WorldWideScience

Sample records for replacement crops impacts

  1. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  2. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  3. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  4. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant effects on food crop production and productivity. ... 2 Department of Economics and Resource management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway ... food markets work well, the problem of imperfect markets does not allow ..... prices at the time of purchase with the remaining balance due at the end of the.

  5. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  6. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  7. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  8. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

  9. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Crop rotation impact on soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, I.; Ashraf, M.; Mahmood, T.; Islam, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)

  11. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, William C; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Barsanti, Kelley; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O 3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM 2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m −3 . We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value. (letter)

  12. Quantifying the Impact of Tropospheric Ozone on Crops Productivity at regional scale using JULES-crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is causing significant crop production losses. Currently, O3 concentrations are projected to increase globally, which could have a significant impact on food security. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator modified to include crops (JULES-crop) is used here to quantify the impacts of tropospheric O3 on crop production at the regional scale until 2100. We evaluate JULES-crop against the Soybean Free-Air-Concentration-Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Experimental data from SoyFACE and various literature sources is used to calibrate the parameters for soybean and ozone damage parameters in soybean in JULES-crop. The calibrated model is then applied for a transient factorial set of JULES-crop simulations over 1960-2005. Simulated yield changes are attributed to individual environmental drivers, CO2, O3 and climate change, across regions and for different crops. A mixed scenario of RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 climatology and ozone are simulated to explore the implication of policy. The overall findings are that regions with high ozone concentration such as China and India suffer the most from ozone damage, soybean is more sensitive to O3 than other crops. JULES-crop predicts CO2 fertilisation would increase the productivity of vegetation. This effect, however, is masked by the negative impacts of tropospheric O3. Using data from FAO and JULES-crop estimated that ozone damage cost around 55.4 Billion USD per year on soybean. Irrigation improves the simulation of rice only, and it increases the relative ozone damage because drought can reduce the ozone from entering the plant stomata. RCP 8.5 scenario results in a high yield for all crops mainly due to the CO2 fertilisation effect. Mixed climate scenarios simulations suggest that RCP 8.5 CO2 concentration and RCP 2.6 O3 concentration result in the highest yield. Further works such as more crop FACE-O3 experiments and more Crop

  13. Cropping system impact on soil quality determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VESTBERG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in soil quality evaluation has increased rapidly throughout the past decade, prompting us to evaluate the long-term impact of four cropping systems on several biological, chemical and physical determinants of soil quality. We hypothesized that after 17 years several of the determinants would show significant differences between conventional cereal and low input/organic rotations. Four crop rotations were imposed on a silt soil from 1982 through 1999. Rotation A was a conventionally managed cereal rotation that received 100% of the recommended mineral fertilizer each year. Rotation B was also managed conventionally from 1982 until 1993, although it received only 50% of the recommended mineral fertilizer. From 1994 through 1999, rotation B was managed as an organic rotation. Rotations C and D were low-input rotations with plant residues returned either untreated (Cor composted (Dfrom 1982 until 1994.From 1994 through 1999,they were also anaged organically. Significant decreases in extractable phosphorus (Pand potassium were observed in rotations C and D compared with rotation A, presumably because their yearly nutrient inputs were somewhat lower. The amount of soil organic carbon (Corg, soil water holding capacity, the numbers and biomass of earthworms and the microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were or tended to be higher in low input/organic than in conventionally managed plots. These effects may be in connection with the slightly increased levels of Corg in soil of the organic rotations. Activities of twelve enzymes were strongly affected by sampling time (early-versus late-summer, but much less by long-term management. Litter decomposition, numbers of soil nematodes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMfungal diversity,AM spore density and AM functioning were little affected by rotation. However,AM spore density correlated positively with the high amounts of extractable calcium and P which were a result from excessive liming applied

  14. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  15. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  16. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  17. Impacts of crop insurance on water withdrawals for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Konar, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, crop insurance may have unintended consequences for water resources sustainability, as the vast majority of freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture. The causal impact of crop insurance on water use in agriculture remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation water withdrawals in the United States. Importantly, we use an instrumental variables approach to establish causality. Our methodology exploits a major policy change in the crop insurance system - the 1994 Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act - which imposed crop insurance requirements on farmers. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, with most coming from groundwater aquifers. We identify farmers growing more groundwater-fed cotton as an important mechanism contributing to increased withdrawals. A 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.624% increase in cotton acreage, or 95,602 acres. These results demonstrate that crop insurance causally leads to more irrigation withdrawals. More broadly, this work underscores the importance of determining causality in the water-food nexus as we endeavor to achieve global food security and water resources sustainability.

  18. Impact of sole cropping and multiple cropping on soil humified carbon fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Lee, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    on humified C fractions could be because of variations in type, amount and quality of C returned by different plants into the soil. So replacing mono-cropping with multiple cropping can enhance humified C fractions and can improve soil functional properties. (author)

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have

  20. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  1. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  2. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  3. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  4. Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-11-15

    When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender and Health Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender and Health Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in Developing Countries ... exists, the gender and health impacts have so far received only cursory attention. ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  6. Modelling climate change impacts on crop production for food security

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Semenov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP (2015), s. 3-5 ISSN 0936-577X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Crop production Upscaling * Climate change impact and adaptation assessments * Upscaling * Model ensembles Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  7. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  8. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  9. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  10. Simulating changes in cropping practices in conventional and glyphosate-resistant maize. II. Weed impacts on crop production and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbach, Nathalie; Darmency, Henri; Fernier, Alice; Granger, Sylvie; Le Corre, Valérie; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Overreliance on the same herbicide mode of action leads to the spread of resistant weeds, which cancels the advantages of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Here, the objective was to quantify, with simulations, the impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds on crop production and weed-related wild biodiversity in HT maize-based cropping systems differing in terms of management practices. We (1) simulated current conventional and probable HT cropping systems in two European regions, Aquitaine and Catalonia, with the weed dynamics model FLORSYS; (2) quantified how much the presence of GR weeds contributed to weed impacts on crop production and biodiversity; (3) determined the effect of cultural practices on the impact of GR weeds and (4) identified which species traits most influence weed-impact indicators. The simulation study showed that during the analysed 28 years, the advent of glyphosate resistance had little effect on plant biodiversity. Glyphosate-susceptible populations and species were replaced by GR ones. Including GR weeds only affected functional biodiversity (food offer for birds, bees and carabids) and weed harmfulness when weed effect was initially low; when weed effect was initially high, including GR weeds had little effect. The GR effect also depended on cultural practices, e.g. GR weeds were most detrimental for species equitability when maize was sown late. Species traits most harmful for crop production and most beneficial for biodiversity were identified, using RLQ analyses. None of the species presenting these traits belonged to a family for which glyphosate resistance was reported. An advice table was built; the effects of cultural practices on crop production and biodiversity were synthesized, explained, quantified and ranked, and the optimal choices for each management technique were identified.

  11. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  12. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  13. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  14. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  15. Impact of Crop Conversions on Runoff and Sediment Output in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momm, H.; Bingner, R. L.; Elkadiri, R.; Yaraser, L.; Porter, W.

    2017-12-01

    Farming management practices influence sediment and agrochemical loads exiting fields and entering downstream water bodies. These practices impact multiple physical processes responsible for sediment and nutrient detachment, transport, and deposition. Recent changes in farming practices in the Southern United States coincide with increased grain production, replacing traditional crops such as cotton with corn and soybeans. To grow these crops in the South, adapted crop management practices are needed (irrigation, fertilizer, etc.). In this study, the impact of grain crop adoption on hydrologic processes and non-point source pollutant production is quantified. A watershed located in the Big Sunflower River drainage basin (14,179 km2) - a part of the greater Lower Mississippi River basin - was selected due to its economic relevance, historical agricultural output, and depiction of recent farming management trends. Estimates of runoff and sediment loads were produced using the U.S. Department of Agriculture supported Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) watershed pollution and management model. Existing physical conditions during a 16-year period (2000-2015) were characterized using 3,992 sub-catchments and 1,602 concentrated flow paths. Algorithms were developed to integrate continuous land use/land cover information, variable spatio-temporal irrigation practices, and crop output yield in order to generate a total of 2,922 unique management practices and corresponding soil-disturbing operations. A simulation representing existing conditions was contrasted with simulations depicting alternatives of management, irrigation practices, and temporal variations in crop yield. Quantification of anthropogenic impacts to water quality and water availability at a watershed scale supports the development of targeted pollution mitigation and custom conservation strategies.

  16. Spatio-temporal Eigenvector Filtering: Application on Bioenergy Crop Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Kamarianakis, Y.; Georgescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of 10-year ensemble-based simulations was conducted to investigate the hydroclimatic impacts due to large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental United States. Given the large size of the simulated dataset (about 60Tb), traditional hierarchical spatio-temporal statistical modelling cannot be implemented for the evaluation of physics parameterizations and biofuel impacts. In this work, we propose a filtering algorithm that takes into account the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of the data while avoiding spatial confounding. This method is used to quantify the robustness of simulated hydroclimatic impacts associated with bioenergy crops to alternative physics parameterizations and observational datasets. Results are evaluated against those obtained from three alternative Bayesian spatio-temporal specifications.

  17. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  18. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  19. Climate change and global crop yield: impacts, uncertainties and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Deryng, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    As global mean temperature continues to rise steadily, agricultural systems are projected to face unprecedented challenges to cope with climate change. However, understanding of climate change impacts on global crop yield, and of farmers’ adaptive capacity, remains incomplete as previous global assessments: (1) inadequately evaluated the role of extreme weather events; (2) focused on a small subset of the full range of climate change predictions; (3) overlooked uncertainties related to the ch...

  20. Global impacts of surface ozone changes on crop yields and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, Clifford; van Noije, Twan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone has detrimental impacts on vegetation and crop yields. In this study, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production and subsequent impacts on land use in the 2005-2050 period using results of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry and IMAGE integrated assessment model. For the crops

  1. Potential soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues for bio fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, D.

    2011-01-01

    We are in one of the greatest technological, environmental and social transitions since the industrial revolution, as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable biomass resources. My objectives are to (1) briefly review increased public interest in harvesting crop residues as feedstock for bio energy, (2) discuss the work soil scientists must do to address those interests, and (3) examine how soil quality assessment can be used to help quantify soil biological, chemical and physical response to this transition. Rising global energy demand, dependence on unstable imports, volatility in price, and increasing public concern regarding fossil fuel combustion effects on global climate change are among the factors leading to an increased interest in development and use of renewable biomass sources for energy production. Although controlling soil erosion by wind and water is no less important than in the past, it is not the only factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the sustain ability of land management practices including harvest of crop residues as bio energy feedstock. The concept of soil quality assessment is reviewed and the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) is used to illustrate how such assessments can be used for assessing impacts of harvesting crop residue as feedstock for bio energy production. Preliminary results of the SMAF assessment show that soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the lower scoring indicators and therefore needs to be monitored closely. Innovative soil and crop management strategies, including a landscape vision are offered as ideas for achieving sustainable food, feed, fiber, and energy production

  2. Replacing fallow with forage triticale in dryland crop rotations increases profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common dryland rotational cropping system in the semi-arid central Great Plains of the U.S. is wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.)-fallow (WCF). However, the 12-month fallow period following corn production has been shown to be relatively inefficient in storing precipitation during the...

  3. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kroes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge. Therefore, we performed impact analyses of various soil water flow regimes on grass, maize and potato yields in the Dutch delta. Flow regimes are characterized by soil composition and groundwater depth and derived from a national soil database. The intermittent occurrence of upward flow and its influence on crop growth are simulated with the combined SWAP-WOFOST model using various boundary conditions. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of upward flow on yield and crop growth. This impact is clearly present in situations with relatively shallow groundwater levels (85 % of the Netherlands, where capillary rise is a well-known source of upward flow; but also in free-draining situations the impact of upward flow is considerable. In the latter case recirculated percolation water is the flow source. To make this impact explicit we implemented a synthetic modelling option that stops upward flow from reaching the root zone, without inhibiting percolation. Such a hypothetically moisture-stressed situation compared to a natural one in the presence of shallow groundwater shows mean yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes of respectively 26, 3 and 14 % or respectively about 3.7, 0.3 and 1.5 t dry matter per hectare. About half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions and the other half comes from increased upward capillary rise. Soil water and crop growth modelling should consider both capillary rise from groundwater and recirculation of percolation water as this improves the accuracy of yield simulations. This also improves the

  4. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Joop; Supit, Iwan; van Dam, Jos; van Walsum, Paul; Mulder, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge. Therefore, we performed impact analyses of various soil water flow regimes on grass, maize and potato yields in the Dutch delta. Flow regimes are characterized by soil composition and groundwater depth and derived from a national soil database. The intermittent occurrence of upward flow and its influence on crop growth are simulated with the combined SWAP-WOFOST model using various boundary conditions. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of upward flow on yield and crop growth. This impact is clearly present in situations with relatively shallow groundwater levels (85 % of the Netherlands), where capillary rise is a well-known source of upward flow; but also in free-draining situations the impact of upward flow is considerable. In the latter case recirculated percolation water is the flow source. To make this impact explicit we implemented a synthetic modelling option that stops upward flow from reaching the root zone, without inhibiting percolation. Such a hypothetically moisture-stressed situation compared to a natural one in the presence of shallow groundwater shows mean yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes of respectively 26, 3 and 14 % or respectively about 3.7, 0.3 and 1.5 t dry matter per hectare. About half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions and the other half comes from increased upward capillary rise. Soil water and crop growth modelling should consider both capillary rise from groundwater and recirculation of percolation water as this improves the accuracy of yield simulations. This also improves the accuracy of the

  5. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Peter; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  6. Drought impacts and resilience on crops via evapotranspiration estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the global needs for food and water is at a critical level. It has been estimated that 12.5 % of the global population suffers from malnutrition and 768 million people still do not have access to clean drinking water. This need is increasing because of population growth but also by climate change. Changes in precipitation patterns will result either in flooding or droughts. Consequently availability, usability and affordability of water is becoming challenge and efficient use of water and water management is becoming more important, particularly during severe drought events. Drought monitoring for agricultural purposes is very hard. While meteorological drought can accurately be monitored using precipitation only, estimating agricultural drought is more difficult. This is because agricultural drought is dependent on the meteorological drought, the impacts on the vegetation, and the resilience of the crops. As such not only precipitation estimates are required but also evapotranspiration at plant/plot scale. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes the amount of water evaporated from soil and vegetation. As 65% of precipitation is lost by ET, drought severity is highly linked with this variable. In drought research, the precise quantification of ET and its spatio-temporal variability is therefore essential. In this view, remote sensing based models to estimate ET, such as SEBAL and SEBS, are of high value. However the resolution of current evapotranspiration products are not good enough for monitoring the impact of the droughts on the specific crops. This limitation originates because plot scales are in general smaller than the resolution of the available satellite ET products. As such remote sensing estimates of evapotranspiration are always a combination of different land surface types and cannot be used for plant health and drought resilience studies. The goal of this research is therefore to enable adequate resolutions of daily evapotranspiration estimates

  7. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  8. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  9. Estimating the impact of mineral aerosols on crop yields in food insecure regions using statistical crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A.; Forest, C. E.; Kemanian, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant number of food-insecure nations exist in regions of the world where dust plays a large role in the climate system. While the impacts of common climate variables (e.g. temperature, precipitation, ozone, and carbon dioxide) on crop yields are relatively well understood, the impact of mineral aerosols on yields have not yet been thoroughly investigated. This research aims to develop the data and tools to progress our understanding of mineral aerosol impacts on crop yields. Suspended dust affects crop yields by altering the amount and type of radiation reaching the plant, modifying local temperature and precipitation. While dust events (i.e. dust storms) affect crop yields by depleting the soil of nutrients or by defoliation via particle abrasion. The impact of dust on yields is modeled statistically because we are uncertain which impacts will dominate the response on national and regional scales considered in this study. Multiple linear regression is used in a number of large-scale statistical crop modeling studies to estimate yield responses to various climate variables. In alignment with previous work, we develop linear crop models, but build upon this simple method of regression with machine-learning techniques (e.g. random forests) to identify important statistical predictors and isolate how dust affects yields on the scales of interest. To perform this analysis, we develop a crop-climate dataset for maize, soybean, groundnut, sorghum, rice, and wheat for the regions of West Africa, East Africa, South Africa, and the Sahel. Random forest regression models consistently model historic crop yields better than the linear models. In several instances, the random forest models accurately capture the temperature and precipitation threshold behavior in crops. Additionally, improving agricultural technology has caused a well-documented positive trend that dominates time series of global and regional yields. This trend is often removed before regression with

  10. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  11. Global impacts of surface ozone changes on crop yields and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.; Noije, van Twan; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone has detrimental impacts on vegetation and crop yields. In this study, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production and subsequent impacts on land use in the 2005-2050 period using results of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry and IMAGE integrated assessment model. For the

  12. The impact of advertising on nicotine replacement therapy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry

    2005-05-01

    While much is known about the economic determinants of tobacco use, very little is known about the economic determinants of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. This paper is the first econometric study to examine the impact of advertising on NRT demand. Pooled cross-sectional time-series scanner-based data for 50 major metropolitan markets in the USA covering the period between the second quarter of 1996 and the second quarter of 2002 are used in the analysis. Fixed-effects modeling is employed to estimate the NRT demand equation. The estimates indicate that increased advertising of Nicoderm CQ transdermal patches and Nicotrol transdermal patches increases per-capita sales of established Nicoderm CQ and Nicotrol products, respectively. However, increased advertising of Nicorette polacrilex (gum) was found not to significantly increase sales of established Nicorette products. Moreover, decreases in the price of NRT and increases in the price of cigarettes were found to increase per-capita sales of NRT products. Given the documented efficacy of NRT, measures to increase peoples' awareness of NRT products through advertising, measures to decrease the price of NRT, and measures to increase the price of cigarettes would be effective means to increase the use of NRT, likely leading to decreased cigarette smoking and reductions in the future public health burden caused by tobacco use.

  13. Impacts of climate change on cropping patterns in a tropical, sub-humid watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sander J.; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been substantial increases in crop production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a result of higher yields, increased cropping intensity, expansion of irrigated cropping systems, and rainfed cropland expansion. Yet, to date much of the research focus of the impact of climate change on crop production in the coming decades has been on crop yield responses. In this study, we analyse the impact of climate change on the potential for increasing rainfed cropping intensity through sequential cropping and irrigation expansion in central Benin. Our approach combines hydrological modelling and scenario analysis involving two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), two water-use scenarios for the watershed based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and environmental water requirements leading to sustained streamflow. Our analyses show that in Benin, warmer temperatures will severely limit crop production increases achieved through the expansion of sequential cropping. Depending on the climate change scenario, between 50% and 95% of cultivated areas that can currently support sequential cropping or will need to revert to single cropping. The results also show that the irrigation potential of the watershed will be at least halved by mid-century in all scenario combinations. Given the urgent need to increase crop production to meet the demands of a growing population in SSA, our study outlines challenges and the need for planned development that need to be overcome to improve food security in the coming decades. PMID:29513753

  14. 78 FR 26102 - Notice of Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman Memorial Replacement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman Memorial Replacement Airport, Hailey, ID AGENCY: Federal...) for the Friedman Memorial Replacement Airport. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dave Stelling, by mail... Notice of Intent in the Federal Register [72 FR 61945] to prepare an EIS for a replacement airport for...

  15. Is the possibility of replacing seed dressings containing neonicotinoids with other means of protection viable in major Polish agricultural crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyjaszczyk Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the limitations regarding the use of the neonicotinoids: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid there are no currently available insecticide seed dressings for oilseed rape in Poland. For maize here is only one seed dressing containing methiocarb available with a very narrow registered scope of use. The impact of limitations on protection possibilities of other major Polish agricultural crops is either negligible or non-existent. In consequence a group of economically important insect pests of maize [dungbeetles (Melolonthidae; click beetles (Elateridae; noctuid moths (Agrotinae] and oilseed rape [leaf miners (Agromyzidae, turnip sawfly (Athalia colibri Christ., cabbage weevils (Curculionidae, cabbage root fly (Hylemyia brassicae Bche., diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.] is left without any legal possibility of chemical control. For the other important pests of the early growth stage of oilseed rape development, there are only pyrethroids available together with one product containing chloropiryfos that can be applied once per vegetation season. Since both maize and oilseed rape are grown in Poland on the area of approximately 1 million ha (each crop, this situation raises concerns about production possibilities as well as development of pest resistance.

