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Sample records for replacement cross country

  1. The Replacement Rate: An Imperfect Indicator of Pension Adequacy in Cross-Country Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybalski, Filip; Marcinkiewicz, Edyta

    Pension systems are usually evaluated from the perspective of two basic criteria: pension adequacy and financial sustainability. The first criterion concerns the level of pension benefits and protection of the elderly from poverty. The second criterion applies to financial liquidity. This paper is primarily of methodological nature. We discuss the problem of measuring pension adequacy, focusing mainly on the replacement rate, which, defined in a number of ways, is the most common measure of pension adequacy. However, as we argue in this paper, it covers only one of its dimensions, namely consumption smoothing. Meanwhile, an equally important dimension, often discussed in the literature and included in most definitions of pension adequacy, is protection of old-age pensioners from poverty. Accordingly, we have proved the thesis that the replacement rate is not a sufficient measure of broadly understood pension adequacy in cross-country studies. Consequently, we have proposed alternative (or possibly complementary) measures called the synthetic pension adequacy indicators (SPAI1-3), defined in basic form as a quotient of relative median income and the at-risk-of-poverty rate. These indicators provide for both the above-mentioned dimensions of adequacy and, according to statistical analysis, also represent them very well. Moreover, the indicators, calculated separately for men and for women, enables evaluation of the third dimension of pension adequacy, namely gender-related differences in pension adequacy.

  2. Bank Competition and Stability : Cross-country Heterogeneity (Replaced by EBC DP 2012-026)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; De Jonghe, O.G.; Schepens, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a large cross-country variation in the relationship between bank competition and stability and explores market, regulatory and institutional features that can explain this heterogeneity. Combining insights from the competition-stability and regulation-stability literatures, we d

  3. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  4. Cross-Country Trek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    On August 8, 1998, Wu Qi and Yu Yan arrived at Beijing, the destination of a journey that had taken them more than three years. In travelling across 28 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, by foot, bus and train, these two young women from Guangzhou had covered a distance of 120,000 kJlometers, the first continuous cross-country journey accomplished by women. On the eve of International Women’s Day (March 8th) of 1995, Wu Qi and Yu Yan quit their jobs and started out on their cross-country

  5. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  6. Teaching Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan E.

    1984-01-01

    Cross-country skiing instruction can be done both inside and outside the gymnasium. This article provides activities to be performed inside to prepare students for skiing. Outside organization techniques and drills are suggested. A list of common errors is given. (DF)

  7. Dashing through the Snow--On Cross-Country Skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Roger

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of factors to consider when developing a cross-country area for skiing includes consideration of the components of a successful cross-country operation and how the sport can be effectively promoted. (JD)

  8. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  9. Performance Diagnostic in Cross-Country Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Benedikt A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recreational cross-country skiers can benefit from a performance diagnostic when planning a training program. The aim of this study was to establish a simple test protocol to measure endurance capacity and provide training recommendations. Methods. The relationship between endurance performance and cross-country skiing technique was assessed using two tests. First, a lactate threshold test whereby running speed was determined on a treadmill at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Second, participants completed a variation of the Cooper test using skating technique on flat terrain to determine the distance covered in 12 min and maximum heart rate. Results. There was a correlative (r = 0.18 respectivelly R2 = 0.43 relationship of between the distance covered in the Cooper test and treadmill running speed at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Conclusions. The two tests allow recreational athletes to rank themselves with regards to their endurance capacity within a population. The relationship between distance covered and maximum heart rate can indicate whether future training should focus on technical or physical improvement.

  10. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  11. A comparison of tooth retention and replacement across 15 countries in the over-50s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Christian; Jürges, Hendrik; Shen, Jing; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Listl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Oral diseases are still among the most common chronic diseases globally with substantial detrimental impact especially on elderly people's health and well-being. However, limited evidence exists on international variation in the oral health status of the older population. We aimed to examine international variation in tooth loss and tooth replacement in the general population aged between 50 and 90 years. A cross-sectional analysis of data from the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was conducted. The data cover 14 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland) and Israel, and they were collected during the year 2013. Age-specific percentages of the population having all natural teeth, the age-specific numbers of natural (and artificial) teeth, and the age-specific percentages of full, partial, or no replacement of missing teeth were assessed with stratification by country. It was further evaluated to which extent proposed oral health goals concerning tooth loss at higher ages had been achieved. In total, 62,763 individuals were included in the study. Age-standardized mean numbers of natural teeth exhibited substantial variation, ranging from 14.3 (Estonia) to 24.5 (Sweden). The oral health goal of retaining at least 20 teeth at age 80 years was achieved by 25% of the population or less in most countries. A target concerning edentulism (≤15% in population aged 65-74 years) was reached in Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, France, and Germany. Tooth replacement practices varied especially for a number of up to five missing teeth which were more likely to be replaced in Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland than in Israel, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, and Sweden. This study suggests that the age-specific number of natural teeth and the practice of tooth replacement in the over 50s differ substantially among

  12. CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING EVALUATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT LIPOMATOSIS (RRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Boruah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon benign entity where abundance of fibrofatty tissue proliferation occurs in renal sinus with further extension of proliferated fatty tissues into renal hilum, perinephric and periureteric spaces. It is usually associated with renal atrophy and marked renal parenchymal destruction. Aim of our study was cross-sectional imaging evaluation of Renal Replacement Lipomatosis (RRL. METHODS A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised of 16 patients presenting to the Departments of Radio-diagnosis, Surgery and Urology in a tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically and ultrasonographically followed by cross-sectional imaging modality like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or both. RESULTS Out of 16 patients of renal replacement lipomatosis, 15 patients (93.8% had associated renal pelvic or ureteric calculus while 1 patient (6.2% had left para-aortic mass without associated calculus. Out of fifteen patients of calculus related RRL, 8 patients (53.3% had calculus size more than 40 mm, followed by 4 patients (26.7% who had size from 20 to 40 mm and 3 patients (20% had size less than 20 mm. The mean CT HU value of calculus was 1334±84.5 in our study. Three patients (18.8% had only renal hilar fatty excessive deposition, 1 patient (6.2% had renal hilar and perinephric space fat depositions, 3 patients (18.8% had renal hilar, perinephric and periureteric spaces depositions and 9 patients (56.2% had renal hilar and periureteric excessive fatty depositions. Delayed renal functioning was noted in 9 patients (56%, followed by non-functioning in 5 patients (31.2% and 2 patients (12.5% had normally functioning kidneys. CONCLUSION Cross-sectional imaging like CT and MRI scan helps in diagnosing RRL and proper delineation of extensions of excessive fatty tissue proliferation.

  13. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  14. A Guide to Equipment: Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ned

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are guidelines for asking questions and selecting cross-country skis, boots, bindings, poles, and touring packs. To choose any type of cross-country gear, the strategy recommended is to match the equipment to the athelete's skiing style. (WB)

  15. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  16. Fitness Levels of University Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhling, Robert O.; Storer, Thomas W.

    Dry-land training in preparation for competitive cross-country skiing proved to be effective in increasing athletes' aerobic capacity and physical fitness. Such training included bicycle racing, roller skiing, fartlek running, cross-country running, simulated ski walking on inclines, and interval training over hills. (JD)

  17. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a great activity for taking a physical education class outside during the cold winter months. It is also a diverse activity that appeals to students of all ages, and is an excellent cardio-respiratory activity to keep students active. This article has provided the first steps in preparing a cross-country skiing lesson in…

  18. Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment for India, China and Pakistan for the period 1980 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through co integration, granger causality and regression analysis. The variables selected for the study are unemployment, inflation, gross domestic product, exchange rate and the increasing rate of population. The results of regression analysis showed significant impact of all the variables for all three countries. GDP of Pakistan showed positive relation with the unemployment rate and the reason of that is the poverty level and underutilization of foreign investment. The result of granger causality showed that bidirectional causality does not exist between any of the variable for all three countries. Co integration result explored that long term relationship do exist among the variables for all the models. It is recommended that distribution of income needs to be improved for Pakistan in order to have positive impact of growth on the employment rate.

  19. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VALUES: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study aims at finding out how similar and/or different are the future Romanian and Slovenian managers in assessing the importance of organizations social responsibility values. The assumption of the research is that most of most of students in engineering and business will hold middle management position in the near future. The sample consists of 727 undergraduate and graduate students levels from Romania and Slovenia, two former socialist countries. The data has been collected between 2008 and 2009 in the framework of GLOBE student project , using a section of GLOBE III questionnaire, about the importance of CSR related values in critical decisions. The findings concern the similarities and significant differences between: 1 whole Romanian and Slovenian samples; 2 Romanian and Slovenian students in engineering; 3 Romanian and Slovenian students in business. Our findings revealed a trend toward convergence in the importance given to decisions effect on contribution to the economic welfare of the nation and local community, as well as on employees professional growth and development and on environment. The biggest difference between the groups concerns the decisions effect on firm profitability (the Romanians considering this value as more important in critical decisions than the Slovenians. The students in engineering proved to be a more homogeneous group, showing convergence in assessing the importance of eight out of fifteen social responsibility values. The biggest difference concerns the decisions effect on firm profitability (Romanians consider it as having higher importance in critical decisions than the Slovenians. Comparison of students in business revealed convergence in assessing the importance of employees professional growth and development and decisions effect on environment. The biggest positive difference concerns the same value of decisions effect on firm profitability. The Romanians are well behind Slovenians in

  20. Abortion and Crime: Cross-Country Evidence from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The publication of Donohue and Levitt (2001)’s paper on the impact of legalized abortion on the decline of crime in the US has created a wide debate in the literature. However, the vast majority of papers have been implemented in the US setting, and the few other works were single-country studies. In this research, we aim to provide new evidence on the abortion-crime link by examining this issue using a sample of 16 Western European countries. The cross-country investigation allows the exploi...

  1. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Six Danish male cross-country skiers were studied during the end-of-summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double-poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double...

  2. Human Capital and Cross-Country Comparison of Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2)

  3. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  4. Cross-age friendship in 25 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on individual and country-level circumstances shaping friendships between young and old to gain insight into conditions for intergenerational solidarity. Using European Social Survey data, findings show that relatively few people have cross-age friendships (18% of the

  5. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  6. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  7. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  8. Zipf rank approach and cross-country convergence of incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Urošević, Branko; Stanley, H. Eugene; Podobnik, Boris

    2011-05-01

    We employ a concept popular in physics —the Zipf rank approach— in order to estimate the number of years that EU members would need in order to achieve "convergence" of their per capita incomes. Assuming that trends in the past twenty years continue to hold in the future, we find that after t≈30 years both developing and developed EU countries indexed by i will have comparable values of their per capita gross domestic product {\\cal G}_{i,t} . Besides the traditional Zipf rank approach we also propose a weighted Zipf rank method. In contrast to the EU block, on the world level the Zipf rank approach shows that, between 1960 and 2009, cross-country income differences increased over time. For a brief period during the 2007-2008 global economic crisis, at world level the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of richer countries declined more rapidly than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of poorer countries, in contrast to EU where the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developing EU countries declined faster than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developed EU countries, indicating that the recession interrupted the convergence between EU members. We propose a simple model of GDP evolution that accounts for the scaling we observe in the data.

  9. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among cross-country skiers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Hållmarker, Ulf; James, Stefan; Ingre, Caroline; Michaëlsson, Karl; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria

    2016-03-01

    A highly increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been suggested among professional athletes. We aimed to examine whether long distance cross-country skiers have also a higher risk of ALS and whether the increased risk was modified by skiing performance. We followed 212,246 cross-country skiers in the Swedish Vasaloppet cohort and a random selection of 508,176 general Swedes not participating in the Vasaloppet during 1989-2010. The associations between cross-country skiing as well as skiing performance (i.e., type of race, finishing time and number of races) and the consequent risk of ALS were estimated through hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox model. During the study, 39 cases of ALS were ascertained among the skiers. The fastest skiers (100-150% of winner time) had more than fourfold risk of ALS (HR 4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-10.4), as compared to skiers that finished at >180% of winner time. Skiers who participated >4 races during this period had also a higher risk (HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.37-7.17) than those participated only one race. When compared to the non-skiers, the fastest skiers still had a higher risk (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12-3.84), as skiers who had >4 races (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05-3.35), but those finishing at >180% of winner time had a lower risk (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.87). In conclusion, long distance cross-country skiing is associated with a higher risk of ALS, but only among the best skiers; recreational skiers appear to have a largely reduced risk.

  11. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mohit; Patnaik, Ila; Felman, Joshua; Shah, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - "An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis" (Patnaik et al. [1]). In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP) for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho). Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values) for the point estimates of ρ's. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ's, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  12. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  13. Child Malnutrition and Mortality in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto; Schettino, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose and test an interpretative framework on the social and economic determinants of child malnutrition and child mortality, two key human development indicators. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 illustrates the main economic and social factors causing child malnutrition and mortality. Section 2 identifies the main clusters of food insecure and vulnerable households and briefly describes their livelihood profiles. Section 3 exposes our cross-country estimatio...

  14. Survey-Based Cross-Country Comparisons Where Countries Vary in Sample Design: Issues and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In multi-national surveys, different countries usually implement different sample designs. The sample designs affect the variance of estimates of differences between countries. When making such estimates, analysts often fail to take sufficient account of sample design. This failure occurs sometimes because variables indicating stratification, clustering, or weighting are unavailable, partially available, or in a form that is unsuitable for cross-national analysis. In this article, we demonstrate how complex sample design should be taken into account when estimating differences between countries, and we provide practical guidance to analysts and to data producers on how to deal with partial or inappropriately-coded sample design indicator variables. Using EU-SILC as a case study, we evaluate the inverse misspecification effect (imeff that results from ignoring clustering or stratification, or both in a between-country comparison where countries’ sample designs differ. We present imeff for estimates of between-country differences in a number of demographic and economic variables for 19 European Union Member States. We assess the magnitude of imeff and the associated impact on standard error estimates. Our empirical findings illustrate that it is important for data producers to supply appropriate sample design indicators and for analysts to use them.

  15. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities.

  16. Biomechanical analysis of cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1992-09-01

    The development of new techniques for cross-country skiing based on skating movements has stimulated biomechanical research aimed at understanding the various movement patterns, the forces driving the motions, and the mechanical factors affecting performance. Research methods have evolved from two-dimensional kinematic descriptions of classic ski techniques to three-dimensional analyses involving measurement of the forces and energy relations of skating. While numerous skiing projects have been completed, most have focused on either the diagonal stride or the V1 skating technique on uphill terrain. Current understanding of skiing mechanics is not sufficiently complete to adequately assess and optimize an individual skier's technique.

  17. Training for cross-country skiing and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, E M; Puhl, J L; Temples, T E

    1986-04-01

    Effects of iron supplements and training for cross-country skiing on hematological and iron status were studied in nine men and ten women from the U. S. Nordic ski team. Four men and five women received a multiple vitamin, multiple mineral supplement containing 18 mg iron for 8 months while five men and five women received a placebo. Fasting blood samples were taken from all skiers prior to supplementation (May) and in August, November, and January. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percentage of transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, free erythrocyte porphyrin, and haptoglobin were measured on each sample. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and TIBC were higher in November when both men and women skiers trained at altitude than in August. In January TIBC was further increased, haptoglobin was increased, hemoglobin for the men fell below May levels, and hematocrit returned to May levels. Skiers receiving iron had lower TIBC levels in November and January than the placebo group. Six women and two men had ferritin levels below 28 ng X ml-1, which suggests prelatent iron deficiency. Free erythrocyte porphyrin levels above 100 micrograms X dl-1 RBC were found in all skiers at some point during training. The results suggest that multivitamin, multimineral supplements containing iron have little effect on the iron status of cross-country skiers.

  18. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  19. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  20. Cross-cultural investigations of preschool education in foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazranova L.Zh.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical review and analysis of cross-cultural investigations carried out in the sphere of preschool education in foreign countries in recent decades. The article introduces the results of the studies aimed at estimation ofpreschool children’s understanding of racial cues, disclosure of ethno-cultural and socio-cultural conditions affecting children’s school readiness; criteria which parents from different ethno-cultures use to estimate the efficiency of preschool education; specificity of child-educator and mother-child relationships; problems and resources of children-migrants adaptation in terms of multi-cultural settlements. Stated problems, their analysis and solutions make it possibleto increase the efficiency of educational process in modern socio-cultural environment.

  1. Effects of training and iron supplementation on iron status of cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattini, A; Schena, F

    1990-12-01

    We have studied the effects of iron treatment on iron deficient cross-country skiers. Kind and duration of their daily training were also considered. Forty-eight athletes were divided in three balanced groups: Group A received 160 mg ferritinic iron/die, Group B received the same amount of iron and 1 gr of ascorbic acid and Group C was untreated. Blood samples were taken at the start, after two months and four months of supplementation. Hematological and iron status parameters were determined. Average training duration was 80 min a day. Running was the most frequent method of training but also roll and country skiing were commonly used. At the initial sample low serum ferritin values were found in all the three groups (Group A = 23.3 micrograms/l, Group B = 20.9 micrograms/l and Group C = 23.5 micrograms/l). After iron treatment serum ferritin increased in Groups A and B (+67.8% and +63.6% respectively) but was slightly reduced in Group C. Serum iron was unchanged and total iron binding capacity decreased following ferritin increase. Ascorbic acid failed to increase iron absorption in Group B. A significant reduction of haptoglobin (-14% and -9% in Group A and B respectively) was also documented. We conclude that cross-country skiers extensively use running in their training and it may be one of the cause of their poor iron status. Ferritinic iron treatment seems to be effective in replacing iron stores in cross-country skiers who underwent heavy training.

  2. Cross-country skiing and postexercise heart-rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah; Buchheit, Martin; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-01-01

    Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD; 28.2 ± 5.4 y, 181 ± 8 cm, 77.9 ± 9.4 kg, 69.5 ± 4.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1 maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 × 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between the 800-m time-trial time and VO2, HR, or BLa. In addition, in no case was any clear correlation between any of the HRR indices and performance time or VO2max observed. These findings confirm that XCS performance is largely correlated with VO2max and the ability to tolerate high levels of BLa; however, postexercise HRR showed no clear association with performance. The homogeneity of the group of athletes involved and the contribution of the arms and upper body to the exercise preceding determination of HRR may explain this absence of a relationship.

  3. Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R; Boettcher, P; Scherf, B; Hoffmann, I

    2016-02-01

    Crossbreeding, considering either terminal or rotational crossing, synthetic breed creation or breed replacement, is often promoted as an efficient strategy to increase farmers' income through the improvement of productivity of local livestock in developing countries. Sustainability of crossbreeding is however frequently challenged by constraints such as poor adaptation to the local environment or lack of logistic support. In this review, we investigate factors that may influence the long-term success or the failure of crossbreeding programs, based on the scientific literature and country reports submitted for The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Crossbreeding activities vary widely across species and countries. Its sustainability is dependent on different prerequisites such as continual access to adequate breeding stock (especially after the end of externally funded crossbreeding projects), the opportunity of improved livestock to express their genetic potential (e.g. through providing proper inputs) and integration within a reliable market chain. As formal crossbreeding programs are often associated with adoption of other technologies, they can be a catalyst for innovation and development for smallholders. Given the increasing global demand for animal products, as well as the potential environmental consequences of climate change, there is a need for practical research to improve the implementation of long-term crossbreeding programs in developing countries.

  4. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  5. The attitude of the faculty of sport and physical education students toward cross-country running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhas Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The syllabus of the track and field subject at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education includes cross-country running - running in nature. The main objective of this study was to determine the structure and intensity of students' attitude toward the cross-country running. Besides, the objective was to check the connection of the students' attitude towards the cross-country running and the achieved results of cross-country running, as well as of doing sport and recreational running. The sample comprised 69 students of the second year of studies who attended the cross-country running classes. For measuring the attitude toward the cross-country running, the Connotative differential instrument was used consisting of 15 pairs of opposite adjectives presented in a form of seven-part bipolar scale grouped into three dimensions: affective, cognitive and conative. This instrument was applied within an extensive questionnaire which included questions about doing sports, jogging, as well as the results of cross-country running at the end of the teaching period. The descriptive analysis has shown that students have a positive attitude of moderate intensity toward cross-country running, observed through all three dimensions of attitude. The correlation analysis between the dimensions of attitude toward cross country running and the results achieved at cross country running showed that the correlations are negative and statistically significant, suggesting that if the result of running is better, the students' attitude toward cross country running is more positive. Competitive sport is not connected with the quality of attitude toward cross-country running. The results obtained by the study give grounds for assuming that, given that attitudes are an important component of the motivational aspect of personality, it can be expected that the students' positive attitude toward cross country running would contribute to cross country running application in

  6. Cross-country differences in stock market development : a cultural view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eelke de; Semenov, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Although during the last decades the importance of stock markets has increased in all OECD countries, the cross-country differences appear to be remarkably stable. In this paper we relate the factors determining cross-country differences in stock market activity to deeply rooted norms and values in

  7. Cross-country Differences in Stock Market Development: A Cultural View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Semenov, R.

    2002-01-01

    Although during the last decades the importance of stock markets has increased in all OECD countries, the cross-country differences appear to be remarkably stable. In this paper we relate the factors determining cross-country differences in stock market activity to deeply rooted norms and values in

  8. Immigrants' health in Europe: A cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (20022008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified mult

  9. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positively related to basic human capital, while regime instability has a negative link with basic human capital. Governance has a positive relationship with advanced human capital, while government instability has a negative link with advanced human capital. Finally, we also find an indirect positive effect of governance and democracy on both types of human capital through their effect on income. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9983-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  10. Characteristics of injuries among young cross-country skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop information about injuries in cadet and junior cross-country skiers. Material and methods. Fifty female (n=21 and male (n=29 competitors from Podhale were in research group. Skiers completed questionnaire. The questions concerned the location of injuries, types of injuries, methods of treatments and rehabilitation and recovery exercises. Results. The most frequent injury in the research group was bruises, cuts and sprains and muscle strain. Few people had suffered broken bones and muscle ruptures. The most of the skiers suffered knee injuries. As a treatment PRICEMM procedure has been introduced. The main method of recovery was rest from training. Conclusions. No correlation was found epidemiology of injuries and the treatment, gender, age, level of sport and the number of starts of the season. Sports training and recovery should be similar In each group (female and male competitors. Players starting considerably more likely to devote less time to treatment and improvement of injury.

  11. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  12. Biomechanical determinants of oxygen extraction during cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2013-02-01

    To determine the relationship of muscle activation, force production, and cycle characteristics to O(2) extraction during high- and lower-intensity double poling (DP), nine well-trained male cross-country skiers performed DP on a treadmill for 3 min at 90% VO(2peak) followed by 6 min at 70%. During the final minute at each workload, arterial, femoral, and subclavian venous blood were collected for determination of partial pressure of O(2), partial pressure of CO(2), pH, and lactate. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from six upper and lower body muscles, leg and pole forces were measured, and cardiorespiratory variables were monitored continuously. O(2) extraction was associated with time point of peak pole force (PF(peak)), duration of recovery, EMG activity, and lower body use. Arm O(2) extraction was lower than in the legs at both intensities (P < 0.001) and was reduced to a lesser extent upon decreasing the workload (P < 0.05). Arm root-mean-square EMG was higher during the poling phase and entire cycle compared with the legs (P < 0.001). Blood lactate was higher in the subclavian than in femoral vein and artery (P < 0.001) and independent of intensity. O(2) extraction was correlated to low muscle activation, later PF(peak) , prolonged poling time, and extensive dynamic lower body use. Cycle rate and recovery time were associated with O(2) extraction during high-intensity exercise only.

  13. Export Pricing and the Cross-Country Correlation of Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Tervala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses cross-country correlations of stock prices (values of firms) using the basic New Open Economy Macroeconomics model. We show that cross-country correlations of stock prices greatly depend on the currency of export pricing in the case of monetary shocks but not notably for temporary technology shocks. In the case of a money supply shock, the producer (local) currency pricing version of the model generates a negative (positive) cross-country correlation of stock prices.

  14. Physiological characteristics of elite prepubertal cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, N; Gutin, B

    1979-01-01

    Eight elite cross-country runners and eight normally active boys 8--11 years of age were studied. The runners were selected on the basis of success in regional and/or national championships. Two of them had the first to third fastest mile run times for their age groups in the U.S. for three years. Tests included submaximal and maximal treadmill runs, an anaerobic capacity bicycle test, a mile run, and various anthropometric measures. A best career mile run (BCM) was used for comparisons within the running group. At submaximal work levels of 5.6 and 7 mph (124, 161, and 187 meters/min) the values for heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were significantly lower for the runners than for the non-runners. The VO2max of the runners (56.6 ml kg min) was significantly higher than that of the non-runners (46.0 ml kg min). For all subjects combined, mile run time was highly correlated with percent VO2max and percent max HR at all submaximal running speeds (r greater than 0.8). The correlation coefficient between mile run time and VO2max was -0.88. Within the running group, however, BCM was unrelated to VO2max but was closely related to percent VO2max at 8 mph (213 meters/min) with 4 = 0.86, and to anaerobic capacity (r = -0.88). There were no significant differences between the groups in age, height, weight, max HR, and percent body fat. Thus the runners had higher aerobic and anaerobic capacities, and greater utilization of fat as an enrgy sustrate during submaximal work. Within the running group, anaerobic capacity and running economy were closely related to BCM time, whereas VO2max was not.

  15. The 'ugly twins': failed low-wage-country sourcing projects and their expensive replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, P.; Schiele, H.; Werner, W.

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing and sourcing from low-wage countries remain topics of high priority for firms in industrialized countries. Lower factor costs, particularly in low-wage countries, have led to high expectations of savings from both managers and academics. All too often, scientific and particula

  16. The 'ugly twins': failed low-wage-country sourcing projects and their expensive replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp; Schiele, Holger; Werner, W.

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing and sourcing from low-wage countries remain topics of high priority for firms in industrialized countries. Lower factor costs, particularly in low-wage countries, have led to high expectations of savings from both managers and academics. All too often, scientific and

  17. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  18. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor countrie

  19. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  20. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  1. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  2. Explaining Below-Replacement Fertility and Increasing Childlessness in Wealthy Countries: Legacy Drive and the “Transmission Competition” Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Aarssen, Lonnie W; Stephanie Tzipporah Altman

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel evolutionary perspective for explaining why, in most wealthy countries, female fertility has recently dropped below replacement level, with an increasing incidence of childlessness. Our hypothesis is based on the proposition that throughout human evolution, behaviors that promoted gene transmission (offspring production), and hence fitness, have involved not just those associated with a strong “sex drive,” but also those associated with a strong “legacy drive”—the desire to...

  3. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  4. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  5. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  6. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainegren, Mats; Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  7. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinants of Debt Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, Johanna; Hernandez-Canovas, Gines

    2006-01-01

    We examine the influence of cross country differences on debt maturity for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. We analyze a country's legal environment, institutional environment, banking structure and economic situation while controlling

  8. The Impact of Public Policies on Skill Mismatch : cross-country analysis in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mauriès, Arthur-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Governments aim at reducing skill mismatch because of the adverse effects that it can trigger at the individual and firm level as well as at the country level. Skill mismatch has been defined as a persistent phenomenon with long lasting cross-country differences (Mavromaras et al., 2013). This phenomenon could thus be explained by equivalent cross-country differences in national public policies. The purpose of this thesis is to test the impact of public policies on the probability of being sk...

  9. Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Nicoletta

    2004-01-01

    As businesses span the globe, multinational and translational companies conduct their business operations in foreign settings, especially in developing countries and in countries in transition from Communist regimes. This poses new challenges to expatriate managers and to home-based staff in charge of foreign affiliates. They are called on to determine the right versus the wrong, the good versus the bad over international business transactions, negotiations, advertisement and supply chain man...

  10. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  11. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  12. Conceptual Referent for Happiness: Cross-Country Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rojas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the Conceptual Referent Theory of Happiness, which states that people must have a conceptual referent for what a happy life means in order to assess their life as a happy one. The paper studies the existence of heterogeneity across countries in the inclination towards different conceptual referents for happiness. Empirical information comes from surveys applied to students in Cuba, Norway, and South Africa. It is found that there is statistically significant heterogeneity across countries regarding the conceptions of happiness and the way different inclinations towards these conceptions relate to happiness. This heterogeneity is relevant because it implies that the relevant resources for happiness may differ across countries and, moreover, across cultures.

  13. Can Institutions Explain Cross-Country Differences in Innovative Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Romer (2010) and Mokyr (2008)) that assert a positive impact of institutions on R&D, this paper aims to provide some empirical analysis on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a core sample of 98 countries over the period 19....... This paper has also found evidence that the effect of institutions varies in different economies characterized by different levels of financial development and human capital accumulation, but stays relatively unchanged across countries with different levels of trade openness....

  14. Methodological Report on the Cross-Country Survey 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp; Gauselmann, Andrea

    With the integration of post-communist countries into the European and global economy after 1990, there was strong research interest into the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for economic restructuring and technological catching-up. Most of the existing empirical studies on locational...

  15. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  16. Methodological Report on the Cross-Country Survey 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp; Gauselmann, Andrea

    With the integration of post-communist countries into the European and global economy after 1990, there was strong research interest into the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for economic restructuring and technological catching-up. Most of the existing empirical studies on locational det...

