared with inorganic fertilizer under the same water levels, the application of humic acid significantly decreased the contents of nitrate nitrogen and available P, K, increased the content of ammonium nitrogen;significantly increased the contents of total C and correspondingly the humus activity; and had significantly enhanced the activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme, but had little effect on catalase enzyme. As for the urease enzyme, the application of humic acid significantly increased urease enzyme in the low and regular water treatment, and had no significant difference in the high water treatment. To sum up, application of humid acid were blocked under low water treatment, but it had significant effects on poplar growth and soil fertility under regular and high water treatment.%为了探索杨树高产栽培水肥措施,采用盆栽试验,研究低水(W1)、常规水分(W2)和高水(W3)3种水分条件下,配施腐殖酸(M)和单施无机肥对杨树生长和土壤肥力的影响。结果表明:低水条件下,配施腐殖酸与单施无机肥处理杨树总生物量无显著差异,而在常规水和高水条件下有显著差异。低水、常规水和高水条件下,杨树平均总生物量分别为14.60 g、96.03 g和230.00 g ,差异明显。相同水分下,配施腐殖酸降低了土壤硝态氮、

  4. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2009-01-01

    cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show......Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study...... remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern...

  5. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  6. Studying the effect of ovulation stimulation by using clomiphene citrate on serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1ß in sub-fertile women in Holy Kerbala Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha F. Mohammed AL-Ma’aroof

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The results of this study may implicate a direct role of TNF-α in the fertility and, thus, could raise questions about the possibility of using immune modulation in the treatment of sub-fertility.

  7. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  9. Concomitant intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin preserves spermatogenesis in men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Chin; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy results in decreased serum gonadotropins and intratesticular testosterone, and impairs spermatogenesis, leading to azoospermia in 40% of patients. However, intratesticular testosterone can be maintained during testosterone replacement therapy with co-administration of low dose human chorionic gonadotropin, which may support continued spermatogenesis in patients on testosterone replacement therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the records of hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy and concomitant low dose human chorionic gonadotropin. Testosterone replacement consisted of daily topical gel or weekly intramuscular injection with intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (500 IU) every other day. Serum and free testosterone, estradiol, semen parameters and pregnancy rates were evaluated before and during therapy. A total of 26 men with a mean age of 35.9 years were included in the study. Mean followup was 6.2 months. Of the men 19 were treated with injectable testosterone and 7 were treated with transdermal gel. Mean serum hormone levels before vs during treatment were testosterone 207.2 vs 1,055.5 ng/dl (p testosterone 8.1 vs 20.4 pg/ml (p = 0.02) and estradiol 2.2 vs 3.7 pg/ml (p = 0.11). Pretreatment semen parameters were volume 2.9 ml, density 35.2 million per ml, motility 49.0% and forward progression 2.3. No differences in semen parameters were observed during greater than 1 year of followup. No impact on semen parameters was observed as a function of testosterone formulation. No patient became azoospermic during concomitant testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin therapy. Nine of 26 men contributed to pregnancy with the partner during followup. Low dose human chorionic gonadotropin appears to maintain semen parameters in hypogonadal men on testosterone replacement therapy. Concurrent testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin use may preserve fertility in hypogonadal males

  10. Toward richer metadata for microbial sequences: replacing strain-level NCBI taxonomy taxids with BioProject, BioSample and Assembly records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhen, Scott; Clark, Karen; Barrett, Tanya; Parkinson, Helen; Ostell, James; Kodama, Yuichi; Mashima, Jun; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Cochrane, Guy; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2014-06-15

    Microbial genome sequence submissions to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) have been annotated with organism names that include the strain identifier. Each of these strain-level names has been assigned a unique 'taxid' in the NCBI Taxonomy Database. With the significant growth in genome sequencing, it is not possible to continue with the curation of strain-level taxids. In January 2014, NCBI will cease assigning strain-level taxids. Instead, submitters are encouraged provide strain information and rich metadata with their submission to the sequence database, BioProject and BioSample.

  11. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  12. Fertilization in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

    2012-08-31

    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization.

  13. Effects of Replacing Different Levels of Alfalfa Hay with Pistachio Hull on Feed Intake, Digestibility of Nutrients, Rumen Fermentative Parameters, Blood Metabolites and Nitrogen Balance in Balochi Male Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the effects of replacing different levels of alfalfa with Pistachio Hull (PH on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentative parameters, blood metabolites and nitrogen metabolism in Balochi male lambs. Three male lambs (35±2 kg live weight equipped with ruminal and abomasual cannulas were randomly assigned into a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental diets included 1 30% alfalfa, 20% wheat straw, 50% concentrate (DM basis and in 2 and 3 diets the 15 and 30% of alfalfa was replaced with Pistachio Hull, respectively. Result showed that feed intake was not different between treatments. Total tract digestibility for DM, OM, ADF and NDF were not significantly affected by the diets, but CP in total tract was significantly decreased. Dietary PH content resulted in a decrease in the rumen N-NH3 concentration. The concentration of liver enzymes, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL were not influenced by PH content of diet. As tannin was increased in the diets, the nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion from urine and digested nitrogen significantly were decreased. Nitrogen excretions from fecal were significantly increased by increased of dietary tannin. Therefore, using of PH in level of 30% (DM basis due to supply appropriate levels of tannin without negative effects on feed intake and nutrient digestibility, can improve animal performance and with increasing nitrogen excretion from urine to feces environmentally can be very beneficial.

  14. Componentes estruturais do resíduo pós-corte em capim-massai adubado com cinco doses de nitrogênio After cut structural components of massai grass under five nitrogen fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Neves Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os componentes da biomassa do resíduo pós-corte em capim-massai submetido a cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600 mg N dm-3 de solo num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições (vasos em casa de vegetação. Avaliaram-se a altura residual, a densidade populacional de perfilhos (DPP, a massa seca de forragem total residual (MSFTr, de forragem verde residual (MSFVr, de forragem morta residual (MSFMr, de lâmina foliar verde residual (MSLVr, de colmo verde residual (MSCVr, relação lâmina foliar/haste (LF/C, a massa seca radicular (MS radicular e a relação parte aérea/raiz. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de adubação nitrogenada sobre a altura residual. As variáveis MSFTr, MSFVr e MSCVr responderam positivamente, enquanto a MSLVr revelou comportamento quadrático com os níveis de N. Constatou-se valores estimados de 13,35 e 39,73 g MS/vaso para MSFTr, de 9,71 e 24,69 g MS/vaso para MSFVr e de 3,65 e 15,07 g MS/vaso para MSFMr nas doses de 0 a 600 mg N dm-3 de solo, respectivamente. A MS radicular respondeu positivamente às doses de N. A adubação nitrogenada proporciona resultados positivos sobre as características estruturais do resíduo pós-corte do capim-massai.After cut residue of Massai grass under five nitrogen fertilized levels were evaluated. A completely randomized design with five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N dm-3 of soil and five replicates (plots in greenhouse was used. It was evaluated the residual canopy height (RCH, the tiller population density (TPD, the total residual forage dry mass (TFDM, the residual green forage dry mass (GFDM, the senescent forage dry mass (SFDM, the residual green leaf dry mass (GLDM, the residual green culm dry mass (GCDM, leaf/culm ratio (L/C, root dry mass (RDM and above ground/root ratio (A/R. There was square effect of nitrogen fertilization on RCH. There were crescent and linear effect of nitrogen

  15. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  16. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  17. 不同施肥条件下甘蔗对钾的吸收利用研究%Potassium uptake and its utilization in sugarcane under the different fertilization levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏伟; 周柳强; 谢如林; 黄美福

    2011-01-01

    [目的]明确不同施肥条件下甘蔗对钾的吸收利用规律.[方法]以甘蔗品种新台糖22号为试材,进行第1年新植蔗、第2年宿根蔗不同施肥处理田间试验,各生育阶段分别测定各处理甘蔗对钾的吸收强度、对钾肥的利用率以及土壤中钾养分的盈余量,并用阴阳离子交换树脂监测施钾和不施钾处理耕作层土壤钾离子淋溶量.[结果]不同施肥条件下,甘蔗各生育阶段对钾的吸收强度存在较大差异;随着生长量的增加,钾养分在甘蔗植株体内的稀释效应明显,植株含钾量以苗期较高,成熟期较低;增施钾肥后甘蔗吸钾量明显增加,新植蔗、宿根蔗对钾肥的利用率分别为34.3%~40.6%、29.4%~31.7%;不同施肥条件下,新植蔗的土壤速效钾和缓效钾含量均有所降低,而宿根蔗中施钾处理的土壤速效钾和缓效钾含量则有所增加;施钾处理较不施钾处理耕作层土壤钾离子淋溶量明显增加;不同施肥条件下,新植蔗和宿根蔗土壤中钾养分平衡均表现为P2K2、N2P2K3处理有所盈余,N2P2K2、N2P2K1、N2P2处理有所亏损,但以N2P2处理亏损最大.[结论]不同施肥条件对甘蔗吸收利用钾素以及土壤中钾素的移动和平衡均有影响,实际生产中应注重氮、磷、钾合理配施,提高肥料利用率,为甘蔗高产优质栽培提供施肥指导.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of potassium uptake and its utilization in sugarcane under the different fertilization levels. [Method]A field experiment was conducted on plant crop and first ratoon crop of sugarcane variety ROC22 to find out the uptake amount and utilization rate of potassium in plants and its surplus content in the soil at different growth stages under different treatments. The cation-anion exchange resin was used to monitor the amount of leaching potassium in the treatments with and without potassium fertilizer. [Result ]Great differences in

  18. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study...... of the older cohort when aged 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers...

  19. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  20. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente;

    2007-01-01

    ). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p ... receptor- 1 (ESR1), CRP and fibrinogen-beta genes influences the plasma levels of inflammation markers after HRT. Plasma CRP and fibrinogen were measured after five years follow-up in healthy postmenopausal women (per-protocol group) who were randomised to hormone therapy (n=187) or no treatment (n=249...... concentration (n.s.). Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, CRP and fibrinogen were not associated with an effect of HRT on the CRP and fibrinogen plasma levels, and no significant interaction with smoking was observed. In conclusion, higher plasma levels of CRP and lower plasma levels of fibrinogen were observed...