  16. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  17. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Barbieux, Sophie; Pierreux, Jérôme; Olivier, Claire; Lobet, Guillaume; Roisin, Christian; Garré, Sarah; Colinet, Gilles; Bodson, Bernard; Dumont, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues) and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth) vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth)) in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops-winter wheat, faba bean and maize-cultivated over six cropping seasons), soil organic carbon content, nitrate ([Formula: see text]), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue management on the [Formula: see

  18. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, J.G.; Supit, I.; Dam, van J.C.; Walsum, van P.E.V.; Mulder, H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge.

  19. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  20. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  1. A global overview of biotech (GM) crops: adoption, impact and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, some were skeptical that genetically modified (GM) crops, now referred to as biotech crops, could deliver improved products and make an impact at the farm level. There was even more skepticism that developing countries would adopt biotech crops. The adoption of and commercialization of biotech crops in 2008 is reviewed. The impact of biotech crops are summarized including their contribution to: global food, feed and fiber security; a safer environment; a more sustainable agriculture; and the alleviation of poverty, and hunger in the developing countries of the world. Future prospects are discussed. Notably, Egypt planted Bt maize for the first time in 2008 thereby becoming the first country in the Arab world to commercialize biotech crops.

  2. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  3. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Hiel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops—winter wheat, faba bean and maize—cultivated over six cropping seasons, soil organic carbon content, nitrate ( ${\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$ NO 3 − , phosphorus (P and potassium (K soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue

  4. Assessment of climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Devesh

    2018-09-01

    Crop growth models like AquaCrop are useful in understanding the impact of climate change on crop production considering the various projections from global circulation models and regional climate models. The present study aims to assess the climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin i.e., wheat, barley and maize. Banas basin is part of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan state in India. AquaCrop model is used to calculate the yield of all the three crops for a historical period of 30years (1981-2010) and then compared with observed yield data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values are calculated to assess the model accuracy in prediction of yield. Further, the calibrated model is used to predict the possible impacts of climate change and CO 2 concentration on crop yield using CORDEX-SA climate projections of three driving climate models (CNRM-CM5, CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-LR) for two different scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period 2021-2050. RMSE values of simulated yield with respect to observed yield of wheat, barley and maize are 11.99, 16.15 and 19.13, respectively. It is predicted that crop yield of all three crops will increase under the climate change conditions for future period (2021-2050). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  6. The impact of climate and price risks on agricultural land use and crop management decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the impacts of climate change and of lower and more volatile crop price levels as currently observed in the European Union (EU) on optimal management decisions, average income and income risks in crop production in Western Switzerland. To this end, a bioeconomic

  7. The assessment of traffic emissions impacts on crops pollution and contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Phytosanitary and Environment

    2009-01-01

    Impact of traffic emissions on contamination of soils and consequently of crops is usualy mentioned, but not many studies providing real and valid data were published in the CR. This is a pilot study for specific area. The aim of it is to assess potential influence of the Prague Airport on fruits and crops pollution grown around it.

  8. Soil phosphatase and urease activities impacted by cropping systems and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil enzymes can play an important role in nutrient availability to plants. Consequently, soil enzyme measurements can provide useful information on soil fertility for crop production. We examined the impact of cropping system and water management on phosphatase, urease, and microbial biomass C in s...

  9. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  10. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  11. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohanec, M.; Dzeroski, S.; Znidarsic, M.; Messéan, A.; Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a

  12. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  13. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  14. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  15. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  16. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  17. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  18. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  19. Social Impacts of GM Crops in Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been argued that the fragmented knowledge on the social impacts of genetically modified (GM crops is contributing to the polarised debate on the matter. This paper addresses this issue by systematically reviewing 99 peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004 on the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture; summarising current knowledge, and identifying research gaps. Economic impact studies currently dominate the literature and mainly report that GM crops provide economic benefits for farmers. Other social impacts are less well studied, but present a more complex picture. Studies on access to and benefits of GM crops show that these vary significantly depending on the political and regulatory setting. Substantial evidence indicates that intellectual property rights (IPR and the private industry’s dominance limit the access and utility of available GM crops to many farmers. Wellbeing is frequently discussed in the literature, but rarely investigated empirically. Existing evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. Impact studies from the Global North are virtually non-existent. Moreover, two-thirds of publications are based on previously published empirical evidence, indicating a need for new empirical investigations into the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture.

  20. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  1. Climate variability impacts on rice crop production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, U.; Saboor, A.; Baig, I.

    2015-01-01

    The climate variability has affected the agriculture production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate changes are believed to have declining effects towards crop production in Pakistan. This study carries an empirical investigation of the effects of climate change on rice crop of Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 to 2013 has been used. Results confirmed that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase rice production but simulations scenarios for 2030 confirmed that much increase in rainfall and mean temperature in long run will negatively affect rice production in future. It is therefore important to follow adequate policy action to safeguard crop productions from disastrous effects. Development of varieties resistant to high temperatures as well as droughts will definitely enhance resilience of rice crop in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2014: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-04-02

    This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 581.4 million kg (-8.2%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient [EIQ]) by18.5%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2014, this was equivalent to removing nearly 10 million cars from the roads.

  3. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2014: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 581.4 million kg (−8.2%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient [EIQ]) by18.5%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2014, this was equivalent to removing nearly 10 million cars from the roads. PMID:27253265

  4. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2015: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid-1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 618.7 million kg (−8.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by18.6%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2015, this was equivalent to removing 11.9 million cars from the roads. PMID:28414252

  5. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2015: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2017-04-03

    This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid-1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 618.7 million kg (-8.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by18.6%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2015, this was equivalent to removing 11.9 million cars from the roads.

  6. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2013: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper updates previous assessments of how crop biotechnology has changed the environmental impact of global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 553 million kg (−8.6%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by19.1%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2013, this was equivalent to removing 12.4 million cars from the roads. PMID:25760405

  7. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Junejo, M.R.; Ghaffar, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  8. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Martin A; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N

    2008-04-01

    Conservation practices often associated with glyphosate-resistant crops, e.g. limited tillage and crop cover, improve soil conditions, but only limited research has evaluated their effects on soil in combination with glyphosate-resistant crops. It is assumed that conservation practices have similar benefits to soil whether or not glyphosate-resistant crops are used. This paper reviews the impact on soil of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops, and presents data from a Mississippi field trial comparing glyphosate-resistant and non-glyphosate-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under limited tillage management. Results from the reduced-tillage study indicate differences in soil biological and chemical properties owing to glyphosate-resistant crops. Under continuous glyphosate-resistant maize, soils maintained greater soil organic carbon and nitrogen as compared with continuous non-glyphosate-resistant maize, but no differences were measured in continuous cotton or in cotton rotated with maize. Soil microbial community structure based on total fatty acid methyl ester analysis indicated a significant effect of glyphosate-resistant crop following 5 years of continuous glyphosate-resistant crop as compared with the non-glyphosate-resistant crop system. Results from this study, as well as the literature review, indicate differences attributable to the interaction of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crop, but many are transient and benign for the soil ecosystem. Glyphosate use may result in minor effects on soil biological/chemical properties. However, enhanced organic carbon and plant residues in surface soils under conservation practices may buffer potential effects of glyphosate. Long-term field research established under various cropping systems and ecological regions is needed for critical assessment of glyphosate-resistant crop and conservation practice interactions. Copyright (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons

  9. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  10. Revisiting the Cutaneous Impact of Oral Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a key point moment in the specific aging process of women. It represents a universal evolution in life. Its initiation is defined by a 12-month amenorrhea following the ultimate menstrual period. It encompasses a series of different biologic and physiologic characteristics. This period of life appears to spot a decline in a series of skin functional performances initiating tissue atrophy, withering, and slackness. Any part of the skin is possibly altered, including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and hair follicles. Hormone replacement therapy (oral and nonoral and transdermal estrogen therapy represent possible specific managements for women engaged in the climacteric phase. All the current reports indicate that chronologic aging, climacteric estrogen deficiency, and adequate hormone therapy exert profound effects on various parts of the skin.

  11. Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baethgen, W.E. [International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Magrin, G.O. [Inst. Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Clima y Agua

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  13. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  14. Impacts of enhanced fertilizer applications on tropospheric ozone and crop damage over sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxian; Hickman, Jonathan E.; Wu, Shiliang

    2018-05-01

    Fertilizer-induced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in sub-Saharan Africa are expected to increase substantially in the coming decades, driven by increasing application of fertilizers to increase crop yields in an effort to attain food security across the continent. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, surface ozone (O3) is sensitive to increasing atmospheric concentrations of NOx. In this study, we employ the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to conduct a preliminary investigation of the impacts on O3 air quality and the consequential crop damage associated with increasing fertilizer-induced NOx emissions in sub-Saharan Africa. Our simulation results, constrained by field NO flux measurements for the years 2011 and 2012 in response to a variety of fertilizer application rates in western Kenya, show that the enhancements in NO flux with fertilizer application rate of 150 kg N ha-1 can increase surface NOx and O3 concentrations by up to 0.36 and 2.8 ppbv respectively during the growing season. At the same time, accumulated O3 exposure during the crop growing season (expressed as AOT40 values) could increase by up to 496 ppb h, leading to crop yield decline of about 0.8% for O3-sensitive crops. Our results suggest that, when accounting for the consequential impacts on surface O3 air quality and crop damage over sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural intensification is possible without substantial impacts on crop productivity because the relatively small decline of crop yield resulting from O3 damage appears unlikely to outweigh the gain in crop yield from fertilization.

  15. Exploring the direct impacts of particulate matter and surface ozone on global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The current era of rising food demand to feed an increasing population along with expansion of industrialization throughout the globe has been accompanied by deteriorating air quality and an enhancement in agricultural activity. Both air quality and the food supply are vitally important to sustaining human enterprise, and understanding the effects air quality may have on agricultural production is critical. Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere decreases the total photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) available to crops through the scattering and absorption of radiation while also increasing the diffuse fraction (DF) of this PAR. Since plants respond positively to a higher DF through the more even distribution of photons to all leaves, the net effect of PM on crop production depends on the magnitudes of these values and the response mechanisms of a specific crop. In contrast, atmospheric ozone always acts to decrease crop production through its phytotoxic properties. While the relationships between ozone and crop production have been readily studied, the effects of PM on crop production and their relative importance compared to ozone is much more uncertain. This study uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model linked to the RRTMG radiative transfer model and the DSSAT crop model to explore the impacts of PM and ozone on the globally distributed production of maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. First, we examine how air quality differentially affects total seasonal production by crop and region. Second, we investigate the dependence of simulated production on air quality over different timescales and under varying cloud conditions.

  16. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  17. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data suggest that 15% replacement of corn and 10% untreated residue with treated forage result in a nutrient supply of OM similar to that of the control. The improvements in total tract fiber digestibility that occurred when treated forages were fed may have been related to increased digestibility of recoverable NDF and not to increased ruminal pH. Feeding chemically treated crop residues and WDGS is an effective strategy for replacing a portion of corn grain and roughage in feedlot diets.

  18. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 decreased on average the emissions of N 2 O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO 2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N 2 O, NO and NH 3 flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N 2 O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact

  19. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  20. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  1. Electronic cigarettes: health impact, nicotine replacement therapy, regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the adverse effects of conventional cigarettes on human health have been thoroughly examined, in the last 15 years we have witnessed the birth of electronic cigarettes. There are many types of these devices available on the market. Studies are still underway to determine their negative impact on the human body. Electronic cigarettes comprise of power supply and a vaporising system. The user inhales the aerosol produced by heating up the liquid containing nicotine. In contrast with conventional cigarettes, the tobacco is not combusted, thus the compositions of the aerosol and cigarette smoke are considerably different. Out of 93 chemical substances present in the e-cigarette smoke, the aerosol contains only acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, formaldehyde and nicotine. More toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are not present. The amount of evidence suggesting electronic cigarettes’ harmful effects on the human body is constantly increasing. Some reports imply that the electronic cigarettes negatively influence pregnancy, human psyche, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. They might also be involved in oncogenesis. With electronic cigarettes constantly gaining popularity, the question about the adverse effects of passive smoking becomes increasingly more relevant. Although various methods of helping people cease smoking or delivering nicotine to their bodies without burning toxic substances are being explored, electronic cigarettes are not recommended in nicotine substitution therapy. Legal regulations regarding electronic cigarettes are still being worked on. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects electronic cigarettes have on the human’s health.

  2. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the global production of major crops are important drivers of food prices, food security and land use decisions. Average global yields for these commodities are determined by the performance of crops in millions of fields distributed across a range of management, soil and climate regimes. Despite the complexity of global food supply, here we show that simple measures of growing season temperatures and precipitation-spatial averages based on the locations of each crop-explain ∼30% or more of year-to-year variations in global average yields for the world's six most widely grown crops. For wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002. While these impacts are small relative to the technological yield gains over the same period, the results demonstrate already occurring negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields at the global scale

  3. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  4. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  5. Estimating the Impact and Spillover Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yield in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchway, E.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical regions of the world human-induced climate change is likely to impact negatively on crop yields. To investigate the impact of climate change and its spillover effect on mean and variance of crop yields in northern Ghana, the Just and Pope stochastic production function and the Spatial Durbin model were adopted. Surprisingly, the results suggest that both precipitation and average temperature have positive effects on mean crop yield during the wet season. Wet season average temperature has a significant spillover effect in the region, whereas precipitation during the wet season has only one significant spillover effect on maize yield. Wet season precipitation does not have a strong significant effect on crop yield despite the rainfed nature of agriculture in the region. Thus, even if there are losers and winners as a result of future climate change at the regional level, future crop yield would largely depend on future technological development in agriculture, which may improve yields over time despite the changing climate. We argue, therefore, that technical improvement in farm management such as improved seeds and fertilizers, conservation tillage and better pest control, may have a more significant role in increasing observed crop productivity levels over time. So investigating the relative importance of non-climatic factors on crop yield may shed more light on where appropriate interventions can help in improving crop yields. Climate change, also, needs to be urgently assessed at the level of the household, so that poor and vulnerable people dependent on agriculture can be appropriately targeted in research and development activities whose object is poverty alleviation.

  6. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  7. Assessing the Socioeconomic Impact of Transgenic Crops on Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South ... can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. ... Investigating the Social and Economic Impact of Public Access to Information and ...

  8. Impact of climate variability on various Rabi crops over Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, M. M.; Dhekale, B. S.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    The Indian agriculture with its two prominent cropping seasons [summer ( Kharif) and winter ( Rabi)] is the mainstay of the rural economy. Northwest India (NWI) is an important region for the cultivation of Rabi crops grown during the period from October to April. In the present study, state wise impact analysis is carried out to ascertain the influence of climate indices Nino3.4 region Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local precipitation, soil moisture, minimum ( T min), maximum ( T max) and mean ( T mean) temperatures on different Rabi crops (wheat, gram, rapeseed-mustard, oilseeds, and total Rabi food grains) over NWI during the years 1966-2011. To study the impact of climate variability on different Rabi crops, firstly, the influence of technology on the productivity of these crops has been removed by using linear function, as linear trend has noticed in all the time series. Correlation analysis provides an indication of the influence of local precipitation, soil moisture, T min, T max and T mean and some of its potential predictors (Nino3.4 region SST, SOI, AO, and NAO) on the productivity of different Rabi crops. Overall impact analysis indicates that the productivity of different Rabi crops in most of the places of NWI is most likely influenced by variability in local temperatures. Moreover, Nino3.4 region SST (SOI) positively (negatively) affects the productivity of gram, rapeseed-mustard, and total Rabi oilseeds in most of the states. The results of this study are useful in determining the strategies for increasing sustainable production through better agronomic practices.

  9. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  10. Adapting crop rotations to climate change in regional impact modelling assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Edmar I; de Ruiter, John; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle; Daigneault, Adam; Johnstone, Paul; Holmes, Allister; Tait, Andrew; Ewert, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The environmental and economic sustainability of future cropping systems depends on adaptation to climate change. Adaptation studies commonly rely on agricultural systems models to integrate multiple components of production systems such as crops, weather, soil and farmers' management decisions. Previous adaptation studies have mostly focused on isolated monocultures. However, in many agricultural regions worldwide, multi-crop rotations better represent local production systems. It is unclear how adaptation interventions influence crops grown in sequences. We develop a catchment-scale assessment to investigate the effects of tactical adaptations (choice of genotype and sowing date) on yield and underlying crop-soil factors of rotations. Based on locally surveyed data, a silage-maize followed by catch-crop-wheat rotation was simulated with the APSIM model for the RCP 8.5 emission scenario, two time periods (1985-2004 and 2080-2100) and six climate models across the Kaituna catchment in New Zealand. Results showed that direction and magnitude of climate change impacts, and the response to adaptation, varied spatially and were affected by rotation carryover effects due to agronomical (e.g. timing of sowing and harvesting) and soil (e.g. residual nitrogen, N) aspects. For example, by adapting maize to early-sowing dates under a warmer climate, there was an advance in catch crop establishment which enhanced residual soil N uptake. This dynamics, however, differed with local environment and choice of short- or long-cycle maize genotypes. Adaptation was insufficient to neutralize rotation yield losses in lowlands but consistently enhanced yield gains in highlands, where other constraints limited arable cropping. The positive responses to adaptation were mainly due to increases in solar radiation interception across the entire growth season. These results provide deeper insights on the dynamics of climate change impacts for crop rotation systems. Such knowledge can be used

  11. Socio-Environmental Impact Assessment of Oleaginous Crops for Biodiesel Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Socio-environmental impact assessments were carried out on oleaginous crops for biodiesel production under the context of expanding demand in five regions of Brazil. The study brought together representatives of the main interest groups in Delphi-type workshops. Major impacts are related with increases in demand for inputs, resources, and energy, with potential risks on water quality and habitat conservation. In some instances, management practices may improve soil quality, favoring habitats recovery. Crop intensification is expected to bring important contributions for farmer capacitation, income generation and sources diversity, as well as improved management and administration. Institutional especially designed local productive arrangements offer the best options for fostering sustainable development and avoiding environmental degradation risks, under the scenario of expanding demand on oleaginous crops for biodiesel production.

  12. Integrated Modeling of Crop Growth and Water Resource Management to Project Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. L.; Boehlert, B.; Reisenauer, M.; Strzepek, K. M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change poses substantial risks to African agriculture. These risks are exacerbated by concurrent risks to water resources, with water demand for irrigation comprising 80 to 90% of water withdrawals across the continent. Process-based crop growth models are able to estimate both crop demand for irrigation water and crop yields, and are therefore well-suited to analyses of climate change impacts at the food-water nexus. Unfortunately, impact assessments based on these models generally focus on either yields or water demand, rarely both. For this work, we coupled a crop model to a water resource management model in order to predict national trends in the impact of climate change on crop production, irrigation water demand, and the availability of water for irrigation across Africa. The crop model FAO AquaCrop-OS was run at 2ox2o resolution for 17 different climate futures from the CMIP5 archive, nine for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and eight for RCP8.5. Percent changes in annual rainfed and irrigated crop production and temporal shifts in monthly irrigation water demand were estimated for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2090 for maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, fruits & vegetables, roots & tubers, and legumes & soybeans. AquaCrop was then coupled to a water management model (WEAP) in order to project changes in the ability of seven major river basins (the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, Upper Orange, Volta, and Zambezi) to meet irrigation water demand out to 2050 in both average and dry years in the face of both climate change and irrigation expansion. Spatial and temporal trends were identified and interpreted through the lens of potential risk management strategies. Uncertainty in model estimates is reported and discussed.

  13. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  14. Impacts of climate variability and change on crop yield in sub-Sahara Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Chen, G.; Xu, R.; Zhang, B.; Lou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Much concern has been raised about the impacts of climate change and climate extremes on Africa's food security. The impact of climate change on Africa's agriculture is likely to be severe compared to other continents due to high rain-fed agricultural dependence, and limited ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change. In recent decades, warming in Africa is more pronounced and faster than the global average and this trend is likely to continue in the future. However, quantitative assessment on impacts of climate extremes and climate change on crop yield has not been well investigated yet. By using an improved agricultural module of the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2) driven by spatially-explicit information on land use, climate and other environmental changes, we have assessed impacts of historical climate variability and future climate change on food crop yield across the sub-Sahara Africa during1980-2016 and the rest of the 21st century (2017-2099). Our simulated results indicate that African crop yield in the past three decades shows an increasing trend primarily due to cropland expansion. However, crop yield shows substantially spatial and temporal variation due to inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and spatial heterogeneity of environmental drivers. Droughts have largely reduced crop yield in the most vulnerable regions of Sub-Sahara Africa. Future projections with DLEM-AG2 show that food crop production in Sub-Sahara Africa would be favored with limiting end-of-century warming to below 1.50 C.