  17. Financial and tax alignment in cross-country accounting research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; Werner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The link between financial and tax accounts was argued to impede earnings informativeness in Continental-European countries. While European companies are required to prepare group and single accounts, previous research did not distinguish between them. We show that this distinction is important, as

  18. Can Institutions Explain Cross-Country Differences in Innovative Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Romer (2010) and Mokyr (2008)) that assert a positive impact of institutions on R&D, this paper aims to provide some empirical analysis on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a core sample of 98 countries over the period 19....... This paper has also found evidence that the effect of institutions varies in different economies characterized by different levels of financial development and human capital accumulation, but stays relatively unchanged across countries with different levels of trade openness.......Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Romer (2010) and Mokyr (2008)) that assert a positive impact of institutions on R&D, this paper aims to provide some empirical analysis on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a core sample of 98 countries over the period 1996......–2009, this paper has found a significant direct effect of institutions on R&D intensity. Countries with better institutions qualities as captured by the World Banks’ Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) tend to attract more scientists and engineers into the research field and to spend more on R&D as well...

  19. Financial and tax alignment in cross-country accounting research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; Werner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The link between financial and tax accounts was argued to impede earnings informativeness in Continental-European countries. While European companies are required to prepare group and single accounts, previous research did not distinguish between them. We show that this distinction is important, as

  20. Task shifting from physicians to nurses in primary care in 39 countries: a cross-country comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia B; Aiken, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Primary care is in short supply in many countries. Task shifting from physicians to nurses is one strategy to improve access, but international research is scarce. We analysed the extent of task shifting in primary care and policy reforms in 39 countries. Cross-country comparative research, based on an international expert survey, plus literature scoping review. A total of 93 country experts participated, covering Europe, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (response rate: 85.3%). Experts were selected according to pre-defined criteria. Survey responses were triangulated with the literature and analysed using policy, thematic and descriptive methods to assess developments in country-specific contexts. Task shifting, where nurses take up advanced roles from physicians, was implemented in two-thirds of countries (N = 27, 69%), yet its extent varied. Three clusters emerged: 11 countries with extensive (Australia, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA), 16 countries with limited and 12 countries with no task shifting. The high number of policy, regulatory and educational reforms, such as on nurse prescribing, demonstrate an evolving trend internationally toward expanding nurses' scope-of-practice in primary care. Many countries have implemented task-shifting reforms to maximise workforce capacity. Reforms have focused on removing regulatory and to a lower extent, financial barriers, yet were often lengthy and controversial. Countries early on in the process are primarily reforming their education. From an international and particularly European Union perspective, developing standardised definitions, minimum educational and practice requirements would facilitate recognition procedures in increasingly connected labour markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. New Evidence on Cross-Country Differences in Job Satisfaction Using Anchoring Vignettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Johansson, Edvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results on cross-country comparison of job satisfaction across seven EU countries taking into account that people in different countries may perceive subjective questions differently. We apply a chopit model approach where the threshold parameters in an ordered probit model...... somewhat lower while workers from the Netherlands are found to have the highest level of job satisfaction. These results suggest that cultural di¤erences in the way people perceive subjective questions about satisfaction make simple cross-country comparison misleading....

  2. National Innovation System And Culture A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the relationship between Hofstedes cultural dimensions and the constituents of a National Innovation System NIS. We consider an NIS as a special kind of intangible latent asset and identify its two constituents input and output capital. These are extracted through a modern NIS measurement model based on the Global Innovation Index. Using structural equation models we show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint act through the latent constructs PDUA and LTIV respectively. Moreover individualism IDV and NIS constituents are directly and negatively affected by PDUA. IDV and LTIV directly and positively affect the NIS constituents. Further the results show that masculinity vs. femininity significantly and negatively affects the NIS input constituent and significantly affects the NIS output constituent but its impact is negative for high-income countries and positive for non-high income countries.

  3. Volunteering and perceived health. A European cross-countries investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of formal and informal volunteering on self-perceived health across 9 European countries after controlling, amongst other things, for socio-economic characteristics, social and cultural participation. We employ the 2006 wave of EU-SILC for estimating recursive trivariate probit models with instrumental variables. Our results show that although formal and informal volunteering are correlated with each other, they have a different impact on health. Formal volu...

  4. Hospital care for persons with AIDS in European-Union countries; a cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V; Leidl, R M; Tolley, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Jager, Johannes C

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares AIDS hospital care in several European-Union countries. For this purpose hospital-care utilisation studies on inpatient days and outpatient contacts were analysed in a generic approach controlling for severity stages of AIDS. Lifetime hospital-care needs for AIDS are derived, pro

  5. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the

  6. Hospital care for persons with AIDS in European-Union countries; a cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V; Leidl, R M; Tolley, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Jager, Johannes C

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares AIDS hospital care in several European-Union countries. For this purpose hospital-care utilisation studies on inpatient days and outpatient contacts were analysed in a generic approach controlling for severity stages of AIDS. Lifetime hospital-care needs for AIDS are derived, pro

  7. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the dev

  8. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and... ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the airship solely by reference to...

  9. Blood profiles in elite cross-country skiers: a 6-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morkeberg, J; Saltin, B; Belhage, B

    2009-01-01

    Following the doping scandals at the World Championships in cross-country skiing in 2001, the International Ski Federation decided to generate individual blood profiles. From 2001 to 2007, 7081 blood samples from 1074 male and female elite cross-country skiers were collected and analyzed for hemo......Following the doping scandals at the World Championships in cross-country skiing in 2001, the International Ski Federation decided to generate individual blood profiles. From 2001 to 2007, 7081 blood samples from 1074 male and female elite cross-country skiers were collected and analyzed...... the introduction of an enlarged blood testing program, the mean [Hb] values were lowered to close to normal levels, but over the last 2-3 years there has been a small elevation and an increase in OFF-model scores, which may indicate a change in the manipulations used to elevate the [Hb]....

  10. Indicator scarcity on cadastre and land registration in cross-country information sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin; Stubkjær, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A review of cross-country reporting on cadastre and landregistration systems summarized the state-of-the-art and found shortcomings in availability of indicators suited for qualitative and quantitative comparison purposes. Methodological issues concerning the specification of indicators...

  11. Racing performance and incremental double poling test on treadmill in elite female cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Balestreri, Filippo; Leonardi, Allesandro; Schena, Fedrico

    2010-02-01

    The national Italian cross-country ski team has been evaluated on the basis of a new double poling cross-country roller skiing incremental test to exhaustion (DP) on a motorized driven treadmill. To verify the capacity of this specific test to predict performance, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (VO2Th), peak treadmill speed, and treadmill speed at anaerobic threshold (Speak and STh, respectively) were measured during the test and correlated with the level of performance of 10 world class Italian female cross-country skiers. The physiological data obtained were also compared with results of an incremental and maximal test carried out by the same athletes but with the diagonal stride (DS) technique. Peak heart rate (HRpeak), HRTh, and VO2Th were significantly higher during DS than during DP (p cross-country skiers' performance.

  12. Good Governance and Successful Development: Cross Countries Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabthip Kraipornsak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance is one of the essential factors of success in business as well as in a country’s development. This study aimed at examining the role of good governance and the success of the development. The comparable per head GDP measured in PPP (purchasing power parity was used as the proxy of the successful economic development of countries in the study. Four out of total six factors (indicators being the good governance and the other two being social environmental factors were employed in the investigation following concept of the role of external business environmental factors so called “PESTLE or Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legislative or Legal, and Eco-environmental analysis”. These four indicators of good governance are political stability, control of corruption, rule of law, and voice and accountability which are available from the World Bank’s governance project data base. In addition, the other two indicators, country’s openness and size of population, are the major social variables included in the study which can also affect the success. The total six indicators are taken to examine with the GDP per head to see whether these factors can help countries achieve higher levels of income per head. The study indicates connection between the levels of success with these four indicators of the good governance and the two external social variables. For Thailand, the political instability was found to be a problem of the progress of development among those six indicators.

  13. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including...... items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect......). RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys...

  14. Declining incidence of breast cancer after decreased use of hormone-replacement therapy: magnitude and time lags in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbuk, Kevin; Anand, Sonia S

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) use steadily increased in the Western world. In 2002, the early termination of the Women's Health Initiative trial due to an excess of adverse events attributable to HRT, led to a precipitous decline in its use. Breast cancer incidence began to decline soon thereafter in the USA and several other countries. However, the magnitude of the decline in breast cancer incidence, and its timing with respect to HRT cessation, shows considerable variability between nations. The impact of HRT cessation appears most significant and immediate in countries with the largest absolute decline in HRT use. In countries in which peak prevalence of HRT use was high, several studies have convincingly excluded decreasing rates of mammographic screening as an explanation for the decline in breast cancer incidence. Conversely, in some countries, no decline in breast cancer incidence is apparent that can be readily attributed to declining trends in HRT use. In such cases, declines in breast cancer incidence may be related instead to saturation or decreased utilisation of mammographic screening programmes. In other cases, it is difficult to disentangle the respective influence of trends in HRT use, and the influence of changes relating to mammographic screening. However, irrespective of time lags and varying magnitudes of effect, the data convincingly support a direct association between decreasing HRT use and declining breast cancer incidence.

  15. Honesty, trust and economic growth - A cross-cultural comparison of western industrialized countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; van der Vegt, G

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates cross-country differences in economic growth rates from a psychological perspective. Based on social capital theory it is argued that 1) financial honesty and trust are positively correlated with each other when they are aggregated on a country level and that 2) a high leve

  16. Cross-country differences in government sector activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis presented in the article is to identify various economic, social, political, demographic and cultural factors that could shape the differences in the size of government sector across countries and, with the use of econometric analysis empirically verify the effect of those factors. The analysis focuses only on ”budgetary” government, meaning that the size of government is measured with a certain government spending ratio. The results of the analysis revealed that economic factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of government consumption spending, whereas political, social and cultural factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of transfer spending. In addition, the results indicate that the relative size of government spending is inversely related to the extent of the regulation of the economy.

  17. Measuring Nonresponse Bias in a Cross-Country Enterprise Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bańkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse is a common issue affecting the vast majority of surveys. Efforts to convince those unwilling to participate in a survey might not necessary result in a better picture of the target population and can lead to higher, not lower, nonresponse bias.We investigate the impact of non-response in the European Commission & European Central Bank Survey on the Access to Finance of Enterprises (SAFE, which collects evidence on the financing conditions faced by European SMEs compared with those of large firms. This survey, conducted by telephone bi-annually since 2009 by the ECB and the European Commission, provides a valuable means to search for this kind of bias, given the high heterogeneity of response propensities across countries.The study relies on so-called “Representativity Indicators” developed within the Representativity Indicators of Survey Quality (RISQ project, which measure the distance to a fully representative response. On this basis, we examine the quality of the SAFE Survey at different stages of the fieldwork as well as across different survey waves and countries. The RISQ methodology relies on rich sampling frame information, which is however partly limited in the case of the SAFE. We also assess the representativeness of the SAFE particular subsample created by linking the survey responses with the companies’ financial information from a business register; this sub-sampling is another potential source of bias which we also attempt to quantify. Finally, we suggest possible ways how to improve monitoring of the possible nonresponse bias in the future rounds of the survey.

  18. Tax Capacity and Tax Effort : Extended Cross-Country Analysis from 1994 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Tuan Minh; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    One of the important factors for economic development is the existence of an effective tax system. This paper deals with the concept and empirical estimation of countries' taxable capacity and tax effort. It employs a cross-country study from a sample of 110 developing and developed countries during 1994-2009. Taxable capacity refers to the predicted tax-to-gross domestic product ratio tha...

  19. The spirits of capitalism and socialism. A cross-country study of ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Paldam, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The World Values Survey contains an item on ownership, which is polled 200 times in 92 countries at the four waves of 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. It is developed into the CS-score that measures the aggregate mass support for capitalism and socialism. Four hypotheses are advanced and tested to explain the wide cross-country variation in the CS-score: (A1) It is partly due to the cross-country distribution of income, and consequently the West stands out as the most capitalist-minded area of the ...

  20. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations,"one country two systems"Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDekuan

    2015-01-01

    " one country, peaceful reunification" policy put forward, which has existed for more than 30 set. People have proposed the development of cross-strait peace framework. It is necessary for the development of cross-strait peace framework related to cross-strait cultural environment factors, international factors, the development of cross-strait past and future context, strategic and realistic basis for cross-strait interaction were analyzed and discussed. Made more scientific framework for peaceful development of cross-strait on this basis. The paper carried a Taiwanese perspective Islanders psychological and related factors. Unified attitude on the mainland were scanned. For cross-strait peace development context briefly comb. On this basis a simple thinking related factors. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations proposed framework Opinion.

  1. Policy Measures to Support Palliative Care at Home: A Cross-Country Case Comparison in Three European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, Arno; Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Aubry, Régis; Radbruch, Lukas; Cohen, Joachim

    2017-07-21

    The proportion of people in need of palliative care worldwide is rising, and the majority wish to receive this care at home. Many countries have created policy measures to support palliative care at home. To list and compare existing policy measures designed to support palliative care at home in addition to available primary care services in Belgium, France, and Germany. A cross-country case comparison based on expert consultation, governmental policy documents, and relevant scientific literature. All three countries have policy measures that allow informal caregivers to adapt their working patterns or take leave of absence to provide care without losing employee rights; however, only Belgium offers specific paid palliative care leave. All three countries offer various allowances to people who are dying at home and their caregivers. Cost-reductions for out-of-pocket expenses are available, based on the level of care dependency in Germany and on prognosis in Belgium, but are not provided in France. Mobile home support teams exist in all three countries and are free of charge for patients and caregivers; but only in Belgium and Germany, there are specialist multidisciplinary palliative home care teams. Belgium and Germany provide respite care for palliative patients. European countries with similar contextual characteristics offer comparable policy measures to support palliative care at home in addition to the available primary care services. However, important differences exist in the criteria for access and the extent of what is offered. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Explaining Below-Replacement Fertility and Increasing Childlessness in Wealthy Countries: Legacy Drive and the “Transmission Competition” Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie W. Aarssen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel evolutionary perspective for explaining why, in most wealthy countries, female fertility has recently dropped below replacement level, with an increasing incidence of childlessness. Our hypothesis is based on the proposition that throughout human evolution, behaviors that promoted gene transmission (offspring production, and hence fitness, have involved not just those associated with a strong “sex drive,” but also those associated with a strong “legacy drive”—the desire to “leave something of oneself for the future. Because of this intrinsic legacy drive, we argue, humans (and males, in particular have been inherently vulnerable for “side-tracking” into other activities that promote “meme transmission” — i.e., activities perceived as providing a lasting legacy of “self through investment in career development, accumulation of wealth and status, and several other activities that have potential to impact on the thoughts and actions of others in both current and future generations. Humans engage in meme transmission, therefore, at the potential expense of time, energy, and resources for investing in gene transmission. Based on evolutionary arguments, we discuss why realized competition between gene transmission and meme transmission has emerged significantly only in recent human history, why meme transmission is presently winning out in wealthy countries — thus accounting for below-replacement fertility and increasing childlessness — and why natural selection can be expected in the near future to generate a significant shift in the fertility-promoting behaviors of humans.

  3. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  4. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  5. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  6. Cross-cultural validation of switching costs: a four-country assessment

    OpenAIRE

    El-Manstrly, Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-cultural scale of customers’ perceived switching costs (PSCs). Customers’ PSCs function as a powerful defensive marketing tool that restrains customers from switching.Design/methodology/approach– Four sets of survey data were collected in the UK, Egypt, Germany, and China. An overall response rate of 86 percent was achieved across the four countries. Cross-cultural equivalence of the PSCs scale was assessed using multi-group confirmator...

  7. The Happy Few. Cross-Country Evidence on Social Capital and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine why the populations of certain countries are so much more satisfied with their lives than the rest of the world. In cross-country analyses, income per capita, economic uncertainty and expectations for the future are robust predictors of happiness while a social capital measure emerges...... strongly and robustly associated with happiness. Moreover, the effect of investing in social capital is remarkably strong compared to the alternatives. I conclude that the populations in a few Northern European countries are probably the happiest in the world because of their high levels of social capital...

  8. The Happy Few. Cross-Country Evidence on Social Capital and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    strongly and robustly associated with happiness. Moreover, the effect of investing in social capital is remarkably strong compared to the alternatives. I conclude that the populations in a few Northern European countries are probably the happiest in the world because of their high levels of social capital......I examine why the populations of certain countries are so much more satisfied with their lives than the rest of the world. In cross-country analyses, income per capita, economic uncertainty and expectations for the future are robust predictors of happiness while a social capital measure emerges...

  9. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  10. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross- country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphanchaimat R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,2 Angkana Sommanustweechai,1 Chiraporn Khitdee,1 Chompoonut Thaichinda,1 Kanang Kantamaturapoj,3 Pattara Leelahavarong,4 Pensom Jumriangrit,1 Thitikorn Topothai,1 Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program (IHPP, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Banphai Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; 4Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand Introduction: HIV/AIDS has been one of the world's most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results: Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in

  11. Patterns of Parental Involvement in Selected OECD Countries: Cross-National Analyses of PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), patterns of parental involvement were examined in selected OECD countries. The findings showed that, irrespective of educational qualifications, parents were frequently involved in their children's learning at the start of primary school and at age 15. Cross-national…

  12. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  13. Measurement error in cross-country productivity comparisons : Is more detailed data better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, R.; Timmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Relative productivity levels are used intensively in analyzing cross-country growth, but often based on crude measures and with little information on their reliability. In this paper, we provide a new framework to estimate purchasing power parities and productivity levels with associated standard er

  14. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  15. Dimensions of individual religiosity and charity : Cross national effect differences in European countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Reitsma, J.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between religiosity and donations to charity has frequently been subject of research. We analyzed effects of dimensions of individual religiosity (Glock and Stark 1966) on people's intention to donate to the poorest countries. We tested for cross-national effect differences in represent

  16. Dimensions of individual religiosity and charity : Cross national effect differences in European countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Reitsma, J.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between religiosity and donations to charity has frequently been subject of research. We analyzed effects of dimensions of individual religiosity (Glock and Stark 1966) on people's intention to donate to the poorest countries. We tested for cross-national effect differences in represent

  17. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF CROSS-COUNTRY GAS PIPELINE ON OPERATIONAL INDICES OF COMPRESSOR STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abrazovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis that reveals an influence of technological parameters of a cross-country pipeline on operational indices of a compressor station. An actual dependence of the gas pipeline capacity and consumed power of the compressor station and real indices of power efficiency of gas compressor units have been determined in the paper.

  18. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  19. Fast and reliable obstacle detection and segmentation for cross-country navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A.; Manduchi, R.; Rankin, A.; Matthies, L.

    2002-01-01

    Obstacle detection is one of the main components of the control system of autonomous vehicles. In the case of indoor/urban navigation, obstacles are typically defined as surface points that are higher than the ground plane. This characterization, however, cannot be used in cross-country and unstructured environments, where the notion of ground plane is often not meaningful.

  20. Bank Competition and Stability : Cross-country Heterogeneity (Revised version of EBC DP 2011-019)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; De Jonghe, O.G.; Schepens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents large cross-country variation in the relationship between bank competition and bank stability and explores market, regulatory and institutional features that can explain this variation. We show that an increase in competition will have a larger impact on banks’ fragili

  1. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  2. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  3. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  4. Is it possible to develop a cross-country test of social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brett; Atler, Karen; Fisher, Anne G

    2017-11-01

    The Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is used in Asia, Australia, North America and Europe. What is considered to be appropriate social interaction, however, differs amongst countries. If social interaction varies, the relative difficulty of the ESI items and types of social exchange also could vary, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) and test bias in the form of differential test functioning (DTF). Yet, because the ESI scoring criteria are designed to account for culture, the ESI should be free of DIF and DTF. The purpose, therefore, was to determine whether the ESI demonstrates DIF or DTF related to country. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 9811 participants 2-102 years, 55% female, from 12 countries was conducted using many-facet Rasch analyses. DIF analyses compared paired item and social exchange type values by country against a critical effect size (±0.55 logit). DTF analyses compared paired ESI measures by country to 95% confidence intervals. All paired social exchange types and 98.3% of paired items differed by less than ±0.55 logit. All persons fell within 95% confidence intervals. Minimal DIF resulted in no test bias, supporting the cross-country validity of the ESI.

  5. Service innovation management practices in the telecommunications industry: what does cross country analysis reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Abidur; Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Khadijeh; Ramayah, T; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina

    2015-01-01

    Service innovation management practice is currently being widely scrutinized mainly in the developed countries, where it has been initiated. The current study attempts to propose a framework and empirically validate and explain the service innovation practices for successful performance in the telecommunications industry of two developing countries, Malaysia and Bangladesh. The research framework proposes relationships among organisational culture, operating core (innovation process, cross-functional organisation, and implementation of tools/technology), competition-informed pricing, and performance. A total of 176 usable data from both countries are analysed for the purpose of the research. The findings show that organisational culture tends to be more influential on innovation process and cross-functional organisation in Malaysian telecommunication industry. In contrast, implementation of tools/technology plays a more instrumental role in competition-informed pricing practices in Bangladesh. This study revealed few differences in the innovation management practices between two developing countries. The findings have strategic implications for the service sectors in both the developing countries regarding implementation of innovative enterprises, especially in Bangladesh where innovation is the basis for survival. Testing the innovation management practices in the developing countries perhaps contains uniqueness in the field of innovation management.

  6. Physiological Demands of Competitive Sprint and Distance Performance in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Wedholm, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2016-08-01

    Carlsson, M, Carlsson, T, Wedholm, L, Nilsson, M, Malm, C, and Tonkonogi, M. Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2138-2144, 2016-The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  7. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries....... The lowest prevalence was observed among girls in Sweden (6.3%, 95% CI: 5.2-7.4), the highest among boys in Lithuania (41.4%, 95% CI 39.4-43.5). The risk of high symptom load increased with increasing exposure to bullying in all countries. In pooled analyses, with sex stratified multilevel logistic models...

  8. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  9. Renewable electricity consumption in the EU-27: Are cross-country differences diminishing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, Maria; Villaverde, Jose [University of Cantabria, Department of Economics, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyse cross-country differences for shares of renewable electricity in the EU-27 for the period 1996-2005. We carry out a standard convergence analysis and then examine the evolution of the entire distribution, namely the external shape, intra-distributional dynamics and ergodic distribution. Our main results are as follows. First, there has been a clear convergence pattern for renewable electricity shares across countries. Second, the shape of the distribution has varied significantly over time, with more countries positioned around the mean in 2005 than in 1996. Third, the analysis shows that intra-distributional mobility has been relatively high, especially in those countries with the highest share in the initial year of our sample. Fourth, in spite of this, large cross-country differences will likely persist for RES-E shares in the hypothetical long-term equilibrium, which implies that a major impulse to national RES-E support policies will be necessary in the coming years to shorten this gap. (author)

  10. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  11. Effects of speed on temporal patterns in classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny; Tveit, Per; Eikrehagen, Olav

    2004-01-01

    The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross-country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while skiing on a flat cross-country ski track. The skiers performed three classical style techniques the diagonal stride, kick double poling and the double poling technique and four freestyle techniques paddle dance (gear 2), double dance (gear 3), single dance (gear 4) and combiskate (gear 5) at four different self-selected speed levels slow, medium, fast and their maximum. Cycle duration, cycle rate, cycle length, and relative and absolute cycle phase duration of the different techniques at the different speed levels were analysed by means of a video analysis system. The cycle rate in all tested classical and freestyle techniques was found to increase significantly (p skiing techniques. A minor, not significant, change in cycle length, and the significant increase in cycle rate with speed showed that the classical and freestyle cross-country skiing styles are dependent, to a large extent, on an increase in cycle rate for speed adaptation. A striking finding was the constant relative phase duration with speed, which indicates a simplified neural control of the speed adaptation in both cross-country skiing styles. For the practitioner, the knowledge about the importance of increasing cycle frequency rather than cycle length in the speed adaptation can be used to optimise a rapid increase in speed. The knowledge about the decrease in absolute phase duration, especially the thrust phase duration, points to the need for strength and technique training to enable force production at a high cycle rate and skiing speed. The knowledge that the relative phase duration stays constant with speed may be

  12. Can ethnic-linguistic diversity explain cross country differences in social capital?: a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic......Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...

  13. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  14. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  15. One-dimensional V-Scope analysis of habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candler, P D; Li, J C; Tipler, B J

    1995-07-01

    Responses to simulated cross-country skiing were measured using the V-Scope, a new telemetric ultrasound motion monitor. Ten young male adults performed a total of 45 minutes of distributed practice on a Nordic-Track ski simulator. Over a period of three 15-minute sessions cadence and velocity were unchanged. Step and stride lengths decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the first 15-minute session and then remained unchanged. There were no left-right limb differences across all sessions indicating a normal gait. Response variability in velocity, step lengths and stride length was dramatically reduced after the first exposure period. This study demonstrates that the V-Scope system is a useful motion analysing device and, on the basis of the data presented in this preliminary investigation, at least two 15-minute habituation sessions are required for initial habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

  16. [Injury risk of competitive, handicapped cross-country skiers in training nd competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Hüring, H; Huber, G; Gösele, A; Hecker-Kube, H; Gruhn, O; Stinus, H; Birnesser, H; Keul, J

    1998-03-01

    Injuries caused by cross country skiing have been poorly investigated in handicapped athletes. The dynamic sliding shape of motion makes this sport to a suitable discipline for people with a deficit of locomotion. Visual handicapped people with a guide are able to improve their motoric skills, co-ordination, orientation and body self-consciousness in the track. Since handicapped athletes are performing in international competitions the training intensity to fulfill the requirements, but also the risk of overstrain induced injuries got increased, like in other high-performance sports. Our study examined injuries and overuse syndromes of the German National Team Ski Nordic during the Paralympics in Tignes/ Albertville (1992). Lillehammer (1994) and the training period in preparation for the Paralympics in Nagano (March 1998). The incidence and kind of injuries in the competitive handicapped cross country skier was comparable with non-handicapped athletes, but the injury pattern was different.

  17. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise.

  18. Gender differences in the physiological responses and kinematic behaviour of elite sprint cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-03-01

    Gender differences in performance by elite endurance athletes, including runners, track cyclists and speed skaters, have been shown to be approximately 12%. The present study was designed to examine gender differences in physiological responses and kinematics associated with sprint cross-country skiing. Eight male and eight female elite sprint cross-country skiers, matched for performance, carried out a submaximal test, a test of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and a shorter test of maximal treadmill speed (V (max)) during treadmill roller skiing utilizing the G3 skating technique. The men attained 17% higher speeds during both the VO(2max) and the V (max) tests (P kinematics, the gender difference in performance was explained by cycle length, not by cycle rate.

  19. Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this paper investigates to what extent gender inequality in education and employment may reduce growth and development. The paper finds a considerable impact of gender inequality on economic growth which is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education has a direct impact on economic growth through lowering the average quality of human capital. In addition, econom...

  20. Financial stress in emerging markets: Patterns, real effects, and cross-country spillovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Stolbov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We extend the conventional approach to the construction of financial stress indices (FSI for emerging economies proposed by Balakrishnan et al. (2011. Based on the principal component analysis, our index accounts for developments in the residential real estate market, adopts distinctive indicators for the banking sector and sovereign debt risks, covering the period from February 2008 to September 2015 for 14 emerging economies. The FSIs accurately capture the periods of impaired financial intermediation. The hierarchical cluster analysis identifies five country groups, revealing similarities in the national structures of financial stress. We find an adverse impact of financial stress on economic activity in 9 countries. A Bayesian VAR model is also specified to test for cross-country spillovers of financial stress.

  1. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  2. Muscle activation characteristics in cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federolf, Peter; Bakker, Emily

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of elite cross-country skiers suffer from chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). This study used surface electromyograms (EMGs) to investigate whether differences existed in the activation characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle between elite cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain (symptomatic group) and a pain-free control group. Based on self-reported pain symptoms, twelve young, national-level cross-country ski athletes were assigned to a symptomatic group (N = 5), a control group (N = 4), or analyzed individually if their diagnosis was not certain (N = 3). During skating, EMGs were recorded on five lower leg muscles. The relative increase in EMG power per step when increasing the effort level of skating was larger in the symptomatic group than in the control group for tibialis anterior (143 +/- 12% vs. 125 +/- 23%; Cohen's d = 1.17), peroneus longus (123 +/- 24% vs. 107 +/- 6%; d = 0.91), and gastrocnemius lateralis (167 +/- 51% vs. 117 +/- 12%; d = 1.64). The symptomatic group showed more power in the lower frequency bands of the tibialis anterior's EMG spectra (p 0.2). Within the step cycle, these differences appeared in the swing phase and in the gliding phase during single leg support. The observed differences in the EMG spectra may serve as an early identification of athletes who are at risk of developing CACS.

  3. Quadrupedal Locomotion-Respiration Entrainment and Metabolic Economy in Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Kevin; Killick, Anthony; Herzog, Walter

    2016-02-01

    A 1:1 locomotion-respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals, as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced nonentrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes disentrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the disentrained compared with the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics.

  4. Effect of kinematic variables on performance in women during a cross-country ski race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, K W; McCarthy, J R

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of uphill cycle velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in top U.S. female skiers during a multiple lap cross-country ski skating race. Eighteen female cross-country skiers served as subjects at the United States Women's 10-km Freestyle 1995 National Championships. The course consisted of two laps of the same 5-km loop. The selected filming section was an 11-12% uphill grade approximately 400 m long located at the 2.5- and 7.5-km mark. The video sector was approximately 12 m long at the conclusion of the climb. During the climb, the skating technique used by all skiers was the V-1. The results demonstrated that cycle length is positively related to cycle velocity during uphill ski skating and ultimately translates to faster race times by female cross-country ski racers. Lap 2 cycle velocity and cycle length demonstrated the strongest relationship to lap time and total race time. Moreover, cycle rate was not related to cycle velocity or lap race times and was not different between successful and less successful skiers. The slower climbing velocity noted during the latter half of the 10-km race was a consequence of a decreased cycle length and not cycle rate. This suggests that the degree of physical conditioning could be a factor in the ability to maintain cycle length and thus uphill cycle velocity.