  1. Comparação das comunidades de Sminthuroidea e Onychiuridae (Collembola entre plantio direto em três níveis de fertilidade, plantio convencional e um ecossistema natural (campo nativo em Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Coniparison of the communities of Sminthuroidea and Onychiuridae (Collembola among no-tillage in three levels of fertility, conventional tillage and a natural ecosystem (native grassland in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Dieter Sautter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to compare the communities of Sminthuroidea and Onychiuridae (Collembola among no-tillage in three fertility levels, conventional tillage and a natural ecosystem (native grassland. In the conventional tillage and in the no-tillage in area of medium fertility, the community of Sminthuroidea had regular fluctuation along the period of the experiment, but wtth low densities. The no-tillage in area of high fertility presented a populational pick in the autumn; the no-tillage in area of low fertility, in the spring; and, the natural ecosystem, in the summer. As the final mean density of the population of Sminthuroidea, was observed that the no-tillage in area of low fertility went numerically superior to the others, proceeded by the natural ecosystem, no-tillage in area of high fertility, conventional tillage, and, finally, no-tillage in area of medium fertility. Onychiuridae had three populational picks in the no-tillage in area of low fertility: being a larger in the winter and other two, smaller in the summer and in the autumn. In the no-tillage in area of medium fertility presented only a populational pick in the winter. In the other treatments there was not significantly populational picks. In relation to the final mean density ofthe community of Onychiuridae, the no-tillage plantation in area of low fertility was superior, proceeded by the other treatments of no-tillage, and, in third plan, the natural ecosystem and the conventional tillage.

  2. Vitamin D levels and effects of vitamin D replacement in children with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Bertini, Federico; Rigante, Donato; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-06-01

    The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by regularly recurrent fever episodes due to seemingly unprovoked inflammation. To assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in children with PFAPA syndrome and evaluate longitudinally the effect of wintertime vitamin D supplementation on the disease course. We have evaluated 25 Italian patients (19 males, 6 females, aged 2.4-5.3 years), fulfilling the Euro-Fever PFAPA criteria. For each patient, we recorded demographic and anthropometric data, clinical manifestations, serum calcium, phosphate, and 25(OH)D. After 400 IU vitamin D supplementation during wintertime, clinical and auxological characteristics, calcium, phosphate, and 25(OH)D levels were re-evaluated. Data were compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. PFAPA patients showed reduced 25(OH)D levels than controls (p<0.0001). Regarding the effect of seasons on vitamin D, winter 25(OH)D levels were significantly reduced than summer ones (p<0.005). Moreover, these levels were significantly lower than in healthy controls (p<0.005), and correlated with both fever episodes (p<0.005) and C-reactive protein values (p<0.005). After vitamin D supplementation, PFAPA patients showed a significantly decreased number of febrile episodes and modification of their characteristics (mean duration of fever episodes, p<0.05; number of febrile episodes per year p<0.005). Deficient and insufficient vitamin D serum levels were found in most children with PFAPA syndrome, and hypovitaminosis D might be a significant risk factor for PFAPA flares. However, vitamin D supplementation seems to significantly reduce the typical PFAPA episodes and their duration, supporting the role of vitamin D as an immune-regulatory factor in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Family systems and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenkediek, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of regional family organization principles, so called family systems, for explaining fertility behaviours in different parts of Europe. Studying family systems and its impact on fertility is important, because many aspects of societal life, such as the organization of we

  4. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  5. How does variance in fertility change over the demographic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Burger, Oskar

    2016-04-19

    Most work on the human fertility transition has focused on declines in mean fertility. However, understanding changes in the variance of reproductive outcomes can be equally important for evolutionary questions about the heritability of fertility, individual determinants of fertility and changing patterns of reproductive skew. Here, we document how variance in completed fertility among women (45-49 years) differs across 200 surveys in 72 low- to middle-income countries where fertility transitions are currently in progress at various stages. Nearly all (91%) of samples exhibit variance consistent with a Poisson process of fertility, which places systematic, and often severe, theoretical upper bounds on the proportion of variance that can be attributed to individual differences. In contrast to the pattern of total variance, these upper bounds increase from high- to mid-fertility samples, then decline again as samples move from mid to low fertility. Notably, the lowest fertility samples often deviate from a Poisson process. This suggests that as populations move to low fertility their reproduction shifts from a rate-based process to a focus on an ideal number of children. We discuss the implications of these findings for predicting completed fertility from individual-level variables. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, J; Meir, A

    1996-03-01

    It is suggested that Israel's high fertility can be explained by a collective national conscience rather than the traditional interpretation of Jewish religiosity. It is suggested that religiosity is a proxy for a national consciousness and daily living standards. It is argued that normative orientations or cultural explanations of the value of children are intervening variables according to the framework established by Davis and Blake. The collective conscience reflects Israel's special position in the Middle East and within the world economy. The nationalist feelings reflect a range in political views. The author disputes the ethnic and religious explanations for high fertility. Fertility increased since the 1960s even among low fertility European-American born women. During the early 1980s fertility was 2.75, which was high compared to European levels at the same standard of living. Reference is made to the literature on the association between high fertility and survival strategies in insecure or discriminatory settings. This study's analysis is based on a macro- rather than individual-level approach to understanding behavior. The theoretical framework is based on the theories of Durkheim and Gane. The analysis uses data from the 1983 census on Jewish fertility in urban statistical areas and Jewish voting patterns in national elections in 1984. Correspondence analysis is used to identify voting patterns by area. The four political postures are identified as religious and conciliatory (71 areas), religious and nationalist (142 areas), nonreligious and nationalist, and nonreligious and conciliatory. Women in nationalist areas had 35% more children than women in conciliatory areas. Although both religiosity and nationalism were positively correlated with high fertility, nationalist commitment was a better predictor. The model including religiosity, nationalism, and income showed no independent effect of religiosity on fertility.

  7. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  8. Fertility decline in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kanako; Stupp, Paul; Melian, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    Recent reproductive health surveys show that the fertility rate in Paraguay decreased precipitously from 4.3 lifetime births per woman in 1995-98 to 2.9 births in 2001-04. In this study, we establish data consistency between the 1998 and 2004 surveys by comparing a series of cohort-specific period rates and use the Bongaarts framework of proximate determinants of fertility to demonstrate that an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) between 1998 and 2004 fully accounts for the fertility decline. Decomposition of rates shows that changes in group-specific CPRs explain a greater proportion of the change in the overall CPR than do changes in population composition by educational attainment, urban residence, region, and language spoken at home. Finally, we show that younger cohorts of women in 2004 reported ideal completed fertility desires of less than 2.9 births, suggesting that the fertility rate is likely to continue to decrease.

  9. Effects of replacing grass silage with maize silages differing in inclusion level and maturity on the performance, meat quality and concentrate-sparing effect of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Gordon, A W; Moss, B W

    2013-05-01

    The effects of maturity of maize at harvest, level of inclusion and potential interactions on the performance, carcass composition, meat quality and potential concentrate-sparing effect when offered to finishing beef cattle were studied. Two maize silages were ensiled that had dry matter (DM) concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg and starch concentrations of 55 and 258 g/kg DM, respectively. Grass silage was offered as the sole forage supplemented with either 4 or 8 kg concentrate/steer daily or in addition with one of the two maize silages at a ratio 0.5 : 0.5, on a DM basis, maize silage : grass silage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate daily. The two maize silages were also offered as the sole forage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate/steer daily. The forages were offered ad libitum. The six diets were offered to 72 steers (initial live weight 522 s.d. 23.5 kg) for 146 days. There were significant interactions (P maize maturity and inclusion level for food intake, fibre digestibility and daily gain. For the grass silage supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, and the maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 or 1.0 of the forage component of the diet, total DM intakes were 8.3, 9.8, 8.9, 8.2, 9.2 and 9.8 kg DM/day (s.e. 0.27); live-weight gains were 0.74, 1.17, 0.86, 0.71, 0.88 and 1.03 kg/day (s.e. 0.057); and carcass gains were 0.48, 0.73, 0.56, 0.46, 0.56 and 0.63 kg/day (s.e. 0.037), respectively. Increasing the level of concentrate (offered with grass silage), maize maturity and level of maize inclusion reduced (P maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 and 1.0 of the forage component of the diet were 1.3, -0.3, 1.3 and 2.4 kg fresh weight, respectively. It is concluded that the response, in animal performance, including maize silage is dependent on the stage of maturity and level of inclusion in the diet. Maize silage with a DM of 304 g/kg offered ad libitum increased carcass gain by 31%, because

  10. Promoting bio-fertilizers in Indian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nilabja Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    The green revolution brought impressive gains in food production but with insufficient concern for sustainability. In India the availability and affordability of fossil fuel based chemical fertilizers at the farm level have been ensured only through imports and subsidies. Dependence on chemical fertilizers for future agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality, possibilities of water contamination and unsustainable burden on the fiscal system. The Government of India has been ...

  11. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  12. 增施氮素对甘薯叶片光合作用和 CO2的响应%Response of sweet potato leaves to light intensity and CO2 concentration under increased N-fertilizer level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功楷; 李红; 孙娟; 金微微; 康华靖

    2014-01-01

    甘薯因具高产稳产、抗旱耐瘠的特点而适合在新开垦山地中推广。为明确其合理的氮肥用量,本试验选用3个甘薯品种,研究低浓度(124 mg· kg -1)和高浓度(180 mg· kg-1)2个施肥量对叶片光合生理特性的影响。结果表明,在两种浓度下不同品种甘薯叶片的比叶面积无显著差异;叶绿素b含量、叶绿素(a+b),以及叶片氮含量则均以高浓度处理下较高( P<0.05);光响应曲线参数中的初始量子效率(α)、最大光合速率(Pnmax)、饱和光强(PARsat)、光补偿点(Ic)及暗呼吸速率(Rn)等整体上均无显著差异(P>0.05);CO2响应曲线中的最大羧化速率(Amax)和CO2补偿点(Γ)无显著变化(P>0.05),高浓度处理的初始羧化效率显著高于低浓度处理(P<0.05),高浓度处理饱和胞间CO2浓度则明显降低(P<0.05)。综上所述,甘薯种植过程中建议适当减少氮肥的施用量。%Due to the relatively high and stable yield , and high tolerance to drought , sweet potato is suitable to be cultivated in the newly reclaimed mountain land .In order to determine the suitable application amount of N-fertilizer, three sweet potato cultivars and two N-fertilizer application levels were used to study the influence on photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato leaves .The results showed that the difference of specific leaf weight was not significant between two N-fertilizer levels .The contents of chlorophyll b , chlorophyll ( a+b) and leaf nitrogen were dramatically increased under high N level.The related parameters of light response curve, such as the initial quantum efficiency (α), maximum photosynthetic rate (Pnmax ), saturation light intensity (PARsat ), light compensation point (Ic ) and dark respira-tion rate (Rn) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in general.And, the relevant parameter curve in response to CO2, namely, the maximum

  13. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  14. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth.