  15. Assessing the impact of climate variability on cropping patterns in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, A.; Ndungu, L. W.; Ndubi, A. O.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Flores Cordova, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Climate variability coupled with over-reliance on rain-fed agricultural production on already strained land that is facing degradation and declining soil fertility; highly impacts food security in Africa. In Kenya, dependence on the approximately 20% of land viable for agricultural production under climate stressors such as variations in amount and frequency of rainfall within the main growing season in March-April-May(MAM) and changing temperatures influence production. With time, cropping zones have changed with the changing climatic conditions. In response, the needs of decision makers to effectively assess the current cropped areas and the changes in cropping patterns, SERVIR East and Southern Africa developed updated crop maps and change maps. Specifically, the change maps depict the change in cropping patterns between 2000 and 2015 with a further assessment done on important food crops such as maize. Between 2001 and 2015 a total of 5394km2 of land was converted to cropland with 3370km2 being conversion to maize production. However, 318 sq km were converted from maize to other crops or conversion to other land use types. To assess the changes in climatic conditions, climate parameters such as precipitation trends, variation and averages over time were derived from CHIRPs (Climate Hazards Infra-red Precipitation with stations) which is a quasi-global blended precipitation dataset available at a resolution of approximately 5km. Water Requirements Satisfaction Index (WRSI) water balance model was used to assess long term trends in crop performance as a proxy for maize yields. From the results, areas experiencing declining and varying precipitation with a declining WRSI index during the long rains displayed agricultural expansion with new areas being converted to cropland. In response to climate variability, farmers have converted more land to cropland instead of adopting better farming methods such as adopting drought resistant cultivars and using better farm

  16. Impact of heat stress on crop yield—on the importance of considering canopy temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan; Kage, Henning; Graß, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Increasing crop productivity while simultaneously reducing the environmental footprint of crop production is considered a major challenge for the coming decades. Even short episodes of heat stress can reduce crop yield considerably causing low resource use efficiency. Studies on the impact of heat stress on crop yields over larger regions generally rely on temperatures measured by standard weather stations at 2 m height. Canopy temperatures measured in this study in field plots of rye were up to 7 °C higher than air temperature measured at typical weather station height with the differences in temperatures controlled by soil moisture contents. Relationships between heat stress and grain number derived from controlled environment studies were only confirmed under field conditions when canopy temperature was used to calculate stress thermal time. By using hourly mean temperatures measured by 78 weather stations located across Germany for the period 1994–2009 it is estimated, that mean yield declines in wheat due to heat stress during flowering were 0.7% when temperatures are measured at 2 m height, but yield declines increase to 22% for temperatures measured at the ground. These results suggest that canopy temperature should be simulated or estimated to reduce uncertainty in assessing heat stress impacts on crop yield. (letter)

  17. Potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yield variability under a changing climate in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the largest farm area in the U.S, and its revenue from crop production ranks third overall. With the changing climate, hydrological extremes such as droughts are becoming more frequent and intensified, causing significant yield reduction in rainfed agricultural systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yields (corn, sorghum, and wheat) under a changing climate in Texas. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over 10 major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed in this study.The model is forced by a set of statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) that represent different greenhouse gas concentration (4.5 and 8.5 w/m2 are selected in this study). To carry out the analysis, VIC simulations from 1950 to 2099 are first analyzed to investigate how the frequency and severity of agricultural droughts will be altered in Texas (under a changing climate). Second, future crop yields are projected using a statistical crop model. Third, the effects of agricultural drought on crop yields are quantitatively analyzed. The results are expected to contribute to future water resources planning, with a goal of mitigating the negative impacts of future droughts on agricultural production in Texas.

  18. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  19. The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

  20. Game browse and its impact on selected grain crops

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cerkal, R.; Vejražka, K.; Kamler, Jiří; Dvořák, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 181-186 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : game damages * herbivores * defoliation * compensatory response * leaf area reduction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2009 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/uniqueFiles/07183.pdf

  1. 75 FR 24967 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication. DATES: June 24, 2010... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  2. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  3. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Ferry, N.; Edwards, M. G.; Bell, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids. PMID:21444317

  4. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M R; Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Bell, H A

    2011-05-12

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids.

  5. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  6. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of `As Low As Reasonably Achievable` would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  7. The Impact of Measurement Error on Estimates of the Price Reaction to USDA Crop Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Nelson, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of USDA crop production reports in corn and soybean futures markets. The analysis is based on all corn and soybean production reports released over 1970-2006. The empirical analysis compares the typical OLS event study approach to the new Identification by Censoring (ITC) technique. Corn and soybean production reports are analyzed both separately and together for impact in corn and soybean futures prices. ITC proves to be the more useful method because it av...

  8. Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ''The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,'' describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ''Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,'' discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality

  9. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  10. The impacts of climate change on crops in China: A Ricardian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Wu, Zhigang; Okamoto, Katsuo; Han, Xinru; Ma, Guoying; Chien, Hsiaoping; Zhao, Jing

    2013-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on China's agricultural production at a cross-provincial level using the Ricardian approach, incorporating a multilevel model with farm-level group data. The farm-level group data includes 13,379 farm households, across 316 villages, distributed in 31 provinces. The empirical results show that, firstly, the marginal effects and elasticities of net crop revenue per hectare with respect to climate factors indicated that the annual impact of temperature on net crop revenue per hectare was positive, and the effect of increased precipitation was negative when looking at the national totals; secondly, the total impact of simulated climate change scenarios on net crop revenues per hectare at a Chinese national total level, was an increase of between 79 USD per hectare and 207 USD per hectare for the 2050s, and an increase from 140 USD per hectare to 355 USD per hectare for the 2080s. As a result, climate change may create a potential advantage for the development of Chinese agriculture, rather than a risk, especially for agriculture in the provinces of the Northeast, Northwest and North regions. However, the increased precipitation can lead to a loss of net crop revenue per hectare, especially for the provinces of the Southwest, Northwest, North and Northeast regions.

  11. Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined impacts on yields, key variable costs of production, direct farm (gross) income and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has occurred at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2015. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $15.4 billion in 2015 and $167.8 billion for the 20 year period 1996–2015 (in nominal terms). These gains have been divided 49% to farmers in developed countries and 51% to farmers in developing countries. About 72% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 28% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 180 million tonnes and 358 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:28481684

  12. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $17.7 billion in 2014 and $150.3 billion for the 19-year period 1996–2014 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 65% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 35% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 158 million tonnes and 322 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:27116697

  13. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    abstract This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2013. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $20.5 billion in 2013 and $133.4 billion for the 18 years period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 70% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 30% coming from cost savings. The technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having added 138 million tonnes and 273 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:25738324

  14. Liming impacts on soils, crops and biodiversity in the UK: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J E; Bennett, A E; Newton, A C; White, P J; McKenzie, B M; George, T S; Pakeman, R J; Bailey, J S; Fornara, D A; Hayes, R C

    2018-01-01

    Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood. For instance, short-term liming impacts are detected on soil biota and in soil biological processes (such as in N cycling where liming can increase N availability for plant uptake). The impacts of liming on soil carbon storage are variable and strongly relate to soil type, land use, climate and multiple management factors. Liming influences all elements in soils and as such there are numerous simultaneous changes to soil processes which in turn affect the plant nutrient uptake; two examples of positive impact for crops are increased P availability and decreased uptake of toxic heavy metals. Soil physical conditions are at least maintained or improved by liming, but the time taken to detect change varies significantly. Arable crops differ in their sensitivity to soil pH and for most crops there is a positive yield response. Liming also introduces implications for the development of different crop diseases and liming management is adjusted according to crop type within a given rotation. Repeated lime applications tend to improve grassland biomass production, although grassland response is variable and indirect as it relates to changes in nutrient availability. Other indicators of liming response in grassland are detected in mineral content and herbage quality which have implications for livestock-based production systems. Ecological studies have shown positive impacts of liming on biodiversity; such as increased earthworm abundance that

  15. Energy Crop-Based Biogas as Vehicle Fuel—The Impact of Crop Selection on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from six agricultural crops was analysed regarding energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG performance for vehicle fuel from a field-to-tank perspective, with focus on critical parameters and on calculation methods. The energy efficiency varied from 35% to 44%, expressed as primary energy input per energy unit vehicle gas produced. The GHG reduction varied from 70% to 120%, compared with fossil liquid fuels, when the GHG credit of the digestate produced was included through system expansion according to the calculation methodology in the ISO 14044 standard of life cycle assessment. Ley crop-based biogas systems led to the highest GHG reduction, due to the significant soil carbon accumulation, followed by maize, wheat, hemp, triticale and sugar beet. Critical parameters are biogenic nitrous oxide emissions from crop cultivation, for which specific emission factors for digestate are missing today, and methane leakage from biogas production. The GHG benefits were reduced and the interrelation between the crops changed, when the GHG calculations were instead based on the methodology stated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive, where crop contribution to soil carbon accumulation is disregarded. All systems could still reach a 60% GHG reduction, due to the improved agricultural management when digestate replaces mineral fertilisers.

  16. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  17. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEGM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3

  18. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... adjustments). However, these effects vary across regions: Southeast China experienced land-saving and water-using changes, while other regions underwent land- and water-saving changes. In general, China's grain output growth has increased the total amount of land and water needed, implying more severe...... played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern...

  19. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  1. Increasing crop production in Russia and Ukraine—regional and global impacts from intensification and recultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Andre; Balkovič, Juraj; Bundle, Sophie-Charlotte; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Havlik, Petr; Leclère, David; Lesiv, Myroslava; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Russia and Ukraine are countries with relatively large untapped agricultural potentials, both in terms of abandoned agricultural land and substantial yield gaps. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of Russian and Ukrainian crop production potentials and we analyze possible impacts of their future utilization, on a regional as well as global scale. To this end, the total amount of available abandoned land and potential yields in Russia and Ukraine are estimated and explicitly implemented in an economic agricultural sector model. We find that cereal (barley, corn, and wheat) production in Russia and Ukraine could increase by up to 64% in 2030 to 267 million tons, compared to a baseline scenario. Oilseeds (rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower) production could increase by 84% to 50 million tons, respectively. In comparison to the baseline, common net exports of Ukraine and Russia could increase by up to 86.3 million tons of cereals and 18.9 million tons of oilseeds in 2030, representing 4% and 3.6% of the global production of these crops, respectively. Furthermore, we find that production potentials due to intensification are ten times larger than potentials due to recultivation of abandoned land. Consequently, we also find stronger impacts from intensification at the global scale. A utilization of crop production potentials in Russia and Ukraine could globally save up to 21 million hectares of cropland and reduce average global crop prices by more than 3%.

  2. Ground-level O3 pollution and its impacts on food crops in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Enzhu; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) pollution has become one of the top environmental issues in China, especially in those economically vibrant and densely populated regions. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the O 3 concentration observation and O 3 effects on food crops throughout China. Data from 118 O 3 monitoring sites reported in the literature show that the variability of O 3 concentration is a function of geographic location. The impacts of O 3 on food crops (wheat and rice) were studied at five sites, equipped with Open Top Chamber or O 3 -FACE (free-air O 3 concentration enrichment) system. Based on exposure concentration and stomatal O 3 flux–response relationships obtained from the O 3 -FACE experimental results in China, we found that throughout China current and future O 3 levels induce wheat yield loss by 6.4–14.9% and 14.8–23.0% respectively. Some policies to reduce ozone pollution and impacts are suggested. - Highlights: • Ozone concentrations are increasing in most of regions of China. • Ozone has caused high yield loss of food crops in China. • More species and local varieties should be investigated for ozone sensitivity. • Developing the air quality standards for crops is required in China. • More air quality stations in the rural are needed. - Ground-level ozone is one of the most serious environmental pollutants for food production in China

  3. Impact of Cropping Systems, Soil Inoculum, and Plant Species Identity on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Johnson, Stephen P; Miller, Zach J; Lehnhoff, Erik A; Olivo, Sarah; Yeoman, Carl J; Menalled, Fabian D

    2017-02-01

    Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P soil contained more Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while the sterile inoculum soil had more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.

  4. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Demands and Crop Yields in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, M. K.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Young, C. A.; Huntington, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Long term planning for the management of California's water resources requires assessment of the effects of future climate changes on both water supply and demand. Considerable progress has been made on the evaluation of the effects of future climate changes on water supplies but less information is available with regard to water demands. Uncertainty in future climate projections increases the difficulty of assessing climate impacts and evaluating long range adaptation strategies. Compounding the uncertainty in the future climate projections is the fact that most readily available downscaled climate projections lack sufficient meteorological information to compute evapotranspiration (ET) by the widely accepted ASCE Penman-Monteith (PM) method. This study addresses potential changes in future Central Valley water demands and crop yields by examining the effects of climate change on soil evaporation, plant transpiration, growth and yield for major types of crops grown in the Central Valley of California. Five representative climate scenarios based on 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP 3 GCM climate simulations were developed using the hybrid delta ensemble method to span a wide range future climate uncertainty. Analysis of historical California Irrigation Management Information System meteorological data was combined with several meteorological estimation methods to compute future solar radiation, wind speed and dew point temperatures corresponding to the GCM projected temperatures and precipitation. Future atmospheric CO2 concentrations corresponding to the 5 representative climate projections were developed based on weighting IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The Land, Atmosphere, and Water Simulator (LAWS) model was used to compute ET and yield changes in the early, middle and late 21st century for 24 representative agricultural crops grown in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins. Study results indicate that changes in ET and yield vary

  5. Impacts of Agro-Ecological Practices on Soil Losses and Cash Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Benedetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of agro-ecological practices on soil losses, by assessing experimental field topography changes and cauliflower crop yield after an artificial extreme rainfall event. Data were collected in an innovative experimental device in which different combined agronomic strategies were tested such as hydraulic arrangement, crop rotations and agro-ecological service crops (ASC introduction. The collection of elevation data was carried out in kinematic way before rainfall, and in punctual surveys to evaluate the effects of artificial event on this parameter. Non-parametric tests were performed to evaluate differences between samples. High-resolution digital elevation models were generated from independent data using kriging, and elevation difference maps were produced. The results indicated that the data before and after the artificial rainfall were statistically different. The raised strips suffered soil loss showing that the strip with permanent intercropping was higher than that in the absence of ASC. A significant rise of elevation was registered in the furrowed strips after rainfall, and deposition of soil occurred at the lowest areas of the experimental field. Moreover, the study showed a relationship between cash crop yield and elevation: the areas with lower elevation (higher flooding were characterized by the lowest yield.

  6. Assessment of the phenology impact on SVAT modelling through a crop growth model over a Mediterranean crop site : Consequences on the water balance under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, S.; Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Ruget, F.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Lecharpentier, P.; Ripoche, D.; Launay, M.; Brisson, N.

    2012-04-01

    In the coming years, water resources and vegetation production of Mediterranean areas will be drastically affected by climate changes as well as intense and rapid changes in the land use. The impact of climate and land-use changes on water balance and vegetation production can be analysed and predicted through land surface models, provided that the uncertainties associated to these models and to the data used to run them are evaluated. Vegetation phenology is generally poorly taken into account in land surface models and may be a substantial source of uncertainties for global change scenario studies. In this paper, we discuss the improvement obtained in Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling by taking into account the phenology using a crop growth model, focusing on the water budget, over a Mediterranean crop site. The STICS model (Brisson et al, 1998) is used to simulate crop processes (growth and development, taking into account water and nitrogen exchanges between the environment and the crop). STICS describes the vegetation phenology very accurately and was validated for many types of crop and various pedoclimatic conditions. The SVAT model being analyzed is the a-gs version (Calvet et al., 1998) of the ISBA model (Noilhan et al, 1989), which simulates the photosynthesis and calculates the plant biomass and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) using a simple growth model. In STICS, the phenology is driven by the sum of daily air temperatures, which is quite realistic, while in ISBA, the phenology is driven by the plant carbon assimilation. Measurements (vegetation characteristics, soil properties, agricultural practises, energy and water balance) performed in the lower Rhone valley experimental area (Avignon, France) are used as well as long series of climatic data (past records and future simulations). In a first step, by running STICS and ISBA for maize and wheat crops with long series of climatic data, including future scenarios of climate (CLIMATOR

  7. Evaluation of Bioenergy Crop Growth and the Impacts Of Bioenergy Crops on Streamflow, Tile Drain Flow and Nutrient Losses Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Gitau, M. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.; Kiniry, J. R.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenery crops are expected to produce large quantities of biofuel at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study bioenergy crop growth and the impacts on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstocks. In this study, SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine (DRAINMOD routine) and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, total nitrogen, nitrate load in flow, nitrate in tile flow, soluble nitrogen, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, mineral phosphorus and organic phosphorus under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields matched with observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (66,439 Mg/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (19,039 Mg/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production. Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of Miscanthus, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar on highly erodible areas, marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment load and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with production of other bioenergy crops. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwestern U.S.

  8. Variability in environmental impacts of Brazilian soybean according to crop production and transport scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Spies, Airton; Soares, Sebastião Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Soybean production and its supply chain are highly dependent on inputs such as land, fertilizer, fuel, machines, pesticides and electricity. The expansion of this crop in Brazil in recent decades has generated concerns about its environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, two representative chains supplying soybeans to Europe were identified: Center West (CW) and Southern (SO) Brazil. Each supply chain was analyzed using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. We considered different levels of use of chemical and organic fertilizers, pesticides and machinery, different distances for transportation of inputs and different yield levels. Because transportation contributed strongly to environmental impacts, a detailed study was performed to identify the routes used to transport soybeans to seaports. Additionally, we considered different levels of land occupation and land transformation to represent the impact of deforestation in the CW region. Environmental impacts were calculated for 1000 kg of soybean up to and including the delivery to Europe at the seaport in Rotterdam, at 13% humidity. Overall results showed that the impacts are greater for CW than for SO for all impact categories studied, including acidification (7.7 and 5.3 kg SO(2) eq., respectively), climate change (959 and 510 kg CO(2) eq.), cumulative energy demand (12,634 and 6,999 MJ) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (4.9 and 3.1 kg 1,4-DCB eq.), except eutrophication and land occupation. The same trend was observed for the crop-production stage. Efforts to reduce chemical fertilizers and diesel consumption can reduce CO(2) emissions. Although deforestation for crop production has decreased in recent years, the contribution of deforestation to climate change and cumulative energy demand remains significant. In the CW scenario deforestation contributed 29% to climate change and 20% to cumulative energy demand. Results also showed that although there are different transportation options in Brazil, the current

  9. Impact on Dietary Intake of Removable Partial Dentures Replacing a Small Number of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth.

  10. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential enviromental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Harris, C.; Stephenson, G.R.; Unsworth, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition,

  11. Coupled Crop/Hydrology Model to Estimate Expanded Irrigation Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handyside, C. T.; Cruise, J.

    2017-12-01

    A coupled agricultural and hydrologic systems model is used to examine the environmental impact of irrigation in the Southeast. A gridded crop model for the Southeast is used to determine regional irrigation demand. This irrigation demand is used in a regional hydrologic model to determine the hydrologic impact of irrigation. For the Southeast to maintain/expand irrigated agricultural production and provide adaptation to climate change and climate variability it will require integrated agricultural and hydrologic system models that can calculate irrigation demand and the impact of the this demand on the river hydrology. These integrated models can be used as (1) historical tools to examine vulnerability of expanded irrigation to past climate extremes (2) future tools to examine the sustainability of expanded irrigation under future climate scenarios and (3) a real-time tool to allow dynamic water resource management. Such tools are necessary to assure stakeholders and the public that irrigation can be carried out in a sustainable manner. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version of the crop modeling system (DSSAT). The gridded model is referred to as GriDSSAT. The irrigation demand from GriDSSAT is coupled to a regional hydrologic model developed by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service) (WaSSI). The crop model provides the dynamic irrigation demand which is a function of the weather. The hydrologic model includes all other competing uses of water. Examples of use the crop model coupled with the hydrologic model include historical analyses which show the change in hydrology as additional acres of irrigated land are added to water sheds. The first order change in hydrology is computed in terms of changes in the Water Availability Stress Index (WASSI) which is the ratio of water demand (irrigation, public water supply, industrial use, etc.) and water availability from the hydrologic model. Also

  12. Old Dog New Tricks: Use of Point-based Crop Models in Grid-based Regional Assessment of Crop Management Technologies Impact on Future Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, J.; Wood, S.; Cenacchi, N.; Fisher, M.; Cox, C.