  5. Social support, volunteering and health around the world: cross-national evidence from 139 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-03-01

    High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level.

  6. Global digital divide: determinants of cross-country ICT development with special reference to Southeast Asia

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    Debbra Toria Nipo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT tools are regarded as imperative not only for enabling the economy to grow at a healthy rate, but also for elevating the socioeconomic conditions and standards of the society. In concurrence with the widespread diffusion of ICT, lies the phenomenon called digital divide – a complex issue pertaining to unequal access, use and applications of ICT among countries and peoples. This paper attempts to measure the contribution of conventional factors such as affordability, infrastructure, trade openness and urbanization, with added emphasis on the role of financial development in explaining cross-country development of ICT among Southeast Asian countries. Using panel data for 4 countries for the period 1994 – 2011, findings of this study revealed that GDP is the most significant determinant in explaining digital divide – consistent with findings from previous research efforts. Financial development also appear significant in most models adopted in all three ICT tools, implying the need for these countries to improve their financial markets to avoid falling further behind in promoting a digitally inclusive society.

  7. Dental implant as an option for tooth replacement: The awareness of patients at a tertiary hospital in a developing country

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    Olaide Shakeerah Gbadebo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A survey was set out to evaluate the knowledge of patients about tooth replacement as a whole, and assess their awareness of implant-retained prosthesis as an option of tooth replacement. Materials and Methods: Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about implant-retained tooth as an option for missing tooth replacement, cost implication, source of information and knowledge about other options of tooth replacement were obtained from patients attending the dental clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: A total of 220 patients aged 18-84 years with a mean age of 37.6 (±16.5 years participated in the study, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The majority (92.5% knew that missing teeth can be replaced, while a significantly lower proportion (28.9% knew about dental implants as an option (P < 0.01. Dentists were the major source of information on dental implants (68%. Only 21 (36.8% of those who had heard about dental implant had knowledge about the cost (P < 0.000. Conclusion: A low level of awareness about dental implant as tooth replacement option exist in this environment, although most of the study participants were aware that missing teeth can be replaced.

  8. Good Governance and Doing Business: Evidence from a Cross-Country Survey

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    Cristina BOŢA-AVRAM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-country empirical analysis is to investigate the relationship between good governance, measured through six clusters of governance developed by the World Bank, and the quality of business environment, captured through the ranking on the ease of doing business, also assessed by the World Bank. This paper analyzes the influence of governance indicators on the ease of doing business using a classification of economies of all countries with population of more than 30,000 citizens, divided on income groups such as low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, high income non-OECD and high income OECD. The findings show the significant influence of some governance indicators such as ‘government effectiveness’ or ‘regulatory quality’ on the ease of doing business, for all countries, while ‘the rule of law’ and ‘control of corruption’ are very determining factors for the business environment especially for countries classified in high income categories. Moreover, this paper could represent an argument for the relevance of governance quality for the ease of doing business, highlighting the necessity to pay enough attention to ensuring good governance in order to provide effective development outcomes.

  9. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Health Systems' Responsiveness and Its Characteristics: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robone, Silvana; Rice, Nigel; Smith, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Responsiveness has been identified as one of the intrinsic goals of health care systems. Little is known, however, about its determinants. Our objective is to investigate the potential country-level drivers of health system responsiveness. Data Source Data on responsiveness are taken from the World Health Survey. Information on country-level characteristics is obtained from a variety of sources including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Study Design A two-step procedure. First, using survey data we derive a country-level measure of system responsiveness purged of differences in individual reporting behavior. Secondly, we run cross-sectional country-level regressions of responsiveness on potential drivers. Principal Findings Health care expenditures per capita are positively associated with responsiveness, after controlling for the influence of potential confounding factors. Aspects of responsiveness are also associated with public sector spending (negatively) and educational development (positively). Conclusions From a policy perspective, improvements in responsiveness may require higher spending levels. The expansion of nonpublic sector provision, perhaps in the form of increased patient choice, may also serve to improve responsiveness. However, these inferences are tentative and require further study. PMID:21762144

  11. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research......In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...

  12. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research......In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyse the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...

  13. Can Ethnic-Linguistic Diversity Explain Cross-Country Differences in Social Capital Formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...... and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic...... diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock....

  14. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyse the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...

  15. Discrimination between cross-country and downhill skiers by pulmonary and local 31PNMR evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D; Reutenauer, H; Payen, J F; Favre-Juvin, A; Eterradossi, J; Lebas, J F; Rossi, A

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate data on calf muscle metabolism using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with measurements of whole body maximal oxygen consumption and maximal power output, and to determine whether the combination of these data could be used to predict athletic ability. Experiments were performed in a 2.35 Tesla, 35 cm diameter electromagnet on the leg muscle of sedentary human subjects (N = 6) and groups of athletes trained for endurance (cross-country skiers, N = 7) or strength performance (downhill skiers, N = 5). The exercise protocol consisted of successive plantar flexions performed at graded fractions of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The results obtained from NMR investigation (changes in content of inorganic phosphate: Pi, phosphocreatine: PC and muscle ATP, and intracellular pH) were then compared with those of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) and maximal power (MP). When the data on athletes were compared with those obtained on sedentary subjects, the curves illustrating the relationship between the imposed load and the Pi/PC ratio were significantly shifted toward high output power for a given Pi/PC value. It also appeared from this study that specific training in force development (downhill skiing) induced a slighter decrease in PC level than for endurance (cross-country skiers) despite improvement in physical performance. A slight but significant intracellular acidification was observed in the muscles of sedentary subjects and downhill skiers for contraction at, respectively, 50% and 80% of MVC, but not in the skeletal muscles of cross-country skiers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Serum ferritin and serum iron changes after cross-country and roller ski endurance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattini, A; Schena, F; Guidi, G C

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the variations induced in iron status parameters by four endurance races of different lengths. A comprehensive group of 48 healthy, non-iron deficient, endurance athletes were evaluated before and after four different cross-country and roller ski races: I = Skirollonga, roller ski race for individuals (n = 10), mean duration (MD) = 1 h 48 min; II = Marcialonga, cross-country ski race for individuals (n = 9) MD = 3 h 10 min; III = 12-h of Caldonazzo (Trento-Italy) roller ski relay race (n = 13) MD = 12 h; IV = 24-h of Pinzolo (Trento-Italy) cross-country ski relay race (n = 16) MD = 24 h. In the relays the MD includes both exercise and recovery times. Blood samples were taken before and after every race for the determination of the following haematological parameters: red blood count, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume, serum iron concentration [SI], serum ferritin concentration [FERR] and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). The results showed a constant significant increase of [FERR] after the races (+44.9% in I, +50.5% in II, +51.2% in III and +36.5% in IV, P less than 0.01) while [SI] increased only in the first two races (+28.2% in I and +19.7% in II, P less than 0.01) and showed a remarkable decrease in the longer races (-46.1% in III and -39% in IV, P less than 0.01). The TIBC increased in all the races (except II) to the same extent (range 10%-12%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effects of Pelvic and Core Strength Training on High School Cross-Country Race Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anne W; Goedeke, Maggie K; Cunningham, Saengchoy R; Rockwell, Derek E; Lehecka, Bryan J; Manske, Robert C; Smith, Barbara S

    2017-08-01

    Clark, AW, Goedeke, MK, Cunningham, SR, Rockwell, DE, Lehecka, BJ, Manske, RC, and Smith, BS. Effects of pelvic and core strength training on high school cross-country race times. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2289-2295, 2017-There is only limited research examining the effect of pelvic and core strength training on running performance. Pelvic and core muscle fatigue is believed to contribute to excess motion along frontal and transverse planes which decreases efficiency in normal sagittal plane running motions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program resulted in decreased race times in high school cross-country runners. Thirty-five high school cross-country runners (14-19 years old) from 2 high schools were randomly assigned to a strengthening group (experimental) or a nonstrengthening group (control). All participants completed 4 standardized isometric strength tests for hip abductors, adductors, extensors, and core musculature in a test-retest design. The experimental group performed a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program along with their normal training. Participants in the control group performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Baseline, 3-week, and 6-week race times were collected using a repeated measures design. No significant interaction between experimental and control groups regarding decreasing race times and increasing pelvic and core musculature strength occurred over the 6-week study period. Both groups increased strength and decreased overall race times. Clinically significant findings reveal a 6-week pelvic and core stability strengthening program 3 times a week in addition to coach led team training may help decrease race times.

  18. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: a cross-national study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Florescu, Silvia; Kuzman, Marina; Stergar, Eva

    2007-01-05

    To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools.

  19. Fibre characteristics and enzyme levels of arm and leg muscles in elite cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Performance tests and measurements of maximal aerobic capacity were performed during the competition period in elite cross-country skiers. Muscle biopsies were taken in the middle of January. Histochemical fibre typing, determination of fibre areas and number of capillaries as well as assays....... The FTa fibre area in TRI was significantly larger than in VAS. No differences were found in the number of capillaries per fibre in TRI (2.7) and VAS (2.5). The number of capillaries per area was significantly lower in TRI (373) as compared to VAS (422). The LDHtot enzyme level was significantly higher...

  20. Community in Competition: The American Birkebeiner Cross-Country Ski Race

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    Tim Donahue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, few people use skis as transportation, but each year, millions of people in colder climates enjoy cross-country skiing for recreation and fitness. And those familiar with the Winter Olympics know that it is also a serious sport. Donahue is particularly interested in exploring the idea of the “train,” in which a large group of skiers bind together like a pack to harness group dynamics in the largest ski race in North America, the 50 kilometer American Birkebeiner, in Hayward, Wisconsin. The key to this race, implies Donahue, is knowing and deciding when to compete with and when to compete against.

  1. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

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    Wyss Kaspar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a

  2. Well-being and social capital on planet earth: cross-national evidence from 142 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective

  3. Cannabis Liberalization and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Cross-National Study in 38 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and

  4. Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Höög, Martina; Willis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... moderate altitude training seems not to be related to any single parameter. One should not ignore individual differences in adaptation. REFERENCES 1. Ainegren, M. et al Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400. 2. Medbo, J.I.et al J.Appl.Physiol., 1988. 64: p. 50-60.......INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers. METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20...

  5. The effect of mountain bike wheel size on cross-country performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min(-1)) and velocity (km · h(-1)) were recorded for the whole lap and during ascent and descent sections. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. Results revealed no significant main effects for any variables by wheel size during all trials, with the exception of cadence during the descent (F(2, 16) = 8.96; P = .002; P(2) = .53). Post hoc comparisons revealed differences lay between the 26″ and 29″ wheels (P = .02). The findings indicate that wheel size does not significantly influence performance during cross-country when ridden by trained mountain bikers, and that wheel choice is likely due to personal choice or sponsorship commitments.

  6. Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, S Bucher; Supej, M; Sandbakk, Ø; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-08-01

    Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r = 0.80-0.93; all P < 0.01). Better performance was significantly correlated to higher mean speed and shorter trajectory (r = 0.99/0.65; both P < 0.05) and to countermovement jump characteristics of peak force, time to peak force, and rate of force development (r = -0.71/0.78/-0.83; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster skiers used step turning to a greater extent and exhibited higher maximal leg power, which enabled them to combine high speeds with shorter trajectories during turns. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the herringbone technique as employed by elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Stöggl, T; Pellegrini, B; Sandbakk, O; Ettema, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was designed to analyse the kinematics and kinetics of cross-country skiing at different velocities with the herringbone technique on a steep incline. Eleven elite male cross-country skiers performed this technique at maximal, high, and moderate velocities on a snow-covered 15° incline. They positioned their skis laterally (25 to 30°) with a slight inside tilt and planted their poles laterally (8 to 12°) with most leg thrust force exerted on the inside forefoot. Although 77% of the total propulsive force was generated by the legs, the ratio between propulsive and total force was approximately fourfold higher for the poles. The cycle rate increased with velocity (1.20 to 1.60 Hz), whereas the cycle length increased from moderate up to high velocity, but then remained the same at maximal velocity (2.0 to 2.3 m). In conclusion, with the herringbone technique, the skis were angled laterally without gliding, with the forces distributed mainly on the inside forefoot to enable grip for propulsion. The skiers utilized high cycle rates with major propulsion by the legs, highlighting the importance of high peak and rapid generation of leg forces.

  8. Mathematical simulation of energy expenditure and recovery during sprint cross-country skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Eldbjørg Dirdal Moxnes21Protection and Societal Security Division, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayPurpose: A cross-country sprint competition relies on maximal effort durations of 3–4 minutes. Significant anaerobic energy contribution is expected. Anaerobic energy contribution has been estimated in different sports to date from the accumulated O2 deficit. However, the O2-deficit model can be questioned. We investigate anaerobic energy contribution by applying other methods than the O2 deficit.Methods: Theoretical model development.Results: For sprint cross-country competitions, the anaerobic energy contribution was 20%–25% independent of the employed mathematical model. Recovery times of a minimum 20 minutes were found to be required after sprint races to be sure that the performance in subsequent heats was not influenced.Conclusion: The O2-deficit model gave anaerobic energy results in agreement with other models from the literature. Recovery times of a minimum 20 minutes were found to be required after sprint races to be sure that the performance in subsequent heats was not influenced.Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic, models, endurance sport, recovery

  9. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier's locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier's position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.

  10. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier’s locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier’s position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: air drag, efficiency, friction coefficient, speed, locomotive power

  11. Endurance training and sprint performance in elite junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic characteristics and sprint skiing performance, and the effects of high-intensity endurance training on sprint skiing performance and aerobic characteristics. Ten male and 5 female elite junior cross-country skiers performed an 8-week intervention training period. The intervention group (IG, n = 7) increased the volume of high-intensity endurance training performed in level terrain, whereas the control group (CG, n = 8) continued their baseline training. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for 1.5-km time-trial performance on roller skis outdoors in the skating technique. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (VO₂VT) were measured during treadmill running. VO₂max and VO₂VT were closely related to sprint performance (r = ~0.75, both p cross-country skiing and highlights the positive effects of high-intensity endurance training in level terrain.

  12. Changes in technique and efficiency after high-intensity exercise in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsan Grasaas, Christina; Ettema, Gertjan; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Skovereng, Knut; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in technique and efficiency after high-intensity exercise to exhaustion in elite cross-country skiers. Twelve elite male skiers completed 4 min submaximal exercise before and after a high-intensity incremental test to exhaustion with the G3 skating technique on a 5% inclined roller-ski treadmill. Kinematics and kinetics were monitored by instrumented roller skis, work rate was calculated as power against roller friction and gravity, aerobic metabolic cost was determined from gas exchange, and blood lactate values indicated the anaerobic contribution. Gross efficiency was the work rate divided by aerobic metabolic rate. A recovery period of 10 min between the incremental test and the posttest was included to allow the metabolic values to return to baseline. Changes in neuromuscular fatigue in upper and lower limbs before and after the incremental test were indicated by peak power in concentric bench press and squat-jump height. From pretest to posttest, cycle length decreased and cycle rate increased by approximately 5% (P ski forces did not change significantly. Oxygen uptake increased by 4%, and gross efficiency decreased from 15.5% ± 0.7% to 15.2% ± 0.5% from pretest to posttest (both P cross-country skiers demonstrated a less efficient technique and shorter cycle length during submaximal roller-ski skating after high-intensity exercise. However, there were no changes in ski forces or peak power in the upper and lower limbs that could explain these differences.

  13. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID:24422951

  14. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  15. European consumers’ interest toward nutritional information on wine labeling: A cross-country analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Azzurra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores, through an empirical analysis European consumers’ interest toward nutritional information on wine labels, examining interest, knowledge and understanding of these information. In this regard, results from direct survey with a cross-country sample of 500 wine consumers (i.e. respondents drinking at least once a month living in Italy, France and Spain are presented and discussed. Preliminary results reveal that consumers are quite confused about the nutritional aspects of wine and tend to be interested in receiving nutritional information on wine labels. However, the interest expressed towards this kind of information differ from country to country and is influenced by other socio-demographic variables. Findings from current research should be valuable to contribute to the debate on updating international and national standards on wine labelling concerning nutrition. At the same time, the research provides a number of useful indications for policy makers in defining future development of wine nutritional labelling programs and in implementing strategies focused in enhancing efficacy and readability of labels.

  16. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  17. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  18. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  19. The Nexus between Military Spending and Economic Growth in Newly Industrialized Countries: Panel Evidence from CrossSectional Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif DESTEK

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the long term relationship between military spending and economic growth in newly industrialized countries is analyzed with panel data methods for the years of 1988-2013. The study, where panel unit root, panel co-integration, panel co-integration estimator and panel causality tests that allow cross-sectional dependence are used, shows that the feedback hypothesis is valid in newly industrialized countries. And when these countries are analyzed separately, it is ...

  20. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  1. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  2. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  3. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  4. Construction Waste Management Profiles, Practices, and Performance: A Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis in Four Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wing-Yan Tam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste management (CWM has received worldwide attention for some time. As a result, a plethora of research, investigating a wide array of CWM issues such as their profiles, practices, and performance, has been reported in individual economies around the globe. However, a cross-jurisdictional comparison of these issues is limitedly presented in the literature despite its importance to benchmarking performance and identifying best CWM practices in the context of globalization whereby knowledge sharing has already transcended traditional country boundaries. The aim of this ex post facto research is to compare CWM profiles, practices, and performance in Australia, Europe (Europe refers to EU-27 member countries in the European Union, including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania., Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom at a national-level, with a view to facilitating CWM knowledge sharing internationally. It does so by triangulating empirical data collected from various national statistical yearbooks with research papers and professional reports on CWM in these economies. It is found that in producing one million (US dollars’ work, construction contributes a volume of solid waste ranging from 28 to 121 tons among countries. Conscientious CWM practices can make a significant difference in reducing, reusing, or recycling construction waste, as evident in the large variation in the CWM performance. While it might be oversimplified to conclude that the best practices in one country can be applied in another, the research provides insightful references into sharing CWM knowledge across boundaries.

  5. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Schellart, A J M; Cassidy, J D; Loisel, P; Veerman, T J; van der Beek, A J

    2009-12-01

    There are substantial differences in the number of disability benefits for occupational low back pain (LBP) among countries. There are also large cross country differences in disability policies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) there are two principal policy approaches: countries which have an emphasis on a compensation policy approach or countries with an emphasis on an reintegration policy approach. The International Social Security Association initiated this study to explain differences in return-to-work (RTW) among claimants with long term sick leave due to LBP between countries with a special focus on the effect of different disability policies. A multinational cohort of 2,825 compensation claimants off work for 3-4 months due to LBP was recruited in Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Relevant predictors and interventions were measured at 3 months, one and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The main outcome measure was duration until sustainable RTW (i.e. working after 2 years). Multivariate analyses were conducted to explain differences in sustainable RTW between countries and to explore the effect of different disability policies. Medical and work interventions varied considerably between countries. Sustainable RTW ranged from 22% in the German cohort up to 62% in the Dutch cohort after 2 years of follow-up. Work interventions and job characteristics contributed most to these differences. Patient health, medical interventions and patient characteristics were less important. In addition, cross-country differences in eligibility criteria for entitlement to long-term and/or partial disability benefits contributed to the observed differences in sustainable RTW rates: less strict criteria are more effective. The model including various compensation policy variables explained 48% of the variance. Large cross-country differences in sustainable RTW after chronic LBP are mainly

  7. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Mazo Sara S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends

  8. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  9. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  10. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  11. Wear of cross-linked polyethylene against itself: a material suitable for surface replacement of the finger joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, T F; Unsworth, A

    1991-05-01

    Cross-linking of polyethylene (XLPE) has dramatically improved its properties in industrial applications, and it may also have some application in the field of human joint replacement. Additionally it has the advantage of permitting a lower molecular weight base material to be used, so that components may be injection moulded rather than machined. This study therefore investigates the wear resistance of medical grade cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), cross-linked by a silane-grafting process, with a molecular weight between cross links of 5430 g mol(-1). This first report investigates the wear resistance of XLPE against itself, because for certain joints, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, the material may have a high enough wear resistance to allow both bearing surfaces to be made from it. Tests were carried out both on a reciprocating pin and plate machine with pins loaded at 10 and 40 N and also on a new finger joint simulator, which simulates the loads applied to and the movements of, the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. An average wear rate of 1.8 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1 was found (range 0.9-2.75 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1). This is about six times greater than the wear rate of non-cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against stainless steel, but for applications with low loading, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, this material is shown to have adequate wear resistance. The coefficient of friction was 0.1, which is similar to that of UHMWPE on stainless steel.

  12. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  13. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  14. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance....... The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy...

  15. From Drivers to Athletes -- Modeling and Simulating Cross-Country Sking Marathons

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Traffic flow of athletes in classic-style cross-country ski marathons, with the Swedish Vasaloppet as prominent example, represents a non-vehicular system of driven particles with many properties of vehicular traffic flow such as unidirectional movement, the existence of lanes, and, moreover, severe traffic jams. We propose a microscopic acceleration and track-changing model taking into account different fitness levels, gradients, and interactions between the athletes in all traffic situations. The model is calibrated on microscopic data of the $\\textit{Vasaloppet 2012}$ Using the multi-model open-source simulator MovSim.org, we simulate all 15 000 participants of the Vasaloppet during the first ten kilometers.

  16. Well-being and social capital on planet earth: cross-national evidence from 142 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Calvo

    Full Text Available High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level models and then use multivariate (individual-level Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the

  17. Education and severe maternal outcomes in developing countries: a multicountry cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Ö; Souza, J P; Hindin, M J; Santos, C A; Oliveira, T H; Vogel, J P; Togoobaatar, G; Ha, D Q; Say, L; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relationship between education and severe maternal outcomes among women delivering in healthcare facilities. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Pregnant women admitted to 359 facilities during a period of 2-4 months of data collection between 2010 and 2011. Data were obtained from hospital records. Stratification was based on the Human Development Index (HDI) values of the participating countries. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between maternal morbidity and education, categorised in quartiles based on the years of formal education by country. Coverage of key interventions was assessed. Severe maternal outcomes (near misses and death). A significant association between low education and severe maternal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.46-2.95), maternal near miss (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.25-2.57), and maternal death (aOR 5.62; 95% CI 3.45-9.16) was observed. This relationship persisted in countries with medium HDIs (aOR 2.36; 95% CI 1.33-4.17) and low HDIs (aOR 2.65; 95% CI 1.54-2.57). Less educated women also had increased odds of presenting to the hospital in a severe condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction on arrival or within 24 hours: aOR 2.06; 95% CI 1.36-3.10). The probability that a woman received magnesium sulphate for eclampsia or had a caesarean section significantly increased as education level increased (P education are at greater risk for severe maternal outcomes, even after adjustment for key confounding factors. This is particularly true for women in countries that have poorer markers of social and economic development. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  18. Repeated double-poling sprint training in hypoxia by competitive cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiss, Raphael; Willis, Sarah; Born, Dennis-Peter; Sperlich, Billy; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-04-01

    Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) was recently shown to improve repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in cycling. This phenomenon is likely to reflect fiber type-dependent, compensatory vasodilation, and therefore, our hypothesis was that RSH is even more beneficial for activities involving upper body muscles, such as double poling during cross-country skiing. In a double-blinded fashion, 17 competitive cross-country skiers performed six sessions of repeated sprints (each consisting of four sets of five 10-s sprints, with 20-s intervals of recovery) either in normoxia (RSN, 300 m; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 8) or normobaric hypoxia (RSH, 3000 m; FiO2, 13.8 %; n = 9). Before (pre) and after (post) training, performance was evaluated with an RSA test (10-s all-out sprints-20-s recovery, until peak power output declined by 30%) and a simulated team sprint (team sprint, 3 × 3-min all-out with 3-min rest) on a double-poling ergometer. Triceps brachii oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. From pretraining to posttraining, peak power output in the RSA was increased (P sprints performed was enhanced in RSH (10.9 ± 5.2 vs 17.1 ± 6.8, P sprints throughout RSA rose more in RSH (P sprints improved by 11% ± 9% in RSH and 15% ± 7% in RSN. Our findings reveal greater improvement in the performance of repeated double-poling sprints, together with larger variations in the perfusion of upper body muscles in RSH compared with those in RSN.

  19. Effects of carbohydrate dose and frequency on metabolism, gastrointestinal discomfort, and cross-country skiing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B; Betts, J A; McGawley, K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated carbohydrate ingestion of varied doses and frequencies during a simulated cross-country skiing time trial. Ten men and three women (age: 30 ± 7 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 59.6 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) completed four, 30-km classic technique roller skiing time trials on a treadmill. A 1:1 maltodextrin-fructose carbohydrate solution was provided at high (2.4 g/min; HC) and moderate (1.2 g/min; MC) ingestion rates, each at high (six feeds; HF) and low (two feeds; LF) frequencies. In the LF trials, blood glucose was elevated following carbohydrate ingestion (at 4 and 19 km) but was reduced at 14 and 29 km compared with HF strategies (P ≤ 0.05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was higher in HC-LF compared with all other trials (P ≤ 0.05). Whole-body lipid oxidation was lower and carbohydrate oxidation was higher in LF compared with HF trials (P ≤ 0.05). While performance time was not significantly different between trials (140:11 ± 15:31, 140:43 ± 17:40, 139:12 ± 15:32 and 140:33 ± 17:46 min:s in HC-HF, HC-LF, MC-HF, and MC-LF, respectively; P > 0.05), it was improved with trial order (P  0.05). Altering carbohydrate dose or frequency does not affect cross-country ski performance. However, low-frequency carbohydrate ingestion resulted in poorer maintenance of euglycemia, reduced lipid oxidation, and increased gastrointestinal discomfort.

  20. Kinematics of cross-country sit skiing during a Paralympic race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Janssen, Thomas; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Fischer, Gabriela; Schena, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The study had three purposes: to verify a hypothesized speed decrease during the 15 km cross-country sit skiing (CCSS) race; documenting this possible fatigue effect (speed decrease), to evaluate changes among the four laps in kinematics parameters (cycle speed, cycle duration, cycle length, duty cycle (percentage ratio between pushing and total cycle duration), pole inclination, trunk inclination and shoulder-hand distance); to compare the kinematics parameters in cross-country sit skiers of different level. Video recordings were carried out during the 2006 Turin Winter Paralympic Games with two conventional digital video-cameras positioned on a flat and an uphill (8.3°) track, respectively. Better performing skiers (G1) had significantly higher speeds than worse performers (G2) both in the flat (6.54 ± 0.13 vs. 5.89 ± 0.50 ms(-1) and 5.55 ± 0.14 vs. 4.62 ± 0.22 ms(-1) in the first and last lap, respectively) and in the uphill track (3.67 ± 0.45 vs. 3.05 ± 0.59 ms(-1) and 3.20 ± 0.36 vs. 2.26 ± 0.36 ms(-1) in the first and last lap, respectively). The G1 athletes were able to maintain the high-speed better than the G2 over the entire race. Significant differences in cycle length and duty cycle between groups would be justified by the higher physical fitness of G1 skiers.

  1. Effect of ambient temperature on endurance performance while wearing cross-country skiing clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsund, Mariann; Saursaunet, Vegard; Wiggen, Øystein; Renberg, Julie; Færevik, Hilde; van Beekvelt, Mireille C P

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposure to cold (-14 and -9 °C), cool (-4 and 1 °C) and moderate warm (10 and 20 °C) environments on aerobic endurance performance-related variables: maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), running time to exhaustion (TTE), running economy and running speed at lactate threshold (LT). Nine male endurance athletes wearing cross-country ski racing suit performed a standard running test at six ambient temperatures in a climatic chamber with a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up period followed by four submaximal periods of 5 min at increasing intensities between 67 and 91 % of VO(2max) and finally a maximal test to exhaustion. During the time course mean skin temperature decreased significantly with reduced ambient temperatures whereas T (re) increased during all conditions. T (re) was lower at -14 °C than at -9 and 20 °C. Running economy was significantly reduced in warm compared to cool environments and was also reduced at 20 °C compared to -9 °C. Running speed at LT was significantly higher at -4 °C than at -9, 10 and 20 °C. TTE was significantly longer at -4 and 1 °C than at -14, 10 and 20 °C. No significant differences in VO(2max) were found between the various ambient conditions. The optimal aerobic endurance performance wearing a cross-country ski racing suit was found to be -4 and 1 °C, while performance was reduced under moderate warm (10 and 20 °C) and cold (-14 and -9 °C) ambient conditions.

  2. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  3. Inconsistencies among European Union pharmaceutical regulator safety communications: a cross-country comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Zeitoun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency (EMA and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6% medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%, three of the four for 25 (47.2%, two of the four for 6 (11.3%, and one of the four for 5 (9.4%. Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1% were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9% by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2% by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8% by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined.

  4. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  5. Comparing citizens' trust in the police across European countries: An assessment of cross-country measurement equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, D.P.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    International comparative studies on citizens’ trust in the police have become more common. However, they generally tend to ignore the fundamental question of whether comparisons between countries are actually valid. We address this knowledge gap by conducting measurement equivalence tests on trust

  6. The role of pain and functional impairment in the decision to recommend total joint replacement in hip and knee osteoarthritis: an international cross-sectional study of 1909 patients. Report of the OARSI-OMERACT Task Force on total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gossec, L; Paternotte, S; Maillefert, J F;

    2011-01-01

    Score Physical function Short-form, 0-100). Analyses: Comparison of patients with vs without surgeons' indication for TJR. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and logistic regression were applied to determine cut points of pain and disability defining recommendation for TJR. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the pain and functional disability levels corresponding to an indication for total joint replacement (TJR) in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Design: International cross-sectional study in 10 countries. Patients: Consecutive outpatients with definite hip or knee OA...