  15. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  16. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  17. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas

  18. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Response of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves of Cinnamomum camphora chvar.Borneol to Different Fertilization Levels%龙脑樟叶片光合特性对氮磷钾肥的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周琴; 张露; 李燕山; 苏恒; 彭招兰; 曹福亮; 郁万文; 杨亮

    2015-01-01

    通过“3414”不完全正交回归设计,研究氮磷钾肥对龙脑樟矮林光合特性的影响,以确定其生长发育最佳的施肥处理。结果表明随着氮磷钾肥单一施肥量的增加,龙脑樟叶片的叶绿素含量(Chl)、净光合速率(Pn)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)均呈现“先增大后减小”的变化趋势;适宜的氮(N100 g/株)、磷(P2O5140 g/株)、钾(K2O 60 g/株)用量及其配施能够明显增加龙脑樟的Chl和Pn,其中Pn受氮肥施用量的影响更大;氮、磷、钾肥之间交互效应不明显。通过龙脑樟光响应曲线拟合分析可知,在一定范围内,随着施肥量增加,龙脑樟的最大净光合速率(Amax)、光饱和点(LSP)和表观量子效率(AQY)均升高,而光补偿点(LCP)和暗呼吸速率(Rd)均降低,有利于龙脑樟叶片光合产物的积累,加快龙脑樟的生长发育。%Based on “3414” incomplete orthogonal regression design, the effects of fertilization of N, P and K on photosynthetic characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora chvar were investigated so as to determine the optimal fertilization mode for its growth.Borneol coppice leaves were studied.The results showed that with the increase of the single fertilization of N,P and K,Chl content,Pn and Ci tended to increase first decrease later.The Chl content and Pn could significantly be improved by applying the appropriate amounts of N(N100g per plant),P(P2O5140 g per plant) and K(K2O 60 g per plant),or their combination.The study found Pn to be most affected by nitrogen levels.No obvious interaction effect was found between nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium,phosphorus and potassium,respectively.Photoresponse curves fitting analysis showed under definite fertilizer supply,Amax,LSP and AQY increased,LCP and Rd decreased with the fertilizer sup-ply rising by photoresponse curves fitting analysis.

  20. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  1. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  2. Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin Kumar; Boulet, Sheree L; Mehta, Akanksha; Hotaling, James; Eisenberg, Michael L; Honig, Stanton C; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Ross, Lawrence S

    2017-04-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p testosterone replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p testosterone replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D and female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Rabe, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Apart from the well known effects of vitamin D on maintaining calcium homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization, there is some evidence suggesting that vitamin D also modulates human reproductive processes. We will review the most interesting and relevant studies on vitamin D and female fertility published over the past year. In the past year, several observational studies reported a better in-vitro fertilization outcome in women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml), which was mainly attributed to vitamin D effects on the endometrium. One randomized controlled trial found an increased endometrial thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) receiving vitamin D during intrauterine insemination cycles. Further, vitamin D supplementation had a beneficial effect on serum lipids in PCOS women. Vitamin D treatment improved endometriosis in a rat model and increased vitamin D intake was related to a decreased risk of incident endometriosis. Vitamin D was also favorably associated with primary dysmenorrhea, uterine leiomyoma, and ovarian reserve in late reproductive aged women. In women undergoing in-vitro fertilization, a sufficient vitamin D level (≥30 ng/ml) should be obtained. Vitamin D supplementation might improve metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. A high vitamin D intake might be protective against endometriosis.

  4. Perpetual postponers? Women's, men's and couple's fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrington, Ann

    2004-01-01

    In this article data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) are used to analyse gender differences in fertility intentions, and the correspondence between fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour. By exploiting couple-level data, we examine whether partners have conflicting preferences for future fertility. Focusing on women who remain childless in their thirties we look at socio-demographic factors related to the intention to remain childless, or to start a family later on in life. By following up women over time, the characteristics of women who go on to have a child later on in life are considered. The importance of having a partner and the fertility intention of that partner in predicting whether a birth will occur are also examined.

  5. Infant and child mortality: the implications for fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, L T; Kane, P

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, infant and child mortality affect fertility through biological or involuntary mechanisms operating through shortened breastfeeding, and more rapid return of ovulation following upon an infant death. Fertility is also affected through volitional responses of couples to perceived mortality levels in the community (insurance effect) or experience of earlier child loss (replacement effect) as well as through societal responses to high probability of child loss. In return, fertility affects infant and child mortality through birth to very young mothers, due to physiological immaturity of teenaged mothers and low birth-weight, as well as through birth to old mothers in high birth orders, due to maternal depletion syndrome. Trussel and Pebley estimated that the elimination of 4th and higher order births, along with the limitation of reproduction within the age of 20 to 34 years old, would reduce infant mortality by about 12%. A large number of studies show strong evidence that the timing and spacing of birth have a significant impact on both maternal and child health. According to Maine and McNamara (1985), who analysed data from 25 developing countries, if all children were born 2 years apart, 1/5 of infant deaths could be avoided. Mother's ill-health, maternal mortality, mother's malnutrition and its consequences in low quality breast milk and short breastfeeding, reduce sharply the new child's chances of survival. Many of these adverse biological and physiological conditions for childbearing can be compensated for by the provision of health care of high quality, including family planning, as well as education and good nutritional status of the mother and her children. Unfortunately, in many societies and for large segments of the population, such conditions are still a dream.

  6. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  7. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  8. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  9. 不同施磷水平对香蕉产量与品质影响初报%Effects of Different Phosphate Fertilizer Application Levels on Banana Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄达斌; 林芗华; 林惠环; 黄绿青; 陈侨明

    2011-01-01

    在定量施用氮、钾肥条件下.采用单因素田间试验方法研究不同施磷水平对香蕉产量与品质的影响。结果表明,在土壤速效磷含量适宜的香蕉园,株施尿素0.87kg、氯化钾1.335kg、有机肥2.0kg、硫酸镁125.0g、0.2%硼砂溶液喷1次,以施过磷酸钙1.165kg/株,N:P2O5:K2O=1:0.35:2(质量比),田间蕉株生长较快,假茎较粗,采收时功能叶片数较多,采收期较早且较短,产量较高;同时,果实外观和内质较好,果指较长较粗,淀粉和总糖含量,可食率略高、可滴定酸居中;经济效益最佳,净利润达3.96万元/hm2,投入产出比为1:1.83。%The effects of different phosphate fertilizer application levels on banana yield and quality were studied in the same condition of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers application, using single factor field experiment method. The results showed that the banana plants in the fields grew faster with bigger pseudo-stems, longer and bigger fruit fingers, higher starch and total sugar contents and edible rate, moderate titratable acid, best economic benefit, a net profit of 2 637.6 yuan/hm2, and a input output ratio of 1 : 1.83, when calcium superphosphate was applied at 1.165 kg/plant in the banana plantations with suitable available phosphorus in the soil, urea was applied at 0.87 kg/plant, potassium chloride at 1.335 kg/plant, organic fertilizer at 2.0 kg/plant, magnesium sulphate at 125.0 g/plant, 0.2% borax solution was sprayed one time.

  10. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell-cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  11. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em

  12. Canadian Provincial Population Growth: Fertility, Migration, and Age Structure Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmonston, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effect of changes in rates of mortality, fertility, and migration depend not only on the age specific patterns and levels of these rates, but on the age structure of the population. In orderto remove the influences of the age structure and concentrate on the impact of the demographic rates themselves, a common practice is to analyze the influences of the rates for a standard age structure. This paper adapts the general approach of using a standard age structure to a stationary population equivalent (SPE model, and analyzes current population change, using the SPE model, for provinces of Canada. Below-replacement fertility levels are only partially offset by net immigration. The SPE model evidences the decrease in the eventual provincial populations brought about by the below replacement fertility. Out-migration for some provincesto other areas of Canada accentuates their eventual population decreases.RésuméLes effets des changements des taux de mortalité, fécondité, et de migration dépendent non seulement des modèles par âge et des niveaux de ces taux, mais aussi de la structure par âge de la population. Pour éliminer les influences de la structure par âge et se concentrer sur les effets des taux démographiques mêmes, une pratique courante est d’analyser les influences des taux par une structure par âge de norme. Cet article adapte l’approche générale de la structure parâge à un modèle de population stationnaire équivalente (PSE. Cet article analyse les changements de population, en utilisant le modèle de PSE, dans les provinces canadiennes. Le taux de fécondité inférieur au seuil de reproduction de la population n’est que légèrement compensé par l’immigration nette. Le modèle de PSE démontre le déclin des populations provinciales éventuelles causé par le taux de fécondité inférieur au seuil de reproduction de la population. Le taux d’émigration entre certaines provinces et reste du

  13. MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO REDUCE AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Viero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen losses by ammonia (NH3 volatilization can be reduced by appropriate irrigation management or by alternative N sources, replacing urea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation management and N source combinations in decreasing NH3 volatilization from an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico cultivated for 28 years with black oat (Avena strigosa and maize (Zea mays, under no-tillage in the region of Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with split plots with three replications, where the main plots consisted of irrigation systems: no irrigation; irrigation immediately before and irrigation immediately after fertilization. The subplots were treated with different N sources: urea, urea with urease inhibitor and slow-release fertilizer, at an N rate of 180 kg ha-1, broadcast over maize, plus a control treatment without N fertilization. Ammonia volatilization was assessed using semi-open static collectors for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 days after N fertilization. In general, more than 90 % of total NH3-N losses occurred until three days after N fertilization, with peaks up to 15.4 kg ha-1 d-1. The irrigation was efficient to reduce NH3 losses only when applied after N fertilization. However, reductions varied according to the N fertilizer, and were higher for urea (67 % and slightly lower for urea with urease inhibitor (50 % and slow-release fertilizer (40 %, compared with the mean of the treatments without irrigation and irrigation before fertilization. The use of urea with urease inhibitor instead of urea was only promising under volatilization-favorable conditions (no irrigation or irrigation before N fertilization. Compared to urea, slow-release fertilizer did not reduce ammonia volatilization in any of the rainfed or irrigated treatments.

  14. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  15. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  16. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  17. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  18. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...

  19. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  20. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  1. FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS AND IRRIGATION LEVELS ON EARLY (Zea mays L. DEVELOPMENT FORMAS DE APLICAÇÃO DO FERTILIZANTE E NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Early corn development (Zea mays L. was evaluated through roots (MR and tops (MA dry matter in a low tunnel greenhouse pot experiment, in a 2x2x4 factorial completely randomized design with three replications, comparing the following treatments: two Oxisols (a sandy Latossolo Vermelho Escuro — LE and a clay Latossolo Roxo - LR; two methods of fertilizer application (soil mixed - A1, and furrow planting line - A2, and four irrigation levels (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% deficit in relation to the evapotranspired water. Significant effects were observed for fertilizer application methods and irrigation levels on MA, with 89,6% higher yield for A2, and MA reduction for increased water stress. There was a significant interaction between soil types and fertilizer application methods on MA, with a larger MA in the LE soil for A1 method, while MA was larger in the LR soil for A2 method. For MR, it was observed a significant effect of soil type and fertilizer application methods, with a larger yield in the LR soil under the A2 form. The findings confirm the importance of adequate soil water supply for nutrient absorption processes, resulting in better plant development. The localized fertilizer application is recommended for Oxisols with higher clay contents and larger phosphorus fixation capacity.