    2012-12-01

    HarvestChoice (harvestchoice.org) generates knowledge products to guide strategic investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A keynote component of the HarvestChoice analytical framework is a grid-based overlay of SSA - a cropping simulation platform powered by process-based, crop models. Calibrated around the best available representation of cropping production systems in SSA, the simulation platform engages the DSSAT Crop Systems Model with the CENTURY Soil Organic Matter model (DSSAT-CENTURY) and provides a virtual experimentation module with which to explore the impact of a range of technological, managerial and environmental metrics on future crop productivity and profitability, as well as input use. For each of 5 (or 30) arc-minute grid cells in SSA, a stack of model input underlies it: datasets that cover soil properties and fertility, historic and future climate scenarios and farmers' management practices; all compiled from analyses of existing global and regional databases and consultations with other CGIAR centers. Running a simulation model is not always straightforward, especially when certain cropping systems or management practices are not even practiced by resource-poor farmers yet (e.g., precision agriculture) or they were never included in the existing simulation framework (e.g., water harvesting). In such cases, we used DSSAT-CENTURY as a function to iteratively estimate relative responses of cropping systems to technology-driven changes in water and nutrient balances compared to zero-adoption by farmers, while adjusting model input parameters to best mimic farmers' implementation of technologies in the field. We then fed the results of the simulation into to the economic and food trade model framework, IMPACT, to assess the potential implications on future food security. The outputs of the overall simulation analyses are packaged as a web-accessible database and published

  13. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses

  14. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank J.; Raes, Frank; Krol, Maarten C.; Emberson, Lisa; Cofala, Janusz

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are based on the relatively optimistic "current legislation (CLE) scenario", i.e. assuming that currently approved air quality legislation will be fully implemented by the year 2030, without a further development of new abatement policies. For both runs, the relative yield loss due to ozone damage is evaluated based on two different indices (accumulated concentration above a 40 ppbV threshold and seasonal mean daytime ozone concentration respectively) on a global, regional and national scale. The cumulative metric appears to be far less robust than the seasonal mean, while the seasonal mean shows satisfactory agreement with measurements in Europe, the US, China and Southern India and South-East Asia. Present day global relative yield losses are estimated to range between 7% and 12% for wheat, between 6% and 16% for soybean, between 3% and 4% for rice, and between 3% and 5% for maize (range resulting from different metrics used). Taking into account possible biases in our assessment, introduced through the global application of "western" crop exposure-response functions, and through model performance in reproducing ozone-exposure metrics, our estimates may be considered as being conservative. Under the 2030 CLE scenario, the global situation is expected to deteriorate mainly for wheat (additional 2-6% loss globally) and rice (additional 1-2% loss globally). India, for which no mitigation measures have been assumed by 2030, accounts for 50% of these global increase in crop yield loss. On a regional-scale, significant reductions in crop losses by CLE-2030 are only predicted in Europe (soybean) and China (wheat). Translating these assumed yield losses into total global economic

  15. An Analysis of the Impact of Heat Waves in Labor and Crop Productivity in the Agricultural Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.; Gilless, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    California agriculture is an important economic activity for the state. California leads the nation in farms sales since 1950. In addition, agricultural employment in California reached approximately 410,000. Production of many fruits and vegetables is labor intensive and labor costs represent anywhere from 20% to 40% of total production costs. In additon, agricutlural production growth has been the highest for labor intensive crops such as berries (all types) and nuts. Given the importance of the agricultural sector and the labor component whithin it, the analysis of the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector of California becomes imperative. Heat waves are a weather related extreme that impact labor productivity, specially outdoor labor producitivity. We use crop production function analysis that incorporates socio economic variables such as crop prices, total acreage, production levels and harvest timiline with climate related variables such as an estimated Heat Index (HI) to analize the impact of heat waves on crop production via an impact on labor productivity for selected crops in the Central and Imperial Valleys in California. The analysis finds that the impact of heat waves varies by the degree of labor intensity of the crop and the relative intensity of the heat wave.

  16. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on the outcome after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Vukadinovic, Davor; Cvijanovic, Dane; Celic, Vera; Kocica, Mladen; Putnik, Svetozar; Ivanovic, Branislava

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the metabolic syndrome on the left ventricular geometry as well as on the early and mid-time outcome in patients with aortic stenosis who underwent aortic valve replacement. The study included 182 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement due to aortic stenosis. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the presence of at least three AHA-NHLB (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute) criteria. All the patients were followed for at least 2 years after the surgery. The metabolic syndrome did not influence the severity of aortic stenosis (mean gradient and aortic valve area). However, the metabolic syndrome was associated with the reduced prevalence of the normal left ventricular geometry and the increased risk of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with aortic stenosis. Among the metabolic syndrome criteria, only increased blood pressure was simultaneously associated with the short-term and mid-term outcome, independently of other risk factors. Increased fasting glucose level was an independent predictor of the only 30-day outcome after the valve replacement. The metabolic syndrome and left ventricular hypertrophy were, independently of hypertension and diabetes, associated with the 30-day outcome, as well as incidence of major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in the 2-year postoperative period. The metabolic syndrome does not change severity of the aortic stenosis, but significantly impacts the left ventricular remodeling in these patients. The metabolic syndrome and left ventricular hypertrophy, irrespective of hypertension and diabetes, are predictors of the short-term and mid-term outcome of patients with aortic stenosis who underwent aortic valve replacement.

  17. The Impact of Traditional Culture on Farmers’ Moral Hazard Behavior in Crop Production: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To obtain higher yields, farmers may excessively use pesticides when they grow crops (like rice, vegetables, or fruit, causing moral hazard behavior. This paper examines how Chinese farmers’ moral hazard behavior in crop production is influenced by their traditional culture. A semi-parametric logistic model is used to investigate the impact of Chinese traditional culture on farmers’ moral hazard behavior. The results reveal that Chinese traditional culture has a positive effect on ameliorating the farmers’ excessive use of pesticides in crop production, which leads to a moral hazard in agro-product safety. Specifically, when we control for extraneous variables, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 15% if farmers consider their traditional culture in their production decisions. Moreover, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 17% if farmers consider the traditional culture as a powerful restraint regarding the use of pesticides. Our analysis provides some supportive evidence on the effect of Chinese traditional culture on mitigating farmers’ excessive use of pesticides.

  18. Temporal changes in climatic variables and their impact on crop yields in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Gou, Yu; Wang, Hong-Ye; Li, Hong-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of variability in climatic variables changes and its impact on crop yields is important for farmers and policy makers, especially in southwestern China where rainfed agriculture is dominant. In the current study, six climatic parameters (mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine hours, temperature difference, and rainy days) and aggregated yields of three main crops (rice: Oryza sativa L., oilseed rape: Brassica napus L., and tobacco: Nicotiana tabacum L.) during 1985-2010 were collected and analyzed for Chongqing-a large agricultural municipality of China. Climatic variables changes were detected by Mann-Kendall test. Increased mean temperature and temperature difference and decreased relative humidity were found in annual and oilseed rape growth time series (Pchanges in climatic variables in this region. Yield of rice increased with rainfall (Pclimatic variables to crop yields. Temperature difference and sunshine hours had higher direct and indirect effects via other climatic variables on yields of rice and tobacco. Mean temperature, relative humidity, rainy days, and temperature difference had higher direct and indirect effects via others on yield of oilseed rape.

  19. Environmental impact of converting Conservation Reserve Program land to perennial bioenergy crops in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Betes, E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels by the 20% by 2022 mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act would require 35 billion Ga of ethanol and the loss of 9 to 12 Mha of food producing land to biofuel production, challenging our ability to develop a sustainable bioenergy source while meeting the food demands of a growing population. There are currently 8.5 Mha of land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), a US government funded program to incentivize the retirement of environmentally sensitive cropland out of conventional crop production. About 63% of CRP land area could potentially be converted to energy crops, contributing to biofuel targets without displacing food. With high yields and low fertilization and irrigation requirements, perennial cellulosic crops (e.g. switchgrass and Miscanthus) not only would reduce land requirements by up to 15% compared to prairies or corn-based biofuel, but also serve other conservation goals such as C sequestration in soils, and water and air quality improvement. Here, we use the DayCent biogeochemical model to assess the potential of CRP land conversion to switchgrass or Miscanthus to provide a sustainable source of biofuel, reduce GHG emissions and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the area of Illinois, which at present contributes to 10% of the biofuel production in the US. Model simulations indicate that the replacement of traditional corn-soy rotation with CRP reduces GHG emissions by 3.3 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 and increases SOC storage at a rate of 0.5 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Conversion of CRP land to cellulosic perennials would further reduce GHG emissions by 1.1 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for switchgrass and 6.2 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for Miscanthus, and increase C sequestration in soils (1.7 Tg C for switchgrass and 7.7 Tg C for Miscanthus in 30 years). Cellulosic energy crops would increase average annual yields by approximately 5.6 Mg ha-1 for switchgrass and 13.6 Mg ha-1 for Miscanthus, potentially

  20. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  1. CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) for weather impact assessment on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommes, René; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Ning; Feng, Xueliang; Zeng, Hongwei; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-01

    CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) are a monitoring tool developed by the CropWatch global crop monitoring system in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; http://www.cropwatch.com.cn, Wu et al Int J Digital Earth 7(2):113-137, 2014, Wu et al Remote Sens 7:3907-3933, 2015). Contrary to most other environmental and agroclimatic indicators, they are "agronomic value-added", i.e. they are spatial values averaged over agricultural areas only and they include a weighting that enhances the contribution of the areas with the largest production potential. CWAIs can be computed for any time interval (starting from dekads) and yield one synthetic value per variable over a specific area and time interval, for instance a national annual value. Therefore, they are very compatible with socio-economic and other variables that are usually reported at regular time intervals over administrative units, such as national environmental or agricultural statistics. Two of the CWAIs are satellite-based (RAIN and Photosynthetically Active radiation, PAR) while the third is ground based (TEMP, air temperature); capitals are used when specifically referring to CWAIs rather than the climate variables in general. The paper first provides an overview of some common agroclimatic indicators, describing their procedural, systemic and normative features in subsequent sections, following the terminology of Binder et al Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:71-81 (2010). The discussion focuses on the systemic and normative aspects: the CWAIs are assessed in terms of their coherent description of the agroclimatic crop environment, at different spatial scales (systemic). The final section shows that the CWAIs retain key statistical properties of the underlying climate variables and that they can be compared to a reference value and used as monitoring and early warning variables (normative).

  2. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: weiwu@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Ma, Baoluo, E-mail: Baoluo.Ma@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  3. CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) for weather impact assessment on global agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommes, René; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Ning; Feng, Xueliang; Zeng, Hongwei; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-01

    CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) are a monitoring tool developed by the CropWatch global crop monitoring system in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; www.cropwatch.com.cn , Wu et al Int J Digital Earth 7(2):113-137, 2014, Wu et al Remote Sens 7:3907-3933, 2015). Contrary to most other environmental and agroclimatic indicators, they are "agronomic value-added", i.e. they are spatial values averaged over agricultural areas only and they include a weighting that enhances the contribution of the areas with the largest production potential. CWAIs can be computed for any time interval (starting from dekads) and yield one synthetic value per variable over a specific area and time interval, for instance a national annual value. Therefore, they are very compatible with socio-economic and other variables that are usually reported at regular time intervals over administrative units, such as national environmental or agricultural statistics. Two of the CWAIs are satellite-based (RAIN and Photosynthetically Active radiation, PAR) while the third is ground based (TEMP, air temperature); capitals are used when specifically referring to CWAIs rather than the climate variables in general. The paper first provides an overview of some common agroclimatic indicators, describing their procedural, systemic and normative features in subsequent sections, following the terminology of Binder et al Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:71-81 (2010). The discussion focuses on the systemic and normative aspects: the CWAIs are assessed in terms of their coherent description of the agroclimatic crop environment, at different spatial scales (systemic). The final section shows that the CWAIs retain key statistical properties of the underlying climate variables and that they can be compared to a reference value and used as monitoring and early warning variables (normative).

  4. Biochar in vineyards: impact on soil quality and crop yield four years after the application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Verheijen, Frank; Puga, João; Keizer, Jacob; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is a recalcitrant organic carbon compound, created by biomass heating at high temperatures (300-1000°C) under low oxygen concentrations. Biochar application to agricultural soils has received increasing attention over the last years, due to its climate change mitigation and adaptation potential and reported improved soil properties and functions relevant to agronomic and environmental performance. Reported impacts are linked with increased cation exchange capacity, enhanced nutrient and water retention, and positive influences on soil microbial communities, which influence crop yields. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on mid-to-long term impacts of biochar application. This study investigated the impact of biochar on soil quality and crop yield four years after biochar application in a vineyard in North-Central Portugal. The site has a Mediterranean climate with a strong Atlantic Ocean influence, with mean annual rainfall and temperature of 1100 mm and 15°C, respectively. The soil is a relatively deep ( 80cm) sandy loam Cambisol, with gentle slopes (3°). The experimental design included three treatments: (i) control, without biochar; (ii) high biochar application rate (40 ton/ha); and (iii) biochar compost (40 ton/ha, 10% biochar). Three plots per treatment (2m×3m) were installed in March 2012, using a mini-rotavator (0-15cm depth). In May 2016, soil quality was also assessed through soil surveys and sampling. Penetration resistance was performed at the soil surface with a pocket penetrometer, and soil surface sampling rings were used for bulk density analyses (100 cm3). Bulked soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected in each plot for aggregate stability, microbial biomass (by chloroform fumigation extraction) and net mineralization rate (through photometric determination of non-incubated and incubated samples). Decomposition rate and litter stabilisation was assessed over a 3-month period through the Tea Bag Index (Keuskamp et al., 2013). The number

  5. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  6. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent's response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO's view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  7. The impact of steam generator replacement on PWR primary system contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacquait, F.; Marteau, H.; Guinard, L.; Ranchoux, G.; Taunier, S.; Wintergerst, M.; Bretelle, J.L.; Rocher, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) on PWR primary circuit contamination. It presents a comparison of the activities deposited inside the primary system and released during refuelling outages after SGR with three different SG tube alloys (600, 690 and 800) and different SG tube manufacturing processes. A SGR has a great impact on the primary system contamination. After SGR, whatever the SG tube material is, the typical variations are the following: The 58 Co contamination increases for 1 to 3 cycles, and then decreases to very low levels in some cases, mainly depending on the manufacturing process of the replacement SG tubes; The 60 Co Co contamination tends to decrease on the primary coolant pipes and increases by a lower rate on the new SG tubes. This analysis highlights the importance on contamination levels after SGR of both the corrosion product deposits on the primary surfaces before SGR and the surface finish of the SG tubes related to their manufacturing process. (author)

  8. Ideal crop plant architecture is mediated by tassels replace upper ears1, a BTB/POZ ankyrin repeat gene directly targeted by TEOSINTE BRANCHED1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaobin; Li, Wei; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Yang, Jinliang; Vollbrecht, Erik; Chuck, George

    2017-10-10

    Axillary branch suppression is a favorable trait bred into many domesticated crop plants including maize compared with its highly branched wild ancestor teosinte. Branch suppression in maize was achieved through selection of a gain of function allele of the teosinte branched1 (tb1) transcription factor that acts as a repressor of axillary bud growth. Previous work indicated that other loci may function epistatically with tb1 and may be responsible for some of its phenotypic effects. Here, we show that tb1 mediates axillary branch suppression through direct activation of the tassels replace upper ears1 ( tru1 ) gene that encodes an ankyrin repeat domain protein containing a BTB/POZ motif necessary for protein-protein interactions. The expression of TRU1 and TB1 overlap in axillary buds, and TB1 binds to two locations in the tru1 gene as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shifts. In addition, nucleotide diversity surveys indicate that tru1 , like tb1 , was a target of selection. In modern maize, TRU1 is highly expressed in the leaf trace vasculature of axillary internodes, while in teosinte, this expression is highly reduced or absent. This increase in TRU1 expression levels in modern maize is supported by comparisons of relative protein levels with teosinte as well as by quantitative measurements of mRNA levels. Hence, a major innovation in creating ideal maize plant architecture originated from ectopic overexpression of tru1 in axillary branches, a critical step in mediating the effects of domestication by tb1.

  9. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  10. Impacts of Past Land Use Changes on Water Resources: An Analog for Assessing Effects of Proposed Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Schilling, K.; Young, M.; Duncan, I. J.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.

    2011-12-01

    Interest is increasing in renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. However, potential impacts of bioenergy crops on water resources need to be better understood before large scale expansion occurs. This study evaluates the potential for using past land use change impacts on water resources as an analog for assessing future bioenergy crop effects. Impacts were assessed for two cases and methods: (1) changes from perennial to annual crops in the Midwest U.S. using stream hydrograph separation; and (2) changes from perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops in the Southwest U.S. using unsaturated zone and groundwater data. Results from the Midwest show that expanding the soybean production area by 80,000 km2 increased stream flow by 32%, based on data from Keokuk station in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Using these relationships, further expansion of annual corn production for biofuels by 10 - 50% would increase streamflow by up to 40%, with related increases in nitrate, phosphate, and sediment pollutant transport to the Gulf of Mexico. The changes in water partitioning are attributed to reducing evapotranspiration, increasing recharge and baseflow discharge to streams. Similar results were found in the southwestern US, where changes from native perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops increased recharge from ~0.0 to 24 mm/yr, raising water tables by up to 7 m in some regions and flushing accumulated salts into underlying aquifers in the southern High Plains. The changes in water partitioning are related to changes in rooting depth from deep rooted native vegetation to shallow rooted crops and growing season length. Further expansion of annual bioenergy crops, such as changes from Conservation Reserve Program to corn in the Midwest, will continue the trajectory of reducing ET, thereby increasing recharge and baseflow to streams and nutrient export. We hypothesize that changing bioenergy crops from annual crops to perennial grasses, such as switchgrass

  11. Cumulative impact of GM herbicide-tolerant cropping on arable plants assessed through species-based and functional taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Geoffrey R; Hawes, Cathy; Begg, Graham S; Young, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    .) In maize, 33% more species-a substantial increase-were accumulated in the GMHT than in the conventional, consistent with the latter's highly suppressive weed management using triazine herbicides. In the spring oilseed rape and beet, fewer species (around 10%) were accumulated in the GMHT than the conventional. The GMHT treatments did not remove or add any functional (life history) types, however. Differences in species accumulation between treatments appeared to be caused by loss or gain of rarer species. The generality of this effect was confirmed by simulations of species accumulation in which the species complement at each of 50 sites was drawn from a regional pool and subjected to reducing treatment at each site. Shifts in the species-accumulation parameters, comparable to those measured, occurred only when a treatment removed the rarer species at each site. Species accumulation provided a set of simple curve-parameters that captured the net result of numerous local effects of treatments on plant species and, in some instances, the balance between grass and broadleaf types. The direction of effect was not the same in the four crops and depended on the severity of the conventional treatment and on complex interactions between season, herbicide and crop. The accumulation curves gave an indication of potential positive or negative consequences for regional species pools of replacing a conventional practice with GMHT weed management. In this and related studies, a range of indicators, through which diversity was assessed by both species and functional type, and at both site and regional scales, gave more insight into effects of GMHT treatment than provided by any one indicator. Species accumulation was shown to discriminate at the regional scale between agronomic treatments that had little effect on species number at the field scale. While a comprehensive assessment of GM cropping needs to include an examination of regional effects, as here, the costs of doing this

  12. A modelling framework to assess climate change and adaptation impact on heterogeneous crop-livestock farming communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, P.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Chibwana, G.A.; Crespo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will impact the productivity of maize-based crop-livestock systems and the livelihoods of smallholders depending on them in semi-arid Zimbabwe. The large diversity in resource endowment and production objectives in rural communities differentially influences this impact and the

  13. Economic impacts of short-rotation woody crops for energy or oriented strand board: a Minnesota case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Lazarus; Douglas G. Tiffany; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2011-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid poplars are becoming increasingly competitive with agriculture on marginal land. The trees can be grown for energy and for traditional uses such as oriented strandboard. Using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) software, we modeled the impacts of shifting land use from hay and pasture for cow-calf beef operations to...