  7. Predictors of Difficulty in Medication Intake in Europe: a Cross-country Analysis Based on SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Teixeira, Laetitia; Poveda, Veronica; Paúl, Constança; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the predictors of difficulty in medication intake across Europe, using a cross-sectional design. We used data from all participants in the wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe) database, which is a cross national European survey. The difficulty in take medication was evaluated using an item from the "Limitations with activities of daily living". Clinical and sociodemographic variables were evaluated as potential predictors. A total of 58 124 individual have been included in this work (mean age=64.9 ± 10.4 years; 43.3% male). The rate of difficulty in taking medication across the 16 European evaluated countries was 2.1%, presenting Spain the highest rate (5.7%) and Switzerland the lowest (0.6%). Increasing age, physical inactivity, physical limitations (mobility, arms function and fine motor limitations, and difficulties in picking up a small coin from a table), a poor sense of meaning in life, and losses in memory and concentration are independent and significant variables associated with difficulty in medication intake across Europe. Predictors of difficulties in medication intake are multicausal, including factors related to physical, cognitive and psychological conditions. Interventions aiming to optimize adherence to medication, particularly in elderly population, need to consider this diversity of determinants.

  8. Comparison of heart rate deflection and ventilatory threshold during a field cross-country roller-skiing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Passelergue, Philippe; Bouvard, Marc; Perrey, Stéphane

    2008-11-01

    This study was to assess whether the point of deflection from linearity of heart rate (HRd) could be an accurate predictor of ventilatory threshold (VT2) during a specific cross-country roller-skiing (RS) test. Ten well-trained cross-country skiers performed a maximal and incremental RS test in the field and a standardized maximal and incremental treadmill running (TR) test in the laboratory. Values of oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded during all exercises by a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange measurement system and a wireless Polar monitoring system, respectively. The VT2 and HRd points were individually determined by visual analysis during RS. Maximal VO2 (VO2 max) and HR were higher (p cross-country coaches and skiers to evaluate and control specific aerobic training loads.

  9. The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns.

  10. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    was representative within each country for age and region. This study uses descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc multiple comparison analysis (Scheffe's) to compare differences between countries. First, a cross-culture overview of fish consumption is given. The average weekly consumption...... consumption variables in order to explain differences based on demographic variables such as age, number of children in the household, income and gender....

  11. E-readiness and Entrepreneurship: A Cross Country Study of the Link between Technological Infrastructure and Entrepreneurial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Constand, Richard L.; Gilbert, Arthur H.

    2011-01-01

    This current study focuses on the relationship between a country’s e-readiness environment and entrepreneurial activities. Many government policies assume there is a direct causal relationship between e-readiness and entrepreneurial activity and some past studies have reported evidence supporting such a link. In this paper, a cross country panel data analysis using three different measures of entrepreneurial activity and different measures of e-readiness examines this relationship. The result...

  12. The Russians Are the Fastest in Marathon Cross-Country Skiing: The “Engadin Ski Marathon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” All athletes (n=197,125 who finished the “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%, Grisons (19.2%, and Berne (10.3%. Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.

  13. Coproducing flood risk management through citizen involvement: insights from cross-country comparison in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Mees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Across Europe, citizens are increasingly expected to participate in the implementation of flood risk management (FRM, by engaging in voluntary-based activities to enhance preparedness, implementing property-level measures, and so forth. Although citizen participation in FRM decision making is widely addressed in academic literature, citizens' involvement in the delivery of FRM measures is comparatively understudied. Drawing from public administration literature, we adopted the notion of "coproduction" as an analytical framework for studying the interaction between citizens and public authorities, from the decision-making process through to the implementation of FRM in practice. We considered to what extent coproduction is evident in selected European Union (EU member states, drawing from research conducted within the EU project STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements. On the basis of a cross-country comparison between Flanders (Belgium, England (United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Poland, we have highlighted the varied forms of coproduction and reflected on how these have been established within divergent settings. Coproduction is most prominent in discourse and practice in England and is emergent in France and Flanders. By contrast, FRM in the Netherlands and Poland remains almost exclusively reliant on governmental protection measures and thereby consultation-based forms of coproduction. Analysis revealed how these actions are motivated by different underlying rationales, which in turn shape the type of approaches and degree of institutionalization of coproduction. In the Netherlands, coproduction is primarily encouraged to increase societal resilience, whereas public authorities in the other countries also use it to improve cost-efficiency and redistribute responsibilities to its beneficiaries.

  14. The Multidimensional Efficiency of Pension System: Definition and Measurement in Cross-Country Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybalski, Filip

    The existing literature on the efficiency of pension system, usually addresses the problem between the choice of different theoretical models, or concerns one or few empirical pension systems. In this paper quite different approach to the measurement of pension system efficiency is proposed. It is dedicated mainly to the cross-country studies of empirical pension systems, however it may be also employed to the analysis of a given pension system on the basis of time series. I identify four dimensions of pension system efficiency, referring to: GDP-distribution, adequacy of pension, influence on the labour market and administrative costs. Consequently, I propose four sets of static and one set of dynamic efficiency indicators. In the empirical part of the paper, I use Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and cluster analysis to verify the proposed method on statistical data covering 28 European countries in years 2007-2011. I prove that the method works and enables some comparisons as well as clustering of analyzed pension systems. The study delivers also some interesting empirical findings. The main goal of pension systems seems to become poverty alleviation, since the efficiency of ensuring protection against poverty, as well as the efficiency of reducing poverty, is very resistant to the efficiency of GDP-distribution. The opposite situation characterizes the efficiency of consumption smoothing-this is generally sensitive to the efficiency of GDP-distribution, and its dynamics are sensitive to the dynamics of GDP-distribution efficiency. The results of the study indicate the Norwegian and the Icelandic pension systems to be the most efficient in the analyzed group.

  15. Differences in health status of older people aged 65 and above after total hip replacement compared with the normal population: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the health status of older patients with osteoarthrosis following total hip replacement and to compare their health status with population norms in order to analyse the need for a rehabilitation programme after total hip replacement. Background.  Total hip...... replacement is a very efficient operation in terms of pain relief and improvement of walking ability. However, after the operation some patients still report low health status. Method.  A cross-sectional study including 287 older patients aged 65-74 and 75+ years who had had total hip replacement within...... reported significantly lower scores than the age specific norm population. Conclusion.  Our results indicate that health status is scored lower for patients after total hip replacement. This implies that there might be a need for further postoperative rehabilitation based on the identification of problems...

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    -aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative...

  17. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Analysis of Performance in Elite Young Cross-Country Skiing: Classical Style Vs Skate Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P.D. la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the skiing performance of two skiing styles (classical style Vs. skate skiing, in a group of young high-level skiers. Approach: Four high-level male junior cross-country skiers from the Centre of Winter Sports of Aragon (Spain, were selected for this study that was developed during two competitions: 10 km free technique and 10 km classical technique performed in the same circuit and under the same conditions (snow quality, temperature, wind and relative humidity. Physiological variables, maximal and medium heart rate, blood lactate concentration (basal, final and during the recovery, after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min and medium skiing speed, were analyzed with GPS Garmin Forerruner 305® Heart Rate Pulse and Lactate Dr. Lange analyzer®. Normally distributed data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and Shapiro-Wilk were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and t-Test for post-hoc comparisons (pResults: No significant differences have been recorded in the medium skiing speed, maximal and medium heart rate between the two styles. The peak heart rate was the same in both styles (188 bpm, although medium heart rate was lower in skate skiing vs. classical skiing (165 bpm Vs. 175 bpm. Blood lactate concentrations recorded significant differences during 4, 6, 8 and 10 min of recovery, being higher in free technique (12.7±1.7; 11.4±1.8; 10.4±1.4 and 8.9±1.6 mmol L-1 Vs. 8.7±1.3; 7.5±1.6; 6.3±1.3 and 5.6±1.1 mmol L-1, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that skate skiing generates a higher impact on the cross-country skier than classical skiing, due to higher blood lactate concentrations during 4, 6, 8 and 10 min of recovery. The own characteristics of the free technique may be the reason of the lower mean heart rate.

  19. A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF THE BANKS’ FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS: THE CASE OF THE CEE-3 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargu Alina Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has a direct impact on all the components of the macroeconomic environment. The existence of a well functioning and sound banking sector becomes of great importance for the integration process as the European Union economy is financed especially through this channel. The banking sectors of the new EU member countries have undergone through tremendous changes in the last decade, both from an ownership and also from a business strategy point of view, these changes having a direct impact on their financial soundness. Thus, the aim of our research is to empirically examine the financial soundness of the banks operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania, three EU members countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-3. In order to achieve this we have employed a combine quantitative analysis based on the CAMELS framework (namely Capital Adequacy, Asset quality, Management soundness, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to market risk and the Z-score, thus being able to underline simultaneously the financial soundness and the possibility of default for the banks from our sample. The analysed period is 2004-2011 providing us with an evaluation of the impact that the EU ascension and also the global financial crisis had on the financial soundness of the analysed banks. Our sample is composed from 40 commercial banks that operate in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania, that overall own over 75% of the total banking assets, making this study one of the most comprehensive undertaken to this date. The data that we have employed in our research is obtained from the Bureau Van Dijk Bankscope database and the annual financial statements of the banks from our sample. The paper through its original dual approach contributes to the academic debate by providing not only insight into the financial soundness of the banks operating in the CEE-3 countries but also underling their financial strength through the usage of the Z

  20. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-03-15

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor.

  1. In-season dietary adequacy of trained male cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekamp, R A; Baer, J T

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary adequacy of 12 collegiate cross-country runners during a competitive season. Four-day diet records were collected twice during the season and analyzed for total daily energy, macronutrients, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium. Mean energy intake (3,248 +/- 590 kcal) was not significantly different from estimated mean energy expenditure (3,439 +/- 244 kcal). Week 8 mean prealbumin levels were within normal limits (26.8 +/- 2.8 mg/dl). Mean daily CHO intake was 497 +/- 134 g/day (61.2%). Three to four hours prior to competition a pre-race meal was consumed; it contained 82 +/- 47 g CHO. Postcompetition CHO intake was delayed an average 2.5 hr; at that time approximately 2.6 +/- 0.69 g CHO/kg body weight was consumed. The athletes appeared to demonstrate dietary adequacy with the exception of timing of postcompetition carbohydrate consumption.

  2. Short-term performance peaking in an elite cross-country mountain biker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Vegge, Geir; Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-08-01

    Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3.9 W·kg(-1), maximal isometric force 180 Nm and squat jump 21 cm. During overload, perceived leg well-being went from normal to very heavy. On day 1 after overload, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis EMGmean activity was reduced by 3% and 7%, respectively. Other baseline measurements were reduced by 3-7%. On day 4 of the taper, he felt that his legs were good and all measurements were 3-7% higher than before overload. On day 6 after the taper, his legs felt very good. This case shows that an elite mountain biker (11th in UCI World Cup one week prior to the pre-test) could achieve a rather large supercompensation by using a 12-day performance peaking protocol.

  3. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  4. Analysis of the pushing phase in Paralympic cross-country sit-skiers - Class LW10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Laura; Mauro, Stefano; Pastorelli, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Paralympic Cross-Country sit-skiers use adaptive equipment, with a resulting gesture similar to double poling techniques adopted by able-bodied skiers. Despite the similarity, a specific attention on the gesture performed by sit-skiers is needed. The paper focuses on the sledge kinematic and on inertia effect of upper body motion which is translated in a propulsive effect in the early stage of the pushing cycle. In particular a group of 7 elite sit skiers of class LW10 were recorded with a video-based markerless motion capture technique during 1 km sprint Paralympic race. A biomechanical model, consisting of 7 anatomical points and 4 technical ones, is used to track the kinematics from video-images, then body segments, joints of interest and relative angles are evaluated. In this paper we focus on the biomechanics of the poling cycle, in particular prior to the onset of pole plant. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of the upper body to the early stage of the propulsive action. To this porpoise body inertial forces for each athlete are calculated using kinematic data, then normalized with respect to the athlete's body mass. The results show that in LW10 sit-skiers an important sledge propulsion, prior to the onset of pole plant, is provided by the inertial effect, due to the upper body region (arms and forearms) motion.

  5. Mechanical behaviour of cross-country ski racing poles during double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Karlöf, Lars

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of cross-country ski poles during double poling on a treadmill using three-dimensional kinematics. The results were compared with standard laboratory tests of the pole manufacturers. A total of 18 skiers were analysed at two speeds (85% and 95% of the maximal speed) at grades of 1.5% and 7%. Variables describing cycle characteristics, bending stiffness, bending behaviour, and trajectories of the pole markers were analysed. Triangular-shaped poles demonstrated the greatest stiffness and lowest variability in maximal bending. Softer poles demonstrated greater variability in bending behaviour and lost ground contact at high skiing speeds, which for some skiers resulted in failure to complete high-speed tests. Considerable variations in pole behaviour for similar poles between skiers were observed, which might be attributed to differences in technique, indicating that mechanical properties of the poles did not exclusively determine pole behaviour in the dynamic situation. The greatest magnitude of pole bending was in the middle part of the pole, which differed from the standard static pole analysis of the manufacturer. Increases in grade demonstrated the greatest effect on pole bending. Distinct differences from the pole manufacturers' laboratory measures were apparent, suggesting that basic pole testing might be adapted.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  7. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  8. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  9. Biomechanical and energetic determinants of technique selection in classical cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Classical cross-country skiing can be performed using three main techniques: diagonal stride (DS), double poling (DP), and double poling with kick (DK). Similar to other forms of human and animal gait, it is currently unclear whether technique selection occurs to minimize metabolic cost or to keep some mechanical factors below a given threshold. The aim of this study was to find the determinants of technique selection. Ten male athletes roller skied on a treadmill at different slopes (from 0° to 7° at 10km/h) and speeds (from 6 to 18km/h at 2°). The technique preferred by skiers was gathered for every proposed condition. Biomechanical parameters and metabolic cost were then measured for each condition and technique. Skiers preferred DP for skiing on the flat and they transitioned to DK and then to DS with increasing slope steepness, when increasing speed all skiers preferred DP. Data suggested that selections mainly occur to remain below a threshold of poling force. Second, critically low values of leg thrust time may limit the use of leg-based techniques at high speeds. A small role has been identified for the metabolic cost of locomotion, which determined the selection of DP for flat skiing.

  10. Multi-dimensional coordination in cross-country skiing analyzed using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Peter F; Bartlett, Roger; Lindinger, Stefan; Kennedy, Gavin

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to ascertain how multi-dimensional coordination patterns changed with five poling speeds for 12 National Standard cross-country skiers during roller skiing on a treadmill. Self-organizing maps (SOMs), a type of artificial neural network, were used to map the multi-dimensional time series data on to a two-dimensional output grid. The trajectories of the best-matching nodes of the output were then used as a collective variable to train a second SOM to produce attractor diagrams and attractor surfaces to study coordination stability. Although four skiers had uni-modal basins of attraction that evolved gradually with changing speed, the other eight had two or three basins of attraction as poling speed changed. Two skiers showed bi-modal basins of attraction at some speeds, an example of degeneracy. What was most clearly evident was that different skiers showed different coordination dynamics for this skill as poling speed changed: inter-skier variability was the rule rather than an exception. The SOM analysis showed that coordination was much more variable in response to changing speeds compared to outcome variables such as poling frequency and cycle length.

  11. Analysis of a simulated sprint competition in classical cross country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Lindinger, S; Müller, E

    2007-08-01

    The objectives of this project were first to analyze the physiological response of a classical cross country (XC) skiing sprint competition, second, to examine the relationships of kinematic and physiological variables with sprint performance and third, to test the hypothesis that maximal speed in double poling (DP) and diagonal stride (DIAG) predicts sprint performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a treadmill-based simulation of a sprint competition that included two maximal speed tests (DP, DIAG), a test and three sprint heats over a 3.5-h period. VO(2), lactate, heart rate (HR) and kinematic variables were measured. Maximal DP and DIAG speed, the level of repeatedly produced lactate values and skiing technical aspects positively correlated with sprint performance. Fastest skiers produced longer cycle lengths in all techniques at equal poling frequency. VO(2) variables showed no correlation to sprint performance. VO(2), tidal volume (VT), and lactate decreased over the heats. XC-sprint performance in classical style depends on speed abilities, technique use, fatigue resistance, and anaerobic capacity. The relationship of maximal speed with sprint performance suggests (a) integrating maximal speed tests in XC sprint diagnostics and (b) emphasizing training models for XC skiing-specific speed abilities to improve performance in XC skiing sprint.

  12. Identification of cross-country skiing movement patterns using micro-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Finn; Lyons, Keith; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Macintosh, Colin; Chapman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxX™ unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  13. Heart rate responses and fluid balance of competitive cross-country hang gliding pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Darren P

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the physiological challenges of competitive cross-country hang gliding. Seventeen experienced male pilots (age=41+/-9 y; mean+/-SD) were fitted with a monitor that recorded heart rate and altitude at 0.5 Hz throughout a competitive flight. Fluid losses were evaluated by comparing pilot pre- and postflight mass. The pilots' displacement was 88.4+/-43.7 km in 145.5+/-49.4 min. Mean flight altitude was 1902+/-427 m (range=1363-2601 m) with a maximum altitude of 2925+/-682 m (1870-3831 m). The mean in-flight heart rate of the pilots was 112+/-11 bpm (64+/-6% predicted HRmax). For all except one subject, heart rate was highest while launching (165+/-12 bpm, 93+/-7% predicted HRmax), followed by landing (154+/-13 bpm, 87+/-7% predicted HRmax). No statistically significant relationship was observed between heart rate during the launch and reported measures of state anxiety. Heart rate was inversely related (PFluid loss during the flight was 1.32+/-0.70 L, which approximated 0.55 L/h, while mean in-flight fluid consumption was 0.39+/-0.44 L. Six pilots consumed no fluid during the flight. Even among experienced pilots, high heart rates are more a function of state anxiety than physical work demand. Fluid losses during flight are surprisingly moderate but pilots may still benefit from attending to fluid balance.

  14. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  15. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Perovano Pardini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic referral center. SAMPLE: 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. RESULTS: The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004; 2% (P < 0.002; and 3% (P < 0.01 higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002, and 42% (P < 0.0002 respectively after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  16. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  17. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, O.A.; Westert, G.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations betwe

  18. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations betwe

  19. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Demand-Withdraw Marital Interaction: Observing Couples from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Uzma S.; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The authors used cross-cultural methodology to examine the demand-withdraw pattern of marital communication. In Western countries, women usually make more demands, whereas men are more likely to withdraw. But the recently advanced marital structure hypothesis suggests that this pattern can be altered by gender roles and beliefs, particularly in…

  20. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  1. Role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Smit, H.A.; Jacobs, D.R.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality, using aggregated data of the Seven Countries Study, a follow-up study comprising 12,763 middle-aged men in 16 cohorts in Europe, the United States and Japan, which started around 1960. Smoking habits

  2. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  3. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  4. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, O.A.; Westert, G.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  5. Bank Competition and Stability : Cross-country Heterogeneity (Revised version of CentER DP 2011-080)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; De Jonghe, O.G.; Schepens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents large cross-country variation in the relationship between bank competition and bank stability and explores market, regulatory and institutional features that can explain this variation. We show that an increase in competition will have a larger impact on banks’ fragili

  6. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, O.A.; Westert, G.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations betwe

  7. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations betwe

  8. Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höög, Martina; Jensen, Kurt; Willis, Sarah;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Olympic cross-country ski competitions will be held in Sochi, Russia at approximately 1500m altitude. Even moderate altitude can have negative effects on performance in highly trained endurance athletes and individuals may adapt and react differently to altitude exposure...

  9. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66-0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  10. A realist synthesis of cross-border patient movement from low and middle income countries to similar or higher income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Blondell, Sarah J

    2017-08-29

    Patient travel across borders to access healthcare is becoming increasingly common and widespread. Patients moving from high income to middle income countries for healthcare is well documented, with patients seeking treatments that are cheaper or more readily available than at home. Less well understood is when patients move from one low income country to another or from a low income country to a higher income country. In this paper, a realist review was undertaken to explore why, in what contexts and how patients from lower income countries travel to countries with the same, or more advanced, economies for planned healthcare. Based on an initial scoping of the literature and discussions with key informants, we generated an initial theory and set of propositions about why, how, who and in what contexts people cross international borders for planned healthcare. We then systematically located and synthesized (1) peer-reviewed studies from the Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Econlit databases; (2) non-indexed reports using key informants and Google; and (3) papers from the reference lists of included documents, to glean supportive or contradictory evidence for our initial propositions. As we reviewed the literature and extracted our data, we drew on the work of Pierre Bourdieu to understand the interplay between material and non-material capital and cognitive processes in decisions to cross borders for healthcare. Patient travel was largely undertaken due to a lack of services in the home country and/or unacceptability of local services, with decisions on when, and where, to travel, usually made within the patient's social networks. They were able to travel via use of multiple resources, including social networks, economic and cultural capital, and habitus. Those patients with greater volumes of the aforementioned factors had greater healthcare options; however, even those with limited resources engaged in patient travel. Patient movement challenges traditional

  11. The efficiency of health care production in OECD countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria

    2016-03-01

    There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for cross-country horse falls at one-day events and at two-/three-day events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J K; Singer, E R; Morgan, K L; Proudman, C J; French, N P

    2005-11-01

    The cross-country phase of eventing competitions has been associated with injuries and fatalities to horses and riders. A case-control study was carried out to identify variables that were associated with increased or decreased risk of a horse fall on the cross-country phase at event competitions. After initial analysis, the dataset was split according to the categories of one-day events as compared to two- or three-day events to establish whether significant risk factors varied between the different types of eventing competitions. Data were collected for 121 cases (horse falls) at one-day events, 59 cases at two- or three-day events and for their 540 matched controls. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. The variables of no previous refusals on the course, fences with a landing in water and the combined variable of the angle and the spread of the fence were significantly associated with the risk of a horse fall in both datasets. Additional risk factors for one-day event falls were: fences requiring a take-off from water, a drop landing, the rider's knowledge of their position before the cross-country phase and if the rider received cross-country tuition. Three-day event risk factors in the multivariable model included: the camber of the fence and participation in non-equestrian sports by the rider. This study identified variables that were significantly associated with an increase or a decrease in the risk of a horse fall during the cross-country phase of different types of eventing competitions. Some of these variables are modifiable and the results of this study have been reported to the governing body of the sport of eventing in the UK so that possible interventions might be considered.

  13. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C; Ørtenblad, N

    2017-04-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Evolution of Champion Cross-Country-Skier Training: From Lumberjacks to Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-02-01

    Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources. Before 1970, most male champion XC skiers were lumberjacks who ran or skied long distances to and from felling areas while working long days in the woods. In addition, they trained as much as possible, with increased intensity during the autumn, while less work but more ski-specific training and competitions were done during the winter. Until the 1970s, few XC skiers were women, whom coaches believed tolerated less training than men did. Today's XC skiers are less physically active, but the influence of both science and the systematic approaches of former athletes and coaches have gradually taught XC skiers to adopt smarter, more goal-oriented training practices. Although the very high VO2max of world-class XC skiers has remained the same since the 1960s, new events in modern XC skiing have additionally required superior upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and tactical flexibility. These elements also emerge in the training of today's best skiers; women's physiological capacities and training routines especially seem to have improved dramatically.

  15. Gait models and mechanical energy in three cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2014-11-01

    Fluctuations in mechanical energy of the body center of mass (COM) have been widely analyzed when investigating different gaits in human and animal locomotion. We applied this approach to estimate the mechanical work in cross-country skiing and to identify the fundamental mechanisms of this particular form of locomotion. We acquired movements of body segments, skis, poles and plantar pressures for eight skiers while they roller skied on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and a 2 deg slope using three different techniques (diagonal stride, DS; double poling, DP; double poling with kick, DK). The work associated with kinetic energy (KE) changes of COM was not different between techniques; the work against gravity associated with potential energy (PE) changes was higher for DP than for DK and was lowest for DS. Mechanical work against the external environment was 0.87 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DS, 0.70 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DP and 0.79 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DK. The work done to overcome frictional forces, which is negligible in walking and running, was 17.8%, 32.3% and 24.8% of external mechanical work for DS, DP and DK, respectively. The pendulum-like recovery (R%) between PE and KE was ~45%, ~26% and ~9% for DP, DK and DS, respectively, but energy losses by friction are not accounted for in this computation. The pattern of fluctuations of PE and KE indicates that DS can be described as a 'grounded running', where aerial phases are substituted by ski gliding phases, DP can be described as a pendular gait, whereas DK is a combination of both.

  16. Biomechanical validation of a specific upper body training and testing drill in cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Lindinger, Stefan; Müller, Erich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a biomechanical validation of a double poling imitation drill on a rollerboard. Six elite cross-country skiers performed three imitation drill trials at maximal speed at 13 degrees inclination and in double poling on roller skis on a paved road of 3 degrees. Pole and strap forces, elbow and hip angles and EMG activity of eight upper body muscles were measured. Force curves showed similar characteristics, except for impact force occurring only at pole plant in double poling on roller skis. Double poling on a rollerboard includes an eccentric roll-down phase not appearing in double polling on roller skis. Forces on the rollerboard were similar to those on roller skis. Courses of the elbow angles indicated similar shapes, except for the angle at the start of the propulsion phase and, consequently, during flexion (p < 0.01). Propulsion time and cycle duration were longer and frequency lower on the rollerboard (all p < 0.001). Muscle activities were not significantly different, except for stronger biceps brachii (p < 0.01) and weaker erector spinae activation (p < 0.05) on the rollerboard. Muscle coordination patterns showed similar onset and offset points of each muscle and comparable activations in both activities, except for biceps brachii. Two movement strategies on the rollerboard were found, which led to small differences in measured variables. The biomechanical validity of double poling on a rollerboard can be judged as moderately high, being aware of the differences in some variables that might be considered in training sessions on the rollerboard, particularly when using intervals with high number of repetitions.

  17. The effect of squat depth on multiarticular muscle activation in collegiate cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Joshua; Long, Janey; Miller, Katie; Primeau, Kyle; Rutledge, Sarah; Sossong, Andrew; Durocher, John J

    2013-09-01

    The squat is a closed-chain lower body exercise commonly performed by many athletes. Muscle activity has been examined during partial and parallel squats in male weightlifters, but not in male and female runners. Therefore, this study measured muscle activity with surface electromyography (EMG) during partial and parallel squats in 20 Division I collegiate cross-country runners (10 males and 10 females) in a randomized crossover design. We hypothesized the parallel squat would increase extensor muscle activitation (i.e. hamstrings and erector spinae). Furthermore, we sought to determine if changes in muscle activity were different between males and females. Participants performed 6 repetitions using their 10 repetition maximum loads for each condition during EMG testing. EMG was performed on the right rectus femoris, biceps femoris, lumbar erector spinae, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius. Rectus femoris activity (0.18 ± 0.01 vs. 0.14 ± 0.01 mV) and erector spinae activity (0.16 ± 0.01 vs. 0.13 ± 0.01 mV) were significantly higher (p 0.05). During preliminary isokinetic testing, both male and female runners demonstrated deficient hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, which would not likely improve by performing parallel squats based on our EMG findings. Despite the reduced load of the parallel squat, rectus femoris and erector spinae activity were elevated. Thus, parallel squats may help runners to train muscles vital for uphill running and correct posture, while preventing injury by using lighter weights through a larger range of motion.

  18. How do output growth-rate distributions look like? Some cross-country, time-series evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, G.; Napoletano, M.; Roventini, A.

    2007-05-01

    This paper investigates the statistical properties of within-country gross domestic product (GDP) and industrial production (IP) growth-rate distributions. Many empirical contributions have recently pointed out that cross-section growth rates of firms, industries and countries all follow Laplace distributions. In this work, we test whether also within-country, time-series GDP and IP growth rates can be approximated by tent-shaped distributions. We fit output growth rates with the exponential-power (Subbotin) family of densities, which includes as particular cases both Gaussian and Laplace distributions. We find that, for a large number of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries including the US, both GDP and IP growth rates are Laplace distributed. Moreover, we show that fat-tailed distributions robustly emerge even after controlling for outliers, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity.

  19. Effects of In-country and Cross-Border Mobility on Condom Use Among Transgender Women (hijras) in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, A K M Masud; Reza, Md Masud; Alam, Md Shah; Khatun, Mahmuda; Khan, Sharful Islam; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    In Bangladesh transgender women (hijras) are thought to be highly mobile that may be an impediment to condom use. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of mobility of hijras, in-country and cross-border, and whether mobility affects condom use in anal intercourse. Hijras ≥15 years of age, receiving services from the Global Fund supported HIV prevention program were enrolled. A behavioral questionnaire was administered and blood was tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis. Of 889 hijras sampled, 41.3 % never traveled, 26.4 % traveled in-country and 32.3 % crossed the border in the last year. HIV and active syphilis was at 0.8 and 1.8 % respectively. Among hijras who crossed the border condom use was less likely in last anal intercourse (AOR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48-0.96), and consistently with new (AOR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.34-1.01) and regular clients (AOR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.27-0.76) in the last week. This study concludes that in Bangladesh hijras are highly mobile and cross-border mobility negatively affects condom use.