    KEY-WORDS: Fertilizer; irrigation levels; Zea mays.

    O desenvolvimento inicial da cultura do milho (Zea mays L. foi avaliado através da

  2. Pulmonary valve replacement in chronic pulmonary regurgitation in adults with congenital heart disease: impact of preoperative QRS-duration and NT-proBNP levels on postoperative right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Girke, Stefan; Breymann, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Pertschy, Stefanie; Tutarel, Oktay; Roentgen, Philipp; Bertram, Harald; Wessel, Armin; Schieffer, Bernhard; Meyer, Gerd Peter

    2011-09-15

    Chronic severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) causes progressive right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and heart failure. Parameters defining the optimal time point for surgery of chronic PR are lacking. The present study prospectively evaluated the impact of preoperative clinical parameters, cardiorespiratory function, QRS duration and NT-proBNP levels on post operative RV function and volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with chronic severe PR undergoing pulmonary valve replacement. CMR was performed pre- and 6 months postoperatively in 27 patients (23.6 ± 2.9 years, 15 women) with severe PR. Postoperatively, RV endsystolic (RVESVI) and enddiastolic volume indices (RVEDVI) decreased significantly (RVESVI pre 78.2 ± 20.4 ml/m² BSA vs. RVESVI post 52.2 ± 16.8 ml/m²BSA, pfunction and volumes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 单节段颈椎人工椎间盘置换术临床疗效探讨%Clinical study of single-level artificial cervical disc replacement for cervical spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚正; 王利民; 谭洪宇; 王卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effect of single-level artifical cervical disc arthroplasty. Methods Thirty-two patients with cervical spondylosis were treated with single-level artifical cervical disc replacement, At 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after operation, the patients were followed up. The radiography of forward flexion, backward extension, and left and right lateral flexion were obtained atevery follow-up time. The stability of prosthesis, the range of motion status atoperated levelin Active C group were observed. Meanwhile, investigate all patients with complications by follow-up score. Results The incidence rates of early postoperative dysphagia,cervicodynia,brachialgia in the operation group decreased obviously(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the motion range of adjancent segments before and after Active C replacement(P>0.05). Conclusions Single segment cervial artificial disc replacement can reduce complications in early stage. The adjacent segments postoperative is avoided in mid-term.%目的 探讨单节段颈椎人工椎间盘置换术临床疗效.方法 对我院32例患者经单节段颈椎人工椎间盘(ActivC型)置换术.术后6周、3个月、6个月、12个月、18个月复查拍摄颈椎前屈后伸动力位X线片,观察置换组假体稳定性.同时进行术后系列调查评分,对治疗结果进行回顾性分析.结果 手术组术后早期吞咽困难、颈痛、上肢疼痛等发生率明显降低(P<0.05).人工颈椎间盘置换组置换前后邻近节段活动范围差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 单节段颈椎人工椎间盘置换术后早期并发症减少,中期能保护相邻节段退变.

  4. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  5. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  6. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  7. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  8. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...

  9. Explaining fertility transition of a developing country: an analysis of quantum and tempo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazle Rabbi, Ahbab Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is defined as the average number of births a woman would have if she were to live throughout the reproductive span and bear children at each age at the rates observed in a particular year or period. The current demographic explanation for decline in TFR is primarily attributed to an increase in postponement in pregnancy. Being cross-sectional, fertility measures can be confounded by changes in the timing of births across women's lifetimes (tempo) and by changes in the numbers of children that they have by the time they end their childbearing (quantum). After a sharp fall in the last two decades, TFR of Bangladesh is now 2.3; whereas the TFR was greater than 3 in the last decade. However, mean age at childbearing showed decreasing trend in the last decade. This is a secondary analysis of data from the three consecutive Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys; BDHS-2004, 2007 and 2011. The method of Bongaarts and Feeney has been applied to estimate the tempo of fertility. Life Table analyses were applied on birth intervals to explain the tempo effect. There was a sustained decline of the fertility quantum (the number of births per woman) as estimated by the conventional TFR; due to tempo effects during the last three BDHS surveys. Mean age at childbearing also showed decreasing trend in the last decade. The current study shows the presence of a significant tempo effect with variability of timing in having first or higher order births. If this trend continues, Bangladesh will be able to achieve below replacement level of fertility soon.

  10. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  11. The short-term efficacy of Prestige LP artificial disc single-level replacement for cervical spondylosis%Prestige LP人工椎间盘置换治疗单节段颈椎病的近期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 卢一生; 施建东; 徐静芳; 刘振刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short-term radiological and functional outcome of artifi-cial disc single-level replacement for cervical disc degenerative diseases. Methods 15 patients with cervical disc degenerative diseases underwent Prestige LP artificial disc replacement were se-lected in this study. There were 8 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 7 cases of nerve root cervical syndrome. The range of motion(ROM) of the cervical spine,ROM of treated segment and lordosis of cervical spine were reviewed respectively at preoperation and 1 month,3 months and 12 months postoperation,and the NDI scores,VAS for neck and arm pain were also reviewed respectively preoperation and the last follow-up. Results At an average of 16.3 months(range 6-24 months) follow-up,the neurologic symptom and sign in all cases had significant improvement. The NDI was significantly improved from(47.80±11.52)% to(16.20±9.34)%(P<0.05),the VAS for neck and arm pain were all significantly improved from(5.13±1.44) and (6.30±1.51) to (1.46±0. 81) and (1.14 ±0.57) respectively (P<0.05). The lordosis of cervical spine was significantly in-creased at follow up (P<0.05). The ROM of the cervical spine and ROM of treated segment re-covered to the preoperative level. There was no neurological complication during operation,and no ossification in the replaced level and no prosthesis displacement and loosening . Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Prestige LP cervical disc replacement in the treatment of cervical disc degenerative diseases has good functional short-term results, further follow-up is necessary to e-valuate mid- and long-term outcome.%目的:探讨应用Prestige LP人工椎间盘置换治疗单节段颈椎病的近期临床疗效。方法治疗单节段颈椎病患者15例,统计并分析患者术前和术后1、3、12个月随访时JOA评分、NDI脊髓功能评分、颈部及上肢疼痛VAS评分、置换节段活动度、颈椎运动范围、颈椎生理曲度等指标

  12. Comparative study of antiinflammatory drugs and sulphasalazine in relation to prostaglandin E and 19 hydroxylated prostaglandin E levels and human male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa, R; Roselló Catafau, J; Gelpí, E; Iglesias Cortit, J L; Ballescá, J L; de Paz, J L; Iglesias Guiu, J; Gonzalez Merlo, J; Puig Parellada, P

    1984-12-01

    The effect of lysine salicylate, flurbiprofen and sulphasalazine on human seminal prostaglandin profiles of six normal individuals was studied. All of them were treated with pharmacological doses of the three agents for four days with rest periods of eighteen days in between. Sulphasalazine produced less prostaglandin (PG) inhibition relative to the other two antiinflammatory drugs but in contrast only sulphasalazine induced sperm changes. Infertility status associated with the ingestion of therapeutic levels of sulphasalaziane is not directly related to the endogenous PGEs and 19-OH PGEs, the major prostanoids in human semen. PG determinations were carried out using gas chromatographic (GC) techniques.

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on Sago Growth

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fertilization is an important act of cultivation in an effort to provide plant nutrients to increase sago crop productivity. This research aimed to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers towards the growth of sago palm. The study included three separate experiments i.e. experimental fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The experiment was conducted by using a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of four levels of treatments and each treatment was...

  14. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of fertility levels among cohorts of women born in 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960 in 16 European countries was undertaken using vital statistics data. The average number of live birth/woman for each of the 5 cohorts by age 20, 25, 30, and 35 was computed by cumulating age-specific fertility rates of women born in specific years. Median age at childbirth and completed fertility were estimated for the 3 oldest cohorts (1940, 1945, and 1950). 2 estimations of completed fertility were made. 1 was based on the assumption of a constant age-specific fertility rate, and the other was based on a relational Gompertz model. Where possible cohort fertility was disaggregated by birth order. Since the data for the countries was not fully comparable, it was not possible to use sophisticated analytical techniques. Other limits of the study were that fertility, especially for the more recent cohorts was incomplete, parity specific data was not available for all the countries, and open cohorts rather than closed cohorts were used. The analysis indicated that completed cohort fertility was lower for the 1950 cohort than for the 1940 cohort in all 16 countries. For the 1940 cohort, only Germany's estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00. For the other 15 countries, estimated completed fertility ranged from 2.04 (Finland) to 3.36 (Ireland). For the 1950 cohort, estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00 in 8 of the countries. Estimated completed fertility was lowest in Finland and Switzerland (1.82) and highest in Ireland (3.33). No marked increase in childlessness was observed, and for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts, childlessness did not exceed 20% in any of the countries and was considerably less than 20% in most of the countries. There was a trend toward delayed childbearing in most of the countries. An examination of available parity data for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts lead to the conclusion that the major factor contributing toward the decline in

  15. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  16. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  17. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  18. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  19. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  20. Fertility transition in Bangladesh: understanding the role of the proximate determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul; Islam, M Ataharul; Chakroborty, Nitai

    2004-05-01

    Bangladesh has been passing through a crucial phase of fertility transition. The level of fertility declined dramatically during the early 1990s without any remarkable improvement in socioeconomic and health status, and then remained constant at a high level of 3.3, despite the increased use of contraception. Such fertility transition can be traced to variations in one or more of the proximate or direct determinants of fertility. This paper critically analyses the fertility levels in Bangladesh with a view to exploring the possible explanations of fertility decline in the 1990s and then its stabilization. The main focus of the study is to examine the role of the major proximate determinants of fertility in bringing about the change in fertility level in Bangladesh. The data for the study come from a series of nationally representative surveys over the period of 1975 to 1999-2000. The analysis indicates that fertility has temporarily ceased to decline in recent years due to the 'tempo' effect of high past fertility, but in general a declining trend in fertility is underway. The analysis suggests that the fall in fertility is consistent with the underlying trends in most important proximate determinants of fertility. In recent years contraception has emerged as the highest fertility reducing factor in Bangladesh and its effect is greatest in middle and older age groups. Although until the early 1990s postpartum lactational infecundability was the most important and strongest fertility reducing factor in Bangladesh, in recent years its fertility inhibiting effect has gradually decreasing owing to the declining trend in the lactational infecundability period. The analysis reveals that although the fertility reducing effect of the marriage pattern is increasing, its effect is offset by the declining trend in the lactational infecundability period. A review of these two variables suggests that their effect cannot be raised much for prevailing socioeconomic and cultural

  1. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  2. Spatial Divisions and Fertility in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Pillai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent can be divided into four geographical divisions. In this paper, we characterize three of the four divisions; the Northern Plains, the Deccan Plateau, and the Northern Mountains or the Himalayan as regions with dissimilar climatic and physical resources. It is argued that human adaptations to these variations would be varied by differences in social organization of production and consumption resulting in differences in fertility differences across the three divisions. We found significant differences in the median age at motherhood as well as in the total family size. The effects of the three selected fertility determinants, age at marriage, years of woman's education, and level of child loss on family size also varied significantly across the three divisions. There is considerable homogeneity with respect to fertility levels within the zones considered in this study.