  14. 77 FR 28620 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade... to report biennially to the Congress by September 30 of each reporting year on the economic impact of...

  15. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jayne; Wang, Dong; Lilley, Catherine J; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode) for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  16. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Green

    Full Text Available Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  17. Impact of obesity on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement with a small prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Yang, Hongyang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xiquan; Zhu, Wenjie; Cao, Guangqing; Wu, Shuming

    2013-07-01

    Although many studies have evaluated the impact of obesity on various medical treatments, it is not known whether obesity is related to late mortality with implantation of small aortic prostheses. This study evaluated the effect of obesity on the late survival of patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with implantation of a small aortic prosthesis (size ≤ 21 mm). From January 1998 to December 2008, 307 patients in our institution who underwent primary AVR with smaller prostheses survived 30 days after surgery. Patients were categorized as normal weight if body mass index (BMI) was prosthesis. Obesity or/and overweight may also affect the NYHA classification, even in the longer term. EOAI should be improved where possible, as it may reduce late mortality and improve quality of life in obese or overweight patients.

  18. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit-Eisenmann, H.; Epailly, E.; Velten, M.; Radojevic, J.; Eisenmann, B.; Kremer, H.; Kindo, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). METHODS: The study

  19. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamy, Laure; Gabrielle, Benoit; Barriuso, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  20. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  1. Biomass supply from alternative cellulosic crops and crop residues: A spatially explicit bioeconomic modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, César R.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highlights: ► A new bioeconomic model predicts biomass supply and its environmental impacts. ► The model captures the opportunity cost of switching to new cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from crop residues is supplied at lower biomass price than cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from cellulosic crops has

  2. Modeling the impact of conservation agriculture on crop production and soil properties in Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussadek, Rachid; Mrabet, Rachid; Dahan, Rachid; Laghrour, Malika; Lembiad, Ibtissam; ElMourid, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In Morocco, rainfed agriculture is practiced in the majority of agricultural land. However, the intensive land use coupled to the irregular rainfall constitutes a serious threat that affect country's food security. Conservation agriculture (CA) represents a promising alternative to produce more and sustainably. In fact, the direct seeding showed high yield in arid regions of Morocco but its extending to other more humid agro-ecological zones (rainfall > 350mm) remains scarce. In order to promote CA in Morocco, differents trials have been installed in central plateau of Morocco, to compare CA to conventional tillage (CT). The yields of the main practiced crops (wheat, lentil and checkpea) under CA and CT were analyzed and compared in the 3 soils types (Vertisol, Cambisol and Calcisol). Also, we studied the effect of CA on soil organic matter (SOM) and soil losses (SL) in the 3 different sites. The APSIM model was used to model the long term impact of CA compared to CT. The results obtained in this research have shown favorable effects of CA on crop production, SOM and soil erosion. Key words: Conservation agriculture, yield, soil properties, modeling, APSIM, Morocco.

  3. Climate variability: Possible changes with climate change and impacts on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearns, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out of the sensitivity of the CERES wheat model, a deterministic crop-climate model, to changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. The study was designed to determine the effect of changed temperature variance on the mean and variance of the simulated yields, to compare the effect with the effect of mean temperature changes, and to determine the interacting effects of changes in mean and variance of temperature. The CERES model was applied to 29 cropping years (1952-1980), using three different soil types and two different management practices (fully irrigated and dryland). The coefficients of variation of the yields for irrigated and dryland conditions are plotted against variance change. It was found that in both management systems, the yield response is usually greater to increases rather than decreases in variance. The combined effect of mean and variance temperature changes are most striking under irrigated conditions, with a dramatic decrease in yield variability in the high mean climate change scenario with decreased temperature variance. This suggests that the variability decrease might mitigate the effect of a mean increase in temperature. This result is not found with the dryland case, where decreased temperature variability has little impact on yield variability. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Impact of agriculture crop residue burning on atmospheric aerosol loading – a study over Punjab State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the impact of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties during October 2006 and 2007 over Punjab State, India using ground based measurements and multi-satellite data. Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent (α values exhibited larger day to day variation during crop residue burning period. The monthly mean Ångström exponent "α" and turbidity parameter "β" values during October 2007 were 1.31±0.31 and 0.36±0.21, respectively. The higher values of "α" and "β" suggest turbid atmospheric conditions with increase in fine mode aerosols over the region during crop residue burning period. AURA-OMI derived Aerosol Index (AI and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 showed higher values over the study region during October 2007 compared to October 2006 suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  6. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on World Food Supply: Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study contain projected country and regional changes in grain crop yields due to global climate change. Equilibrium and transient...

  7. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Geospatial analysis. GIS Interpolation and other geospatial Analysis techniques were carried out to ... means of Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to plan crops ... rainwater variability on water availability for crop maize ...

  8. Biodiversity loss, emerging infectious diseases and impact on human and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Gilani, S.A.; Khan, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    We are losing biodiversity through several factors ranging from global warming, climatic change, unsustainable use of natural resources, human settlements, demand for food, medicine etc. Consequently, the biodiversity losses are causing emergence of infectious diseases (EIDs) which are making them more virulent than the past. Both biodiversity loss and emergence of diseases significantly impact the human derived benefits in-terms of economy and food. Ecological stability, productivity and food-web interactions are indirectly correlated with biodiversity and any change in these will cause losses in biodiversity that would certainly influence the human derived benefits and crops. The current article reviews the biodiversity losses and emerging infectious diseases at various levels reported by recent literature which will help in current status of EIDs and future recommendations. (author)

  9. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  10. Climatic Droughts and the Impacts on Crop Yields in Northern India during the Past Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has become an increasingly severe threat to water and food security recently. This study presents a novel method to calculate the return period of drought, considering drought as event characterized by expected drought inter-arrival time, duration, severity and peak intensity. Recently, Copula distribution, a multivariable probability distribution, is used to deal with strongly correlated variables in analyzing complex hydrologic phenomenon. This study assesses drought conditions in Northern India, including 8 sites, in the past century using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from two latest datasets, Dai (2011, 2013) and Sheffield et al. (2012), which concluded conflicting results about global average drought trend. Our results include the change of the severity, intensity and duration of drought events during the past century and the impact of the drought condition on crop yields in the region. It is found that drought variables are highly correlated, thus copulas joint distribution enables the estimation of multi-variate return period. Based on Dai's dataset from 1900 to 2012, for a fixed drought return period the severity and duration is lower for the period before1955 in sites close to the Indus basin (site 1) or off the coast of the Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) (site 8), while they are higher for the period after 1955 in other inland sites (sites 3-7), (e.g., severity in Fig.1). Projections based on two models (IPCC AR4 and AR5) in Dai (2011, 2013) suggested less severity and shorter duration in longer-year drought (e.g., 100-year drought), but larger in shorter-year drought (e.g., 2-year drought). Drought could bring nonlinear responses and unexpected losses in agriculture system, thus prediction and management are essential. Therefore, in the years with extreme drought conditions, impact assessment of drought on crop yield of corn, barley, wheat and sorghum will be also conducted through correlating crop yields with drought conditions during

  11. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  12. The impact of large-scale circulation patterns on summer crop yields in IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale circulations patterns (ENSO, NAO) have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather, and therefore on crop yield over many parts of the world(Garnett and Khandekar, 1992; Aasa et al., 2004; Rozas and Garcia-Gonzalez, 2012). In this study, we analyze the influence of large-scale circulation patterns and regional climate on the principal components of maize yield variability in Iberian Peninsula (IP) using reanalysis datasets. Additionally, we investigate the modulation of these relationships by multidecadal patterns. This study is performed analyzing long time series of maize yield, only climate dependent, computed with the crop model CERES-maize (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5). To simulate yields, reanalysis daily data of radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation were used. The reanalysis climate data were obtained from National Center for Environmental Prediction (20th Century and NCEP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data server (ERA 40 and ERA Interim). Simulations were run at five locations: Lugo (northwestern), Lerida (NE), Madrid (central), Albacete (southeastern) and Córdoba (S IP) (Gabaldón et al., 2013). From these time series standardized anomalies were calculated. Afterwards, time series were time filtered to focus on the interannual-to-multiannual variability, splitting up in two components: low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) time scales. The principal components of HF yield anomalies in IP were compared with a set of documented patterns. These relationships were compared with multidecadal patterns, as Atlanctic Multidecadal Oscillations (AMO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillations (IPO). The results of this study have important implications in crop forecasting. In this way, it may have a positive impact on both public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance

  13. Impacts of previous crops on Fusarium foot and root rot, and on yields of durum wheat in North West Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia CHEKALI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ten previous crop rotations (cereals, legumes and fallow on Fusarium foot and root rot of durum wheat were investigated for three cropping seasons in a trial established in 2004 in Northwest Tunisia. Fungi isolated from the roots and stem bases were identified using morphological and molecular methods, and were primarily Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. Under low rainfall conditions, the previous crop affected F. pseudograminearum incidence on durum wheat roots but not F. culmorum. Compared to continuous cropping of durum wheat, barley as a previous crop increased disease incidence more than fivefold, while legumes and fallow tended to reduce incidence.  Barley as a previous crop increased wheat disease severity by 47%, compared to other rotations. Grain yield was negatively correlated with the incidence of F. culmorum infection, both in roots and stem bases, and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.61 for roots and -0.77 for stem bases, P<0.0001. Fusarium pseudograminearum was also negatively correlated with yield and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.53 on roots and -0.71 on stem bases, P < 0.0001 but was not correlated with severity.

  14. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, D.G. de la; Shapouri, H.; Slinsky, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  15. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M; McCarty, Gregory W; Hively, W Dean; Lang, Megan W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  16. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Lee

    Full Text Available The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC. The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean, with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  17. Using statistical model to simulate the impact of climate change on maize yield with climate and crop uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi; Chen, Sining

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the impact of climate change on crop productions with considering uncertainties is essential for properly identifying and decision-making agricultural practices that are sustainable. In this study, we employed 24 climate projections consisting of the combinations of eight GCMs and three emission scenarios representing the climate projections uncertainty, and two crop statistical models with 100 sets of parameters in each model representing parameter uncertainty within the crop models. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield at three locations (Benxi, Changling, and Hailun) across Northeast China (NEC) in periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069, taking 1976-2005 as the baseline period. The multi-models ensembles method is an effective way to deal with the uncertainties. The results of ensemble simulations showed that maize yield reductions were less than 5 % in both future periods relative to the baseline. To further understand the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty, such as climate projections and crop model parameters, in ensemble yield simulations, variance decomposition was performed. The results indicated that the uncertainty from climate projections was much larger than that contributed by crop model parameters. Increased ensemble yield variance revealed the increasing uncertainty in the yield simulation in the future periods.

  18. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  20. Simulated vs. empirical weather responsiveness of crop yields: US evidence and implications for the agricultural impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malcolm N.; Wing, Ian Sue; De Cian, Enrica

    2017-07-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are the workhorse of assessments of the agricultural impacts of climate change. Yet the changes in crop yields projected by different models in response to the same meteorological forcing can differ substantially. Through an inter-method comparison, we provide a first glimpse into the origins and implications of this divergence—both among GGCMs and between GGCMs and historical observations. We examine yields of rainfed maize, wheat, and soybeans simulated by six GGCMs as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project-Fast Track (ISIMIP-FT) exercise, comparing 1981-2004 hindcast yields over the coterminous United States (US) against US Department of Agriculture (USDA) time series for about 1000 counties. Leveraging the empirical climate change impacts literature, we estimate reduced-form econometric models of crop yield responses to temperature and precipitation exposures for both GGCMs and observations. We find that up to 60% of the variance in both simulated and observed yields is attributable to weather variation. A majority of the GGCMs have difficulty reproducing the observed distribution of percentage yield anomalies, and exhibit aggregate responses that show yields to be more weather-sensitive than in the observational record over the predominant range of temperature and precipitation conditions. This disparity is largely attributable to heterogeneity in GGCMs’ responses, as opposed to uncertainty in historical weather forcings, and is responsible for widely divergent impacts of climate on future crop yields.

  1. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  2. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA) were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya) contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a) primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b) primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully. PMID:21812981

  3. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuly Fatemeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV, Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully.

  4. Impacts of ozone air pollution and temperature extremes on crop yields: Spatial variability, adaptation and implications for future food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Amos P. K.; Val Martin, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Ozone air pollution and climate change pose major threats to global crop production, with ramifications for future food security. Previous studies of ozone and warming impacts on crops typically do not account for the strong ozone-temperature correlation when interpreting crop-ozone or crop-temperature relationships, or the spatial variability of crop-to-ozone sensitivity arising from varietal and environmental differences, leading to potential biases in their estimated crop losses. Here we develop an empirical model, called the partial derivative-linear regression (PDLR) model, to estimate the spatial variations in the sensitivities of wheat, maize and soybean yields to ozone exposures and temperature extremes in the US and Europe using a composite of multidecadal datasets, fully correcting for ozone-temperature covariation. We find generally larger and more spatially varying sensitivities of all three crops to ozone exposures than are implied by experimentally derived concentration-response functions used in most previous studies. Stronger ozone tolerance is found in regions with high ozone levels and high consumptive crop water use, reflecting the existence of spatial adaptation and effect of water constraints. The spatially varying sensitivities to temperature extremes also indicate stronger heat tolerance in crops grown in warmer regions. The spatial adaptation of crops to ozone and temperature we find can serve as a surrogate for future adaptation. Using the PDLR-derived sensitivities and 2000-2050 ozone and temperature projections by the Community Earth System Model, we estimate that future warming and unmitigated ozone pollution can combine to cause an average decline in US wheat, maize and soybean production by 13%, 43% and 28%, respectively, and a smaller decline for European crops. Aggressive ozone regulation is shown to offset such decline to various extents, especially for wheat. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering ozone regulation

  5. Impact of Valvuloarterial Impedance on Concentric Remodeling in Aortic Stenosis and Its Regression after Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong Yoon; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricle (LV) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) faces a double hemodynamic load incorporating both valvular stenosis and reduced systemic arterial compliance (SAC). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of global LV afterload on LV hypertrophy (LVH) before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The study cohort included 453 patients (247 males; mean age, 64 ± 11 years) who underwent AVR. Pre- and post-AVR echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analyzed including an index of valvuloarterial impedance (Z VA ) and LV mass index/LV end-diastolic volume index (LVMI/LVEDVI) as a parameter of LVH. Pre-AVR LVMI/LVEDVI was 2.7 ± 0.9 g/mL with an aortic valve area (AVA) of 0.6 ± 0.2 cm 2 . Z VA was 5.9 ± 1.9 mm Hg/mL/m 2 and showed a stronger correlation (β = 0.601, p regression in 322 patients with follow-up duration >1 year after AVR. Z VA is a major determinant of concentric remodeling in AS before AVR and LVH regression after AVR, which should be incorporated in routine evaluation of AS.

  6. Efficacy and efficiency of Agri-environmental payments in impacts of crops' management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Emanuele; Martella, Angelo; Passeri, Nicolo; Ghini, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Since the 90s, in Europe the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) started to activate measures for improving the sustainability of European agriculture, these measures were systematized in 2000 with the tools of rural development, pursuing a synergistic environmental action trough the agri-environmental payments. Since their definition, those payments were designed to ensure the protection, maintenance and enhancement of natural resources (water, soil, forests), biodiversity (species and habitat), and landscape. In particular initiatives as set aside, afforestation, organic agriculture, integrated pest management, low input and precision agriculture have enriched the agricultural management practices. The aim of this work is to check the trend between agro-environmental subsidies and environmental performance (based on Ecological Indicators and CO2 evaluation) at country level in EU, in order to study the regulatory framework impact in addressing the European cropping system towards sustainability. In particular soils and their land use can storage CO2 as pool and so provide environmental services and, on the other hand the agricultural practices can stimulate the emission and the environmental footprint. Impacts (so called emissions/footprints and storage/environmental services) will be compared with the Agri-environmental Payments for calculating performances due to environmental management practices, supported by political initiatives. Such analysis sustains the European policy makers towards more suitable agricultural policies and in particular it can address national sustainability through agricultural practices.

  7. Analyzing the impact of changing size and composition of a crop model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    The use of an ensemble of crop growth simulation models is a practice recently adopted in order to quantify aspects of uncertainties in model simulations. Yet, while the climate modelling community has extensively investigated the properties of model ensembles and their implications, this has hardly been investigated for crop model ensembles (Wallach et al., 2016). In their ensemble of 27 wheat models, Martre et al. (2015) found that the accuracy of the multi-model ensemble-average only increases up to an ensemble size of ca. 10, but does not improve when including more models in the analysis. However, even when this number of members is reached, questions about the impact of the addition or removal of a member to/from the ensemble arise. When selecting ensemble members, identifying members with poor performance or giving implausible results can make a large difference on the outcome. The objective of this study is to set up a methodology that defines indicators to show the effects of changing the ensemble composition and size on simulation results, when a selection procedure of ensemble members is applied. Ensemble mean or median, and variance are measures used to depict ensemble results among other indicators. We are utilizing simulations from an ensemble of wheat models that have been used to construct impact response surfaces (Pirttioja et al., 2015) (IRSs). These show the response of an impact variable (e.g., crop yield) to systematic changes in two explanatory variables (e.g., precipitation and temperature). Using these, we compare different sub-ensembles in terms of the mean, median and spread, and also by comparing IRSs. The methodology developed here allows comparing an ensemble before and after applying any procedure that changes the ensemble composition and size by measuring the impact of this decision on the ensemble central tendency measures. The methodology could also be further developed to compare the effect of changing ensemble composition and size

  8. Impact of energy loss index on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Terumasa; Okura, Hiroyuki; Kume, Teruyoshi; Fukuhara, Kenzo; Imai, Koichiro; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the energy loss index (ELI) has been proposed as a new functional index to assess the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the ELI on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression in patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves. A total of 30 patients with severe AS who underwent AVR with mechanical valves was studied. Echocardiography was performed to measure the LVM before AVR (pre-LVM) (n = 30) and repeated 12 months later (post-LVM) (n = 19). The ELI was calculated as [effective orifice area (EOA) × aortic cross sectional area]/(aortic cross sectional area - EOA) divided by the body surface area. The LVM regression rate (%) was calculated as 100 × (post-LVM - pre-LVM)/(pre-LVM). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death and heart failure requiring hospitalization. LVM regressed significantly (245.1 ± 84.3 to 173.4 ± 62.6 g, P regression rate negatively correlated with the ELI (R = -0.67, P regression rates (area under the curve = 0.825; P = 0.030). Patients with ELI regression after AVR with mechanical valves. Whether the ELI is a stronger predictor of clinical events than EOAI is still unclear, and further large-scale study is necessary to elucidate the clinical impact of the ELI in patients with AVR.

  9. Sugarcane crop residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on oat (Avena sative L.), morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelopathy, the chemical interaction between plants, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development, and can include compounds released from a crop that adversely impact crop or weed species. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Sacchar...