  20. Human values, legal regulation, and approval of homosexuality in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntz, Anabel; Davidov, Eldad; Schwartz, Shalom H.; Schmidt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although research has revealed a trend toward liberalization of ttitudes toward homosexuality in Western countries, acceptance of homosexuality differs remarkably among individuals and across countries. We examine the roles of individual value priorities and of national laws regarding homosexuality and the interaction between them in explaining approval of homosexuality. Data are drawn from the European Social Survey (ESS) and include representative national samples of 27 European countries i...

  1. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Saada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality (IM and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA and Western Europe (WE, by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours. To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE and income inequality (USA as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  2. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  3. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Sharon L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  4. The Impact of Skills Development on Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsomu, Eldah N.; Ngware, Moses W.; Manda, Damiano K.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half-century, most countries have emphasized the development of human capital as an instrument for economic growth, sustainable development, and improved global competitiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the link between skills development and a country's competitiveness. This paper examines the contribution and association…

  5. Cross-country differences in ICT adoption. A consequence of Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erumban, Abdul Azeez; Jong, Simon B. de

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) has witnessed a surge in the recent years; nevertheless, the rate of adoption across countries diverges considerably. This divergence is observed regardless of the income levels of countries. In this paper, we attempt to explain the dif

  6. Cross-country differences in ICT adoption : A consequence of culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erumban, Abdul Azeez; de Jong (Simon), Siem

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) has witnessed a surge in recent years. The rate of adoption across countries diverges considerably regardless of the income levels. In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences in ICT adoption rates across countries by using Hof

  7. Students’ sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: cross-cultural variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Chiu; B.W.Y. Chow; C. McBride; S.T. Mol

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether students’ sense of belonging at school (SOBAS) differed across attributes of countries, families, schools, teachers, or students. Multilevel analyses of survey and test data from 193,073 15-year-old students in 41 countries yielded four main findings. First, students in m

  8. Health among Europeans – a cross-sectional comparison of 16 SHARE countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Vestergaard, Sonja; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health and several risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases are, in general, more common in Eastern European countries. Germany shows almost the same levels of adverse health outcomes as East European countries. Differences in institutional factors have a major impact on health...

  9. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy: findings from the ITC Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Allwright, S.; Mons, U.; McNeill, A.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; Siahpush, M.; Joossens, L.; Fong, G.T.; de Vries, H.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and country varia

  10. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde;

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  11. Blood lactate level responses and comparison with submaximal running and roller skiing in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ebru; Bilgin, Ulviye; Schurmann, Banu Can; Yarim, Imdat; Dölek, Burcu Ertas

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of 30-minute duration submaximal running and roller skiing exercises, which are among the most important aerobic exercise models in cross-country skiers, on lactic acid levels. The study group comprised 6 female and 4 male athletes (age: 16.87 +/- 1.87 years, body height: 168.35 +/- 5.66 cm, body weight: 56.83 +/- 7.1 kg) who competed in cross-country skiing at national and international level. All athletes participated in the study voluntarily. Measurements were performed three times as basal (1st measurement), immediately after exercise (2nd measurement) and 5 minutes after finishing exercise (3rd measurement).Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 11.5). A significant increase (P skiing exercises, according to percentage values, but the difference in fatigue levels between exercise types was not statistically significant.

  12. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  13. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    El Ansari Walid; Stock Christiane; Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-co...

  14. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  15. Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Hammarström, Daniel; Tiivel, Toomas; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [·VO₂max] = 5.34 ± 0.34 L·min⁻¹) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), ·VO₂max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, ·VO₂max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  16. Analysis of classical time-trial performance and technique-specific physiological determinants in elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Sandbakk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP and diagonal (DIA techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r=0.98 and flat (r=0.91 sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p<0.05. Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p<0.001. Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r=0.66-0.78, with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p<0.05. Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  17. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  18. A Cross-country Comparison of Success Factor Priorities for Health Information Technology Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar; Moe, Carl Erik

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of Health Information Technology (HIT) can improve the provision of highquality and efficient healthcare services; however, it has met with significant challenges in many cases. Despite the challenges occurring in many countries, prior research on HIT implementation success...... factors is, however, mainly from the USA. This research conducted a survey to IT managers in Nordic countries’ healthcare organizations and compiled a list of the HIT implementation success factors that these managers considered important in each country. It was found that IT managers in Nordic countries...

  19. Elite cross-country skiers do not reach their running VO2max during roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, T; Hallén, J

    2014-08-01

    Cross-country skiers' VO2max is often measured during treadmill running. However, VO2max during treadmill skiing with the diagonal stride technique is higher, whereas it is lower during double poling, another classical style technique. How these values compare to VO2max during ski skating in elite cross country skiers is not known. Therefore, this study compared VO2max during treadmill uphill running and treadmill roller ski skating. Twenty-two males (21±2 years, 182±6 cm, 77±7 kg, VO2max running; 72.4±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) elite cross-country skiers and biathlon athletes underwent testing in both running and roller ski skating before (May) and at the end (October) of the preseason training. From May to October VO2max increased during running (3.1±4.5%, P=0.003, Effect size; ES=0.44, small) but not during roller ski skating (1.8±5.6%, P=0.13, ES=0.24, small). In May the subjects' VO2max during running was 1.7±4.7% higher compared to during roller ski skating (P=0.08, ES=0.24, small) while in October this difference was 3.0±5.0 % (PVO2max during roller ski skating than during running and this relationship does not change during the pre-season training period.

  20. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%-4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.

  1. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Human Movement Science Program, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%–4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: skiing, power balance, metabolic rate, work rate, air drag, friction coefficient

  2. Assessing the potential for improvement of primary care in 34 countries: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Wienke GW; Murante, Anna M; Sixma, Herman JM; Schellevis, François G; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate patients’ perceptions of improvement potential in primary care in 34 countries. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey of 69 201 patients who had just visited general practitioners at primary-care facilities. Patients rated five features of person-focused primary care – accessibility/availability, continuity, comprehensiveness, patient involvement and doctor–patient communication. One tenth of the patients ranked the importance of each feature on a scale of one to four, and nine tenths of patients scored their experiences of care received. We calculated the potential for improvement by multiplying the proportion of negative patient experiences with the mean importance score in each country. Scores were divided into low, medium and high improvement potential. Pair-wise correlations were made between improvement scores and three dimensions of the structure of primary care – governance, economic conditions and workforce development. Findings In 26 countries, one or more features of primary care had medium or high improvement potentials. Comprehensiveness of care had medium to high improvement potential in 23 of 34 countries. In all countries, doctor–patient communication had low improvement potential. An overall stronger structure of primary care was correlated with a lower potential for improvement of continuity and comprehensiveness of care. In countries with stronger primary care governance patients perceived less potential to improve the continuity of care. Countries with better economic conditions for primary care had less potential for improvement of all features of person-focused care. Conclusion In countries with a stronger primary care structure, patients perceived that primary care had less potential for improvement. PMID:25883409

  3. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ansari Walid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators. Results Students’ food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food. Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions.

  4. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  5. Religious attendance in cross-national perspective : a multilevel analysis of 60 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Why are some nations more religious than others? This article proposes a multilevel framework in which country differences in religious attendance are explained by contextual, individual, and crosslevel interaction effects. Hypotheses from different theories are simultaneously tested with data from

  6. Stock-Flow Adjustments and Fiscal Transparency: A Cross-Country Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anke Weber

    2012-01-01

    ... dynamics in many economies. The aim of this paper is to investigate the underlying determinants of such discrepancies and their relationship with fiscal transparency using data for 163 countries...

  7. The Role Of LMX In Employees Job Motivation, Satisfaction, Empowerment, Stress And Turnover: Cross Country Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Malik; Difang Wan; Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad; Muhammad Akram Naseem; Ramiz ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

      We investigated the effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) quality relationship on employee motivation, stress, turnover, satisfaction and Psychological Empowerment with a sample of 1500 employees across four countries...

  8. How does corruption influence perceptions of the risk of nuclear accidents?: cross-country analysis after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Japan’s 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. Endogeneity bias was controlled for using instrumental variables. The cross-country analysis showed that citizens in less corrupt countries tend to perceive there to be a lower possibility ...

  9. Determinants of Human Development Index: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Smit

    2016-01-01

    The Human Development Index is a statistical tool used to measure countries overall achievements in its social and economic dimensions. This paper tried to find out major factors affecting Human Development Index like health index, education index and income index. The objective of this study is found out the empirical findings and trend of human development across countries, regression analysis of determinants factors and region wise analysis of human development index.

  10. How Business Cycles Affect the Healthcare Sector: A Cross-country Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Lamey, Lien; Meyer, Jan-Hinrich; De Ruyter, Ko

    2016-07-01

    The long-term relationship between the general economy and healthcare expenditures has been extensively researched, to explain differences in healthcare spending between countries, but the midterm (i.e., business cycle) perspective has been overlooked. This study explores business cycle sensitivity in both public and private parts of the healthcare sector across 32 countries. Responses to the business cycle vary notably, both across spending sources and across countries. Whereas in some countries, consumers and/or governments cut back, in others, private and/or public healthcare buyers tend to spend more. We also assess long-term consequences of business cycle sensitivity and show that public cost cutting during economic downturns deflates the mortality rates, whereas private cut backs increase the long-term growth in total healthcare expenditures. Finally, multiple factors help explain variability in cyclical sensitivity. Private cost cuts during economic downturns are smaller in countries with a predominantly publicly funded healthcare system and more preventive public activities. Public cut backs during contractions are smaller in countries that rely more on tax-based resources rather than social health insurances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  12. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  13. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to e nsure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  14. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to ensure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  15. Do individualism and collectivism on three levels (country, individual, and situation) influence theory-of-mind efficiency? A cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tuong-Van; Finkenauer, Catrin; Huizinga, Mariette; Novin, Sheida; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism (IC) at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states (i.e. theory of mind, or ToM), indexed by accuracy and reaction time in a ToM task. We hypothesized that collectivism (having an interdependent self and valuing group concerns), compared to individualism (having an independent self and valuing personal concerns), is associated with greater accuracy and speed in recognizing and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Students (N = 207) from individualism-representative (the Netherlands) and collectivism-representative (Vietnam) countries (Country IC) answered an individualism-collectivism questionnaire (Individual IC) and were randomly assigned to an individualism-primed, collectivism-primed, or no-prime task (Situational IC) before performing a ToM task. The data showed vast differences between the Dutch and Vietnamese groups that might not be attributable to experimental manipulation. Therefore, we analyzed the data for the groups separately and found that Individual IC did not predict ToM accuracy or reaction time performance. Regarding Situational IC, when primed with individualism, the accuracy performance of Vietnamese participants in affective ToM trials decreased compared to when primed with collectivism and when no prime was used. However, an interesting pattern emerged: Dutch participants were least accurate in affective ToM trials, while Vietnamese participants were quickest in affective ToM trials. Our research also highlights a dilemma faced by cross-cultural researchers who use hard-to-reach populations but face the challenge of disentangling experimental effects from biases that might emerge due to an interaction between cultural differences and experimental settings. We propose suggestions for overcoming such challenges.

  16. Cross-country Analysis of ICT and Education Indicators: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Ahmad R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between world ICT and education indicators by using the latest available data from World Bank and UNESCO in range of 2011-2014 with the help of different exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. After dealing with all missing values, 119 countries were included in the final dataset. The findings show that most ICT and education indicators are highly associated with income of the respective country and therefore confirm the existence of digital divide in ICT utilization and participation gap in education between rich and poor countries. It also indicates that digital divide and participation gap is highly associated with each other. Finally, the findings also confirm reverse causality in ICT and education; higher participation rate in education increases technology utilization, which in turn helps promote better outcomes of education.

  17. A Cross-country Comparison of Success Factor Priorities for Health Information Technology Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar; Moe, Carl Erik;

    2015-01-01

    agree highly with each other in their judgment of the importance of these success factors. While Nordic countries’ healthcare systems and culture are relatively similar, the results suggest that an internationally applicable set of recommendations for the successful completion of HIT implementations......The implementation of Health Information Technology (HIT) can improve the provision of highquality and efficient healthcare services; however, it has met with significant challenges in many cases. Despite the challenges occurring in many countries, prior research on HIT implementation success...... factors is, however, mainly from the USA. This research conducted a survey to IT managers in Nordic countries’ healthcare organizations and compiled a list of the HIT implementation success factors that these managers considered important in each country. It was found that IT managers in Nordic countries...

  18. Cross-National Patterns of Intergenerational Continuities in Childbearing in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that the association between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children has become stronger over time in some societies. This article updates and broadens the geographic coverage to assess the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in childbearing in developed and middle-income societies using data for 46 populations from 28 developed countries drawn from a number of recent large-scale survey programs. Robust positive intergenerational fertility correlations are found across these countries into the most recent period, and although there is no indication that the strength of the relationship is declining, the increasing trend does not appear to be continuing. PMID:24215254

  19. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  20. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequence...

  1. Formal institutions, culture, and venture capital activity: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, L.; Zahra, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Why does the level of venture capital activity vary across countries? This study suggests that the variation can be attributed to the different levels of formal institutional development. Further, this study proposes that venture capitalists respond differently to the incentives provided by formal i

  2. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barberà

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business, to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in online courses for their respective professions. In all three disciplines, the design of interaction to correspond with disciplinary competencies was often influenced by contextual factors that modify faculty intention. Therefore, instructional design will vary across countries in the same discipline to address the local context, such as the needs and expectations of the learners, faculty perspectives, beliefs and values, and the needs of the institution, the community, and country. The three disciplines from the three countries agreed on the importance of the following competencies: knowledge of the field, higher order cognitive processes such as critical thinking, analysis, problem solving, transfer of knowledge, oral and written communication skills, team work, decision making, leadership and management skills, indicating far more similarities in competencies than differences between the three different applied disciplines. We found a lack of correspondence between faculty’s intent to develop collaborative learning skills and the actual development of them. Contextual factors such as faculty prior experience in design, student reluctance to engage in collaborative learning, and institutional assessment systems that focus on individual performance were some of these reasons.

  3. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  4. Distributional effects of flood risk management - a cross-country comparison of preflood compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn - Hoekveld, Willemijn; Goytia, Susana; Suykens, C.B.R.; Homewood, Stephen; Thuillier, Thomas; Manson, Corinne; Chmielewski, Piotr; Matczak, Piotr; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    We seek to examine the manner in which either the EU member states of France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden or parts of them, such as the country of England in the UK or the Flemish Region in Belgium, deal with the distributional effects of the flood risk management strategies prevention, defe

  5. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes towards Immigration in the EU-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow-Moller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences of immigration, using an extension of a…

  6. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  7. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore, reta

  8. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  9. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore,

  10. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  11. Professional Training in Organic Food Production: A Cross-Country Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel; Costa, Daniela; Correia, Paula; Costa, Cristina; Correia, Helena; Castro, Moises; Guerra, Luis; Seeds, Catherine; Coll, Collette; Radics, Laszlo; Arslan, Meahmet; Soylu, Soner; Tothova, Monika; Toth, Peter; Basile, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the agricultural activities and past experiences in professional training in the context of mobile learning in different countries (Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Hungary, UK, Italy and Turkey). Design/methodology/approach: For the survey, a questionnaire was prepared in English and Portuguese and…

  12. Propagation of economic shocks in input-output networks: a cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Martha G Alatriste; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates how economic shocks propagate and amplify through the input-output network connecting industrial sectors in developed economies. We study alternative models of diffusion on networks and we calibrate them using input-output data on real-world inter-sectoral dependencies for several European countries before the Great Depression. We show that the impact of economic shocks strongly depends on the nature of the shock and country size. Shocks that impact on final demand without changing production and the technological relationships between sectors have on average a large but very homogeneous impact on the economy. Conversely, when shocks change also the magnitudes of input-output across-sector interdependencies (and possibly sector production), the economy is subject to predominantly large but more heterogeneous avalanche sizes. In this case, we also find that (i) the more a sector is globally central in the country network, the larger its impact; (ii) the largest European countries, such as those constituting the core of the European Union's economy, typically experience the largest avalanches, signaling their intrinsic higher vulnerability to economic shocks.

  13. Formal institutions, culture, and venture capital activity: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, L.; Zahra, Shaker

    2012-01-01

    Why does the level of venture capital activity vary across countries? This study suggests that the variation can be attributed to the different levels of formal institutional development. Further, this study proposes that venture capitalists respond differently to the incentives provided by formal

  14. Equity, Institutional Diversity and Regional Development: A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Charles, David; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical and current developments regarding governmental policies aimed at enhancing spatial equity (access) or decentralisation of higher education provision in three countries--Australia, Canada and Norway. We then shed light on the links or interrelations between policy objectives and initiatives and institutional…

  15. The spirits of capitalism and socialism. A cross-country study of ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Paldam, Martin

    The World Values Survey contains an item on ownership, which is polled 200 times in 92 countries at the four waves of 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. It is developed into the CS-score that measures the aggregate mass support for capitalism and socialism. Four hypotheses are advanced and tested...

  16. Framing the Iraq war: a cross-national comparison of newspaper framing in four Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Schröder, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we compare the newspaper attention for and framing of the Iraq issue in four Western countries (US, UK, Germany and the Netherlands) during the period September 2002 until August 2003. Using computer assisted coding based on wordlists constructed by human coders, we analyzed more than

  17. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  18. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  19. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  20. Determinants of Participation in Global Volunteer Grids: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junseok; Altmann, Jörn; Mohammed, Ashraf Bany

    Volunteer Grids, in which users share computing resources altruistically, play a critical role in fostering research. Sharing and collaboration in Volunteer Grids is determined by many factors. These determinants define the participation in Grids and the amount of contribution to such Grids. Whereas previous studies focused on explaining researchers’ and countries’ willingness to share resources in Volunteer Grids based on social sharing theory, this research argues that without the appropriate technological capabilities, countries or researcher cannot implement their willingness. Based on the literature review, this paper defines the influential determinants for participating in global Volunteer Grids. Besides, this research employs a multiple regression analysis of these determinants, using a total of 130 observations collected from international data repositories. Our results show that R&D and Internet connection type (broadband or dial-up) are significant determinates for participating in Volunteer Grids. This result explains why developed countries are active and enjoy the benefits from Volunteer Grids, while developing countries still lag behind. Therefore, an increased participation in Grids cannot be solely achieved by interconnecting with developing countries through high-speed Internet backbones.

  1. Exposure to Online Alcohol Marketing and Adolescents' Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in four European countries. A total of 9038 students with a mean age of 14.05 (SD 0.82) participated in a school-based survey in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional cross-country survey data were undertaken. Exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising and ownership of alcohol-branded items was estimated to be controlled for relevant confounders. Onset of drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were included in the study as outcome variables. Adjusted for relevant confounders, higher exposure to (online) alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink (p online alcohol marketing was found to interact more strongly with drinking outcomes than passive exposure to online alcohol marketing. Youngsters in the four European countries report frequent exposure to online alcohol marketing. The association between this exposure and adolescents' drinking was robust and seems consistent across national contexts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. The modified Dmax method is reliable to predict the second ventilatory threshold in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Balestreri, Filippo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate, in elite cross-country skiers, the capacity of the DMAX lactate threshold method and its modified version (DMAX MOD) to accurately predict the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Twenty-three elite cross-country skiers carried out an incremental roller-ski test on a motorized treadmill. Ventilation, heart rate (HR), and gas exchanges were continuously recorded during the test. Blood was sampled at the end of each 3-minute work stage for lactate concentration measurements. The VT2 was individually determined by visual analysis. The DMAX, DMAX MOD points also with the 4 mmol.L(-1) fixed lactate concentration value (4 mM) were determined by a computerized program. Paired t tests showed nonsignificant differences between HR at VT2 and HR at DMAX MOD, between HR at VT2 and HR at 4 mM, and between HR at DMAX MOD and HR at 4 mM. HR at DMAX was significantly lower than HR at VT2, DMAX MOD, and at 4 mM (pcross-country skiers.

  3. The Measurement of Organizational Culture: Cross-country Perspective. Organisatsioonikultuuri mõõtmine: kultuuriülene perspektiiv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Karma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the research on organizational culture (OC from a crosscountry perspective. From the economic point of view we see that society today has led us to increasing international cooperation and globalization. Despite the opening of economic borders there are still limits to consider when operating across national boundaries. One of those limits can be associated with culture – the way things are commonly understood and accepted in different national entities. This can be of special importance for small countries, as they need to adjust to their larger counterparts in order to be economically competitive. Research focuses on different aspects when studying OC, but it is generally agreed that task orientation and interpersonal relationships become important dimensions when we analyze this phenomenon. In order to understand OC and to measure it in cross cultural settings, a universal measurement tool is needed; however, drafting such a tool has for some time been a sticky task. In this paper the measurement invariance of the Organizational Culture Questionnaire (Vadi et al. 2002 is examined by comparing the data from seven countries representing Eastern and Western Europe, Russia, and China. This sample covers both small and large countries. A confirmative factor analysis was used as a means to test measurement invariance across the selected samples. In addition, Multidimensional Scaling technique was applied to provide a visual representation of the data. An analysis was carried out using the statistical software SPSS/AMOS 17.0. The results indicate that task orientation can be found as a common dimension whereas relationship orientation seems to hold a diverse meaning across countries. Instead of relationship orientation, a dimension reflecting negative employee emotions towards the organization was detected. It also turned out that the strength of the relationship between the obtained subscales shows interesting variation

  4. Exploring and explaining the "Santa Claus effect": cross-sectional study of jollity in 21 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-09-04

    Christmas "is the season to be jolly" but, despite many recent studies of happiness and wellbeing, the population distribution of jollity is unknown. To assess levels of jollity across Europe, hypothesising the existence of a "Santa Claus effect" whereby Mr. Claus, a long-established resident of Scandinavia, increases jollity through his social network. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 37 966 participants in the European Society Survey (Round 7, 2014/2015) across 21 European countries. Jollity has independent associations with satisfaction with health and income, male gender, younger age, and country of residence. Each one-point increase in satisfaction with health (on a 5-point scale) corresponds to a 0.79-point increase in jollity (23-point scale); each one-point increase in satisfaction with income (4-point scale) corresponds to a 0.76-point increase in jollity. Switzerland is the jolliest country in Europe. The jolliest European is likely to be a young Swiss male who is satisfied with his income and health. If there is a Santa Claus effect acting to increase jollity, it probably acts not just in Scandinavia but across Mr. Claus's broad network of contacts and admirers in many countries.

  5. A cross-country comparison of math achievement at teen age and cognitive performance 40 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Skirbekk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining cognitive functioning through mid- to late-life is relevant for the individual and societal aim of active ageing. Evidence shows considerable stability in individual-level rank-ordering of cognitive functioning, but little attention has been given to cohort performance over the life cycle and macro-level factors that could affect it. Objective: The main goal of this paper is to address cross-national variation in mental performance from younger to older ages. Methods: Using a quasi-longitudinal approach, we compare the relative country ranking in standardised mathematical test scores at teen age in 1964 from the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS and cognitive test performance at mid-life in 2004, based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE for the cohort born between 1949 and 1952. Results: Our results show that those countries which had the highest scores in math tests taken by 13 years old grade level students are not the same countries that, 40 years later, have the top performing scores in cognitive tests among mid-age adults. Conclusions: This article highlights the importance of considering country-level influences on cognitive change over the life cycle, in addition to individual characteristics, and provides some descriptive findings that could be incorporated with further research on the link between specific contextual factors and cognitive functioning.

  6. Cross-cultural aspects of ICT use by older people: preliminary results of a four-country ethnographical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blat, Josep; Sayago, Sergio; Kälviäinen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    Culture is crucial in understanding how people use technologies and designing better ones. However, very little is known about cross-cultural aspects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use by older people (60+), despite the heterogeneity of this user group. This short paper...... addresses this issue by drawing on an ethnographical study of ICT use conducted with over 120 people, aged 67-71, in four European countries: Finland, Denmark, Italy and Spain, over a 6-month period. The preliminary results show that making a social, independent and worth use of ICT are common aspects...... across the four countries, despite the so-called heterogeneity of older people as ICT users. This short paper also touches on two key aspects which emerged from the study, engaging older people in research and the evolution of some barriers to technology use....

  7. Usage and Attitudes Towards Natural Remedies and Homeopathy in General Pediatrics: A Cross-Country Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, André-Michael; Burlaka, Ievgeniia; Buskin, Stephen; Kamenov, Borislav; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Popova, Diana; Riveros Huckstadt, María Pilar; Sakalinskas, Virgilijus; Oberbaum, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the global approach and country differences in physicians' usage, knowledge, and attitudes towards natural remedies and homeopathy in pediatric practice, an online survey involving 582 general pediatricians and general practitioners treating pediatric diseases was conducted in 6 countries. Overall, 17% of the pediatric prescriptions refer to phytotherapy and 15% refer to homeopathic preparations. Natural remedies and homeopathic preparations are more frequently used in upper respiratory tract infections, infant colic, sleep disturbances, and recurrent infections. In the majority of cases, they are used together with chemical drugs. Both treatment options are typically used if parents are concerned about side effects of conventional drugs or prefer natural remedies for themselves. Physicians express high interest in natural remedies and homeopathy; however, their knowledge is variable. Lack of proven efficacy, knowledge on mechanism of action, and information on indications are main factors that limit their usage.

  8. CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF BANK FINANCIAL DISTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jia-Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank failures affect owners, employees, and customers, possibly causing large-scale economic distress. Thus, banks must evaluate operational risks and develop early warning systems. This study investigates bank failures in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the North America Free Trade Area (NAFTA, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, newly industrialized countries, the G20, and the G8. We use financial ratios to analyze and explore the appropriateness of prediction models. Results show that capital ratios, interest income compared to interest expenses, non-interest income compared to non-interest expenses, return on equity, and provisions for loan losses have significantly negative correlations with bank failure. However, loan ratios, non-performing loans, and fixed assets all have significantly positive correlations with bank failure. In addition, the accuracy of the logistic model for banks from NAFTA countries provides the best prediction accuracy regarding bank failure

  9. Cultural-cognitive Dimension and Entrepreneurial Activity: A Cross-country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between independence, risk taking, creativity, and entrepreneurial activity at the country level, in the light of institutional economics, concretely using the cultural-cognitive dimension. The main findings demonstrate through a regression model that risk taking and creativity have a positive and significant influence on entrepreneurship. Data were obtained from the World Values Survey, for the period 2005-2008, from a sample size of 42 countries. The study advances the literature by providing new information on the effect of environmental factors on entrepreneurial activity. Also, the research contributes to the definition of educational policies that promote favorable attitudes to risk taking and creativity, thereby increasing the number of potential entrepreneurs.

  10. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Sargent, J.D.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD =

  11. SANREM CRSP: Cross-cutting research adapts conservation agriculture for dryland smallholders in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvaney, Michael J.; Moore, Keith M.; Christie, Maria Elisa; Norton, George W.; Bertelsen, Michael; Sutphin, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the combined research efforts of the Cross-Cutting Research Activities (CCRAs) at the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP). They include analyses of economic impacts, gender, technology networks, and soil in the SANREM CRSP's Long Term Research Activities (LTRAs). CCRA-9 (Soil Quality and Soil Carbon Sequestration)

  12. Over-urbanization and air pollution: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raufan Salahodajev

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of overurbanization on different measures of air pollution in a diverse sample of developed and developing countries. The main finding is that overurbanization increases greenhouse gas emissions, measured by CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions per capita. This effect is robust to controlling for various antecedents of air pollution. Our findings provide a contribution to the ongoing debate over the role of urbanization in environmental changes.

  13. Strikes, Employee Workplace Representation, Unionism, and Trust: Evidence from Cross-Country Data

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Addison; Teixeira, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of industrial conflict in companies, using a multi-country workplace inquiry for 2009 and 2013 and various measures of strike activity. The principal goal is to address the effect of formal workplace representation on strikes, distinguishing in the first instance between works councils on the one hand and broadly equivalent trade union based entities on the other. The role of unionism is also central to this inquiry, not only with respect to the degree...

  14. Opioid analgesic use in Australia and The Netherlands: a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemaakers, Francisca N; Hollingworth, Samantha A; Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sanne; Tee, Ernest H L; Leendertse, Anne J; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-08-01

    Background Increasing use of opioid analgesics (OA) has been reported worldwide. Objective To compare the use of OA in two countries in order to better understand these trends. Setting Outpatient settings in Australia and The Netherlands. Method We analysed publicly available government data on outpatient OA dispensing over 15 years (2000-2014). We compared dispensing trends for specific OA and explored medical (national clinical guidelines), contextual and policy-related factors to explain differences in use between the two countries. Main outcome measure OA prescribing in Australia and The Netherlands, absolute volume of use, preferred types of opioids and changes over time. Results The average annual increase in OA prescribing was 10% in Australia and 8% in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2014. In 2014, the total use of OA was 10.0 daily defined doses (DDD)/1000 population/day in Australia and 9.4 DDD/1000 population/day in The Netherlands. In Australia, the most commonly prescribed opioids were oxycodone and tramadol, compared to fentanyl and tramadol in The Netherlands. We found differences in prescribing guidelines, culture of prescribing and regulatory frameworks that could explain some of the observed differences. Conclusion OA prescribing has increased remarkably in both countries between 2000 and 2014 but the types of prescribed OA vary. Differences in national evidence-based guidelines influenced the types of OA used. Prescribing culture as well as regulatory policies and costs, may also contribute to the different patterns of OA use.

  15. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over fro

  16. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alejandra Rico-Uribe

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries.A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals' social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates.In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25 than in Poland (|β| = 0.16 and Spain (|β| = 0.18. Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health.Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality.