  3. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, mitochondrial replacement (MR, and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  4. Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  5. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  6. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  7. On Diffused Pollution Effect of Chemical Fertilizers in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limeng; GU; Lianchao; YU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of chemical fertilizers is an essential reason for diffused pollution of agriculture. Therefore,finding out influence factors of farmers in application of chemical fertilizers will play a significant role in controlling the diffused pollution of agriculture. Through field survey,a total of 340 samples in 4 counties of Chongqing Municipality were obtained. On the basis of these samples,an empirical study was carried out. The study results indicate that farmers’ application of chemical fertilizers is negatively correlated with farmers’ age,education level,male labor proportion,and soil fertility,while the annual family income,agricultural production population proportion,commodity trading characteristics,and scientific fertilizer application ability fail to pass the significance test. These results will provide reference for proper application of chemical fertilizers and controlling diffused pollution.

  8. FERTILITY AND ITS DETERMINANTS IN ROMANIA AFTER 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DĂNUT-VASILE JEMNA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overall survey on fertility and its determinants in Romania after 1995. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that after the fall of the communism we register only five years of decline in fertility. After 1995 follows a very weak variation in fertility on the national level, but with significant differences between regions. Using a descriptive statistical analysis we emphasize the differences for fertility in these regions and we assume that the variation in fertility can be explained by demographic and economic variables. The results of the econometric model identify the principal determinants of the fertility variation in time and between Romanian regions after 1995.

  9. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment...... and natural abundance techniques were used to determine N accumulation in the crops from the soil, fertilizer and symbiotic N2 fixation. Intercrops of pea and wheat showed maximum productivity without the supply of N fertilizer. Intercropping increased total dry matter (DM) and N yield, grain DM and N yield......, grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  10. Níveis de adubação nitrogenada nas características morfológicas e produtividade do jiló Levels of nitrogen fertilizer, morphologic characteristics of fruits and yield of jiló

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz R. Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na UFRRJ, de julho a dezembro de 1993. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de nitrogênio (0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 kg.ha-1 de N em algumas características morfológicas do fruto e na produtividade da cultura do jiló, cultivar Tinguá. As colheitas tiveram início a partir dos 105 dias após o plantio. Foram observados o diâmetro, comprimento, peso médio e produção total dos frutos nas colheitas realizadas num intervalo de dez dias, totalizando nove colheitas. Observou-se que o jiló responde positivamente à adubação nitrogenada aumentando sua produtividade em até 35,7%, quando comparado à testemunha, apesar de não ter ocorrido diferença estatística entre as doses testadas. As características morfológicas avaliadas não foram influenciadas pelo nível de N.The experiment was conducted at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, fron July to December, 1993. The effects of different levels of nitrogen (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 kg.ha-1 of N was evaluated over some morphological characteristics of the fruit and over yield of the jiló, cultivar Tinguá. Harvest began 105 days after sowing date, in 10-day intervals. The diameter, length, medium weight and total yield of fruits were evaluated. The jiló plant responds positively to the nitrogen fertilizer application, increasing the yield up to 35,7%, in relation to the control plot, in spite of non statistical differences among nitrogen levels; the morphologic characteristics suffered no influence from N levels.

  11. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-03-22

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success.

  12. Pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salom, M; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A

    1995-12-01

    To assess the possibility of achieving a pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum FSH level. A case report. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. An azoospermic patient with small testes and serum FSH level (38.7 mIU/mL) higher than three times normal. Testicular biopsy revealed Sertoli cell-only syndrome with focal spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic microinjection of testicular tissue-extracted spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, clinical pregnancy. Eight of 11 (73%) intact oocytes showed two pronuclei. All of them cleaved normally. Four embryos were replaced into the uterine cavity and the other four were cryopreserved. A twin clinical pregnancy was achieved. Spermatozoa may be present in testicular biopsy specimens of azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure despite markedly elevated serum FSH level. These patients can be fertile after intracytoplasmic testicular sperm microinjection.

  13. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.

  14. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  15. CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench SOB TRÊS DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF SORGHUM CULTIVARS AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Queiroz Santos Mello

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características agronômicas de quatro cultivares de sorgo forrageiros, submetidas a três doses de nitrogênio, em solo classificado como Latossolo vermelho distrófico argiloso. Utilizou-se o delineamento blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3. As cultivares foram os híbridos CMSXS 762, BRS 610, BR 700 e a variedade BR 506, com três doses de nitrogênio: 50 kg.ha-1, 75 kg.ha-1 e 100 kg.ha-1. A produção de matéria natural, com média geral de 59,31 t.ha-1, diferiu entre as cultivares (teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, porém, não diferiu em função das doses de nitrogênio. A produção de massa seca, com média de 15,17 t.ha-1, não diferiu entre as cultivares, nem entre as doses de N. Já os teores de matéria seca e as porcentagens de panícula e de colmo na matéria natural diferiram tanto entre as cultivares como em função das doses. A altura das plantas, com média geral de 2,39 m, e o teor de matéria seca do colmo diferiram somente entre as cultivares. As cultivares BR 700 e CMSXS 762 apresentaram uma melhor relação entre panícula/colmo/folha e uma maior porcentagem de panícula. E, à medida que se aumentou a dose de nitrogênio, verificou-se maior participação de panícula, com redução na percentagem de colmo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sorgo; adubação nitrogenada; avaliação agronômica.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics of four forage sorghum cultivars at three levels of nitrogen fertilizer in an Oxisoil. A randomized complete block design in a 4x3 factorial scheme (CMSXS 762, BRS 610, BR 700 and BR 506 hybrid cultivars combined with 50 kg.ha-1, 75 kg.ha-1 and 100 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. A Tukey

  16. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  17. Suicide in Danish women evaluated for fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T. K.; Jensen, A.; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Women with fertility problems often experience higher levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with both the infertility diagnosis and eventual fertility treatment. The authors investigated whether women who do not succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation are ...... are at a higher risk of suicide than women who succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation....

  18. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  19. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  20. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  1. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  2. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) could succeed tomorrow, decades from now, or never. The nature of this scientific exploration is such that we cannot predict success on any timescale; we only know that if we do not search, we cannot succeed. Having spent my scientific career in this field, I know perhaps better than anyone that the researchers of tomorrow may hold the key. Thus I have an enormous and vested interest in trying to educate the next generation of scientists. Because SETI excites such enthusiasm in young and old alike, I have an excellent opportunity to capture hearts and minds and leverage this interest into science education at many levels. Astrobiology is the new banner for inter- and cross-disciplinary investigations aimed at answering the big question "Are we alone?" The story of cosmic evolution is one that scientists at the SETI Institute have been telling for decades. We have used it as the framework for developing supplementary materials for elementary and middle schools called Life In The Universe. Currently we are tackling a year-long curriculum called Voyages Through Time for ninth grade students. This curriculum is delivered on CD-ROM and supported by the web. It focuses on evolution as a theme and stresses the contributions made from all the traditionally isolated branches of science --- and by the way, it's fun! I am a product of the post-Sputnik era and the American emphasis on science and engineering education. In the New York City bedroom community where I grew up, every school bond issue passed at every election. So I am appalled at the difficulties, the impecuniousness, and bureaucratic nonsense our pilot and field test teachers encounter on a daily basis. I am also overjoyed that even under such unreasonable conditions, I meet enthusiastic teachers who care about their students and are dedicated to helping them achieve the best possible education. Not all students will become scientists, nor should they. However

  3. TEORES DE METAIS TÓXICOS NAS FOLHAS DE PLANTAS DE MILHO FERTILIZADAS COM LODO DE CURTUME LEVELS OF TOXIC METALS IN THE LEAVES OF MAIZE FERTILIZED WITH TANNING RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesta pesquisa foram avaliados os teores dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, nos tecidos foliares, e a produção de fitomassa verde da parte aérea em milho. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de solo (Latossolo Vermelho, fertilizadas com lodo de curtume nas doses: zero (testemunha, 113,1 mL (36 m3.ha-1, 226,2 mL (72 m3.ha-1, 452,4 mL (144 m3.ha-1 e 904,8 mL (288 m3.ha-1 por vaso, apenas com adubo químico, e com o adubo associado ao lodo de curtume. Os sete tratamentos foram aplicados em quatro repetições, sob condições de estufa, no período de agosto a novembro de 2003, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. O lodo de curtume foi incorporado ao solo vinte dias antes da semeadura e o adubo químico NPK 4-30-16 + Zn (1,256 g por vaso, ou 400 kg.ha-1 foi adicionado na operação de semeadura do milho híbrido BR 205. Os teores médios dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, obtidos nas folhas das plantas, aos cinqüenta dias após a emergência, estiveram dentro dos limites toleráveis nestes tecidos. Os maiores teores de Cr (0,147 mg.dm-3 foram observados nos tratamentos com as maiores doses do lodo de curtume. Houve incremento da fitomassa verde da parte aérea das plantas com o aumento das doses do lodo. A adição do lodo de curtume no substrato, em diferentes doses, como fonte de nutrientes para plantas de milho, apresentou resultados agronômicos promissores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nutrição de plantas; metais tóxicos; resíduo industrial; fitomassa.

    In this study, were measured levels of the toxic metals Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in leaf tissues, as well as the green matter yield of the aerial part of maize plants. The plants were grown in pots with a soil substrate (Oxisol, fertilized with tanning

  4. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  5. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  6. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  7. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  8. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  9. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  11. Socio-economic status and fertility decline: Insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A; Maloney, Thomas N; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R; Vézina, Hélène

    2017-03-01

    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were the latest to start limiting their fertility. Apart from these similarities, patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly between populations.

  12. Fertility intentions and outcomes: Implementing the Theory of Planned Behavior with graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarini, Letizia; Vignoli, Daniele; Gottard, Anna

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies fertility intentions and their outcomes, analyzing the complete path leading to fertility behavior according to the social psychological model of Theory Planned Behavior (TPB). We move beyond existing research using graphical models to have a precise understanding, and a formal description, of the developmental fertility decision-making process. Our findings yield new results for the Italian case which are empirically robust and theoretically coherent, adding important insights to the effectiveness of the TPB for fertility research. In line with TPB, all intentions' primary antecedents are found to be determinants of the level of fertility intentions, but do not affect fertility outcomes, being pre-filtered by fertility intentions. Nevertheless, in contrast with TPB, background factors are not fully mediated by intentions' primary antecedents, influencing directly fertility intentions and even fertility behaviors.