  10. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Minquez, M. I.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Müller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 31 (2015), s. 87-105 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Grant - others:German Federal Ministries of Education and Research, and Food and Agriculture(DE) 2812ERA115 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate * crop model * impact response surface * IRS * sensitivity analysis * wheat * yield Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  11. Trawsfynydd NPS: the economic and social impact of closure without replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns a study of the economic and social effects of the closure of Trawsfynydd Nuclear Power Station without replacement, carried out by the University College of North Wales. Performance of Trawsfynydd, unemployment and demand for replacement, are all discussed. (UK)

  12. Climate change impact and potential adaptation strategies under alternate realizations of climate scenarios for three major crops in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Marcello; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Duveiller, Gregory; Niemeyer, Stefan; Fumagalli, Davide

    2015-07-01

    This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables and CO2 on three major crops, namely wheat, rapeseed and sunflower, in EU27 Member States. We also investigated some technical adaptation options which could offset climate change impacts. The time-slices 2000, 2020 and 2030 were chosen to represent the baseline and future climate, respectively. Furthermore, two realizations within the A1B emission scenario proposed by the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), from the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 GCM, were selected. A time series of 30 years for each GCM and time slice were used as input weather data for simulation. The time series were generated with a stochastic weather generator trained over GCM-RCM time series (downscaled simulations from the ENSEMBLES project which were statistically bias-corrected prior to the use of the weather generator). GCM-RCM simulations differed primarily for rainfall patterns across Europe, whereas the temperature increase was similar in the time horizons considered. Simulations based on the model CropSyst v. 3 were used to estimate crop responses; CropSyst was re-implemented in the modelling framework BioMA. The results presented in this paper refer to abstraction of crop growth with respect to its production system, and consider growth as limited by weather and soil water. How crop growth responds to CO2 concentrations; pests, diseases, and nutrients limitations were not accounted for in simulations. The results show primarily that different realization of the emission scenario lead to noticeably different crop performance projections in the same time slice. Simple adaptation techniques such as changing sowing dates and the use of different varieties, the latter in terms of duration of the crop cycle, may be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of climate change in most areas, although response to best adaptation (within the techniques tested) differed across crops. Although a negative impact of climate

  13. Climate change impact and potential adaptation strategies under alternate realizations of climate scenarios for three major crops in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatelli, Marcello; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Duveiller, Gregory; Niemeyer, Stefan; Fumagalli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables and CO 2 on three major crops, namely wheat, rapeseed and sunflower, in EU27 Member States. We also investigated some technical adaptation options which could offset climate change impacts. The time-slices 2000, 2020 and 2030 were chosen to represent the baseline and future climate, respectively. Furthermore, two realizations within the A1B emission scenario proposed by the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), from the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 GCM, were selected. A time series of 30 years for each GCM and time slice were used as input weather data for simulation. The time series were generated with a stochastic weather generator trained over GCM-RCM time series (downscaled simulations from the ENSEMBLES project which were statistically bias-corrected prior to the use of the weather generator). GCM-RCM simulations differed primarily for rainfall patterns across Europe, whereas the temperature increase was similar in the time horizons considered. Simulations based on the model CropSyst v. 3 were used to estimate crop responses; CropSyst was re-implemented in the modelling framework BioMA. The results presented in this paper refer to abstraction of crop growth with respect to its production system, and consider growth as limited by weather and soil water. How crop growth responds to CO 2 concentrations; pests, diseases, and nutrients limitations were not accounted for in simulations. The results show primarily that different realization of the emission scenario lead to noticeably different crop performance projections in the same time slice. Simple adaptation techniques such as changing sowing dates and the use of different varieties, the latter in terms of duration of the crop cycle, may be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of climate change in most areas, although response to best adaptation (within the techniques tested) differed across crops. Although a negative impact of climate

  14. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the

  15. Impacts of multiple global environmental changes on African crop yield and water use efficiency: Implications to food and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.; Xu, R.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Zhang, B.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to climate change and climate variability. Much concern has been raised about the impacts of climate and other environmental factors on water resource and food security through the climate-water-food nexus. Understanding the responses of crop yield and water use efficiency to environmental changes is particularly important because Africa is well known for widespread poverty, slow economic growth and agricultural systems particularly sensitive to frequent and persistent droughts. However, the lack of integrated understanding has limited our ability to quantify and predict the potential of Africa's agricultural sustainability and freshwater supply, and to better manage the system for meeting an increasing food demand in a way that is socially and environmentally or ecologically sustainable. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2) driven by spatially-explicit information on land use, climate and other environmental changes, we have assessed the spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency across entire Africa in the past 35 years (1980-2015) and the rest of the 21st century (2016-2099). Our preliminary results indicate that African crop yield in the past three decades shows an increasing trend primarily due to cropland expansion (about 50%), elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition. However, crop yield shows substantially spatial and temporal variation due to inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and spatial heterogeneity of environmental drivers. Climate extremes especially droughts and heat wave have largely reduced crop yield in the most vulnerable regions. Our results indicate that N fertilizer could be a major driver to improve food security in Africa. Future climate warming could reduce crop yield and shift cropland distribution. Our study further suggests that improving water use efficiency through land

  16. Impact of biological and economic variables on optimal parity for replacement in swine breed-to-wean herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Davis, C B; Ellinger, P N; Schnitkey, G D; Romine, N M; Connor, J F; Knox, R V; Southey, B R

    2006-09-01

    Voluntary and involuntary culling practices determine the average parity when sows are replaced in a herd. Underlying these practices is the economic effect of replacing a sow at different parities. A dynamic programming model was used to find the optimal parity and net present value in breed-to-wean swine herds. The model included income and costs per parity weighted by the discount rate and sow removal rate. Three scenarios that reflect a wide range of cases were considered: low removal rates per parity with no salvage value (LRNS), high removal rates per parity with no salvage value (HRNS), and high removal rates per parity with a percentage of the sows having a salvage value (HRYS). The optimal parity of replacement for the base biological and economic conditions was 4 and 5 parities in the high and low removal scenarios, respectively. Sensitivity analyses identified the variables influencing the optimal replacement parity. Optimal parity of replacement ranged from 3 to 7 parities in the low replacement scenario, compared with 1 to 5 parities in the high replacement scenarios. Sow replacement cost and salvage value had the greatest impact on optimal parity of replacement followed by revenues per piglet weaned. The discount rate and number of parities per year generally had little influence on optimal parity. For situations with high sow costs, low salvage values, and low revenues per piglet, the optimal parity at removal was as high as 6 to 10 parities, and for situations with low sow cost, high salvage values, and high revenues per piglet, the optimal parity at removal was as low as 1 to 2 parities depending on removal rates. The modified internal rate of return suggested that, for most LRNS and HRYS scenarios considered, investment in a swine breed-to-wean enterprise was favored over other investments involving a similar risk profile. Our results indicate that in US breeding herds, sows are culled on average near the optimal parity of 4. However, the

  17. Impacts of Near-Term Climate Change on Irrigation Demands and Crop Yields in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K. J.; Stockle, C. O.; Nelson, R. L.; Kruger, C. E.; Brady, M. P.; Malek, K.; Dinesh, S. T.; Barber, M. E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Yorgey, G. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation to a changing climate is critical to address future global food and water security challenges. While these challenges are global, successful adaptation strategies are often generated at regional scales; therefore, regional-scale studies are critical to inform adaptation decision making. While climate change affects both water supply and demand, water demand is relatively understudied, especially at regional scales. The goal of this work is to address this gap, and characterize the direct impacts of near-term (for the 2030s) climate change and elevated CO2 levels on regional-scale crop yields and irrigation demands for the Columbia River basin (CRB). This question is addressed through a coupled crop-hydrology model that accounts for site-specific and crop-specific characteristics that control regional-scale response to climate change. The overall near-term outlook for agricultural production in the CRB is largely positive, with yield increases for most crops and small overall increases in irrigation demand. However, there are crop-specific and location-specific negative impacts as well, and the aggregate regional response of irrigation demands to climate change is highly sensitive to the spatial crop mix. Low-value pasture/hay varieties of crops—typically not considered in climate change assessments—play a significant role in determining the regional response of irrigation demands to climate change, and thus cannot be overlooked. While, the overall near-term outlook for agriculture in the region is largely positive, there may be potential for a negative outlook further into the future, and it is important to consider this in long-term planning.

  18. Integrating Plant Science and Crop Modeling: Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Soybean and Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Nándor; Challinor, Andrew; Droutsas, Ioannis; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Zabel, Florian; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-11-01

    Increasing global CO2 emissions have profound consequences for plant biology, not least because of direct influences on carbon gain. However, much remains uncertain regarding how our major crops will respond to a future high CO2 world. Crop model inter-comparison studies have identified large uncertainties and biases associated with climate change. The need to quantify uncertainty has drawn the fields of plant molecular physiology, crop breeding and biology, and climate change modeling closer together. Comparing data from different models that have been used to assess the potential climate change impacts on soybean and maize production, future yield losses have been predicted for both major crops. When CO2 fertilization effects are taken into account significant yield gains are predicted for soybean, together with a shift in global production from the Southern to the Northern hemisphere. Maize production is also forecast to shift northwards. However, unless plant breeders are able to produce new hybrids with improved traits, the forecasted yield losses for maize will only be mitigated by agro-management adaptations. In addition, the increasing demands of a growing world population will require larger areas of marginal land to be used for maize and soybean production. We summarize the outputs of crop models, together with mitigation options for decreasing the negative impacts of climate on the global maize and soybean production, providing an overview of projected land-use change as a major determining factor for future global crop production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  19. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  20. Research Advances of Impacts of Climate Changes on Crop Climatic Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture received most direct influences from climate changes. Because of climate changes, agricultural climate resources changed and thus influenced climate adaptability of agricultural products. The growth and output of crops were finally affected. The calculation method and application of agricultural products in recent years were summarized. Several questions about the response of agricultural crops to climate elements were proposed for attention.

  1. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  2. Drought stress impact on vegetable crop yields in the Elbe River lowland between 1961 and 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Türkott, L.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Soukup, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 127-143 ISSN 0211-6820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14043; GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index * drought stress * reference evapotranspiration * crop evapotranspiration * crop coefficient * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  4. Weed management practice and cropping sequence impact on soil residual nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient N uptake by crops from N fertilization and/or N mineralized from crop residue and soil organic matter results in the accumulation of soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N) which increases the potential for N leaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of weed management ...

  5. Impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on crop response and soil ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Medhioub, Mounir; Zhou, John; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid regions, such as Tunisia, and marginal quality water is gradually being used in agriculture. This study aims to study the impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on the health of soil and food crops. The key findings are that the effluents of Sfax wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) did not meet the relevant guidelines, therefore emitting a range of organic (e.g., up to 90 mg L(-1) COD and 30 mg L(-1) BOD5) and inorganic pollutants (e.g., up to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.1 mg L(-1) Cd) in the receiving aquatic environments. Greenhouse experiments examining the effects of wastewater reuse on food plants such as tomato, lettuce, and radish showed that the treated effluent adversely affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme contents. However, the pollution burden and biological effects on plants were substantially reduced by using a 50 % dilution of treated sewage effluent, suggesting the potential of reusing treated effluent in agriculture so long as appropriate monitoring and control is in place.

  6. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-German, S.; Bardaji, I.; Garrido, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices in the European Union (EU). EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain lettuce and celery to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers. (Author)

  7. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  8. Impacts and Uncertainties of +2°C of Climate Change and Soil Degradation on European Crop Calorie Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Schmid, Erwin; Madaras, Mikuláš; Obersteiner, Michael; van der Velde, Marijn

    2018-03-01

    Even if global warming is kept below +2°C, European agriculture will be significantly impacted. Soil degradation may amplify these impacts substantially and thus hamper crop production further. We quantify biophysical consequences and bracket uncertainty of +2°C warming on calories supply from 10 major crops and vulnerability to soil degradation in Europe using crop modeling. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model together with regional climate projections from the European branch of the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX) was used for this purpose. A robustly positive calorie yield change was estimated for the EU Member States except for some regions in Southern and South-Eastern Europe. The mean impacts range from +30 Gcal ha-1 in the north, through +25 and +20 Gcal ha-1 in Western and Eastern Europe, respectively, to +10 Gcal ha-1 in the south if soil degradation and heat impacts are not accounted for. Elevated CO2 and increased temperature are the dominant drivers of the simulated yield changes in high-input agricultural systems. The growth stimulus due to elevated CO2 may offset potentially negative yield impacts of temperature increase by +2°C in most of Europe. Soil degradation causes a calorie vulnerability ranging from 0 to 50 Gcal ha-1 due to insufficient compensation for nutrient depletion and this might undermine climate benefits in many regions, if not prevented by adaptation measures, especially in Eastern and North-Eastern Europe. Uncertainties due to future potentials for crop intensification are about 2-50 times higher than climate change impacts.

  9. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  10. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  12. Crop-climate relationships of cereals in Greece and the impacts of recent climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Theodoros

    2015-05-01

    Notwithstanding technological developments, agricultural production is still affected by uncontrollable factors, such weather and climate. Within this context, the present study aims at exploring the relative influence of growing season climate on the yields of major cereals (hard and soft wheat, maize, and barley) on a regional scale in Greece. To this end, crop-climate relationships and the impacts of climate trends over the period 1978-2005 were explored using linear regression and change point analysis (CPA). Climate data used include maximum (Tx) and minimum temperature (Tn), diurnal temperature range (Tr), precipitation (Prec), and solar radiation (Rad). Temperature effects were the most substantial. Yields reduced by 1.8-7.1 %/°C with increasing Tx and by 1.4-6.1 %/°C with decreasing Tr. The warming trends of Tn caused bilateral yield effects (from -3.7 to 8.4 %/°C). The fewer significantly increasing Rad and decreasing Prec anomalies were associated with larger yield decreases (within the range of 2.2 % MJ/m2/day (for maize) to 4.9 % MJ/m2/day (for hard wheat)) and smaller yield increases (from 0.04 to 1.4 %/mm per decade), respectively. Wheat and barley—the most vulnerable cereals—were most affected by the trends of extreme temperatures and least by Tr. On the contrary, solar radiation has proven to be the least affecting climate variable on all cereals. Despite the similarity in the direction of crop responses with both analyses, yield changes were much more substantial in the case of CPA analysis. In conclusion, regional climate change has affected Greek cereal productivity, in a few, but important for cereal production, regions. The results of this study are expected to be valuable in anticipating the effects of weather/climate on other warm regions worldwide, where the upper temperature limit for some cereals and further changes in climate may push them past suitability for their cultivation.

  13. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Taddei, Maria H.T.; Mello, Jaime W.V.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of 232 Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238 U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra (240 Bq.kg -1 ) and 228 Ra (224 Bq.kg -1 ) in PG were below the maximum level recommended by CNEN

  14. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  15. Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    Rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide and 45% in Asia. Turning away from permanently flooded rice cropping systems for mitigating future water scarcity and reducing methane emissions, however, will alter a variety of ecosystem services with potential adverse effects to both the environment and agricultural production. Moreover, implementing systems that alternate between flooded and non-flooded crops increases the risk of disruptive effects. The multi-disciplinary DFG research unit ICON aims at exploring and quantifying the ecological consequences of altered water regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop diversification (irrigated rice vs. aerobic rice vs. maize), and different fertilization strategies (conventional, site-specific, and zero N fertilization). ICON particularly focuses on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, green-house gas (GHG) emissions, water balance, soil biotic processes and other important ecosystem services. The overarching goal is to provide the basic process understanding that is necessary for balancing the revenues and environmental impacts of high-yield rice cropping systems while maintaining their vital ecosystem services. To this aim, a large-scale field experiment has been established at the experimental farm of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). Ultimately, the experimental results are analyzed in the context of management scenarios by an integrated modeling of crop development (ORYZA), carbon and nitrogen cycling (MoBiLE-DNDC), and water fluxes (CMF), providing the basis for developing pathways to a conversion of rice-based systems towards higher yield potentials under minimized environmental impacts. In our presentation, we demonstrate the set-up of the controlled large-scale field experiment for simultaneous assessment of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budgets. We show and discuss first results for: - Quantification and assessment of the net-fluxes of CH4

  16. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  17. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

  18. Impacts of domestication on the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of 27 crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Robles, Nieves; Lehmann, Anika; Seco, Erica; Aroca, Ricardo; Rillig, Matthias C; Milla, Rubén

    2018-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is key to plant nutrition, and hence is potentially key in sustainable agriculture. Fertilization and other agricultural practices reduce soil AM fungi and root colonization. Such conditions might promote the evolution of low mycorrhizal responsive crops. Therefore, we ask if and how evolution under domestication has altered AM symbioses of crops. We measured the effect of domestication on mycorrhizal responsiveness across 27 crop species and their wild progenitors. Additionally, in a subset of 14 crops, we tested if domestication effects differed under contrasting phosphorus (P) availabilities. The response of AM symbiosis to domestication varied with P availability. On average, wild progenitors benefited from the AM symbiosis irrespective of P availability, while domesticated crops only profited under P-limited conditions. Magnitudes and directions of response were diverse among the 27 crops, and were unrelated to phylogenetic affinities or to the coordinated evolution with fine root traits. Our results indicate disruptions in the efficiency of the AM symbiosis linked to domestication. Under high fertilization, domestication could have altered the regulation of resource trafficking between AM fungi and associated plant hosts. Provided that crops are commonly raised under high fertilization, this result has important implications for sustainable agriculture. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Chu

    Full Text Available The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC and nitrogen (N in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the 0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  20. Impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms – 3 systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops producing Cry toxins, originating from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has raised environmental concerns over their sustainable use and consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural land. During the last two decades...

  1. The impacts of the transgenes on the modified crops, non-target soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    reduction of emission of greenhouse gases, caused several changes in the modified crop plants, interacted with soil ...... fitness and behaviour of monarch butterfly larvae exposed to a combination of ..... climate change hypothesis. Am. Antiq.

  2. US Food Security and Climate Change: Mid-Century Projections of Commodity Crop Production by the IMPACT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Gustafson, D. I.; Beachy, R.; Nelson, G. C.; Mason-D'Croz, D.; Palazzo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. The lack of additional arable land and availability of freshwater have long been constraints on agriculture. Changes in trends of weather conditions that challenge physiological limits of crops, as projected by global climate models, are expected to exacerbate the global food challenge toward the middle of the 21st century. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. We use the DSSAT crop modeling suite, together with mid-century projections of four AR4 global models, as input to the International Food Policy Research Institute IMPACT model to project the impact of climate change on food security through the year 2050 for internationally traded crops. IMPACT is an iterative model that responds to endogenous and exogenous drivers to dynamically solve for the world prices that ensure global supply equals global demand. The modeling methodology reconciles the limited spatial resolution of macro-level economic models that operate through equilibrium-driven relationships at a national level with detailed models of biophysical processes at high spatial resolution. The analysis presented here suggests that climate change in the first half of the 21st century does not represent a near-term threat to food security in the US due to the availability of adaptation strategies (e.g., loss of current growing regions is balanced by gain of new growing regions). However, as climate continues to trend away from 20th century norms current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to enable agriculture to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios from higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in climate model projections (particularly precipitation) is a limitation to impact

  3. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażewicz-Woźniak, M.; Konopiñski, M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of cover crops biomass, mixed with the soil on different dates and with the use of different tools in field conditions. The cover crop biomass had a beneficial influence on the total porosity of the 0-20 cm layer of the soil after winter. The highest porosity was achievedwith cover crops of buckwheat, phacelia and mustard, the lowest with rye. During the vegetation period the highest porosity of soil was observed in the ridges. Among the remaining non-ploughing cultivations, pre-winter use of stubble cultivator proved to have a beneficial influence on the soil porosity, providing results comparable to those achieved in conventional tillage. The differential porosity of the soil was modified not only by the catch crops and the cultivation methods applied, but also by the sample collection dates, and it did change during the vegetation period. The highest content of macropores after winter was observed for the phacelia cover crop, and the lowest in the case of cultivation without any cover crops. Pre-winter tillage with the use of a stubble cultivator increased the amount of macropores in soil in spring, and caused the biggest participation of mesopores as compared with other non-ploughing cultivation treatments of the soil. The smallest amount of mesopores was found in the ridges.

  5. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-01-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N 1 40 P 1 00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N 1 40 P 1 00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg - 1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg - 1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg - 1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg - 1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. A Global and Spatially Explicit Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Consumptive Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Röckström, Johan; Abbaspour, Karim; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term) and the 2090s (long term), respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental) but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell). Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security. PMID:23460901

  7. A global and spatially explicit assessment of climate change impacts on crop production and consumptive water use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Liu

    Full Text Available Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term and the 2090s (long term, respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell. Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security.

  8. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra; Barecka, Magda; Zbiciński, Ireneusz

    2017-10-01

    Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO) for production of transparent conductive films (TCO) in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as good performance as the industrial state-of-the-art technology based on ITO are widely studied. However, the environmental impact of new layers remains unknown. Hence, this paper studies the environmental effect of ITO replacement by zinc oxide (ZnO) by means life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The analysis enables to quantify the environmental impact over the entire period of life cycle of products—during manufacturing, use phase and waste generation. The analysis was based on experimental data for deposition process. Further, analysis of different impact categories was performed in order to determine specific environmental effects related to technology change. What results from the analysis, is that ZnO is a robust alternative material for ITO replacement regarding environmental load and energy efficiency of deposition process which is also crucial for sustainable TCO layer production.

  9. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG). Methods:

  10. Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, Laszlo; Nemeth, Tibor; Nagy, Peter; Dallos, Gabor; Sotonyi, Peter; Fehervari, Imre; Nemes, Balazs; Gorog, Denes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sarvary, Enikoe; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benkoe, Tamas; Piros, Laszlo; Jaray, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P.

    Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous,

  11. Impact of climate variability on N and C flux within the life cycle of biofuels produced from crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, G.; Block, P. J.; Adler, P. R.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels from agricultural feedstocks (lignocellulose) are under development to meet national policy objectives for producing domestic renewable fuels. Using crop residues such as corn stover as feedstock for biofuel production can minimize the risks associated with food market disruption; however, it demands managing residue removal to minimize soil carbon loss, erosion, and to ensure nutrient replacement. Emissions of nitrous oxide and changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) are subject to variability in time due to local climate conditions and cultivation practices. Our objective is to investigate the effect of climate inputs (precipitation and temperature) on biogeochemical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O and SOC expressed as CO2) within the life cycle of biofuels produced from agricultural residues. Specifically, we investigate the impact of local climate variability on soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes over a 20-year biorefinery lifetime where biomass residue is used for lignocellulosic ethanol production. We investigate two cases studied previously (Pourhashem et al, 2013) where the fermentable sugars in the agricultural residue are converted to ethanol (biofuel) and the lignin byproduct is used in one of two ways: 1) power co-generation; or 2) application to land as a carbon/nutrient-rich amendment to soil. In the second case SOC losses are mitigated through returning the lignin component to land while the need for fertilizer addition is also eliminated, however in both cases N2O and SOC are subject to variability due to variable climate conditions. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to predict soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes considering soil characteristics, tillage practices and local climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall). We address the impact of climate variability on the soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes by implementing a statistical bootstrap resampling method based on a historic data set (1980 to 2000). The ensuing probabilistic outputs from the

  12. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on ecosystem services from rice rotated crop systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing; Li, Changsheng; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Yali; Huang, Guorui

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable intensification in agriculture has stressed the need for management practices that could increase crop yields while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. It is well recognized that water and nutrient management hold great promise to address these goals. This study uses the DNDC biogeochemical model to stimulate the impacts of water regime and nitrogen fertilizer management interactions on ecosystem services of rice rotated crop systems in China. County-level optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rates under various water management practices were captured and then multiple scenarios of water and nitrogen fertilizer management were set to more than 1600 counties with rice rotations in China. Results indicate that an national average of 15.7±5.9% (the mean value and standard deviation derive from variability of three water management practices) reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs can be achieved without significantly sacrificing rice yields. On a national scale, shallow flooding with optimal N application rates appear most potential to enhance ecosystem services, which led to 10.6% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs, 34.3% decrease of total GHG emissions, 2.8% less of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and a 1.7% increase of rice yields compared to the baseline scenario. Regional GHG emissions mitigation derived from water regime change vary with soil properties and the multiple crop index. Among the main production regions of rice in China, the highest reduction happened in Jiangxu, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei (more than 40% reduction) with high SOC, high multiple crop index and low clay fraction. The highest reduction of GHG emissions derived from reducing current N application rate to optimal rate appeared in Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu where the serious over-application of mineral N exit. It was concluded that process models like DNDC would act an essential tool to identify sustainable agricultural

  13. Impact of catch crop mixtures and soils on microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbano, Claudia S.; Große, Julia; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    In light of the projected world's population growth, food supplies will necessary have to increase. Soils are an essential component for achieving this expansion and its quality and fertility are crucial for bio-economic productivity. Catch crops can be an option to preserve or even improve soil productivity because of their effect on soil fertility and health. A long-term field experiment of the CATCHY project (Catch-cropping as an agrarian tool for continuing soil health and yield-increase) with two contrasting crop rotations was established in two different locations in Northern and Southern Germany. Single catch crops (white mustard, Egyptian clover, phacelia and bristle oat), catch crop mixtures (a mixture of the above and a commercial mixture) and main crops (wheat and maize) have been grown. To investigate how catch crops can affect the microbial diversity and particularly the microbial nitrogen cycling communities, we are studying first the short-term effect of different catch crop mixtures on the microbiomes associated with soils and roots. We compared these microbiomes with wheat plants, representing the microbial community before a catch crop treatment. Roots, rhizosphere and bulk soils were collected from representative samples of wheat plants from one field. The same compartments were also sampled from one fallow treatment and three catch crops variants from three fields each. The variants consisted of white mustard and the two catch crop mixtures. All fields were sampled by triplicate. Quantitative analyses were carried out by qPCR based on key functional marker genes for mineralization (ureC), nitrification (amoA), dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium -DNRA- (nrfA), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ), and nitrogen fixation (nifH). These genes were targeted at the DNA and RNA level for the characterization of the microbial population and the actual transcription activity, respectively. We detected the presence and activity of

  14. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  15. Using the CLM Crop Model to assess the impacts of changes in Climate, Atmospheric CO2, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Geographic Distribution on Historical and Future Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the start of the green revolution global crop yields have increased linearly for most major cereal crops, so that present day global values are around twice those of the 1960s. The increase in crop yields have allowed for large increases in global agricultural production without correspondingly large increases in cropping area. Future projections under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) framework and other assessments result in increases of global crop production of greater than 100% by the year 2050. In order to meet this increased agricultural demand within the available arable land, future production gains need to be understood in terms of the yield changes due to changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and adaptive management such as irrigation and fertilizer application. In addition to the changes in crop yield, future agricultural demand will need to be met through increasing cropping areas into what are currently marginal lands at the cost of existing forests and other natural ecosystems. In this study we assess the utility of the crop model within the Community Land Model (CLM Crop) to provide both historical and future guidance on changes in crop yields under a range of global idealized crop modeling experiments. The idealized experiments follow the experimental design of the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) in which CLM Crop is a participating model. The idealized experiments consist of global crop simulations for Cotton, Maize, Rice, Soy, Sugarcane, and Wheat under various climate, atmospheric CO2 levels, irrigation prescription, and nitrogen fertilizer application. The time periods simulated for the experiments are for the Historical period (1901 - 2005), and for the two Representative Concentration Pathways of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2006 - 2100). Each crop is simulated on all land grid cells globally for each time period with atmospheric forcing that is a combination of: 1. transient climate and CO2; 2. transient climate

  16. Impacts of changing cropping pattern on virtual water flows related to crops transfer: a case study for the Hetao irrigation district, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining; Sun, Shikun; Cao, Xinchun

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of cropping patterns is a prerequisite for their optimisation, and evaluation of virtual water flows could shed new light on water resources management. This study is intended to explore the effects of cropping pattern changes between 1960 and 2008 on virtual water flows related to crops transfer in the Hetao irrigation district, China. (1) The sown area of crops increased at an average rate of 3.57 × 10(3) ha year(-1) while the proportion of sown grain crops decreased from 92.83% in the 1960s to 50.22% in the 2000s. (2) Virtual water content decreased during the study period while net virtual water exports increased since the 1980s. (3) Assuming that the cropping pattern was constant and was equal to the average 1960s value, accumulated net virtual water export in 1980-2008 would have been 4.76 × 10(9) m(3) greater than that in the actual cropping pattern scenario. Cropping pattern changes in the Hetao irrigation district could not only be seen as resulting from the pursuit for higher economic returns, but also as a feedback response to limited water resources. A systematic framework is still needed for future cropping pattern planning by taking food security, continued agricultural expansion and other constraints into consideration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  18. The Impact Of Climate Change On Production Of Multiple Food Crops In The 21st Century- An Analysis Based On Two Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Lawrence, P.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change presents potential risks to global food supply. To date, understanding of climate change effects on crop production remains uncertain due to (1) uncertainties in projected climate change trends and their spatial and temporal variability; (2) uncertainties in the physiological, genetic and molecular basis of crop adaptation to climate change and adaptive management practices and (3) uncertainties in current land surface models to estimate crop adaptation to climate change. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to assess the impact of climate change on the production of row crops (corn, soybean, rice, cotton, sugarcane and wheat) at global and regional scales. The results are compared to the corresponding simulations performed with the crop model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Three questions are addressed: (1) what is the impact of different climate change projections on global crop production; (2) what is the effect of crop adaptation and adaptive management practices on projected crop production; and (3) how do model differences in ISAM and CLM4.5 impact projected global crop production and adaptive management practices over the 21st century. ISAM and CLM4.5 have been included in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Both models consider the effects of temperature, light and soil water and nitrogen availability on crop photosynthesis and temperature control on crop phenology and carbon allocation. ISAM also considers the adaptation of crop phenology, carbon allocation and structures growth to drought, light stress and N stress. The effects of model differences on projected crop production are evaluated by performing the following experiments. Each model is driven with historical atmospheric forcing data (1901-2005) and projected atmospheric forcing data (2006-2100) under RCP 4.5 or RCP 8.5 from CESM CMIP5 simulations to estimate the effects of different

  19. Coupled socioeconomic-crop modelling for the participatory local analysis of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Wang, L. Y.; Rojas, M.; Carrera, J.; Gálvez, J.; Tuy, H. A.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.

    2015-12-01

    The modelling of the impacts of climate change on agriculture requires the inclusion of socio-economic factors. However, while cropping models and economic models of agricultural systems are common, dynamically coupled socio-economic-biophysical models have not received as much success. A promising methodology for modelling the socioeconomic aspects of coupled natural-human systems is participatory system dynamics modelling, in which stakeholders develop mental maps of the socio-economic system that are then turned into quantified simulation models. This methodology has been successful in the water resources management field. However, while the stocks and flows of water resources have also been represented within the system dynamics modelling framework and thus coupled to the socioeconomic portion of the model, cropping models are ill-suited for such reformulation. In addition, most of these system dynamics models were developed without stakeholder input, limiting the scope for the adoption and implementation of their results. We therefore propose a new methodology for the analysis of climate change variability on agroecosystems which uses dynamically coupled system dynamics (socio-economic) and biophysical (cropping) models to represent both physical and socioeconomic aspects of the agricultural system, using two case studies (intensive market-based agricultural development versus subsistence crop-based development) from rural Guatemala. The system dynamics model component is developed with relevant governmental and NGO stakeholders from rural and agricultural development in the case study regions and includes such processes as education, poverty and food security. Common variables with the cropping models (yield and agricultural management choices) are then used to dynamically couple the two models together, allowing for the analysis of the agroeconomic system's response to and resilience against various climatic and socioeconomic shocks.

  20. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  1. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part II: The environmental impact of replacing various reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the overall environmental impact when biogas systems are introduced and replace various reference systems for energy generation, waste management and agricultural production. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a life-cycle perspective. The biogas systems included are based on different combinations of raw materials and final use of the biogas produced (heat, power and transportation fuel). A general conclusion is that biogas systems normally lead to environmental improvements, which in some cases are considerable. This is often due to indirect environmental benefits of changed land use and handling of organic waste products (e.g. reduced nitrogen leaching, emissions of ammonia and methane), which often exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when fossil fuels are replaced by biogas (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. The environmental impact from different biogas systems can, however, vary significantly due to factors such as the raw materials utilised, energy service provided and reference system replaced

  2. Impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the broiler crop and ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Bourassa, D V; Hinton, A; Fairchild, B D; Ritz, C W

    2017-12-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens. The litter of each pen was sampled before and after the feed withdrawal period, the broilers euthanized, and the crop and ceca aseptically removed for Salmonella isolation. Results showed that only the challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from the litter in challenge pens where broilers were not moved, while both Salmonella serotypes were recovered from the litter of the switched pens. Salmonella was recovered from 56/80 crops and from 66/80 ceca of challenged broilers that remained in the challenge pens. The challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from 50/80 crops and from 60/80 ceca, and the switched pens' litter Salmonella serotype was recovered from 19/80 crops but not from the ceca in broilers challenged with Salmonella and then switched between pens. For experiments 3 and 4, Salmonella was recovered from 19/40 crops and from only 2/40 ceca from the non-challenged broilers placed into the Salmonella challenge pens. The results from broilers that were switched between Salmonella challenge pens indicate that the recovery of Salmonella from the crop of broilers following feed withdrawal (on Salmonella-contaminated litter) appears to depend mainly on the initial challenge Salmonella (62%) and less on the litter Salmonella (24%) status during the feed withdrawal period. In contrast, only the initial challenge Salmonella was recovered from the ceca (79%) from broilers that remained in challenge pens or

  3. Identifying the Impact of Natural Hazards on Food Security in Africa: Crop Monitoring Using MODIS NDVI Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, J. T.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.; Brown, M. E.; Galu, G.

    2005-12-01

    Most developing countries rely primarily on the successful cultivation of staple crops to ensure food security. Climatic hazards like drought and flooding often negatively impact economically vulnerable economies such as those in Eastern Africa. Effective tracking of food production is required in this area. Production is typically quantified as the simple product of a planted area and its corresponding crop yield. To date, crop yields have been estimated with reasonable accuracy using grid-cell techniques and a Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), which draw from remotely sensed data. However, planted area and hence production estimation remains an arduous manual technique fraught with inevitable inaccuracies. In this study we present ongoing efforts to use MODIS NDVI time-series data as a surrogate for greenness, exploiting phenological contrast between cropland and other land cover types. In regions with small field sizes, variations in land cover can impose uncertainty in food production figures, resulting in a lack of consensus in the donor community as to the amount and type of food aid required during an emergency. To concentrate on this issue, statistical methods were employed to produce sub-pixel estimation, addressing the challenges in a monitoring system for use in subsistence-farmed areas. We will discuss two key results. Firstly, we established an inter-annual evaluation of crop health in primary agricultural areas in Kenya. These estimates will greatly improve our ability to anticipate and prevent famine in risk-prone regions through the FEWS NET early warning system. A primary goal is to build capacity in high-risk areas through the transfer of these results to local entities in the form of an operational tool. The low cost and accessibility of MODIS data lends itself well to this objective. Monitoring of crop health will be instituted for use on a yearly basis, and will draw on MODIS data analysis, ground sampling and valuable local

  4. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  5. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2014-10-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of

  6. Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Rhenen-Kersten, van C.H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Roessink, I.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the

  7. Genetically modified crops and the “food crisis”: discourse and material impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.; Stone, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A surge of media reports and rhetorical claims depicted genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to the ‘global food crisis’ manifested in the sudden spike in world food prices during 2007–08. Broad claims were made about the potential of GM technologies to tackle the crisis, even though the

  8. The impact of mineral fertilization and atmospheric precipitation on yield of field crops on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field crop production, as the most important branch of plant production of the Republic of Serbia, in the period 2002-2011, was carried out on an average of over 2.7 million hectares, 82.7% of which took place on the individual farms/family holdings. Hence, the subject of research in this paper covers yields of major field crops realized on family farms in the region of Vojvodina in the period 1972-2011. The main objective of the research is to study the interdependence of utilization of mineral fertilizers and atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period and realized yields of major field crops on family farms in the observed period. The regression analysis was applied in order to verify dependencies and determine the form of dependence of achieved yields from examined variables. The results showed that the main limiting factors for obtaining high and stable yields of field crops is inadequate use of fertilizers and the lack of precipitation during the vegetation period.

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on water availability for crops in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, D.; Smith, C.A.S.; Frank, G.; Koch, W.; Alila, Y.; Merritt, W.S.; Taylor, W.G.; Barton, M.; Hall, J.W.; Cohen, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop water demand in the Okanagan Basin was determined for 1961 to 1990, 2010 to 2039, 2040 to 2069, and 2070 to 2099. Daily station temperature data were spatially interpolated to a 1 x 1 km grid and adjusted for elevation. Daily precipitation data were estimated across four climatic regions. Output from three global climate models (GCM), CGCM2, CSIROMk2 and HadCM3 was used to create future daily climate. Daily potential evapo-transpiration (grass reference) was estimated from an empirical relationship between Bellani-plate atmometer readings, temperature and extra-terrestrial solar radiation, and then modified by crop coefficients for all crops except pasture. Depending on GCM, projected water demand increased by 12-20% (2010 to 2039), 24-38% (2040 to 2069) and 40-61% (2070 to 2099). Possible elevated CO 2 effects on stomatal conductance which may reduce water demand were not accounted for. Comparisons with modeled Okanagan Lake inflows indicated that, on average, high water demand and low supply scenarios coincided. In one sub-basin, supply and demand thresholds were exceeded 1 yr in 6 (HadCM3) in the 2050s and at least 1 yr in 4 for all GCMs by the 2080s, and existing water supply infrastructure may be inadequate. Crop growing seasons were defined empirically from growing degree days or threshold temperatures. The growing season lengthened up to 30-35% leading to higher demand in fall and shortages due to low stream flows. (author)

  10. Evaluating impacts of brown marmorated stink bug on non-fruiting nursery crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), has become a major pest and nuisance since it arrived in the US in 1998 for both agricultural growers and homeowners. They can feed on ~200 different plant species, several of which are important ornamental crop species. The...

  11. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  12. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  13. Impact of few failure data on the opportunistic replacement policy for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laggoune, Radouane; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Aissani, Djamil

    2010-01-01

    In continuous operating units, the production loss is often very large during the system shut down. Their economic profitability is conditioned by the implementation of suitable maintenance policy that could increase the availability and reduce the operating costs. In this paper, an opportunistic replacement policy is proposed for multi-component series system in the context of data uncertainty, where the expected total cost per unit time is minimized under general lifetime distribution. When the system is down, either correctively or preventively, the opportunity to replace preventively non-failed components is considered. To deal with the problem of the small size of failure data samples, the Bootstrap technique is applied, in order to model the uncertainties in parameter estimates. The Weibull parameters are considered as random variables rather than just deterministic point estimates. A solution procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations with informative search method is proposed and applied to the optimization of preventive maintenance plan for a hydrogen compressor in an oil refinery.

  14. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops growing in the Iberian Peninsula may be subjected to damagingly high temperatures during the sensitive development periods of flowering and grain filling. Such episodes are considered important hazards and farmers may take insurance to offset their impact. Increases in value and frequency of maximum temperature have been observed in the Iberian Peninsula during the 20th century, and studies on climate change indicate the possibility of further increase by the end of the 21st century. Here, impacts of current and future high temperatures on cereal cropping systems of the Iberian Peninsula are evaluated, focusing on vulnerable development periods of winter and summer crops. Climate change scenarios obtained from an ensemble of ten Regional Climate Models (multimodel ensemble combined with crop simulation models were used for this purpose and related uncertainty was estimated. Results reveal that higher extremes of maximum temperature represent a threat to summer-grown but not to winter-grown crops in the Iberian Peninsula. The study highlights the different vulnerability of crops in the two growing seasons and the need to account for changes in extreme temperatures in developing adaptations in cereal cropping systems. Finally, this work contributes to clarifying the causes of high-uncertainty impact projections from previous studies.

  15. Economic and ecological impacts of bioenergy crop production—a modeling approach applied in Southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schwarz-v. Raumer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers scenarios of cultivating energy crops in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg to identify potentials and limitations of a sustainable bioenergy production. Trade-offs are analyzed among income and production structure in agriculture, bioenergy crop production, greenhouse gas emissions, and the interests of soil, water and species habitat protection. An integrated modelling approach (IMA was implemented coupling ecological and economic models in a model chain. IMA combines the Economic Farm Emission Model (EFEM; key input: parameter sets on farm production activities, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC; key input: parameter sets on environmental cropping effects and GIS geo-processing models. EFEM is a supply model that maximizes total gross margins on farm level with simultaneous calculation of greenhouse gas emission from agriculture production. Calculations by EPIC result in estimates for soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching, Soil Organic Carbon and greenhouse gas emissions from soil. GIS routines provide land suitability analyses, scenario settings concerning nature conservation and habitat models for target species and help to enable spatial explicit results. The model chain is used to calculate scenarios representing different intensities of energy crop cultivation. To design scenarios which are detailed and in step to practice, comprehensive data research as well as fact and effect analyses were carried out. The scenarios indicate that, not in general but when considering specific farm types, energy crop share extremely increases if not restricted and leads to an increase in income. If so this leads to significant increase in soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. It has to be expected that an extension of nature conservation leads to an intensification of the remaining grassland and of the arable land, which were not part of nature conservation measures

  16. Impacts of climate change and climate extremes on major crops productivity in China at a global warming of 1.5 and 2.0 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Tao, Fulu

    2018-05-01

    A new temperature goal of holding the increase in global average temperature well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels has been established in the Paris Agreement, which calls for an understanding of climate risk under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effects of climate change on growth and productivity of three major crops (i.e. maize, wheat, rice) in China during 2106-2115 in warming scenarios of 1.5 and 2.0 °C using a method of ensemble simulation with well-validated Model to capture the Crop-Weather relationship over a Large Area (MCWLA) family crop models, their 10 sets of optimal crop model parameters and 70 climate projections from four global climate models. We presented the spatial patterns of changes in crop growth duration, crop yield, impacts of heat and drought stress, as well as crop yield variability and the probability of crop yield decrease. Results showed that climate change would have major negative impacts on crop production, particularly for wheat in north China, rice in south China and maize across the major cultivation areas, due to a decrease in crop growth duration and an increase in extreme events. By contrast, with moderate increases in temperature, solar radiation, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentration, agricultural climate resources such as light and thermal resources could be ameliorated, which would enhance canopy photosynthesis and consequently biomass accumulations and yields. The moderate climate change would slightly worsen the maize growth environment but would result in a much more appropriate growth environment for wheat and rice. As a result, wheat, rice and maize yields would change by +3.9 (+8.6), +4.1 (+9.4) and +0.2 % (-1.7 %), respectively, in a warming scenario of 1.5 °C (2.0 °C). In general, the warming scenarios would bring more opportunities than risks for crop development and food

  17. Development of dynamic wheat crop model in ISAM and estimation of impacts of environmental factors on wheat production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, S.; Lin, T. S.; Jain, A. K.; Baidya Roy, S.; Sehgal, V. K.; Dhakar, R.