  17. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  18. Health in China and India: a cross-country comparison in a context of rapid globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, Trevor J B; Cook, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    China and India are similarly huge nations currently experiencing rapid economic growth, urbanisation and widening inequalities between rich and poor. They are dissimilar in terms of their political regimes, policies for population growth and ethnic composition and heterogeneity. This review compares health and health care in China and India within the framework of the epidemiological transition model and against the backdrop of globalisation. We identify similarities and differences in health situation. In general, for both countries, infectious diseases of the past sit alongside emerging infectious diseases and chronic illnesses associated with ageing societies, although the burden of infectious diseases is much higher in India. Whilst globalisation contributes to widening inequalities in health and health care in both countries--particularly with respect to increasing disparities between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor--there is evidence that local circumstances are important, especially with respect to the structure and financing of health care and the implementation of health policy. For example, India has huge problems providing even rudimentary health care to its large population of urban slum dwellers whilst China is struggling to re-establish universal rural health insurance. In terms of funding access to health care, the Chinese state has traditionally supported most costs, whereas private insurance has always played a major role in India, although recent changes in China have seen the burgeoning of private health care payments. China has, arguably, had more success than India in improving population health, although recent reforms have severely impacted upon the ability of the Chinese health care system to operate effectively. Both countries are experiencing a decline in the amount of government funding for health care and this is a major issue that must be addressed.

  19. Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Urszula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health status (SRHS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years. SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy. The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.

  20. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (Palignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population.

  1. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy. Findings from the ITC Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Allwright, Shane; Mons, Ute; McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Siahpush, Mohammad; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. To describe socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing in six European countries. Cross-sectional data from adult smokers (n=7873) from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in France (2006/2007), Germany (2007), Ireland (2006), The Netherlands (2008), Scotland (2006) and the rest of the UK (2007/2008) were used. Respondents were asked whether they had bought cigarettes outside their country in the last 6 months and how often. In French and German provinces/states bordering countries with lower cigarette prices, 24% and 13% of smokers, respectively, reported purchasing cigarettes frequently outside their country. In non-border regions of France and Germany, and in Ireland, Scotland, the rest of the UK and The Netherlands, frequent purchasing of cigarettes outside the country was reported by 2-7% of smokers. Smokers with higher levels of education or income, younger smokers, daily smokers, heavier smokers and smokers not planning to quit smoking were more likely to purchase cigarettes outside their country. Cross-border cigarette purchasing is more common in European regions bordering countries with lower cigarette prices and is more often reported by smokers with higher education and income. Increasing taxes in countries with lower cigarette prices, and reducing the number of cigarettes that can be legally imported across borders could help to avoid cross-border purchasing.

  2. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations between mortality and factors amenable to public health. These amenable factors included addictive and nutritional lifestyle, air quality, public health spending, healthcare coverage, and immunizations. Methods We used a pooled cross-sectional, time series analysis with corrected fixed effects regression models in an ecological design involving eighteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 1999. Results Alcohol, tobacco, and fat consumption, and sometimes, air pollution were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and premature death. Immunizations, health care coverage, fruit/vegetable and protein consumption, and collective health expenditure had negative effects on mortality and premature death, even after controlling for the elderly, density of practicing physicians, doctor visits and per capita GDP. However, tobacco, air pollution, and fruit/vegetable intake were sometimes sensitive to adjustments. Conclusion Mortality and premature deaths could be improved by focusing on factors that are amenable to public health policies. Tackling these issues should be reflected in the ongoing assessments of health system performance.

  3. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of uphill cycling and bicycle suspension on downhill performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Miller, Matthew C; Stannard, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Non-propulsive work demand has been linked to reduced energetic economy of cross-country mountain biking. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical, physiological and performance differences and observe economy while riding a downhill section of a cross-country course prior to and following the metabolic "load" of a climb at race pace under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension) expected to alter vibration damping mechanics. Participants completed 1 lap of the track incorporating the same downhill section twice, under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension). Performance was determined by time to complete overall lap and specific terrain sections. Power, cadence, heart rate and oxygen consumption were sampled and logged every second while triaxial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz) to quantify vibration. No differences between performance times (P = 0.65) or power outputs (P = 0.61) were observed while physiological demand of loaded downhill riding was significantly greater (P  0.05) measures. This study showed minimal advantage of a full suspension bike in our trial, with further investigations over a full race distance warranted.

  5. Changes in performance and poling kinetics during cross-country sprint skiing competition using the double-poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko S; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nummela, Ari; Linnamo, Vesa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, changes in skiing performance and poling kinetics during a simulated cross-country sprint skiing competition were investigated. Twelve elite male cross-country skiers performed simulated sprint competition (4 x 1,150 m heat with 20 min recovery between the heats) using the double-poling technique. Vertical and horizontal pole forces and cycle characteristics were measured using a force plate system (20-m long) during the starting spurt, racing speed, and finishing spurt of each heat. Moreover, heat and 20-m phase velocities were determined. Vertical and horizontal pole impulses as well as mean cycle length were calculated. The velocities of heats decreased by 2.7 +/- 1.7% (p = 0.003) over the simulated competition. The 20-m spurting velocity decreased by 16 +/- 5% (p < 0.002) and poling time increased by 18 +/- 9% (p < 0.003) in spurt phases within heats. Vertical and horizontal poling impulses did not change significantly during the simulation; however, the mean forces decreased (p < 0.039) (vertical by 24 +/- 11% and horizontal by 20 +/- 10%) within heats but not between the heats. Decreased heat velocities over the simulated sprint and spurting velocities within heats indicated fatigue among the skiers. Fatigue was also manifested by decreased pole force production and increased poling time.

  6. Using micro-sensor data to quantify macro kinematics of classical cross-country skiing during on-snow training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Finn; Mackintosh, Colin; Anson, Judith; Lyons, Keith; Waddington, Gordon; Chapman, Dale W

    2015-01-01

    Micro-sensors were used to quantify macro kinematics of classical cross-country skiing techniques and measure cycle rates and cycle lengths during on-snow training. Data were collected from seven national level participants skiing at two submaximal intensities while wearing a micro-sensor unit (MinimaxX™). Algorithms were developed identifying double poling (DP), diagonal striding (DS), kick-double poling (KDP), tucking (Tuck), and turning (Turn). Technique duration (T-time), cycle rates, and cycle counts were compared to video-derived data to assess system accuracy. There was good reliability between micro-sensor and video calculated cycle rates for DP, DS, and KDP, with small mean differences (Mdiff% = -0.2 ± 3.2, -1.5 ± 2.2 and -1.4 ± 6.2) and trivial to small effect sizes (ES = 0.20, 0.30 and 0.13). Very strong correlations were observed for DP, DS, and KDP for T-time (r = 0.87-0.99) and cycle count (r = 0.87-0.99), while mean values were under-reported by the micro-sensor. Incorrect Turn detection was a major factor in technique cycle misclassification. Data presented highlight the potential of automated ski technique classification in cross-country skiing research. With further refinement, this approach will allow many applied questions associated with pacing, fatigue, technique selection and power output during training and competition to be answered.

  7. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  8. Airway inflammation, cough and athlete quality of life in elite female cross-country skiers: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M D; Davidson, W J; Wong, L E; Traves, S L; Leigh, R; Eves, N D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a season of cross-country training and racing on airway inflammation, cough symptoms, and athlete quality of life in female skiers. Eighteen elite female skiers performed sputum induction and completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) at three time points (T1 - May/Jun, T2 - Oct/Nov, T3 - Jan-Mar) during the year. No changes were observed between T1 and T2. However, an increase in sputum eosinophils and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a significant change in all three domains of the LCQ were observed between T1 and T3 (P < 0.05). A significant association was found between the total yearly hours of training and the change in the total cell count (r(2)  = 0.74; P = 0.006), and a number of other sputum cell counts between T1 and T3. No changes were observed for any domain of the REST-Q. The results of this study demonstrate that airway inflammation and cough symptoms are significantly increased in elite female cross-country skiers across a year of training and racing. The increase in airway inflammation is related to the total amount of training and is worse during the winter months when athletes are training and racing in cold, dry air.

  9. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

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    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  10. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2009-03-12

    Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH) policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes greater need to establish and promote best practices regarding methods

  11. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  12. Cross-cultural validation of the positivity-scale in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Heikamp, Tobias; ALESSANDRI, GUIDO; Laguna, Mariola; Petrovic, Vesna; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to test the cross-cultural validity of the Positivity-Scale (P-Scale), a new nquestionnaire designed for the measurement of positivity (i.e., general tendency to evaluate self, life, and future in a positive way). Participants (N = 3544) from Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, and Serbia answered eight items of the P-Scale and responded to items from other well-validated measures. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the assumed one-factor structure of the P-Sca...

  13. Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, G; Niolu, C; Déttore, D; Antonelli, P; Conte, S; Tuziak, B; Limoncin, E; Mollaioli, D; Carosa, E; Gravina, G L; Di Sante, S; Di Lorenzo, G; Fisher, A D; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Siracusano, A; Jannini, E A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers. A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff. Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly. This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.

  14. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability. PMID:28634428

  15. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability.

  16. Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pinho Helen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02 and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01 in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

  17. The Correlation between Gender Inequalities and Their Health Related Factors in World Countries: A Global Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate gender inequalities and their health associated factors in world countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken using data of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP and World Health Organization (WHO. The main variable in this study was gender inequality index (GII. All countries were stratified by WHO regions. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between GII and investigated factors by WHO regions. The mean of GII was greater in Africa and lower in Europe region. There was negative significant association between GII and life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate. But there was positive significant association between GII and noncommunicable diseases death rates. In conclusion, gender inequalities, though decreasing over the past decades in world, remain notably greater in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions than in Europe. Gender inequality is also an important issue which is related to health factors. Hence, countries will need to focus on public health intervention and equal distribution of economic resources to reduce gender inequality in society.

  18. Are performances in Governance Indicators Complementary to Corruption Abatement?: A Cross-Country Analysis

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    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative connotation of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. In the present paper we attempt to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank Governance Indicators like Control of Corruption (CC, Rule of Law (RL, Regulatory Quality (RQ and Government Effectiveness (GE. Applying Granger Causality Test the study observes a mixed or inconclusive result. Only bilateral causal link between the CPI and CC works for UK, whereas there are unilateral causal links between the CPI and one or more governance indicators working for other countries for France, Japan, China, India, Thailand and South Africa. In no way causalities are observed for USA, Germany and Brazil.

  19. Are performances in Governance Indicators Complementary to Corruption Abatement? : A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative connotation of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. In the present paper we attempt to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank Governance Indicators like Control of Corruption (CC, Rule of Law (RL, Regulatory Quality (RQ and Government Effectiveness (GE. Applying Granger Causality Test the study observes a mixed or inconclusive result. Only bilateral causal link between the CPI and CC works for UK, whereas there are unilateral causal links between the CPI and one or more governance indicators working for other countries for France, Japan, China, India, Thailand and South Africa. In no way causalities are observed for USA, Germany and Brazil.

  20. Effects Of Governance On Corporate Ethics: A Cross-Country Investigation

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    Cristina Boța-Avram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper empirically investigates the extent to which the quality of governance measured through six dimensions developed by World Bank has a positive influence on the corporate ethics, or in other words, the ethical behaviour of firms in their interaction with public officials, politicians and other companies. By using a dual approach, from geographical and income group classification, this study analyses data from official reports issued by World Bank and World Economic Forum for a final sample of 140 countries, trying to highlight the positive relationship that might exist between governance clusters and ethical behaviour of firms. For the purpose of the paper, a multiple regression analysis was performed. The research results confirm that there are strong positive correlations between most of the governance indicators and companies’ ethical behaviour, even if there are some differences between various geographical areas, and also between different income categories economies, in terms of the intensity of this influence.

  1. HOW FUTURE MANAGERS VIEW SOCIETAL CULTURE: A CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

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    CATANA DOINA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims at enriching the existing literature about the prospective managers view of an ideal societal value system and the existing cultural practices in their society. The findings about the students' perception on cultural practices and their expectations about societal culture are helpful in imagining the societal culture in its dynamics. The research sample consists of 727 students in business and engineering on undergraduate and graduate levels from Romania and Slovenia. The reason we have chosen to compare Romanian sample with the cultural profile of the "average" future manager from Slovenia is the scientific curiosity of finding out if there are signs of cultural convergence of Romania with a previous communist country, and an older member of European Union. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural convergence (or divergence? between the former socialist countries joining European Union. The theoretical and methodological foundation is rooted in GLOBE international research project. Our findings revealed that at practices level,Romanians perceive significant higher Power Distance and significant lower mean value for Uncertainty Avoidance. At the expectations level, the Romanians and Slovenians are very similar in the desire concerning their societies orientation toward In group/Family Collectivism, Assertiveness and Performance Orientation, and record significant differenced in all the other societal values. The fact that for all the cultural expectations the future managers assign different mean values than for the correspondent practices make us expect that they will act to change their cultural environments. Still, the cultural orientation of Romanian future middle managers will differ in many regards from the Slovenian sample averages.

  2. Beating Heart Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery without Aortic Cross-Clamping via Right Thoracotomy in a Patient with Compromised Left Ventricular Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Baris-Durukan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global myocardial ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury are potential adverse events related with cardioplegic arrest. Beating heart surgery has avoided such complications and adapted to valve surgery following successful results published on myocardial revascularization. Difficulty in weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass may be lessened by using on-pump beating heart surgery for mitral valve interventions. Here we describe a 64-year-old male patient with severe mitral regurgitation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Beating heart mitral valve replacement surgery was performed without aortic cross-clamping through a right thoracotomy approach. We believe that, particularly in patients with poor left ventricular functions, beating heart mitral valve surgery may be advantageous

  3. Regular Source of Care for the Elderly: A Cross-National Comparative Study of Hong Kong With 11 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Zou, Dan; Chung, Roger Y; Sit, Regina W; Zhang, Dexing; Chan, Dicken; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Woo, Jean W

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to give an international perspective of health service gaps for caring for elderly individuals and explore the role of primary care for caring for elderly individuals with chronic conditions in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional, telephone survey. Hong Kong. A sample of 1000 Chinese participants in Hong Kong aged 60 or older. Questionnaire extracted from the Commonwealth Fund 2014 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. Similar to the 11 countries, more than half (about 65%) of Hong Kong respondents suffered from chronic conditions, whereas approximately one-third of them had at least 2 chronic conditions. US respondents had highest rate of having chronic conditions. Only 65% of Hong Kong respondents reported having a regular source of care and a higher proportion of elderly reported having poor self-rated health when compared with overseas counterparts. However, the proportion of elderly individuals who could access same-day or next-day medical care was higher compared with findings of other countries. Both Hong Kong and US respondents were more likely to report cost-related problems when accessing care. Waiting time for specialists in Hong Kong was much longer and coordination between regular doctors was poorer than in all other countries. Although half of Hong Kong respondents had a management plan for chronic conditions, a smaller proportion of them considered it helpful. Hong Kong has the lowest rate of regular source of care when compared with 11 developed countries, although people in Hong Kong were more likely to be able to access same-day or next-day medical care. To cope with increasing needs of chronic disease care, there may be a need to further develop the provision of regular source of care for elderly individuals, including the development of quality primary care in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Macrosomia in 23 developing countries: an analysis of a multicountry, facility-based, cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Zhang, Jun; Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Hirayama, Fumi; Shibuya, Kenji; Souza, João Paulo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2013-02-09

    Macrosomia is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and delivery outcomes of babies with macrosomia in 23 developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. We analysed data from WHO's Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health, which was a facility-based cross-sectional study that obtained data for women giving birth in 373 health facilities in 24 countries in Africa and Latin America in 2004-05, and in Asia in 2007-08. Facilities were selected by stratified multistage cluster sampling and women were recruited at admission for delivery. We extracted data from the medical records with a standardised questionnaire. We used logistic regression with random effects to assess the risk factors for macrosomia and the risks for caesarean section and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes (assessed by a composite score) in babies with the disorder. Of 290,610 deliveries, we analysed data for 276,436 singleton livebirths or fresh stillbirths. Higher maternal age (20-34 years), height, parity, body-mass index, and presence of diabetes, post-term pregnancy, and male fetal sex were associated with a significantly increased risk of macrosomia. Macrosomia was associated with an increased risk of caesarean section because of obstructed labour and post-term pregnancy in all regions. Additionally, macrosomia was associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal birth outcomes in all regions, and of adverse perinatal outcomes only in Africa. Increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity in women of reproductive age in developing countries could be associated with a parallel increase in macrosomic births. The effect and feasibility of control of diabetes and preconception weight on macrosomia should be investigated in these settings. Furthermore, increased institutional delivery in countries where rates are low could be crucial to reduce macrosomia-associated morbidity and mortality. None. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  5. The Benefits of Creating a Cross-Country Data Framework for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-09-11

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product?s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  6. Benefits of creating a cross-country data framework for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex [SEAD Energy Efficiency Data Access Project, Enervee (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Pantano, Stephen [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product’s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  7. Distributional effects of flood risk management - a cross-country comparison of preflood compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn J. van Doorn-Hoekveld

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We seek to examine the manner in which either the EU member states of France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden or parts of them, such as the country of England in the UK or the Flemish Region in Belgium, deal with the distributional effects of the flood risk management strategies prevention, defense, and mitigation. Measures carried out in each of these strategies can cause preflood harm, as in the devaluation of property or loss of income. However, different member states and authorities address this harm in different ways. A descriptive overview of the different compensation regimes in the field of flood risk management is followed by an analysis of these differences and an explanation of what may cause them, such as the geographical differences that lead to differences in the way that they interfere with private rights and the dominant legal principles that underlie compensation regimes. An elaborated compensation regime could lead to more equitable and legitimate flood risk management because the burdens are fairly spread and all interests - including those of injured parties - are considered in the decision-making process. Our aim is to stimulate the hardly existent discussion on the financial harm that is caused by measures to prevent floods (preflood, in addition to the already existing discussion on the ex post flood distributional effects.

  8. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

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    Carlsson T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max and lean mass (LM. Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD] completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.00 2max and 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043 and 52% (P=0.019, respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with

  9. The cultural production of health inequalities: a cross-sectional, multilevel examination of 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Amick, Benjamin C; Harrist, Ronald B; Franzini, Luisa; Roberts, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    In a 2001 report, the U.S. National Institutes of Health called for more integration of the social sciences into health-related research, including research guided by theories and methods that take social and cultural systems into consideration. Based on a theoretical framework that integrates Hofstede's cultural dimensions with sociological theory, the authors used multilevel modeling to explore the association of culture with structural inequality and health disparities. Their results support the idea that cultural dimensions and social structure, along with economic development, may account for much of the cross-national variation in the distribution of health inequalities. Sensitivity tests also suggest that an interaction between culture and social structure may confound the relationship between income inequality and health. It is necessary to identify important cultural and social structural characteristics before we can achieve an understanding of the complex, dynamic systems that affect health, and develop culturally sensitive interventions and policies. This study takes a step toward identifying some of the relevant cultural and structural influences. More research is needed to explore the pathways leading from the sociocultural environment to health inequalities.

  10. CERN among the honours in the Geneva inter-company cross-country race

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 12 October, members of the CERN Running Club were yet again among the medals at the 33rd Cross Inter-Entreprises de Genève.   From left to right: Clément, Bastien, Olivier, Cédric, Erik and Mika. (Photo: Clément Bovet.) Teams comprising 3 to 4 runners from companies in the Geneva Canton competed in the 6-km race through the Parc des Evaux in Onex. Two of CERN’s teams made it into the medals in the Men’s category* -  Cédric, Mika, Guillaume and Clément came second, closely followed by their colleagues Olivier, Erik and Bastien, in third.  The next and last event of the year for the members of the Running Club will be the Escalade race, on 6-7 December. * The other categories are “Women” and “Mixed”. The full race results are available here and more photos from the event are available here.

  11. Traumatic Injuries in Developing Countries: Report from a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Groen, Reinou S.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Farahzard, Mina; Samai, Mohamed; Yambasu, Sahr E.; Cassidy, Laura D.; Kushner, Adam L.; Wren, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the tremendous disability and mortality caused by traumatic injuries worldwide, there is a relative dearth of information on the burden of injuries in developing countries. In an effort to document the surgical burden of disease in Sierra Leone, a nationwide survey was conducted utilizing the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. Here, we report the injury data from this study with the aim to (1) provide an estimate of injury prevalence, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury, and (3) evaluate the degree of injury related deaths. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in Sierra Leone in 2012. Participants were selected using a two-stage random sampling method, which generated a target population of 3750 participants across the 14 districts of Sierra Leone. Frequency distributions of mechanisms of injury based on age, sex, and urban versus rural residence were computed, and bivariate logistic regression models used to determine associations between sociodemographic factors and injury patterns. Results Data was analyzed from 1,843 households and 3,645 respondents, representing a response rate of 98.3%. Four hundred and fifty-two respondents (12.4%) reported at least one traumatic injury in the preceding year. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, accounting for over 40% of injuries. The extremities were most commonly injured (55% of injuries) regardless of age or sex. Although motor vehicle related injuries were the 4th most common cause of injury overall, they were the leading cause of injury related deaths, accounting for almost 6% of fatal injuries. Conclusion This study provides baseline data on the burden of traumatic injuries in one of the world's poorest nations. In addition to injury prevention measures, immediate strategies to address current healthcare deficits are urgently needed in these resource poor areas. This report is an Original Article with Level I evidence. PMID:23325317

  12. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of time pressure experienced by parents in the Nordic countries and examine potential gender disparities as well as associations to parents' family and/or living conditions. 5949 parents of children aged 2-17 years from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, reported their experience of time pressure when keeping up with duties of everyday life. A postal questionnaire addressed to the most active caretaker of the child, was used for data gathering and logistic regression analysis applied. The mother was regarded as the primary caregiver in 83.9% of the cases. Of the mothers, 14.2% reported that they experienced time pressure "most often", 54.7 % reported "sometimes" and 31.1 % reported they did "not" experience time pressure at all. Time pressure was experienced by 22.2 % of mothers in Sweden, 18.4% in Finland, 13.7% in Norway and 3.9% in Denmark, and could be associated to lack of support, high educational level, financial stress, young child age and working overtime. The mother is regarded as the child's primary caregiver among the vast majority of families in spite of living in societies with gender-equal family policies. The results indicate that time pressure is embedded in everyday life of mainly highly-educated mothers and those experiencing financial stress and/or lack of social support. No conclusion could be made about time pressure from the "normbreaking" fathers participating in the study, but associations were found to financial stress and lack of support.

  13. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  14. Continuing Medical Education: A Cross Sectional Study on a Developing Country's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Arsalan; Hamiz Ul Fawwad, Shaikh; Ahmed, Gulrayz; Naz, Sumayya; Waqar, Syeda Aimen; Hareem, Anam

    2017-03-27

    To determine the attitude of general practitioners towards continuing medical education (CME) and reasons motivating or hindering them from attending CME procedures, we conducted a cross-sectional survey from November 2013 to April 2014 in Karachi. Three hundred general practitioners who possessed a medical license for practice in Pakistan filled a pre-designed questionnaire consisting of questions pertaining to attitudes towards CME. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS v16.0. 70.3% (n = 211) of the participants were males. Mean age was 47.75 ± 9.47 years. Only 67.33% knew about CME and only 52% had attended a CME session. Reasons for attending CME procedures reported were: need for updating knowledge, skills and competencies (67.30%), opportunity to meet colleagues (18.58%) and presenting scientific papers (8.97%). Mean Likert score was 1.67 (±0.667) for those who thought CME is worthwhile and 1.44 (±0.686) for those who consider their clinical duties as the major hurdle in attending CME procedures. Most common cause for not attending CME was lack of knowledge (32.66%) followed by time constraint (24%). Most physicians were not sufficiently informed about the potential benefits of CME and had never attended a CME session. Most common reason for attending CME procedures reported was need for updating knowledge, skills and competencies while reasons hindering physicians from attending CME were lack of knowledge and time constraint.

  15. Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner in primary total hip replacement: one-year results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Moro, Toru; Kamogawa, Morihide; Oda, Hiromi; Morimoto, Shuhei; Umeyama, Takashige; Minami, Manabu; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Karita, Tatsuro; Kim, Juntaku; Koyama, Yurie; Ito, Hideya; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-06-01

    To control particle-induced osteolysis in total hip replacement (THR), we developed a new technique to graft poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) onto the surface of polyethylene liners. A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the clinical safety of this novel bearing surface. Between April 2007 and September 2008, we recruited a prospective consecutive series of 80 patients in five participating hospitals. These patients received a cementless THR; a 26-mm-diameter cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy ball and a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted cross-linked polyethylene liner were used for the bearing couplings. These individuals were followed a year postoperatively. An evaluation of clinical performance was conducted through an assessment of hip joint function based on the evaluation chart authorized by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. No patients were lost to follow-up. No adverse events were found to be correlated with the implanted liners. The average hip joint function score improved from 43.2 preoperatively to 91.7 postoperatively at 1 year. There was no implant migration nor periprosthetic osteolysis detected on radiographic analysis. On the basis of our results, we conclude that poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted cross-linked polyethylene liners are a safe implant option for hip replacement surgery for short-term clinical use.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cross-Linking Strategy of a Quercetin-Based Epoxidized Monomer as a Naturally-Derived Replacement for BPA in Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Yang, Guozhen; Link, Lauren A; Rohde, Brian J; Robertson, Megan L; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-08-23

    The natural polyphenolic compound quercetin was functionalized and cross-linked to afford a robust epoxy network. Quercetin was selectively methylated and functionalized with glycidyl ether moieties using a microwave-assisted reaction on a gram scale to afford the desired monomer (Q). This quercetin-derived monomer was treated with nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) to obtain a cross-linked network (Q-NMA). The thermal and mechanical properties of this naturally derived network were compared to those of a conventional diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-derived counterpart (DGEBA-NMA). Q-NMA had similar thermal properties [i.e., glass transition (Tg ) and decomposition (Td ) temperatures] and comparable mechanical properties (i.e., Young's Modulus, storage modulus) to that of DGEBA-NMA. However, it had a lower tensile strength and higher flexural modulus at elevated temperatures. The application of naturally derived, sustainable compounds for the replacement of commercially available petrochemical-based epoxies is of great interest to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Q-NMA is an attractive candidate for the replacement of bisphenol A-based epoxies in various specialty engineering applications.

  17. A limit-cycle model of leg movements in cross-country skiing and its adjustments with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, F; Schena, F; Mottet, D; Rouard, A

    2010-08-01

    Using dynamical modeling tools, the aim of the study was to establish a minimal model reproducing leg movements in cross-country skiing, and to evaluate the eventual adjustments of this model with fatigue. The participants (N=8) skied on a treadmill at 90% of their maximal oxygen consumption, up to exhaustion, using the diagonal stride technique. Qualitative analysis of leg kinematics portrayed in phase planes, Hooke planes, and velocity profiles suggested the inclusion in the model of a linear stiffness and an asymmetric van der Pol-type nonlinear damping. Quantitative analysis revealed that this model reproduced the observed kinematics patterns of the leg with adequacy, accounting for 87% of the variance. A rising influence of the stiffness term and a dropping influence of the damping terms were also evidenced with fatigue. The meaning of these changes was discussed in the framework of motor control.

  18. Effect of cold conditions on double poling sprint performance of well-trained male cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggen, Øystein N; Waagaard, Silje H; Heidelberg, Cecilie T; Oksa, Juha

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of cold (-14° C) and moderate environments (6° C) on double poling (DP) sprint performance. Wearing modern cross-country ski racing suits, 14 highly trained male cross-country skiers performed a test protocol on a DP ergometer, consisting of a standardized warm-up followed by a 30-second maximal sprint (DP30s) and a 2-minute maximal sprint (DP2min), and after an 8-minute recovery period, another DP30s and DP2min were performed. Finally, the participants performed an incremental DP test to exhaustion. We observed no difference between rectal temperature in cold and moderate conditions. Mean skin temperature (Tskin) was lower in the cold condition; the lowest values being 20.3° C at -14° C and 27.0° C at 6° C. Power output decreased between the first and the second DP30s under both conditions, but the reduction was 4.9% (p < 0.05) greater in the cold condition. Power output decreased by 4.8% (p < 0.05) between the first and second DP2min at -14° C, but we found no difference at 6° C. In the incremental test to exhaustion, there was a 7.2% (p < 0.05) reduction in peak power output and a 7.8% (p < 0.05) lower peak oxygen consumption at -14° C. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DP sprint performance was lower at -14° C than at 6° C. Tskin and body temperature were lower at -14° C. This may indicate cooling of superficial musculature and may explain the reduced DP sprint performance observed in our study.