  13. Operational nitrogen fertilizer management in dairy farming systems: identification of criteria and derivation of fertilizer application rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T.V.; Andre, G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Oenema, O.

    2004-01-01

    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) management is a decisive factor in grass-based, intensive dairy farming, as it strongly influences economic and environmental performance but little attention has been paid to providing guidance on N-fertilizer management at an operational level to meet these criteria of perf

  14. Follicular fluid levels of prostaglandin E2 and the effect of prostaglandin E2 on steroidogenesis in granulosa-lutein cells in women with moderate and severe endometriosis undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SHEN Xin-xin; HUANG Xiang-hua; ZHAO Zhi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of endometriosis with infertility have not been fully studied.The present study aimed to assess the follicular fluid(FF)levels of prostaglandin E2(PGE2),which plays a critical role within the ovary,and to investigate the effect of PGE2 on steroidogenesis in granulosa-lutein cells(GLCs)from women with and without endometriosis.Methods Thirty-three women with laparoscopically documented endometriosis and 40 controls undergoing in vitro fertilization(IVF)were studied.We assayed the concentrations of PGE2 in FF,the production of E2 and progesterone in FF and in culture medium,and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein(StAR)and CYP19A1 in GLCs with the intervention of PGE2.Results PGE2 and progesterone concentrations were increased and displayed positive correlation in endometriotic FF.PGE2 induced the expression of StAR and the production of progesterone in GLCs from women with endometriosis,and the expression of StAR and the production of progesterone were increased in GLCs from women with endometriosis.However,there were no significant effects of PGE2 on promoting the production of E2 or the expression of CYP19A1 in GLCs.Moreover,the production of E2 and the expression of CYP19A1 in GLCs from women with endometriosis were significantly decreased compared to the controls.Conclusions PGE2 concentrations are increased in endometriotic FF,along with concomitant increases in progesterone and StAR.In contrast,the E2 and CYP19A1 are decreased in GLCs,which may delay the development of the follicles and cause an imbalance in the follicular steroid hormone levels.These changes may have close relationship with endometriosis-associated infertility.

  15. Determinants of fertility in Malaysia -- how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, S L

    1992-03-01

    Chinese and Indian fertility have continued to decline in the 1980s while Malay fertility has stabilized and even risen slightly. The objective of this literature review is to examine the literature on the role of socioeconomic determinants of family formation and childbearing when there are ethnic compositional differences and to examine the evidence for and explanation of why there are different ethnic responses to different socioeconomic variables. Recent fertility trends are identified. Fertility was high in 1957 among all ethnic groups, and Malay fertility was lowest. Chinese fertility declined first in the early 1960s. Malay fertility began its decline after 1964. Indian fertility did not fall until the late 1960s but was the most rapid. In 1966, the National Family Planning Program was initiated and targets were set for 2% growth by 1985. During the 1970s the proportion of Malay acceptors increased, but 10 years later the proportion using efficient methods of contraception declined. In the review of studies on socioeconomic determinants of fertility, women's education is usually associated negatively with family size through delayed age at first marriage, but the effects may vary within ethnic groups. Stronger associations between education and fertility are found for urban and rural Chinese and urban Indians, but socioeconomic factors such as husband's education and family income replace education in importance. The effect of education on family planning and contraceptive usage is more consistent across ethnic groups. Female employment, income, urbanization, migration, infant mortality, and other socioeconomic factors and their association with fertility are also reviewed. Ethnicity affects method of use, as does religion. Malays desire larger families, marry at earlier ages, and are less likely to use contraception which cannot be explained by compositional effects, and are weakly explained by cultural factors. The rise in Malay fertility may be explained

  16. High fertility Gambians in low fertility Spain: The dynamics of child accumulation across transnational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Sow

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the Spanish census and the January 1, 2005 municipal register and on exploratory fieldwork in Catalonia, this paper combines ethnography and demography, in conjunction with current Spanish reunification law, to examine the dynamics of what appears to be high fertility among Gambian immigrants living in Spain. We suggest that this high fertility rate reflects several things. One is the high costs of living in Spain for an unskilled, often-undocumented, but also relatively-longstanding SubSaharan group from a homeland with high rates of fertility: a homeland with which close ties remain vital for migrants in highly marginal conditions. Another is the replacement, in some cases, of older wives by younger ones from Africa, resulting in high rates of reproduction for short slices of time by a circulating pool of young women. We focus, however, on the role of Spanish and European policies themselves in shaping these numbers, particularly those policies that place restrictions on the free movement of people. We conclude that the most interesting demographic facet of this population may not be high fertility but rather the paradoxical dynamics of child accumulation in particular geographic regions as an artifact of Spanish law itself.

  17. Comportamento da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus sob diferentes níveis de adubação fosfatada e de sombreamento Study of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus under levels of phosphoric fertilization and shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C.M. Nemoto

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho, instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação da FCAV, campus de Jaboticabal, UNESP, teve por objetivos estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 33,5, 67,0 e 100,5 ppm de P2O5 e níveis de sombreamento (0, 30, 50 e 70% sobre parâmetros de crescimento de tiririca (Cyperrus rotundus. Quatro tubérculos previamente brotados foram colocados em cada vaso com capacidade para três litros de solo. Utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro textura média, moderado, distrófico, peneirado. Para efeito de análise estatística, os vasos (parcelas foram dispostos num esquema inteiramente casualisado, com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o efeito prejudicial do sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento da tiririca. Já ao nível de 30%, o sombreamento causou redução na densidade das plantas , principalmente por reduzir o número de bulbos + tubérculos. Em conseqüência, houve redução no acúmulo de matéria seca nas diferentes partes da planta, redução esta mais acentuada no sistema subterrâneo (bulbos + tubérculos + raízes, causando incremento nas relações PA/B+T+R e B+T/R. A adubação fosfatada, no entanto, incrementou os parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, principalmente no desenvolvimento das manifestações epígeas, refletido tanto pelo aumento em número quanto em acúmulo de matéria seca.This research was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the College of Agriculture, campus of Jaboticabal, UNESP, with the objective of studying the effects of different levels of phosphoric fertilization (0, 33.5, 67.0 and 100.5 ppm P2O5 and shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 70% of light interception on some growth parameters of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus. The tubers emerged were placed (in numbers of 4 in plastic pots containing three liters of dark Red Latossoil (soil, medium texture, being previously screened. The experiment was land out in a completely randomized design with four

  18. The role of SPRASA in female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angela; Holland, Olivia J; Tong, Mancy; Shelling, Andrew N; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2015-04-01

    Fertility is a complex process and infertility can have many causes. Sperm protein reactive with antisperm antibody (SPRASA)/sperm lysozyme-like protein 1 is a protein discovered as the target of autoantibodies in infertile men and previously thought to be expressed only in sperm. Using a bovine in vitro fertilization model, we have shown that SPRASA antiserum reduced sperm binding to zona-free oocytes and the development of embryos to morulae but did not affect the postfertilization cleavage rate to 2 cells or sperm motility. We demonstrated that SPRASA was expressed in ovarian follicles, corpora lutea, and oocytes by a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Female mice immunized with SPRASA had profound infertility following timed matings and those mice that did become pregnant had reduced fetal viability. The levels of antibodies reactive with SPRASA in 204 fertile and 202 infertile couples were elevated in 3 infertile but no fertile women. Together, these results indicate that SPRASA has a role in female fertility.

  19. Fertility, Mothers' Employment and Family Policy - what kind of relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    are women's employment pattern, the level of support for mothers in reconciling work and caring obligations provided by family policies and the cultural norms prevailing in the various European countries. In the paper we first give a short overview of a number of recent studies of the relationship fertility......, women's employment and family policy. Because of the huge interest for studying fertility it can only be a fraction of the large number of studies and only some relevant perspectives of importance for this paper. The second section gives a short historical overview of the development in fertility...... for the WORKCARE countries followed in the third section by an analysis of the relationship between fertility and women's labour market affiliation. In section four we analyse the relationship between level of fertility and the different European family policy models - each model represented by a WORKCARE country....

  20. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  1. Volume of Requests for Internet Medicare Replacement Cards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides monthly volumes at the national level from federal fiscal year 2008 onwards for Internet Medicare Replacement Card. The dataset includes only...

  2. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  3. Some Fertility Characteristics and Fertilizer Requirements of a Newly Reclaimed Upland Red Soil Derived from Quaternary Red Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of field experiments from 1990 to 1994 in Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, were conducted on an upland red soil derived from Quaternary red clay which had been reclaimed three years before the experiments, in order to study the fertility characteristics and fertilizer requirements of the newly reclaimed soil. The field experiments included that on nutrient characteristics and fertilizer effect, that on K-supplying potential and K-Mg relationship, that on fertilization rates of K and N, etc. The newly reclaimed upland soil was low in both N and P, and its responses to nitrogen and phosphate application were very significant. The K-supplying potential was also low, so the soil was highly responsive to K fertilizer. The effect of Ca and Mg fertilizers was not so great for the reason that certain amounts of Ca and Mg were incorporated into the soil through application of calcium magnesium phosphate during land leveling before the experiments. Among the four micronutrients, B, Mo, Zn and Cu, B had the greatest effect on the soil. The fertilizer requirements of the soil were in an order of P and N > K > lime and B > Mg > Mo, Zn and Cu. Eight crops tested had different fertilizer-requiring characteristics. Rapeseed was very sensitive to P and B fertilizers. Barely was especially sensitive to P and lime and it also responded to B, Mo, Zn and Cu. And sweet potato was especially sensitive to K.

  4. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  5. The relationship between poverty and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: a district analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo Cheok Chin, P

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the poverty-fertility association in Peninsular Malaysia indicates that the decision to replace the 1970 New Economic Policy, aimed at redistributing income, with a policy based on economic growth through foreign investment may create serious demographic problems for the country. Although the country's crude birth rate fell from 40/1000 in 1950 to 30.3/1000 in 1975, the Malays (55%) of the population experienced only a 3% decline in this period and rural-urban differentials in fertility remained. Data from the 1980 Malaysian census on variables related to absolute and relative poverty confirm the serious nature of Malay rural poverty. Stepwise regression models for the urban-rural and Malay-Chinese factors used the following variables: % Malay, household possession dissimilarity index, ratio of Malay to non-Malay workers who are self-employed and unpaid family workers, ratio of Malay to non-Malay who own their housing, education dissimilarity index, employment rate dissimilarity, households with sanitation, households with electricity, households with piped water, per capita expenditures for basic needs, per capita expenditure for redistributing wealth, average education, median age at marriage, female labor force participation, % of child workers, % married, % rural, and % in agriculture. The partial correlation of the Malay-Chinese component with fertility was 0.42 while the urban-rural correlation was 0.33, suggesting that the ethnic factor is operable even in conditions of rural poverty. Urban poverty can be ameliorated by the provision of infrastructural facilities and Chinese poverty is reduced by the level of modernization, while Malay poverty is responsive to income redistribution. Unless the government reconsiders its policy, the high fertility rates in the impoverished, largely Malay, rural northwest, northeast, central, and east parts will persist.

  6. [Recent and future trends in general fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J

    1983-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Venezuela Fertility survey were used to assess recent trends in fertility and to attempt an understanding of future fertility based on observed trends. Between 1951-61, the total fertility rate increased from 5.96 to 6.61. In the 1960s, the fertility of women aged 15-30 years declined somewhat and the use of contraception and sterilization became more widespread, so that by 1971 the total fertility rate fell to 5.58. It is possible that the 1977 fertility survey slightly underrepresented women in the Caracas area, which would tend to overestimate fertility at the national level. The small sample size of 4361 women aged 15-44 involved considerable fluctuations in fertility rates from year to year. The risk of errors resulting from the method of retrospective reporting of live births appeared to be small since the recall period was relatively short. A series of quinquennial rates for women aged 15-39 was constructed for each age group from 1968-77. Fertility rates estimated for 1971 and 1976 respectively from the Venezuela Fertility Survey results using a moving average for 3 years were 120.7 and 105.1 for women 15-19, 259.0 and 225.1 for women 20-24, 255.0 and 213.1 for women 25-29, 214.3 and 167.7 for women 30-34, and 150.0 and 103.6 for women 35-39. The results were quite close to fertility rates estimated in other sources. The 1977 fertility survey indicated a trend toward later age at marriage and a correlation of ideal family size with age. The ideal number of children was 4.2 for the total sample, 5 children for women aged 35-39 years, 4.5 for those aged 30-34, 3.9 for those 25-29, and 3.5 for those aged 20-24. 55% of women in union stated they wanted no more children. 46% of women exposed to risk of pregnancy used a modern method of contraception; the proportion varied from 40% of those with 1 child to 56% with 4 children. The fertility decline, reduced ideal family size, and use of modern contraception were closely associated with

  7. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    to reduce the reliance on import of external resources significantly. We compared a conventional system (C) and an organic system relying on manure import for soil fertility (O1) to two novel systems (O2 and O3) all based on the same crop rotation. The O2 and O3 systems represented new versions...... systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C......One of the core ideas behind organic production is that cropping systems should be less dependent on import of resources, and minimize negative effects on the surrounding environment compared to conventional production. However, even when clearly complying with regulations for organic production...

  8. Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Lian Qiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze yields, soil chemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1 unfertilized control (CON; (2 chemical fertilizers (NPK; (3 half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM; (4 organic manure fertilizers (OM; (5 half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L, and (6 chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL. Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM, total N (TN, total P (TP, total K (TK, available N (AN, available K (AK and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%, TN (2.90 g kg-1, TP (1.35 g kg-1, AN (245.30 mg kg-1, AP (57.00 mg kg-1, and AK (271.80 mg kg-1, followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

  9. Fertility, Migration, and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Consider migration to a higher income region as a human capital investment in which parents bear migration costs and children share returns. Migrants from a population with heterogeneous intergenerational discount rates will be self-selected on intergenerational altruism. Thus, immigrants may be self-selected on fertility. Soviet Jews who migrate to Israel despite high migration costs have significantly more children than members of the same birth cohort who migrate later when costs are low. ...

  10. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  11. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, A Scott; Ostrowski, Kevin A; Hedges, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    There is an emerging evolution in the understanding of the relationship between the prostate and testosterone. It has long been generally believed that with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), increasing serum testosterone levels led to prostatic growth and worsening of voiding dysfunction and associated complications. A new theory, the Saturation Model of Testosterone and its effect on the Prostate has gained attention. This theory suggests that the prostate's response to increasing levels of serum testosterone reaches a limit beyond which there is minimal effect. This model predicts that testosterone replacement therapy occurs above this saturation point, and replacing testosterone to eugonadal levels should not worsen prostate related benign disease. We evaluated the recent published data, with an emphasis on clinical studies done within the last 3 years, for the effects of testosterone supplementation on benign prostatic disease.

  12. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadawale N. M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available First written document dealing with infertility may be found in the Kahoun papyrus (oldest Egyptian medical text, dated to 2200-1950 BC. The early attribution of infertility to women persisted for centuries and was often considered divine punishment.Infertility means 1 year of well-timed, unprotected intercourse without a pregnancy. The study shows about 10-15% of population is infertile. And 15-20% of couple have unexplained infertility (work-up is negative. Normally women are born with their lifetime egg supply, the Fertility initially declines at age 27.Significant decline at age 37-38. The chances of pregnancies are rare after age 44 besides this defect in female ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and fibroid tumour causes infertility in female.Abnormality in sperm production and abnormality in sperm function causes infertility in male.To overcome the infertility egg are harvested from womens ovary and fertilized in laboratory with the sperm the embryos are then transfer into uterus known as In Vitro Fertilization.

  13. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  14. Utilization of “Marble Slurry” In Cement Concrete Replacing Fine Agreegate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er: Raj.p.singh kushwah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastage of marble industry are responsible for many environmental problems because 70% wastes and only 30% recovery of main product contribute to the maximum wastes which are indestructible. Dumping sites give dirty look. Contaminate top fertile soil cover, along with rivers/water bodies affecting irrigation and drinking water resources and air as well as loss to flora and fauna. The most efficient Solution of marble slurry pollution is utilization in Bulk. The only industry which can consume marble slurry at so large level is only the construction industry. Different properties of marble slurry determined in the laboratory. Sp. gravity 2.61, Fineness modulus was found to be 0.91 and Utilization of marble slurry in Cement Concrete replacing Sand is 30% which shows equal strength as of Control i,e. 1:2:4 Cement Concrete 0% Marble slurry. Marble slurry can be easily utilized in construction industry in preparing Cement Concrete.

  15. Fertility and the changing female educational attainment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čipin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the aggregate relationship between cohort fertility and female educational attainment in Croatia. Numerous demographic studies have examined the link between fertility and the level of education. However, newer research indicates that the field of education might also play a role when trying to explain fertility behavior. We contribute to existing literature on macro-level factors related to reproductive outcomes by considering both the level and field of education as possible sources of cohort fertility differentials. The main goal of the present study is to assess the effect of structural changes in educational attainment on cohort fertility decline by means of demographic decomposition techniques. Our analysis is based on detailed 2011 Census data, which provide information on the number of livebirths by mother’s year of birth, birth order, marital status and educational attainment (i.e. the level and field of education. The results of our decomposition analyses reveal the dominance of the structural effect in explaining the overall completed fertility decline in Croatia. We assumed that the changing distribution of women by field of education at least partially accounts for the observed patterns in completed fertility but found no strong evidence in support of the outlined hypothesis.

  16. Medium term efficacy analysis of bi-level BRYAN artificial cervical disc replacement for the treatment of cervical spondylosis%双节段BRYAN人工颈间盘置换的中期疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    种涛; 俞兴; 贾育松; 李春根; 柳根哲; 毕连涌; 徐林

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective]To observe the clinical effect and imaging results of the treatment of adjacent segment cervical spon-dylosis in the adjacent bi - level BRYAN cervical disc replacement. [ Method] A retrospective studying was performed on 19 cases of cervical spondylosis receiving adjacent bi - level BRYAN artificial cervical disc replacement and were followed up from January 2006 to February 2009 in our hospital. Clinical outcome of surgery was evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA) , neck disability index(NDI) and visual analogue pain scale (VAS)for neck pain before surgery and at 1 week,3, 6,12,24,36 months after surgery respectively. The range of motion (ROM) of the surgical segments, the upper and lower adjacent segments, and C2-7 was assessed by cervical dynamic X - ray film before operation and 3 ,6,12,24,36 months after sugery. Operative adjacent segment degeneration was assessed by X - ray disc degeneration scoring system 12,24 and 36 months after surgery. [Result]The neurological symptoms of each patients were significantly improved. The postoperative JOA score , NDI scores, neck pain VAS scores were improved significantly at each follow - up time point compared with those of preoperation, difference was statistically significant (P 0. 05). ROM of the two operative segment increased significantly compared with the preoperative each time point after 3 - month follow - up (P 0. 05). To the last follow - up, the surgery had not led to adjacent segment disc degeneration exacerbated and no serious complications occurred. [ Conclusion ] The clinical result of BRYAN artificial cervical disc replacement in the treatment of adjacent bi - level cervical degenerative disc disease is good, not only reserving the kinematic characteristics of operative segment, adjacent segments , C2-7 segment but preventing of adjacent segment degeneration. No serious complication occurs during mediterm follow - up.%[目的]观察相邻双节段BRYAN人工颈椎间盘

  17. 不同施氮水平对冬小麦生长期土壤呼吸的影响%Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金皖豫; 李铭; 何杨辉; 杜正刚; 邵钧炯; 张国栋; 周灵燕; 周旭辉

    2015-01-01

    在目前全球氮沉降不断增加的背景下,研究农田土壤呼吸对氮沉降的响应有助于理解未来生态系统碳循环对全球变暖的潜在影响。为探讨不同施氮浓度对华东地区冬小麦(Triticum aestivum)生长期土壤呼吸的影响,该实验设计了对照组(不施加氮肥)和3种浓度施氮处理组(低浓度施氮15 g·m–2·a–1,中等浓度施氮30 g·m–2·a–1,高浓度施氮45 g·m–2·a–1)。使用便携式土壤CO2通量观测仪LI-8100测定不同施氮浓度处理下冬小麦生长期(2013年12月至2014年5月)的土壤呼吸速率,并探讨土壤呼吸与土壤温度、湿度等环境因素的关系。结果表明:低、中、高3种浓度施氮处理的土壤呼吸速率平均值分别为5.29、6.17和6.75μmol·m–2·s–1,与对照组(土壤呼吸速率平均值为4.90μmol·m–2·s–1)相比,分别增加了7.8%、23.6%和37.8%;地上生物量分别增加39.9%、104.4%和200.2%,并与冬小麦生长季的总土壤呼吸正相关。5 cm深度土壤的温度与土壤呼吸速率呈指数关系(p <0.05),土壤呼吸季节变化的65%–75%由土壤温度引起,其温度敏感性为2.09–2.32。结果表明,添加氮肥促进了植物的生长,增加了生物量,从而增加了冬小麦农田的土壤呼吸速率。%Aims Our objective was to explore the effects of different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in East China. Methods Three levels of N fertilization, N1 (15 g·m–2·a–1), N2 (30 g·m–2·a–1), and N3 (45 g·m–2·a–1), and the control group (CK) were set up in winter wheat fields. The LI-8100 Automated Soil CO2 Flux System was used to measure soil respiration rate during the growing season (December 2013 to May 2014) of winter wheat. Important findings During the growing season of winter wheat, mean soil respiration rates of N1, N2 and N3 treatments were 5.29, 6

  18. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  19. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  20. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  1. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    ) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look...... of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing...