  19. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  20. Cross-country comparisons of costs: the use of episode-specific transitive purchasing power parities with standardised cost categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Stargardt, Tom; Busse, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    International comparisons of healthcare costs are growing in importance for a number of different applications. The use of common approaches to converting costs such as GDP purchasing power parities (PPPs) often does not reflect price differences in healthcare in an appropriate manner. This means that new approaches need to be explored. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of using episode-specific PPPs (ESPPPs) to facilitate cross-country comparisons of healthcare costs and to compare this approach with other common approaches to conversion. Costs for five care episodes from hospitals in eight European countries were obtained from the EU HealthBASKET project. ESPPPs were created by using Fisher-type PPPs in combination with the Eltetö-Köves-Szulc method at the episode level. Differences in ESPPPs among the five care episodes were discussed and compared with other common conversion approaches. We found that ESPPPs-reflected prices and resource use more accurately than conventional conversion approaches such as GDP PPPs and medical care PPPs. This was particularly evident for labour-intensive care episodes in which other conversion approaches revealed problems in the way that labour input had not been considered appropriately. The results demonstrate that ESPPPs are preferable to other common conversion approaches when international healthcare cost comparisons are performed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Is three the magic number? The role of ergonomic principles in cross country comprehension of road traffic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamson, Samantha; Mrozek, Marco

    2016-10-21

    Road sign comprehension plays an important part in road safety management, particularly for those drivers who are travelling in an unfamiliar country. Previous research has established that comprehension can be improved if signs are designed to adhere to ergonomic principles. However, it may be difficult for sign designers to incorporate all the principles into a single sign and may thus have to make a judgement as to the most effective ones. This study surveyed drivers in three countries to ascertain their understanding of a range of road signs, each of which conformed in varying degrees and combinations to the ergonomic principles. We found that using three of the principles was the most effective and that the most important one was that relating to standardisation; the colours and shapes used were key to comprehension. Other concepts which related to physical and spatial characteristics were less important, whilst conceptual compatibility did not aid comprehension at all. Practitioner Summary: This study explores how road sign comprehension can be improved using ergonomic principles, with particular reference to cross-border drivers. It was found that comprehension can be improved significantly if standardisation is adhered to and if at least three principles are used.

  2. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood platelets in different types of renal replacement therapy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Cecerska-Heryć, Elżbieta; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Malinowska-Jędraszczyk, Alicja; Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The changes in redox status characterise physiological platelet activation. Increased oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with uremic toxicity and procedures of renal replacement therapy leads to the impairment of antioxidant properties of platelets. It may contribute to thrombosis and cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality among the CKD patients. The object of the research was to assess the influence of conservative treatment, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis on platelet prooxidative-antioxidative balance. The examined group consisted of 122 patients: 37 on regular haemodialysis (HD), 23 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 62 on conservative treatment with CKD stages 3-5 (CKD3-5). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transpherase (GST) in platelets were obtained using kinetic methods. The spectrophotometric method established the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). SOD activity in PD differs significantly from CKD3-5 (4.96 vs 1.66; p activity assessed in PD and CKD3-5 was significantly different from HD (0.82 and 0.8 vs 0.52 before and 0.35 after HD, respectively). GST activity reached the highest value in PD (1.62), and it was significantly different from CKD3-5 (0.23) and HD before haemodialysis (0.11). During haemodialysis therapy, there was a considerable increase in GST activity (0.11 vs 0.3; p = 0.02) and decrease in SOD activity (from 3.41 to 2.27; p = 0.01). The highest GSH concentrations were obtained in CKD3-5 and differ significantly from HD (4.12 vs 2.01; p = 0.02). The type of treatment, age and duration of renal replacement therapy determined significant changes in platelet antioxidative enzymes activities and concentration of GSH, which may enhance the thrombotic complications. PD is associated with lower platelet oxidative stress.

  3. National Economic Development and Disparities in Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study of Data from 38 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Melissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven; Subramanian, SV.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increases in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Objective Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), and mean tariffs and BMI. Design We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Results There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. Conclusion Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of “globalizing” economic and cultural trends are modified by individual

  4. National economic development and disparities in body mass index: a cross-sectional study of data from 38 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Neuman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increases in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES. OBJECTIVE: Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and mean tariffs and BMI. DESIGN: We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES. RESULTS: There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. CONCLUSION: Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of "globalizing" economic and cultural trends are modified

  5. Isolation facilities for highly infectious diseases in Europe--a cross-sectional analysis in 16 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs are (i easily transmissible form person to person; (ii cause a life-threatening illness with no or few treatment options; and (iii pose a threat for both personnel and the public. Hence, even suspected HID cases should be managed in specialised facilities minimizing infection risks but allowing state-of-the-art critical care. Consensus statements on the operational management of isolation facilities have been published recently. The study presented was set up to compare the operational management, resources, and technical equipment among European isolation facilities. Due to differences in geography, population density, and national response plans it was hypothesized that adherence to recommendations will vary. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Until mid of 2010 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a cross-sectional analysis of isolation facilities in Europe, recruiting 48 isolation facilities in 16 countries. Three checklists were disseminated, assessing 44 items and 148 specific questions. The median feedback rate for specific questions was 97.9% (n = 47/48 (range: n = 7/48 (14.6% to n = 48/48 (100%. Although all facilities enrolled were nominated specialised facilities' serving countries or regions, their design, equipment and personnel management varied. Eighteen facilities fulfilled the definition of a High Level Isolation Unit'. In contrast, 24 facilities could not operate independently from their co-located hospital, and five could not ensure access to equipment essential for infection control. Data presented are not representative for the EU in general, as only 16/27 (59.3% of all Member States agreed to participate. Another limitation of this study is the time elapsed between data collection and publication; e.g. in Germany one additional facility opened in the meantime. CONCLUSION: There are disparities both within and between European countries regarding the design

  6. A resposta de frequência cardíaca durante as competições de "mountain bike cross-country" Heart rate response during mountain bike cross-country races

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    Vitor Pereira Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a resposta de frequência cardíaca (FC durante as competições de "Cross-country" Olímpico (XCO. Quatorze "mountain bikers" foram separados em dois grupos: elite (n = 6; 26,5 ± 3,6 anos; 69,1 ± 2,1 kg; 174,0 ± 1,2 cm; 5,9 ± 0,9 % G; 9,0 ± 1,3 anos de treinamento e amadores (n = 8; 25,6 ± 7,7 anos; 67,7 ± 7,0 kg; 175,5 ± 5,5 cm; 5,8 ± 2,1 % G; 8,3 ± 5,7 anos de treinamento. Os participantes foram submetidos a um teste progressivo para a identificação dos limiares metabólicos e seus respectivos valores de frequência cardíaca (FC em cada zona de intensidade de esforço. Após intervalo mínimo de quatro dias os atletas da categoria elite foram avaliados através de monitores de FC durante a etapa brasileira da Copa do Mundo de XCO. Após 15 dias, todos os atletas foram avaliados no Campeonato Brasileiro de XCO. Os resultados indicaram que em ambas as competições, a média percentual da FC foi correspondente a 91-92 % da FCmáx. Nas competições, os atletas permaneceram durante diferentes tempos percentuais nas zonas de intensidade de esforço sendo 10,0-14,8% no domínio leve; 23,1-30,1% moderado e 55,1-66,9% intenso. Assim, este estudo apresenta que as competições de XCO são realizadas em alta intensidade, principalmente após a largada.The aim of this study was to verify and describe the intensity profile of cross-country mountain-biking races using heart rate (HR recorded during races. Fourteen mountain bikers participated in two groups: elite (n = 6; 26.5 ± 3.6 years old; 69.1 ± 2.1 kg; 174.0 ± 1.2 cm; 5.9 ± 0.9 % BF; 9.0 ± 1.3 years of training and amateurs (n = 8; 25.6 ± 7.7 years; 67.7 ± 7.0 kg; 175.5 ± 5.5 cm; 5.8 ± 2.1 % BF; 8.3 ± 5.7 years of training. Each cyclist was submitted to an incremental exercise test to determine the metabolic thresholds and the HR values at each threshold. After four days, only the athletes of elite category were tested during Brazilian

  7. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

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    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  8. Highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip and knee replacement: spatial distribution of molecular orientation and shape recovery behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Masaoka, Toshinori; Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Shishido, Takaaki; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE) in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020), consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness) and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  9. Determinants of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return after primary total hip replacement: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2016-08-08

    Surveys of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return can be used for the optimization of processes, improving their quality, and increasing the satisfaction and loyalty in customers. This study looked at the factors significantly associated with patient satisfaction after primary total hip replacement (THR), and which affect the patients' willingness to return to the same hospital for future treatment, even when unrelated to their THR. Data for the study was collected by written survey from 810 patients of 43 hospitals following their THR. Satisfaction and willingness to return were measured using a validated, multidimensional questionnaire, primarily based on six-point scales, which were then evaluated together with routine hospital data, according to bivariate and multivariate analyses. The bivariate analysis showed a strong correlation between satisfaction or willingness to return and the health condition before hospitalization as well as the perceived length of stay. In contrast, the patient's gender and the number of inpatient cases in a hospital with THR had no influence. The binary logistic regression analyses identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction and seven predictors associated with willingness to return. The strongest factor for both dependent variables was the perceived length of stay, and the weakest factor for satisfaction was the treatment outcome. Overall, with all of the medical and service-related issues considered, high levels of satisfaction were reached. Despite the high satisfaction scores, probable causes for declining the willingness to return were identified. The results provide incentives for hospitals and medical professionals to attain a high satisfaction levels in their THR patients.

  10. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p testing sessions for 1,000 m time, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit (Cohen's d effect size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p < 0.05). In general, the changes occurred between T1 and T3 with minor changes in the competitive season (T3 to T4). No significant changes were found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak across the year (ES = 0.17, trivial). In conclusion, the training performed by elite cross-country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  11. Mammographic density and ageing: A collaborative pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from 22 countries worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Burton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known.We examined cross-sectional differences in MD by age and menopausal status in over 11,000 breast-cancer-free women aged 35-85 years, from 40 ethnicity- and location-specific population groups across 22 countries in the International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD. MD was read centrally using a quantitative method (Cumulus and its square-root metrics were analysed using meta-analysis of group-level estimates and linear regression models of pooled data, adjusted for body mass index, reproductive factors, mammogram view, image type, and reader. In all, 4,534 women were premenopausal, and 6,481 postmenopausal, at the time of mammography. A large age-adjusted difference in percent MD (PD between post- and premenopausal women was apparent (-0.46 cm [95% CI: -0.53, -0.39] and appeared greater in women with lower breast cancer risk profiles; variation across population groups due to heterogeneity (I2 was 16.5%. Among premenopausal women, the √PD difference per 10-year increase in age was -0.24 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.14; I2 = 30%, reflecting a compositional change (lower dense area and higher non-dense area, with no difference in breast area. In postmenopausal women, the corresponding difference in √PD (-0.38 cm [95% CI: -0.44, -0.33]; I2 = 30% was additionally driven by increasing breast area. The study is limited by different mammography systems and its cross-sectional rather than longitudinal nature.Declines in MD with increasing age are present premenopausally, continue postmenopausally, and are most pronounced over the menopausal transition. These effects were highly consistent across diverse groups of women worldwide, suggesting that they result from an intrinsic biological, likely hormonal, mechanism common to

  12. The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiška Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle.We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the level of aerobic (AeT and anaerobic thresholds (AT, maximum heart rate (HRmax and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05 and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01 the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05.The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05 in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s. during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1, upper level of oxygen regime (A2 and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2 during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

  13. Effects of perceptions of care, medical advice, and hospital quality on patient satisfaction after primary total knee replacement: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the number of patients presenting with osteoarthritis in the past decade has led to a 32% increase in knee replacement surgeries designed to reduce restrictions on patient movement and improve their quality of life. Patient satisfaction is becoming an increasingly important indicator of quality of care. This study was designed to identify predictors of various service components in the treatment process and hospital key performance indicators significantly associated with patient satisfaction. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted with 856 patients having their primary total knee replacements at 41 hospitals. Patient satisfaction was queried via a validated, multidimensional questionnaire mainly using a six-point scale. In addition to bivariate calculations, patient satisfaction was the dependent variable in a binary logistic regression model. The bivariate analysis showed a strong association between satisfaction and sex (male or female), the patients' health before admission, and the length of stay. The number of cases treated at each hospital did not reveal any impact on satisfaction. The multivariate analysis identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction. The strongest factor was the treatment outcome and the weakest was the quality of food. It became apparent that the statutory procedure minimums were not being met. The relevant factors influencing patient satisfaction were partially the same as previous study results and allowed more detailed conclusions. The results provide suggestions across hospitals that could help health care providers better meet needs of patients after knee arthroplasties.

  14. Social protection and tuberculosis control in 21 European countries, 1995-2012: a cross-national statistical modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan

    2014-11-01

    WHO stresses the need to act on the social determinants of tuberculosis. We tested whether alternative social protection programmes have affected tuberculosis case notifications, prevalence, and mortality, and case detection and treatment success rates in 21 European countries from 1995 to 2012. We obtained tuberculosis case notification data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control's 2014 European Surveillance System database. We also obtained data for case detection, treatment success, prevalence, and mortality rates from WHO's 2014 tuberculosis database. We extracted data for 21 countries between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2012. Social protection data were from EuroStat, 2014 edition. We used multivariate cross-national statistical models to quantify the association of differing types of social protection programmes with tuberculosis outcomes. All analyses were prespecified. After we controlled for economic output, public health spending, and country fixed effects, each US$100 increase in social protection spending was associated with a decrease per 100,000 population in the number of tuberculosis case notifications of -1·53% (95% CI -0·28 to -2·79; p=0·0191), estimated incidence rates of -1·70% (-0·30 to -3·11; p=0·0201), non-HIV-related tuberculosis mortality rate of -2·74% (-0·66 to -4·82; p=0·0125), and all-cause tuberculosis mortality rate of -3·08% (-0·73 to -5·43; p=0·0127). We noted no relation between increased social spending and tuberculosis prevalence (-1·50% [-3·10 to 0·10] per increase of $100; p=0·0639) or smear-positive treatment success rates (-0·079% [-0·18 to 0·34] per increase of $100; p=0·5235) or case detection (-0·59% [-1·31 to 0·14] per increase of $100; p=0·1066). Old age pension expenditure seemed to have the strongest association with reductions in tuberculosis case notification rates for those aged 65 years or older (-3·87% [-0·95 to -6·78]; p=0·0137). Investment in social protection

  15. Influence of wheel size on muscle activity and tri-axial accelerations during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P mountain biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.

  16. Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an incident in which exceedingly high levels of carbon dioxide may have contributed to the death of a skier in eastern California. A cross-country skier was found dead inside a large, mostly covered snow cave, 1 day after he was reported missing. The autopsy report suggests that the skier died of acute pulmonary edema consistent with asphyxiation; carbon dioxide measurements inside the hole in which he was found reached 70%. This area is known for having a high carbon dioxide flux attributed to degassing of a large body of magma (molten rock) 10 to 20 km beneath the ski area. The literature describes many incidents of fatal carbon dioxide exposures associated with volcanic systems in other parts of the world. We believe this case represents the first reported death associated with volcanically produced carbon dioxide in the United States. Disaster and wilderness medicine specialists should be aware of and plan for this potential health hazard associated with active volcanoes.

  17. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, pstrength more than CG (18% vs 10%, pstrength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  18. Gender differences in endurance performance by elite cross-country skiers are influenced by the contribution from poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Ø; Ettema, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-02-01

    Greater gender differences have been found in exercise modes where the upper body is involved. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of poling on gender differences in endurance performance by elite cross-country skiers. Initially, the performance of eight male and eight female sprint skiers was compared during four different types of exercise involving different degrees of poling: double poling (DP), G3 skating, and diagonal stride (DIA) techniques during treadmill roller skiing, and treadmill running (RUN). Thereafter, DP was examined for physiological and kinematic parameters. The relative gender differences associated with the DP, G3, DIA and RUN performances were approximately 20%, 17%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. Thus, the type of exercise exerted an overall effect on the relative gender differences (P < 0.05). In connection with DP, the men achieved 63%, 16%, and 8% higher VO2peak than the women in absolute terms and with normalization for total and fat-free body mass (all P < 0.05). The DP VO2peak in percentage of VO2max in RUN was higher in men (P < 0.05). The gender difference in DP peak cycle length was 23% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrates that the gender difference in performance by elite sprint skiers is enhanced when the contribution from poling increases.

  19. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p skiing power (VMAST, p skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Niemelä, Jukka Juvonen, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Tatu Juvonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold, creatinine kinase (30-fold and proBNP (6-fold, whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine and liver function (alanine aminotransferase, serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  1. [The application of the emulsified turpentine baths for the correction of the functional state of the cross-country skiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnov, I O; Kuchin, A V; Loginova, T P; Varlamova, N G; Boiko, E R

    2016-01-01

    The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners. The lack of relevant information motivated the study reported in the present article. The main objective of the study involving 10 subjects was to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified emulsified turpentine baths as a method by which to restore and enhance the physical capacity of the professional cross-country skiers. The physical capacity of the athletes was evaluated from the results of the bicycle ergometer exercise test with the use of the «Oxycon Pro» system. The data obtained suggest that a course of the emulsified turpentine baths increases the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, improves the physical capacity, and enhances the functional reserves of the body in the anaerobic zone.

  2. An inertial sensor-based system for spatio-temporal analysis in classic cross-country skiing diagonal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, Benedikt; Favre, Julien; Chardonnens, Julien; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-09-18

    The present study proposes a method based on ski fixed inertial sensors to automatically compute spatio-temporal parameters (phase durations, cycle speed and cycle length) for the diagonal stride in classical cross-country skiing. The proposed system was validated against a marker-based motion capture system during indoor treadmill skiing. Skiing movement of 10 junior to world-cup athletes was measured for four different conditions. The accuracy (i.e. median error) and precision (i.e. interquartile range of error) of the system was below 6 ms for cycle duration and ski thrust duration and below 35 ms for pole push duration. Cycle speed precision (accuracy) was below 0.1m/s (0.00 5m/s) and cycle length precision (accuracy) was below 0.15m (0.005 m). The system was sensitive to changes of conditions and was accurate enough to detect significant differences reported in previous studies. Since capture volume is not limited and setup is simple, the system would be well suited for outdoor measurements on snow.

  3. Effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction in post-soviet nations: A cross-country instrumental variable analysis of twelve countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim

    2016-03-01

    There is the lack of consensus about the effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction in transitional countries. Interpreting the burgeoning literature on this topic has proven difficult due to reverse causality and omitted variable bias. In this study, the effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction is investigated in a set of 12 Post-Socialist countries using instrumental variable regression on the sample of 2010 Life in Transition survey (N = 8655). The results indicate that experiencing corruption significantly reduces healthcare satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing cross-national invariance of the three-component model of organizational commitment : a six-country study of European university employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.; Teelken, Ch.; Doorewaard, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined cross-national invariance of Meyer and Allen’s three-component model of organizational commitment using samples of university faculty from six European countries. The analysis revealed strict factorial measurement invariance of affective, continuance, and normative organizational

  5. Comparing Palliative Care in Care Homes Across Europe (PACE): Protocol of a Cross-sectional Study of Deceased Residents in 6 EU Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, L. Van den; Smets, T.; Dop, N. van; Adang, E.M.; Andreasen, P.; Moore, D.; Engels, Y.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Froggatt, K.; Gambassi, G.; Kijowska, V.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Pasman, H.R.; Payne, S.; Piers, R.; Szczerbinska, K.; Koppel, M. Ten; Noortgate, N. Van Den; Steen, J.T. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Deliens, L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although a growing number of older people are dying in care homes, palliative care has developed in these settings only recently. Cross-country representative comparative research hardly exists in this area. As part of a large EU-funded project, we aim to undertake representative

  6. The characteristics of directional cross-country sports skill and practice%定向越野运动技能的特征与练习方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文强

    2014-01-01

    每一个运动项目练习和比赛的过程中,都需要我们对运动项目特征的研究和把握,从而更有针对性的实施训练。定向越野作为体能训练的有效方式之一,研究定向越野的运动技能特征,是提升练习有效性的重要工作。基于此,本文以定向越野运动技能的特征为研究的对象,结合定向越野的练习实践进行了分析。%Every movement in the process of project practice and competition, we need to study and grasp the sports features, all to the implementation of more targeted training. Directional cross-country as one of the effective ways of physical training, sports skill characteristics of directional cross-country research is an important work of ascension practice effectiveness. Based on this, this paper takes the characteristics of directional cross-country motor skil s as the research object, combining with the practice of directional cross-country practice are analyzed.

  7. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in

  8. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in gen

  9. Motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP trainees and newly qualified GPs across Europe: a seven countries cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Watson, J.; Wensing, M.; Peters-Klimm, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to general practice is a major concern in many countries. Cross-national exploration of motivation for career choice and career satisfaction could help inform workforce planning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to explore motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP traine

  10. Cross-Country Skiing as a Self-Efficacy Intervention with an Adolescent Female: An Innovative Application of Bandura's Theory to Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel D.; Jones, Karna

    2001-01-01

    Used Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a basis for designing a therapeutic recreation intervention (cross-country skiing) for an adolescent girl with severe depression and oppositional defiant disorder in a long-term residential treatment facility. The intervention facilitated increased self- confidence and helped her discover positive ways to…

  11. Motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP trainees and newly qualified GPs across Europe: a seven countries cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Watson, J.; Wensing, M.; Peters-Klimm, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to general practice is a major concern in many countries. Cross-national exploration of motivation for career choice and career satisfaction could help inform workforce planning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to explore motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP traine

  12. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the ...

  13. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  14. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  15. Automatic Classification of the Sub-Techniques (Gears Used in Cross-Country Ski Skating Employing a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC ski-skating gears (G using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01 with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear.

  16. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  17. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Mendia-Iztueta

    Full Text Available The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV thresholds (HRVTs as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP, diagonal striding (DS, Nordic walking (NW, V1 skating (V1, and V2 skating (V2.Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1 was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2 was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD and standard deviation (SD of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA. The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  18. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendia-Iztueta, Ibai; Monahan, Kristen; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Hynynen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) thresholds (HRVTs) as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs) is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC) skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP), diagonal striding (DS), Nordic walking (NW), V1 skating (V1), and V2 skating (V2).Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1) was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2) was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD) and standard deviation (SD) of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP) and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA) with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA). The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  19. Automatic classification of the sub-techniques (gears) used in cross-country ski skating employing a mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Holst, Anders; Jonasson, Arndt; Andersson, Erik; Wunsch, Tobias; Norström, Christer; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-10-31

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC) ski-skating gears (G) using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women) with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right) and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest) and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01) with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear.

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-12-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and -5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key pointsAn elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between -5 °C and -24 °C.Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status.Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable.The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  1. Why Some Countries Attract More High-Ability Young Students to Teaching: Cross-National Comparisons of Students’ Expectation of Becoming a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, HYUNJOON; BYUN, SOO-YONG

    2017-01-01

    Using data from 37,570 students in 23 OECD countries in PISA 2006, we examine how national contexts shape the expectation of being a teacher at age 30 among high-achieving students in secondary schools. Our results show considerable between-country differences in the degree of students’ expectation of a teaching job. To address sources of this cross-national variation, we use two-level logit models by linking student-level data with country-level data. Consistent with earlier findings, we find that teachers’ economic status matters for students’ expectation of becoming a teacher. Moreover, our results show that teachers’ social status also matters. Countries’ levels of professionalization of teaching, indicated by whether teachers have a bachelor’s degree and are fully certified, are also related to students’ expectation of the teaching profession. Specifically, in countries with higher levels of professionalization, we see a reduced gender gap in students’ expectation of becoming a teacher. PMID:28529349

  2. Cross-Country Differences in the Additive Effects of Socioeconomics, Health Behaviors and Medical Comorbidities on Disability among Older Adults with Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with heart disease experience limited activities of daily living (ADL. This is a cross-country comparison of the additive effects of Socioeconomics, health behaviors, and the number of medical comorbidities on disability among patients with heart disease.Methods: The current study used a cross-sectional design. Data came from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE. The current analysis utilized data on elderly individuals (age ≥ 60 y from 13 countries. The outcome was any ADL limitation (i.e. bathing, dressing, using toilet, transferring, lifting heavy things, shopping, and eating meals. Socioeconomics (i.e. age, gender, education, and income, health behaviors (i.e. exercise, smoking, and drinking, and number of chronic medical conditions (i.e. hypertension, respiratory, arthritis, stroke, and diabetes were entered into country-specific logistic regressions, considering at least one limitation in ADL as the main outcome.Results: Number of comorbid medical conditions and age were positively associated with disability in 85% of the countries. Physical activity and drinking were linked to disability in 54% and 31% of countries, respectively. Higher education and income were associated with lower disability in 31% and 23% of the countries, respectively. Female gender was associated with higher disability only in 15% of the countries. Smoking was not associated with disability, while the effects of socioeconomics, drinking, exercise, and medical comorbidities were controlled.Conclusion: Determinants of disability depend on the country; accordingly, locally designed health promotion interventions may be superior to the universal interventions for patients with heart disease. Medical comorbidities, however, should be universally diagnosed and treated.

  3. Patient preference and ease of use for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution device scenarios: a cross-sectional survey in five European countries

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    Cimino E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Cimino,1 Silvia Linari,2 Mara Malerba,3 Susan Halimeh,4 Francesca Biondo,5 Martina Westfeld5 1Dipartimento Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Agenzia per l’ Emofilia, AOU Careggi di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 3Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Centro Emofilia e Trombosi “A Bianchi Bonomi”, Milan, Italy; 4CRC Coagulation Research Centre GmbH, Duisburg, Germany; 5Pfizer Italia, Rome, Italy Introduction: Hemophilia A treatment involves replacing the deficient coagulation factor VIII. This process may involve multiple steps that might create a barrier to adherence. A new dual-chamber syringe (DCS; FuseNGo® was recently introduced with the aim of simplifying reconstitution. Aim: This study aimed to identify factors associated with adult patients’ preferences for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution systems and to test ease of use and patient preference for the DCS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adults with hemophilia A in five European countries was conducted; a subset of subjects also participated in a practical testing session of the DCS. Results: Among the 299 survey participants, the device scenario requiring the least equipment and reconstitution steps (the DCS received a median preference rating of 71 out of 100 (0 being “the least desirable” and 100 “the most desirable” rating. This was significantly higher than the other scenarios (the next highest achieved a median of 50 points; P<0.001. Participants would be more likely to use this device prophylactically (P<0.001. Among the 98 participants who tested the DCS, 57% preferred this device over their current device, 26% preferred their current device, and 17% had no preference. The DCS was rated as easier to use than current treatment devices (median score 9/10 versus 7/10 for current treatment, P=0.001. Conclusion: The survey indicates that the prefilled DCS, Fuse

  4. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-10-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal developments differed dramatically between countries. Existing comparative studies on abortion laws in Western-European countries lack detail, usually focus either on first-trimester abortions or second trimester abortions, cover a limited time-span and are sometimes inconsistent with one another. Combining information from various primary and secondary sources, we show how and when the conditions for legally obtaining abortion during the entire gestation period in 20 major Western-European countries have changed between 1960 and 2010. We also construct a cross-nationally comparable classification of procedural barriers that limit abortion access. Our cross-national comparison shows that Western-Europe witnessed a general trend towards decreased restrictiveness of abortion laws. However, legal approaches to regulating abortion are highly different in detail. Abortion access remains limited, sometimes even in countries where abortion is legally available without restrictions relating to reasons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... countries, a low proportion of patients with RA exercise. These data may alert rheumatologists to motivate their patients to increase physical activity levels Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  6. Why Public Employment Services Always Fail. Double-sided Asymmetric Information and the Replacement of Low-skill Workers in six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Vesan, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    It has been a general finding across Europe that very few job matches are facilitated by public employment services (PES).The article explains this failure by highlighting the existence of a double-sided asymmetric information problem on the labour market. It is argued that although a PES...... potentially reduces search costs, both employers and employees have strong incentives not to use PES. The reason is that employers try to avoid the ‘worst’ employees, and employees try to avoid the ‘worst’ employers. Therefore these services get caught in a low-end equilibrium that is almost impossible...... to escape. The mechanisms leading to this low-end equilibrium are illustrated by means of qualitative interviews with 40 private employers in six European countries....

  7. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global produ

  8. Factors related to knowledge and perception of women about smoking: a cross sectional study from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Fawad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates among women are currently low, but they are the fastest growing segment of cigarette smoking population in developing countries. We aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions towards smoking and to identify the factors related with level of knowledge and perceptions among adult women in urban slums. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 250 adult (≥18 years of age women attending primary care clinics in three slums of Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested and structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with level of understanding about smoking were analyzed with chi-square test. Results Most of the women knew that smoking has adverse effects on women and children's health but the knowledge of specific health effects was limited. About one third of the women knew that active smoking can cause lung disease, but only a small percentage (7% knew that it could lead to heart disease. None of the women were aware that smoking contributes to infertility and osteoporosis. A small proportion of women were aware that smoking can lead to low birth weight (7%, congenital anomalies (5% and less than 1% of women knew that it contributes to pregnancy loss, still birth and preterm delivery. The understanding of passive smoking affecting children's lung was low (20% and a similar proportion voiced concern about the bad influence of maternal smoking on children. Educated women had better knowledge of health effects of smoking. Education was associated with having better knowledge about effects on women health in general (p = 0.02 and specific effects like lung (p = 0.03 and reproductive health effects (p Conclusions This study reveals that women are aware of the general ill effects of smoking but fail to identify smoking to be associated with female maladies particularly those who were illiterate and had lower levels of education. Understanding and attitudes

  9. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  10. Perception and use of massive open online courses among medical students in a developing country: multicentre cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshady, Omar A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Eltaweel, Asmaa R; Azzam, Ahmed; Aboelnaga, Amr A; Hashem, Heba A; Darwish, Salma Y; Salah, Rehab; Kotb, Omar N; Afifi, Ahmed M; Noaman, Aya M; Salem, Dalal S; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of awareness and use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) among medical undergraduates in Egypt as a developing country, as well as identifying the limitations and satisfaction of using these courses. Design A multicentre, cross-sectional study using a web-based, pilot-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Settings Ten out of 19 randomly selected medical schools in Egypt. Participants 2700 undergraduate medical students were randomly selected, with an equal allocation of participants in each university and each study year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measures were the percentages of students who knew about MOOCs, students who enrolled and students who obtained a certificate. Secondary outcome measures included the limitations and satisfaction of using MOOCs through five-point Likert scale questions. Results Of 2527 eligible students, 2106 completed the questionnaire (response rate 83.3%). Of these students, 456 (21.7%) knew the term MOOCs or websites providing these courses. Out of the latter, 136 (29.8%) students had enrolled in at least one course, but only 25 (18.4%) had completed courses earning certificates. Clinical year students showed significantly higher rates of knowledge (p=0.009) and enrolment (p<0.001) than academic year students. The primary reasons for the failure of completion of courses included lack of time (105; 77.2%) and slow Internet speed (73; 53.7%). Regarding the 25 students who completed courses, 21 (84%) were satisfied with the overall experience. However, there was less satisfaction regarding student–instructor (8; 32%) and student–student (5; 20%) interactions. Conclusions About one-fifth of Egyptian medical undergraduates have heard about MOOCs with only about 6.5% actively enrolled in courses. Students who actively participated showed a positive attitude towards the experience, but better time-management skills and faster Internet connection speeds are required

  11. The perception of corruption in a cross-country perspective: why are some individuals more perceptive than others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Melgar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the foundations of corruption perception at the micro-level. Using micro and macro data, we focus on the incidence of personal characteristics and country effects. We extend previous researches by estimating sub-models taking into account differences in the countries of residence. Our database comes from the 2004 International Social Survey Program survey that includes more than 35 countries. Ordered probit models were estimated in order to study the impact of independent variables on the perceived level of corruption. This article argues that there are socio-demographic variables that play a relevant role in determining corruption perception (such as: gender, education, etc.. We find that country of residence matters and the model shows some relevant patters of behavior. Finally, we find a strong relationship between our ranking of countries and the Corruption Perception Index computed by Transparency International.