  2. The cultural evolution of fertility decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cultural evolutionists have long been interested in the problem of why fertility declines as populations develop. By outlining plausible mechanistic links between individual decision-making, information flow in populations and competition between groups, models of cultural evolution offer a novel and powerful approach for integrating multiple levels of explanation of fertility transitions. However, only a modest number of models have been published. Their assumptions often differ from those in other evolutionary approaches to social behaviour, but their empirical predictions are often similar. Here I offer the first overview of cultural evolutionary research on demographic transition, critically compare it with approaches taken by other evolutionary researchers, identify gaps and overlaps, and highlight parallel debates in demography. I suggest that researchers divide their labour between three distinct phases of fertility decline—the origin, spread and maintenance of low fertility—each of which may be driven by different causal processes, at different scales, requiring different theoretical and empirical tools. A comparative, multi-level and mechanistic framework is essential for elucidating both the evolved aspects of our psychology that govern reproductive decision-making, and the social, ecological and cultural contingencies that precipitate and sustain fertility decline. PMID:27022079

  3. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  4. Shifts in species composition constrain restoration of overgrazed grassland using nitrogen fertilization in Inner Mongolian steppe, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Long-term livestock over-grazing causes nitrogen outputs to exceed inputs in Inner Mongolia, suggesting that low levels of nitrogen fertilization could help restore grasslands degraded by overgrazing. However, the effectiveness of such an approach depends on the response of production and species composition to the interactive drivers of nitrogen and water availability. We conducted a five-year experiment manipulating precipitation (NP: natural precipitation and SWP: simulated wet year precipitation and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 addition in Inner Mongolia. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would increase forage production when water availability was relatively high. However, the extent to which nitrogen would co-limit production under average or below average rainfall in these grasslands was unknown.Aboveground net primary production (ANPP increased in response to nitrogen when precipitation was similar to or higher than the long-term average, but not when precipitation was below average. This shift in limitation was also reflected by water and nitrogen use efficiency. Belowground live biomass significantly increased with increasing water availability, but was not affected by nitrogen addition. Under natural precipitation (NP treatment, the inter-annual variation of ANPP was 3-fold greater than with stable water availability (CV(ANPP = 61±6% and 17±3% for NP and SWP treatment, respectively and nitrogen addition increased CV(ANPP even more (89±14%. This occurred in part because fertilizer nitrogen left in the soil in dry years remained available for uptake during wet years and because of high production by unpalatable annual species in wet years in the NP treatment. In summary, plant growth by residual fertilizer nitrogen could lead to sufficient yields to offset lack of additional production in dry years. However, the utility of fertilization for restoration may be constrained by shifts in species composition and

  5. Shifts in species composition constrain restoration of overgrazed grassland using nitrogen fertilization in Inner Mongolian steppe, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Hooper, David U; Lin, Shan

    2011-03-01

    Long-term livestock over-grazing causes nitrogen outputs to exceed inputs in Inner Mongolia, suggesting that low levels of nitrogen fertilization could help restore grasslands degraded by overgrazing. However, the effectiveness of such an approach depends on the response of production and species composition to the interactive drivers of nitrogen and water availability. We conducted a five-year experiment manipulating precipitation (NP: natural precipitation and SWP: simulated wet year precipitation) and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) addition in Inner Mongolia. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would increase forage production when water availability was relatively high. However, the extent to which nitrogen would co-limit production under average or below average rainfall in these grasslands was unknown.Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) increased in response to nitrogen when precipitation was similar to or higher than the long-term average, but not when precipitation was below average. This shift in limitation was also reflected by water and nitrogen use efficiency. Belowground live biomass significantly increased with increasing water availability, but was not affected by nitrogen addition. Under natural precipitation (NP treatment), the inter-annual variation of ANPP was 3-fold greater than with stable water availability (CV(ANPP) = 61±6% and 17±3% for NP and SWP treatment, respectively) and nitrogen addition increased CV(ANPP) even more (89±14%). This occurred in part because fertilizer nitrogen left in the soil in dry years remained available for uptake during wet years and because of high production by unpalatable annual species in wet years in the NP treatment. In summary, plant growth by residual fertilizer nitrogen could lead to sufficient yields to offset lack of additional production in dry years. However, the utility of fertilization for restoration may be constrained by shifts in species composition and the lack of

  6. A demographic explanation for the recent rise in European fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John; Sobotka, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2008 European countries experienced the first continent-wide increase in the period total fertility rate (TFR) since the 1960s. After discussing period and cohort influences on fertility trends, we examine the role of tempo distortions of period fertility and different methods for removing them. We highlight the usefulness of a new indicator: the tempo- and parity-adjusted total fertility rate (TFRp*). This variant of the adjusted total fertility rate proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney also controls for the parity composition of the female population and provides more stable values than the indicators proposed in the past. Finally, we estimate levels and trends in tempo and parity distribution distortions in selected countries in Europe. Our analysis of period and cohort fertility indicators in the Czech Republic, Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden shows that the new adjusted measure gives a remarkable fit with the completed fertility of women in prime childbearing years in a given period, which suggests that it provides an accurate adjustment for tempo and parity composition distortions. Using an expanded dataset for ten countries, we demonstrate that adjusted fertility as measured by TFRp* remained nearly stable since the late 1990s. This finding implies that the recent upturns in the period TFR in Europe are largely explained by a decline in the pace of fertility postponement. Other tempo-adjusted fertility indicators have not indicated such a large role for the diminishing tempo effect in these TFR upturns. As countries proceed through their postponement transitions, tempo effects will decline further and eventually disappear, thus putting continued upward pressure on period fertility. However, such an upward trend may be obscured for a few years by the effects of economic recession.

  7. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  8. Mitochondrial gene replacement in primate offspring and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Clepper, Lisa; Woodward, Joy; Li, Ying; Ramsey, Cathy; Kolotushkina, Olena; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-09-17

    Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and contain their own genome (mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Unlike the nuclear genome, which is derived from both the egg and sperm at fertilization, the mtDNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin. Mutations in mtDNA contribute to a diverse range of currently incurable human diseases and disorders. To establish preclinical models for new therapeutic approaches, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial genome can be efficiently replaced in mature non-human primate oocytes (Macaca mulatta) by spindle-chromosomal complex transfer from one egg to an enucleated, mitochondrial-replete egg. The reconstructed oocytes with the mitochondrial replacement were capable of supporting normal fertilization, embryo development and produced healthy offspring. Genetic analysis confirmed that nuclear DNA in the three infants born so far originated from the spindle donors whereas mtDNA came from the cytoplast donors. No contribution of spindle donor mtDNA was detected in offspring. Spindle replacement is shown here as an efficient protocol replacing the full complement of mitochondria in newly generated embryonic stem cell lines. This approach may offer a reproductive option to prevent mtDNA disease transmission in affected families.

  9. Economic development and fertility change in Mexico, 1950-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W W

    1974-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to isolate the determinants of fertility in Mexico. Of the variables included, two are significant in accounting for differences in the level of completed fertility in the 32 "states" in 1970. They are the share of the labor force in agriculture, which is directly related to fertility, and the percentage of the population speaking an indigenous language, which shows an inverse relationship.The most important factors acting to reduce total fertility rates over time are increases in life expectancy and declines in the share of the labor force in agriculture. However, based on the estimated linear relationship, these two variables by themselves are not adequate to achieve a rapid decline in fertility in the future.

  10. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee

    2017-01-01

    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of variable rate fertilizer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Damirchi

    2015-09-01

    according to the need of the farm in each part is controlled. The effect of plot length on the amount of fertilizing on 25% need level was not significant, but it was significant on 50% need level. This is due to stopping and starting fertilizer flow during the test, changes in motors speed and error of these on fertilizer output at a certain amount of fertilizing so that at the 25% need level, the error resulting from these factors had less share on the amount of plant fertilizer and the effect of plot length was not significant according to the system default. On the other hand, the effect of forward speed was significant on the 50% need level and insignificant on the 25% need level. Conclusions: In order to calculate the accuracy of the system, the error from the application amount of fertilizer was measured at different fertilizing rates. The correlation between the adjusted fertilizing rate and the measured fertilizing rate was 0.98 with regression model of y=1.0475x which shows the good accuracy of the system.

  12. ESB Clinical Biomechanics Award 2008: Complete data of total knee replacement loading for level walking and stair climbing measured in vivo with a follow-up of 6-10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Bernd; Kutzner, Ines; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Rohlmann, Antonius; Halder, Andreas M; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

    2009-05-01

    Detailed information about the loading of the knee joint is required for various investigations in total knee replacement. Up to now, gait analysis plus analytical musculo-skeletal models were used to calculate the forces and moments acting in the knee joint. Currently, all experimental and numerical pre-clinical tests rely on these indirect measurements which have limitations. The validation of these methods requires in vivo data; therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide in vivo loading data of the knee joint. A custom-made telemetric tibial tray was used to measure the three forces and three moments acting in the implant. This prosthesis was implanted into two subjects and measurements were obtained for a follow-up of 6 and 10 months, respectively. Subjects performed level walking and going up and down stairs using a self-selected comfortable speed. The subjects' activities were captured simultaneously with the load data on a digital video tape. Customized software enabled the display of all information in one video sequence. The highest mean values of the peak load components from the two subjects were as follows: during level walking the forces were 276%BW (percent body weight) in axial direction, 21%BW (medio-lateral), and 29%BW (antero-posterior). The moments were 1.8%BW*m in the sagittal plane, 4.3%BW*m (frontal plane) and 1.0%BW*m (transversal plane). During stair climbing the axial force increased to 306%BW, while the shear forces changed only slightly. The sagittal plane moment increased to 2.4%BW*m, while the frontal and transversal plane moments decreased slightly. Stair descending produced the highest forces of 352%BW (axial), 35%BW (medio-lateral), and 36%BW (antero-posterior). The sagittal and frontal plane moments increased to 2.8%BW*m and 4.6%BW*m, respectively, while the transversal plane moment changed only slightly. Using the data obtained, mechanical simulators can be programmed according to realistic load profiles. Furthermore

  13. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  14. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  18. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  19. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  20. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  1. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.