  12. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  13. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  14. Big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept. A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-05-01

    Academically selective schools are intended to affect academic self-concept positively, but theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), an application of social comparison theory to educational settings, posits that a student will have a lower academic self-concept in an academically selective school than in a nonselective school. This study, the largest cross-cultural study of the BFLPE ever undertaken, tested theoretical predictions for nationally representative samples of approximately 4,000 15-year-olds from each of 26 countries (N = 103,558) who completed the same self-concept instrument and achievement tests. Consistent with the BFLPE, the effects of school-average achievement were negative in all 26 countries (M beta = -.20, SD = .08), demonstrating the BFLPE's cross-cultural generalizability.

  15. Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnik Allan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-national comparable data on migrants' use of healthcare services are important to address problems in access to healthcare; to identify high risk groups for prevention efforts; and to evaluate healthcare systems comparatively. Some of the main obstacles limiting analyses of health care utilization are lack of sufficient coverage and availability of reliable and valid healthcare data which includes information allowing for identification of migrants. The objective of this paper was to reveal which registry data on healthcare utilization were available in the EU countries in which migrants can be identified; and to determine to what extent data were comparable between the EU countries. Methods A questionnaire survey on availability of healthcare utilization registries in which migrants can be identified was carried out among all national statistic agencies and other relevant national health authorities in the 27 EU countries in 2008-9 as part of the Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health Observatory-project (MEHO. The information received was compared with information from a general survey on availability of survey and registry data on migrants conducted by Agency of Public Health, Lazio Region, Italy within the MEHO-project; thus, the information on registries was double-checked to assure accuracy and verification. Results Available registry data on healthcare utilization which allow for identification on migrants on a national/regional basis were only reported in 11 EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. Data on hospital care, including surgical procedures, were most frequently available whereas only few countries had data on care outside the hospital. Regarding identification of migrants, five countries reported having information on both citizenship and country of birth, one reported availability of information on country of birth, and

  16. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  17. The environmental profile of a community's health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2015-12-01

    To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15-1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23-5.17, respectively). Of the 11,842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24-76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities.

  18. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  19. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  20. 'How to know what you need to do': a cross-country comparison of maternal health guidelines in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Ulrika

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initiatives to raise the quality of care provided to mothers need to be given priority in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA. The promotion of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs is a common strategy, but their implementation is often challenging, limiting their potential impact. Through a cross-country perspective, this study explored CPGs for maternal health in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. The objectives were to compare factors related to CPG use including their content compared with World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, their format, and their development processes. Perceptions of their availability and use in practice were also explored. The overall purpose was to further the understanding of how to increase CPGs' potential to improve quality of care for mothers in SSA. Methods The study was a multiple case study design consisting of cross-country comparisons using document review and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework to aid analysis and discussion of results was developed, including selected domains related to guidelines' implementability and use by health workers in practice in terms of usability, applicability, and adaptability. Results The study revealed few significant differences in content between the national guidelines for maternal health and WHO recommendations. There were, however, marked variations in the format of CPGs between the three countries. Apart from the Ghanaian and one of the Tanzanian CPGs, the levels of both usability and applicability were assessed as low or medium. In all three countries, the use of CPGs by health workers in practice was perceived to be limited. Conclusion Our cross-country study suggests that it is not poor quality of content or lack of evidence base that constitute the major barrier for CPGs to positively impact on quality improvement in maternal care in SSA. It rather emphasises the need to prioritise the format of guidelines to increase their usability and

  1. Role of public in counteract substandard drugs and poor medicine’s handling in low and middle income countries: cross sectional study from Malaysia and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abubaker Abdellah Ahmed; Noordin MI; Zaki R; Ahmad S Sulaiman; Ali Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two of the main problems concerning accessibility of quality medicines in low and middle income countries are availability of substandard drugs and poor medicine’s handling. Objectives: This study is aimed at measuring the level of awareness of the Malaysian and Sudanese public towards medicines handling, their proposed role against substandard medicines and their possible contribution in pharmaceutical regulatory system. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three maj...

  2. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    widespread across the Nordic countries. Close to 80% of respondents were using it "almost always" or "frequently" across all paediatric age groups for internal jugular vein cannulation. US was least frequently used when catheterizing the subclavian vein. The two most common reasons given when not using US....... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. RESULTS: The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems......PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  3. Examining Container Port Resources and Environments to Enhance Competitiveness: A Cross-Country Study from Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo CHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of container ports using a cross-country analysis with theoretical foundations. Tangible and intangible resources are discussed as determinants of container port competitiveness using the resource-based view and the institutional theory. This study analyzes the relationships among six variables: container port competitiveness, traffic volume, quality of infrastructure, linear shipping connectivity, operating efficiency, and institutional influence. This study retrieved country-level data on different indicators and countries from several trade and maritime databases. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is used to test various hypotheses and to evaluate the casual relationships among six variables. Additionally, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression is used to test the moderating effects of institutional influence.

  4. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  5. Women's self-employment: An act of institutional (dis)integration? A multilevel, cross-country study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, K.; Nielsen, Suna Løwe; Evald, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge fro...... and industries. Contributions are made to women's entrepreneurship and institutional theory. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge from...... an interactive conversation between individual and social institutional processes. Using data from 61 countries, we find that overall gender equality is associated with the gender gap in men's and women's self-employment choices and that this association depends upon the country's development stage...

  6. A Cross-Country and Cross-Time Comparison of the Human Values Measurements with the Second Round of the European Social Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper assesses the fit of a 21-item instrument measuring values in the second round of the European Social Survey (ESS to the theory of 10 basic values on which it was based (Schwartz 1992. In particular, the measurement invariance of this instrument for studying value priorities across nations and over time was investigated. In the first part of the study, using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA of data from the second ESS round, configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the values are assessed across 25 countries. Metric invariance is a necessary condition to insure equivalence of the meaning of factors and a precondition for comparing values’ correlates. Scalar invariance is a precondition for comparing value means. The MGCFA did not support configural and metric invariance across 25 countries. After reducing the number of countries to 14, the MGCFA supported metric invariance of a model with seven distinct values, the same values identified with data from the first ESS round. These value measurements may now be used by researchers to study relationships among values, attitudes, behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics across the 14 nations. Comparing national value means may be possible only across a smaller set of countries where scalar invariance holds. In the second part of the study, metric and scalar invariance were established between the first and the second rounds of the ESS in each of 19 countries separately. Value means may be compared for each of the countries between the first and second ESS rounds (2002-2003 and 2004-2005, respectively.

  7. Factors associated with the implementation of quality and safety requirements for cross-border care in acute myocardial infarction: Results from 315 hospitals in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Cross-border patients have specific quality and safety requirements for hospital care. Little is known to what extent hospitals meet these requirements. We aim to assess their current level, and the factors associated with their implementation. A cross-sectional survey of 315 hospitals and cardiology departments in the Czech Republic, France, Poland and Spain. Employing bi-variate statistics and logistic regression analysis, we assess quality and safety requirements for cross-border patients and their association with hospital characteristics, cross-border care arrangements, proximity to EU borders, the hospital's quality improvement system, and country. Certain quality and safety requirements are frequently met (administrative support or informed consent using forms in various EU languages) while others are widely absent (case-managers, contacts to patients' general practitioners). Due to communication problems, it is often not possible to inform patients about their condition and treatment. Discharge summaries are rarely available in other than the vernacular languages, and medication upon discharge and arranging back-transfer occur occasionally only. Logistic regression analysis suggests a strong effect of country-level covariates (followed by type of hospital, hospital size and hospital's quality improvement system), but covariates are not consistently associated with higher rates of implementation. Hospitals with existing cross-border care collaboration do not differ substantially from hospitals without such arrangements. Cross-border patients have specific quality and safety requirements that are not always met. Various factors are associated with these requirements; however, the trend is not systematic and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further to inform policy decisions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries: a parent-reported serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M

    2015-07-01

    Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multimorbidity and the inequalities of global ageing: a cross-sectional study of 28 countries using the World Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Sara; Roderick, Paul J; Kowal, Paul; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Hill, Allan G

    2015-08-13

    Multimorbidity defined as the "the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases" in one individual, is increasing in prevalence globally. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of multimorbidity across low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to investigate patterns by age and education, as a proxy for socio-economic status (SES). Chronic disease data from 28 countries of the World Health Survey (2003) were extracted and inter-country socio-economic differences were examined by gross domestic product (GDP). Regression analyses were applied to examine associations of education with multimorbidity by region adjusted for age and sex distributions. The mean world standardized multimorbidity prevalence for LMICs was 7.8 % (95 % CI, 7.79 % - 7.83 %). In all countries, multimorbidity increased significantly with age. A positive but non-linear relationship was found between country GDP and multimorbidity prevalence. Trend analyses of multimorbidity by education suggest that there are intergenerational differences, with a more inverse education gradient for younger adults compared to older adults. Higher education was significantly associated with a decreased risk of multimorbidity in the all-region analyses. Multimorbidity is a global phenomenon, not just affecting older adults in HICs. Policy makers worldwide need to address these health inequalities, and support the complex service needs of a growing multimorbid population.

  10. Body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries – a preliminary cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. The aim of this study was to explore some body weight concerns among females at university in five Arab countries. Methods. The sample comprised 1,134 females aged 17–32 from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. A pretested questionnaire was used to determine the aspects of body weight concern. Results. Approximately 32% – 39% of females were dissatisfied with their weight, 17% – 31% wanted their body shape to be similar to Western fashion models, and 5% – 16% believed that men preferred plump women. Of the females, 22–37% had dieted to lose weight during the six months prior to the study, and 8–15% performed exercises to improve body shape most of the time. The differences in body weight concerns were statistically significant between countries. Conclusions. Body weight concern is relatively highly prevalent among young Arab women; however the prevalence varied between countries, mainly due to differences in socio-cultural background between countries.

  11. A cross-country non parametric estimation of the returns to factors of production and the elasticity of scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalmir Marquetti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs local regression to estimate the output elasticity with respect to labor, human capital, physical capital and the elasticity of scale for 90 countries in 1985 and 1995. The results support the hypotheses of constant returns to scale to factors and decreasing returns to accumulable factors. The low capital-labor ratio countries have important differences in factor elasticities in relation to other countries. The augmentation of the production function by human capital did not reduce the elasticity of physical capital as suggested by Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992. Moreover, it is investigated if the factors shares are really equal to their output elasticity. The wage share raises with the capital labor ratio and the sum of the output elasticity of labor and human capital is below the wage share for high capital labor ratio countries, happening the inverse for low capital labor ratio countries. It indicates the presence of externalities, or imperfect competition or that the marginal theory of distribution is inaccurate.

  12. Cross-Country Evidence on the Impact of Shifting Economic and Strategic Landscapes on the Global Defense Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    Chemical Systems Decision (Butler & Morring, 2009). ATK and Aerojet are the two prime contractors in this space today. ATK has most of the DoD and NASA ...FY 2011 NASA budget request called for the elimination of the Constellation (a space shuttle replacement effort) that included the developmental Ares...unit’s operating margin by half a percentage point for 2010 and may undertake layoffs (Ray, 2010). The 100-149 seat jet market, which includes

  13. Do Societal Wealth, Family Affluence, and Gender account for Trends in Adolescent Cannabis Use? A 30 Country Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; de Looze, Margreet; Molcho, Michal; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Hublet, Anne; Kokkevi, Anna; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Franelic, Iva Pejnovic; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Sznitman, Sharon; Vieno, Alessio; Vollebergh, Wilma; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine cross-national changes in frequent adolescent cannabis use (40+ times consumed over lifetime at age 15) over time and relate these trends to societal wealth, family affluence, and gender. Design Data from three cycles (2002, 2006, 2010) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study were used for cross-sectional and trend analyses of adolescent cannabis use. Setting Representative surveys in thirty European and North American countries. Participants 160,606 15-year-old students. Measurements Respondents’ life-time cannabis use, demographics, family affluence (FAS), and frequency of peer contacts were measured individually. Indicators of wealth (Gross Domestic Product per capita, GDP) and perceived availability of cannabis were obtained from national public data bases. Findings The frequency of lifetime cannabis use decreased over time among adolescents in Europe and North America, particularly in Western European countries and the United States of America (Relative Risk (RR) = 0.86: Confidence Interval (CI) 0.79 – 0.93). This trend was not observed consistently in rapidly developing countries in Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe. Over time (2002–2010) cannabis use became: (1) less characteristic of high GDP countries in contrast to lower GDP countries (RR = 0.74: CI 0.57–0.95); (2) less characteristic of youth from high FAS families in contrast to youth from low FAS families (RR = 0.83: CI 0.72–0.96); and (3) characterized by an increasing gender gap, i.e. consumption was higher among males (RR 1.26: CI 1.04–1.53). Perceived availability of cannabis and peer contacts remained strong predictors of frequent cannabis use. Conclusions Among 30 European and North American countries, cannabis use appears to have “trickled down” over time, with developing countries taking on the former (heavier) use pattern of richer countries, and less affluent youth taking on the former (heavier) use pattern of more affluent youth

  14. Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    Background Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Methods and Findings We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009–2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4–6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2–3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine) dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are important

  15. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.

  16. Understanding private sector antimalarial distribution chains: a cross-sectional mixed methods study in six malaria-endemic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Palafox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009-2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4-6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2-3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are

  17. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  18. The Role of the Management Fashion Arena in the Cross-National Diffusion of Management Concepts: The Case of the Balanced Scorecard in the Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre Slåtten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of fashionable management concepts is an important research topic in management and organization studies. Researchers have pointed out that various actors such as consultants, conference organizers and the business media comprise the so-called “management fashion arena” around a management concept. However, a weakness of extant conceptualizations of management fashion arenas is in the lack of an explicit consideration of the dynamics between local and international actors. Drawing on the notion of “institutional duality”, we argue that the concept’s trajectory at the national level is shaped by both country-specific actors and international actors. Furthermore, we recognize that the presence and involvement of different types of actors may vary across different countries. Empirically, we analyze the level of involvement of actors such as consultants, professional groups, software firms, and conference organizers in the cross-national diffusion of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in the three Scandinavian countries. The comparative analysis of the data shows both similarities and differences between the three countries in terms of which actors have been the most influential players. Despite certain similarities and overlaps, the three markets can be considered largely national with key local players. Furthermore, country-specific actors appear to have played a particularly important role in the early phase in terms of establishing the concept in the local markets. These findings are used to elaborate on present conceptualizations of the management fashion arena, and to discuss the role of local and international actors in the cross-national diffusion of management concepts.

  19. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  20. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  1. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents.

  2. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  3. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits Predicting Academic Achievement over Compulsory Schooling: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Incremental predictive value of 5 broad and 13 narrow personality traits for academic achievement over and beyond age, gender, parental education, and country was examined in Russian and Slovene 8- to 15-year-olds. Personality data were collected from mothers (Russia: N = 994, Slovenia: N = 624) and adolescents (Russia: N = 481, Slovenia: N = 310)…

  4. Fear of crime and feelings of unsafety in European countries: Macro and micro explanations in cross-national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Scholte, M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we set out to explain fear of crime and feelings of unsafety, using two waves of the European Social Survey (2006 and 2008) covering 25 European countries (N=77,674). The results of our multilevel analyses showed varying effects of contextual- and individual-level characteristics on o

  5. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  6. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  7. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits Predicting Academic Achievement over Compulsory Schooling: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Incremental predictive value of 5 broad and 13 narrow personality traits for academic achievement over and beyond age, gender, parental education, and country was examined in Russian and Slovene 8- to 15-year-olds. Personality data were collected from mothers (Russia: N = 994, Slovenia: N = 624) and adolescents (Russia: N = 481, Slovenia: N = 310)…

  8. The impact of scale, complexity, and service quality on the administrative costs of pension funds: A cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Steenbeek, O.W.; Torracchi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Administrative costs per participant appear to vary widely across pension funds in different countries. These costs are important because they reduce the rate of return on the investments of pension funds, and consequently raise the cost of retirement security. Using unique data on 90 pension funds

  9. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies...

  10. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  11. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  12. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  13. The Relationship between English Language Adoption and Global Digital Inequality: A Cross-Country Analysis of ICT Readiness and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang; Sheu, Ru-Shuo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in information and communication technology (ICT) readiness and access across countries were fundamentally related to the variable of English language adoption. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to comparatively examine the developments of ICT readiness…

  14. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  15. A Cross-country Database For Sectoral Employment And Productivity in Asia and Latin America, 1950-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new panel data set with annual time series of value added and persons employed for ten sectors of the economy. The database allows for consistent comparisons of output, employment and productivity trends in developing countries in Asia and Latin America during the period

  16. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  17. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  18. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF HOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON INWARD CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehleanu Mariana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Expanding abroad and entering on foreign markets is a natural step in the process of growth and development of firms. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions represent, currently, an important tool in the competitive struggle, which is increasingly intense due to the globalization of economies, and also the driving force behind the growth of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI flows globally. In Romania, the share of cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows in the total FDI inflows increased progressively, reaching 46,6% in 2006, when the highest value of these transactions was registered (5.308 million dollars, according to UNCTAD. The aim of this empirical research is to study the correlation between the number of inward cross-border mergers acquisitions and a series of other variables, considered factors of influence, over the period 1992-2013. Using simple regression models, the study reveals that economic factors such as Gross domestic product (GDP, stock market capitalization (as a percentage of GDP, interest rate, exchange rate, M2 monetary aggregate and inflation have an important role in explaining cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows. Between the number of inward cross-border mergers and acquisitions and GDP, M2 monetary aggregate, market capitalization, respectively the exchange rate, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the number of inward mergers and acquisitions and the interest rate, respectively the inflation, there is an inverse linear correlation. The research conducted reveals the important role played by macroeconomic factors with regard to the cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows, as an entry mode of FDI in Romania.

  20. Associations of commuting to school and work with demographic variables and with weight status in eight European countries: The ENERGY-cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Velde, Saskia J; Haraldsen, Eli; Vik, Frøydis N; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height. Logistic multilevel regression analyses assessed the associations between mode of commuting and overweight. Differences between countries and differences in mode of commuting according to demographic variables were tested using χ(2)-test and Marascuilo's Post-hoc analysis. There were marked differences between countries, especially regarding cycling to school, which was common in The Netherlands and Norway and rare in Greece and Spain. Demographic variables were associated with mode of commuting in children and parents. Mode of commuting was not associated with being overweight in children, after adjustment for demographic variables. Bicycling to work, but not other modes of commuting, was significantly inversely associated with being overweight among parents (OR=0.74 (95%CI 0.57-0.97)). Interventions targeting active commuting may promote cycling, and should take into account the differences regarding demographic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Cross-Country Analysis Regarding the Impact of the Recent Global Crisis on the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ROMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global crisis has had tremendous effects on the banking sectors from the new EU member countries. In this context it becomes important to analyse how the crisis has affected these banking systems and also how the monetary authorities from these countries have reacted in such an adverse situation in order to ensure the macro-stability and the re-launch of the lending process. In order to achieve this, firstly we have reviewed the academic literature on this subject, in order to avoid any overlap in our research and to ensure the originality of our undertaking. Secondly, using a quantitative approach, we have comparatively analysed the effects of the economic and financial crisis on the banking systems from our panel.

  2. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross-cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts made towards the Millennium Development Goals targets during the last decade, improved access to water supply or basic sanitation still remains unavailable for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables and country profiles from the WatSan4Dev data set involving water supply and sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012. This paper suggests the use of Bayesian network modelling methods because they are more easily adapted to deal with non-normal distributions, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage of integrating preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 20 and 5% error rates, which are very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow an assessment of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and water supply and sanitation (WSS access. According to models proposed in this paper, gaining a strong poverty reduction will require the WSS access to reach 75–76% through: (1 the management of ongoing urbanisation processes to avoid slums development; and (2 the improvement of health care, for instance for children. Improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules, or control of corruption is positively associated with WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the HDP (human development and poverty remains of course an improvement of the economic conditions with higher household incomes. Moreover, a significant country commitment to the environment, associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable setting for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture using irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable

  3. Household portfolio choices, health status and health care systems: A cross-country analysis based on SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atella, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Marianna; Maestas, Nicole

    2012-05-01

    Health risk is increasingly viewed as an important form of background risk that affects household portfolio decisions. However, its role might be mediated by the presence of a protective full-coverage national health service that could reduce households' probability of incurring current and future out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We use SHARE data to study the influence of current health status and future health risk on the decision to hold risky assets, across ten European countries with different health systems, each offering a different degree of protection against out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We find robust empirical evidence that perceived health status matters more than objective health status and, consistent with the theory of background risk, health risk affects portfolio choices only in countries with less protective health care systems. Furthermore, portfolio decisions consistent with background risk models are observed only with respect to middle-aged and highly-educated investors.

  4. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts made towards the millennium goals targets during the last decade, access to improved water supply or basic sanitation remains still not accessible for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables from the WatSan4Dev dataset and country profiles involving Water Supply and Sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian Network modelling methods because adapted to the management of non-normal distribution, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage to integrate preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 80 and 95% which is very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow a quantification of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS access.

    According to models proposed in this paper, a strong poverty reduction will induce an increment of the WSS access equal to 75–76% through: (1 the organisation of on-going urbanisation process to avoid slums development; and, (2 the improvement of health care for instance for children.

    On one side, improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules or control of corruption will also have a positive impact on WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the WSS access remains of course an improvement of the economic development with an increment of household income.

    Moreover, a significant country environmental commitment associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable environment for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture through irrigation practises also appears as a mean for

  5. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross-cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; López Puga, J.; Carmona Moreno, C.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the efforts made towards the Millennium Development Goals targets during the last decade, improved access to water supply or basic sanitation still remains unavailable for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables and country profiles from the WatSan4Dev data set involving water supply and sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012). This paper suggests the use of Bayesian network modelling methods because they are more easily adapted to deal with non-normal distributions, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage of integrating preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 20 and 5% error rates, which are very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow an assessment of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and water supply and sanitation (WSS) access. According to models proposed in this paper, gaining a strong poverty reduction will require the WSS access to reach 75-76% through: (1) the management of ongoing urbanisation processes to avoid slums development; and (2) the improvement of health care, for instance for children. Improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules, or control of corruption is positively associated with WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the HDP (human development and poverty) remains of course an improvement of the economic conditions with higher household incomes. Moreover, a significant country commitment to the environment, associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable setting for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture using irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable WSS thanks to

  6. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; López Puga, J.; Carmona Moreno, C.

    2013-02-01

    Despite the efforts made towards the millennium goals targets during the last decade, access to improved water supply or basic sanitation remains still not accessible for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables from the WatSan4Dev dataset and country profiles involving Water Supply and Sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012). This paper proposes the use of Bayesian Network modelling methods because adapted to the management of non-normal distribution, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage to integrate preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 80 and 95% which is very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow a quantification of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) access. According to models proposed in this paper, a strong poverty reduction will induce an increment of the WSS access equal to 75-76% through: (1) the organisation of on-going urbanisation process to avoid slums development; and, (2) the improvement of health care for instance for children. On one side, improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules or control of corruption will also have a positive impact on WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the WSS access remains of course an improvement of the economic development with an increment of household income. Moreover, a significant country environmental commitment associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable environment for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture through irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable WSS thanks to multi-uses and

  7. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns.

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the socioeconomic distribution of adolescent exposure to bullying internationally and documented the contribution of the macroeconomic environment. METHODS: We used an international survey of 162,305 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years from nationally representative samples...... of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001-2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio [OR......] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic...

  9. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    of fish across countries was 1.5 times a week. Spain had by far the highest frequency of fish consumption with almost three times a week, followed by Denmark with 1.4 times a week. The consumption of fish was lowest in the Netherlands. On average, about 80 % of all fish meals were consumed at home. While...... consumers in Denmark only ate 6 % of their fish outside their homes, this frequency was 31 % in Poland. As expected, the consumption of different product types (e.g., fresh, frozen, ready to eat, canned) or species (e.g., cod, salmon, mackerel, hake) differed a lot across the different countries. This study...... also reports consumption frequency for wild versus farmed fish. However, it seems that many consumers are not aware if the fish they buy are wild or farmed. Secondly, this study also investigated similarities and differences in shopping habits. Supermarkets and fishmongers were the most often used...

  10. Welfare States and Dimensions of Social Capital : Cross-national comparisons of social contacts in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Gelissen, John

    2002-01-01

    We set out to describe and explain differences in the amount of some dimensions of social capital within and between European societies. Social capital refers to a wide range of social phenomena; however, we focus on social contacts with family and friends. We derive hypotheses about cross-national

  11. Correlates of functional disability in early rheumatoid arthritis : A cross-sectional study of 706 patients in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedstad, LM; Moum, T; Guillemin, F; Kvien, TK; Finch, MB; Suurmeijer, TPBM; vandenHeuvel, WJA

    1996-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study of 706 European patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of less than or equal to 4 yr duration, we examined possible correlates of functional disability assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire. First, we examined a subsample of 237 Norwegian patients. The Ritchi

  12. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  13. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  14. Welfare states and dimensions of social capital: Cross-national comparisons of social contacts in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.L.H.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    We set out to describe and explain differences in the amount of some dimensions of social capital within and between European societies. Social capital refers to a wide range of social phenomena; however, we focus on social contacts with family and friends. We derive hypotheses about cross-national

  15. Going-Private Decisions and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    example, find that the average ratio of audit fees to assets increased between 2000, the year before the Enron scandal that precipitated SOX broke, and... scandals that followed. But it was not the only response. Within the United States, courts, regulators, stock exchanges, and investors all intensified...similar reforms in other countries, paralleled SOX. 3 For example, a numerous scholars have documented how the scandals that precipitated SOX caused judges

  16. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies a...... reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  17. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-country comparison study of Finland and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Sutinen, Jussi; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2016-07-01

    The premises underlying the development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instruments provide a convincing rationale for comparing quality of life (QoL) across countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the QoL of patients living with HIV infection in Finland and in Portugal, and to examine the contribution of the QoL domains to the overall QoL in these two countries. The sample comprised 453 patients from Finland (76.3% male; mean age = 46.50) and 975 from Portugal (69.2% male; mean age = 40.98), all living with HIV. QoL data were collected by use of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Significant country differences were found in QoL domains and specific facets. Patients from Finland reported markedly higher scores on all six QoL domains and general facet, than did their Portuguese counterparts. Regarding the specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, patients from Finland also reported significantly higher scores on 24 out of 29. The exceptions were dependence on medications and treatment, positive feelings, personal relationships, sexual activity, and on spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Regression analyses showed that physical, psychological, and independence domains contributed to overall QoL among the Finnish patients (R(2) = 0.63), whereas among the Portuguese, the domains significantly associated with overall QoL were physical, psychological, independence, and environment (R(2) = 0.48). Country differences in QoL domains and specific facets may reflect sociocultural differences between southern and northern Europe.

  18. The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers.

  19. The role of investor protection in corporate governance and accounting harmonization: Cross-country analysis in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Wardhani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of law system for investor protection on implementation of corporate governance at company level and degree of convergence of local accounting standards to IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards. The result shows that investor protection has positive effect on implementation of corporate governance and degree of convergence of local standard to IFRS. The evidence is consistent with the argument that firm can establish law environment well for their own, but the quality of corporate investor protection via implementation of corporate governance mechanisms will depend on efficiency of judicial system of the country where the firm operates; and the quality of accounting standard in one country is a signal of country’s commitment to investor protection in order to provide good protection for its investor; a country will tend to adopt higher quality of accounting standard to ensure financial reporting transparency. This indicates that investor protection can be the key to the quality of other governance mechanisms, both at institutional level such as accounting standards, and also at firm level such as corporate governance implementation.

  20. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.