    2017-12-01

    With changing environmental conditions, such as climate and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, questions about food security can be answered by modeling crops based on our understanding of the dynamic crop growth processes and interactions between the crops and their environment in the form of carbon, water and energy fluxes. These interactions and their effect on cropland ecosystems are non-linear because of the feedback mechanisms. Hence, process-based modelling approach can be used to conduct numerical experiments to derive insights into these processes and interactive feedbacks. In this study we have implemented dynamic crop growth processes for wheat into a data-modeling framework, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to estimate the impacts of different factors like CO2 fertilization, irrigation, nitrogen limitation and climate change on wheat in India. In specific, we have implemented wheat-specific phenology, C3 photosynthesis mechanism and phenology-specific carbon allocation schemes for assimilated carbon to leaf, stem, root and grain pools. Crop growth limiting stress factors like nutrients, temperature and light have been included. The impact of high temperatures on leaf senescence, anthesis and grain filling has been modeled and found to be causing significant reduction in yield in the recent years. Field data from an experimental wheat site located at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India has been collected for aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for two growing seasons 2014-15 and 2015-16. This data has been used to study the phenology, growing season length, thermal requirements and growth stages of wheat. Using the field data, the dynamic model for wheat has been evaluated for the site level seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass. The variations in carbon, water and energy fluxes, plant height and rooting depth have been analyzed on the site level. Model experiments

  18. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on the ecosystem service of rice rotated cropping system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Yu, C.; Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable agricultural intensification demand optimum resource managements of agro-ecosystems. Detailed information on the impacts of water use and nutrient application on agro-ecosystem services including crop yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen (N) loss is the key to guide field managements. In this study, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for rice rotated cropping systems in China. We set varied scenarios of water use in more than 1600 counties, and derived optimal rates of N application for each county in accordance to water use scenarios. Our results suggest that 0.88 ± 0.33 Tg per year (mean ± standard deviation) of synthetic N could be reduced without reducing rice yields, which accounts for 15.7 ± 5.9% of current N application in China. Field managements with shallow flooding and optimal N applications could enhance ecosystem services on a national scale, leading to 34.3% reduction of GHG emissions (CH4, N2O, and CO2), 2.8% reduction of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and 1.7% increase of rice yields, as compared to current management conditions. Among provinces with major rice production, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Hubei could achieve more than 40% reduction of GHG emissions under appropriate water managements, while Zhejiang, Guangdong, and Fujian could reduce more than 30% N loss with optimal N applications. Our modeling efforts suggest that China is likely to benefit from reforming water and fertilization managements for rice rotated cropping system in terms of sustainable crop yields, GHG emission mitigation and N loss reduction, and the reformation should be prioritized in the above-mentioned provinces. Keywords: water regime, nitrogen fertilization, sustainable management, ecological modeling, DNDC

  19. The impact of Genetically Modified (GM) crops in modern agriculture: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ruchir

    2017-10-02

    Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries. Nevertheless, the current growth rate of the GM seed market at 9.83-10% CAGR along with promising research avenues in biofortification, precise DNA integration and stress tolerance have forecast it to bring productivity and prosperity to commercial agriculture.

  20. Impact of sarcopenia on the outcomes of elective total arch replacement in the elderly†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Yuki; Koide, Yutaka; Abe, Noriyuki; Matsueda, Takashi; Izawa, Naoto; Yamazato, Takahiro; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Sato, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Matsumori, Masamichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Satoshi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the cut-off value of sarcopenia based on the psoas muscle area index and evaluate early and late outcomes following elective total arch replacement in the elderly. Sarcopenia was assessed by the psoas muscle area index [defined as the psoas muscle area at the L3 level on computed tomography (cm 2 )/body surface area (m 2 )]. The cut-off value for sarcopenia was defined as > 2 standard deviations below the mean psoas muscle area index value obtained from 464 normal control patients. Between October 1999 and July 2015, 266 patients who were ≥ 65 years and had undergone psoas muscle area index measurement underwent elective total arch replacement. These patients were classified into the sarcopenia (Group S, n  = 81) and non-sarcopenia (Group N, n  = 185) groups. The mean age was 76.2 ± 5.6 years in Group S and 75.7 ± 5.7 years in Group N ( P  = 0.553). Hospital mortality was 3.7% (3/81) in Group S and 2.2% (4/185) in Group N ( P  = 0.483). Mean follow-up was 48.3 ± 38.7 months. Five-year survival was significantly worse in Group S (S: 63.2 ± 6.6% vs N: 88.7 ± 2.6%, P  sarcopenia significantly predicted poor survival (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% confidence interval 1.27-5.29; P  = 0.011). Sarcopenia did not predict hospital death following total arch replacement, but it was negatively associated with overall survival. Sarcopenia can be an additional risk factor to estimate the outcomes of thoracic aortic surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of t...

  2. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo,Marcelo Bento Paes de

    2010-01-01

    The climatic variability is the main factor responsible for the oscillations and frustrations of the coffee grain yield in Brazil. The relationships between the climatic parameters and the agricultural production are quite complex, because environmental factors affect the growth and the development of the plants under different forms during the growth stages of the coffee crop. Agrometeorological models related to the growth, development and productivity can supply information for the soil wa...

  3. Climate change impacts on crop yield and quality with CO2 fertilization in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, Lin; Wei, Xiong; Hui, Ju; Yinlong, Xu; Yue, Li; Liping, Bai; Liyong, Xie

    2005-01-01

    A regional climate change model (PRECIS) for China, developed by the UK's Hadley Centre, was used to simulate China's climate and to develop climate change scenarios for the country. Results from this project suggest that, depending on the level of future emissions, the average annual temperature increase in China by the end of the twenty-first century may be between 3 and 4 °C. Regional crop models were driven by PRECIS output to predict changes in yields of key Chinese food crops: rice, maize and wheat. Modelling suggests that climate change without carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization could reduce the rice, maize and wheat yields by up to 37% in the next 20–80 years. Interactions of CO2 with limiting factors, especially water and nitrogen, are increasingly well understood and capable of strongly modulating observed growth responses in crops. More complete reporting of free-air carbon enrichment experiments than was possible in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report confirms that CO2 enrichment under field conditions consistently increases biomass and yields in the range of 5–15%, with CO2 concentration elevated to 550 ppm Levels of CO2 that are elevated to more than 450 ppm will probably cause some deleterious effects in grain quality. It seems likely that the extent of the CO2 fertilization effect will depend upon other factors such as optimum breeding, irrigation and nutrient applications. PMID:16433100

  4. Impact of Post-Translational Modifications of Crop Proteins under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses of plants depends on intricate coordination of multiple signal transduction pathways that act coordinately or, in some cases, antagonistically. Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs can regulate protein activity and localization as well as protein–protein interactions in numerous cellular processes, thus leading to elaborate regulation of plant responses to various external stimuli. Understanding responses of crop plants under field conditions is crucial to design novel stress-tolerant cultivars that maintain robust homeostasis even under extreme conditions. In this review, proteomic studies of PTMs in crops are summarized. Although the research on the roles of crop PTMs in regulating stress response mechanisms is still in its early stage, several novel insights have been retrieved so far. This review covers techniques for detection of PTMs in plants, representative PTMs in plants under abiotic stress, and how PTMs control functions of representative proteins. In addition, because PTMs under abiotic stresses are well described in soybeans under submergence, recent findings in PTMs of soybean proteins under flooding stress are introduced. This review provides information on advances in PTM study in relation to plant adaptations to abiotic stresses, underlining the importance of PTM study to ensure adequate agricultural production in the future.

  5. Impact of coffee crop renewal program on small producers in department Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarín N. Carlos Andrés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The modernization of crops through renewal is a vital option for the restoration of the productivity and competitiveness of the coffee crop. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee is banking on a strategy that promotes renewal by providing resources to stimulate growers. As a result of the implementation of the program, it is hoped that it will reverse the aging process of coffee crops, consolidate a productive and competitive market, provide appropriate ages and densities and promote the use of coffee rust resistant varieties. Similarly, it is expected that small producers, who constitute the majority of farmers and who presumably suffer major limitations to independent renewal, will be the main beneficiaries.

  6. Petroleum Sludge as gypsum replacement in cement plants: Its Impact on Cement Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, Ali; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Khodja, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Due to high cost of cement manufacturing and the huge amount of resources exhaustion, companies are trying to incorporate alternative raw materials or by-products into cement production so as to produce alternative sustainable cement. Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that poses serious imparts on soil and groundwater. Given that this sludge contains a high percentage of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the main component of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), it may play the same gypsum role in strength development. In this research, a total replacement of gypsum (100%) has been substituted by petroleum sludge in cement production and has led to an increase of 28.8% in UCS values after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, the burning of this waste has emitted a considerable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) gas that needs to be carefully considered prior to use petroleum sludge within cement plants.

  7. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, p<0.001); the values correlated with serum cortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Impact of Annular Size on Outcomes After Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, G Michael; Chetcuti, Stanley J; Yakubov, Steven J; Patel, Himanshu J; Grossman, P Michael; Kleiman, Neal S; Heiser, John; Merhi, William; Zorn, George L; Tadros, Peter N; Petrossian, George; Robinson, Newell; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Gleason, Thomas G; Huang, Jian; Conte, John V; Popma, Jeffrey J; Reardon, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    This analysis evaluates the relationship of annular size to hemodynamics and the incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients. The CoreValve US Pivotal High Risk Trial, described previously, compared TAVR using a self-expanding valve with SAVR. Multislice computed tomography was used to categorize TAVR and SAVR subjects according to annular perimeter-derived diameter: large (≥26 mm), medium (23 to <26 mm), and small (<23 mm). Hemodynamics, PPM, and clinical outcomes were assessed. At all postprocedure visits, mean gradients were significantly lower for TAVR compared with SAVR in small and medium size annuli (p < 0.001). Annular size was significantly associated with mean gradient after SAVR, with small annuli having the highest gradients (p < 0.05 at all timepoints); gradients were similar across all annular sizes after TAVR. In subjects receiving SAVR, the frequency of PPM was significantly associated with annular size, with small annuli having the greatest incidence. No difference in PPM incidence by annular sizing was observed with TAVR. In addition, TAVR subjects had significantly less PPM than SAVR subjects in small and medium annuli (p < 0.001), with no difference in the incidence of PPM between TAVR and SAVR in large annuli (p = 0.10). Annular size has a significant effect on hemodynamics and the incidence of PPM in SAVR subjects, not observed in TAVR subjects. With respect to annular size, TAVR results in better hemodynamics and less PPM for annuli less than 26 mm and should be strongly considered when choosing a tissue valve for small and medium size annuli. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the Potential Economic Impact of the Medicare Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Episode-Based Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Omar Z; Mather, Richard C; Attarian, David E; Mistry, Bipin; Chopra, Aneesh; Strickland, Matt; Schulman, Kevin A

    2017-11-01

    The Medicare program has initiated Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR), a bundled payment mandate for lower extremity joint replacements. We sought to determine the degree to which hospitals will invest in care redesign in response to CJR, and to project its economic impacts. We defined 4 potential hospital management strategies to address CJR: no action, light care management, heavy care management, and heavy care management with contracting. For each of 798 hospitals included in CJR, we used hospital-specific volume, cost, and quality data to determine the hospital's economically dominant strategy. We aggregated data to assess the percentage of hospitals pursuing each strategy; savings to the health care system; and costs and percentages of CJR-derived revenues gained or lost for Medicare, hospitals, and postacute care facilities. In the model, 83.1% of hospitals (range 55.0%-100.0%) were expected to take no action in response to CJR, and 16.1% of hospitals (range 0.0%-45.0%) were expected to pursue heavy care management with contracting. Overall, CJR is projected to reduce health care expenditures by 0.5% (range 0.0%-4.1%) or $14 million (range $0-$119 million). Medicare is expected to save 2.2% (range 2.2%-2.2%), hospitals are projected to lose 3.7% (range 4.7% loss to 3.8% gain), and postacute care facilities are expected to lose 6.5% (range 0.0%-12.8%). Hospital administrative costs are projected to increase by $63 million (range $0-$148 million). CJR is projected to have a negligible impact on total health care expenditures for lower extremity joint replacements. Further research will be required to assess the actual care management strategies adopted by CJR hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Obesity on Postoperative Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Pulmonary Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Matthew W; Earing, Michael G; Hill, Garick D; Cohen, Scott B; Bartz, Peter J; Tweddell, James S; Ginde, Salil

    2015-01-01

    The impact of obesity on surgical morbidity in adults with congenital heart disease is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of obesity on postoperative outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing reoperation for pulmonary valve replacement. A retrospective analysis was performed assessing the influence of obesity on surgical outcomes. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. The mean body mass index of the cohort was 25.9 ± 6.9 kg/m2 . The cohort included 71 patients with 17 patients (24%) being obese. There was no postoperative mortality. Obese patients had a longer hospital length of stay (6.6 vs. 4.7 days; P obesity was independently associated with hospital length of stay >5 days (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-18.2, P = .01) and with increased postoperative arrhythmias (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 1.7-40, P Obesity is associated with increased morbidity in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing pulmonary valve replacement, including longer hospitalization and higher risk for postoperative arrhythmias. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduction of CMIP5 models bias using Cumulative Distribution Function transform and impact on crops yields simulations across West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise Famien, Adjoua; Defrance, Dimitri; Sultan, Benjamin; Janicot, Serge; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Different CMIP exercises show that the simulations of the future/current temperature and precipitation are complex with a high uncertainty degree. For example, the African monsoon system is not correctly simulated and most of the CMIP5 models underestimate the precipitation. Therefore, Global Climate Models (GCMs) show significant systematic biases that require bias correction before it can be used in impacts studies. Several methods of bias corrections have been developed for several years and are increasingly using more complex statistical methods. The aims of this work is to show the interest of the CDFt (Cumulative Distribution Function transfom (Michelangeli et al.,2009)) method to reduce the data bias from 29 CMIP5 GCMs over Africa and to assess the impact of bias corrected data on crop yields prediction by the end of the 21st century. In this work, we apply the CDFt to daily data covering the period from 1950 to 2099 (Historical and RCP8.5) and we correct the climate variables (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, wind) by the use of the new daily database from the EU project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) available from 1979 to 2013 as reference data. The performance of the method is assessed in several cases. First, data are corrected based on different calibrations periods and are compared, on one hand, with observations to estimate the sensitivity of the method to the calibration period and, on other hand, with another bias-correction method used in the ISIMIP project. We find that, whatever the calibration period used, CDFt corrects well the mean state of variables and preserves their trend, as well as daily rainfall occurrence and intensity distributions. However, some differences appear when compared to the outputs obtained with the method used in ISIMIP and show that the quality of the correction is strongly related to the reference data. Secondly, we validate the bias correction method with the agronomic simulations (SARRA-H model (Kouressy

  12. Impacts of Irrigation and Climate Change on Water Security: Using Stakeholder Engagement to Inform a Process-based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.; Flores, A. N.; Han, B.; Som Castellano, R.; Steimke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation is an essential component for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, accounting for a majority of global freshwater withdrawals used for human consumption. Since climate change affects both the spatiotemporal demand and availability of water in irrigated areas, agricultural productivity and water efficiency depend critically on how producers adapt and respond to climate change. It is necessary, therefore, to understand the coevolution and feedbacks between humans and agricultural systems. Integration of social and hydrologic processes can be achieved by active engagement with local stakeholders and applying their expertise to models of coupled human-environment systems. Here, we use a process based crop simulation model (EPIC) informed by stakeholder engagement to determine how both farm management and climate change influence regional agricultural water use and production in the Lower Boise River Basin (LBRB) of southwest Idaho. Specifically, we investigate how a shift from flood to sprinkler fed irrigation would impact a watershed's overall agricultural water use under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. The LBRB comprises about 3500 km2, of which 20% is dedicated to irrigated crops and another 40% to grass/pasture grazing land. Via interviews of stakeholders in the LBRB, we have determined that approximately 70% of irrigated lands in the region are flood irrigated. We model four common crops produced in the LBRB (alfalfa, corn, winter wheat, and sugarbeets) to investigate both hydrologic and agricultural impacts of irrigation and climatic drivers. Factors influencing farmers' decision to switch from flood to sprinkler irrigation include potential economic benefits, external financial incentives, and providing a buffer against future water shortages. These two irrigation practices are associated with significantly different surface water and energy budgets, and large-scale shifts in practice could substantially impact regional

  13. The Impacts of Various Environments Factors and Adaptive Management Strategies on Food Crops in the 21st Century Based on a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Lin, T. S.; Lawrence, P.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental factors - characterized by increasing levels of CO2, and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns - present potential risks to global food supply. To date, understanding of environmental factors' effects on crop production remains uncertain due to (1) uncertainties in projected trends of these factors and their spatial and temporal variability; (2) uncertainties in the physiological, genetic and molecular basis of crop adaptation to adaptive management practices (e.g. change in planting time, irrigation and N fertilization etc.) and (3) uncertainties in current land surface models to estimate the response of crop production to changes in environmental factors and management strategies. In this study we apply a process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to assess the impact of various environmental factors and management strategies on the production of row crops (corn, soybean and wheat) at regional and global scales. Results are compared to corresponding simulations performed with the crop model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Each model is driven with historical atmospheric forcing data (1901-2005), and projected atmospheric forcing data under RCP 4.5 or RCP 8.5 (2006-2100) from CESM CMIP5 simulations to estimate the effects of different climate change projections on potential productivity of food crops at a global scale. For each set of atmospheric forcing data, production of each crop is simulated with and without inclusion of adaptive management practices (e.g. application of irrigation, N fertilization, change in planting time and crop cultivars etc.) to assess the effect of adaptation on projected crop production over the 21st century. In detail, three questions are addressed: (1) what is the impact of different climate change projections on global crop production; (2) what is the effect of adaptive management practices on projected crop production; and (3) how do differences in model

  14. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  15. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Casadebaig

    Full Text Available A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background. The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90 was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years, management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels and CO2 (2 levels. The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total. The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model improvement.

  16. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement.

  17. Impacts of climate change and inter-annual variability on cereal crops in China from 1980 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Huang, Yao

    2012-06-01

    Negative climate impacts on crop yield increase pressures on food security in China. In this study, climatic impacts on cereal yields (rice, wheat and maize) were investigated by analyzing climate-yield relationships from 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that warming was significant, but trends in precipitation and solar radiation were not statistically significant in most of China. In general, maize is particularly sensitive to warming. However, increase in temperature was correlated with both lower and higher yield of rice and wheat, which is inconsistent with the current view that warming results in decline in yields. Of the three cereal crops, further analysis suggested that reduction in yields with higher temperature is accompanied by lower precipitation, which mainly occurred in northern parts of China, suggesting droughts reduced yield due to lack of water resources. Similarly, a positive correlation between temperature and yield can be alternatively explained by the effect of solar radiation, mainly in the southern part of China where water resources are abundant. Overall, our study suggests that it is inter-annual variations in precipitation and solar radiation that have driven change in cereal yields in China over the last three decades. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Investigating the impact of climate change on crop phenological events in Europe with a phenology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoxiu; Churkina, Galina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e.g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28.6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution

  19. Impact of testosterone replacement therapy on thromboembolism, heart disease and obstructive sleep apnoea in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Alexander P; Hanske, Julian; Jiang, Wei; Kwon, Nicollette K; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kathrins, Martin; Learn, Peter A; Sun, Maxine; Haider, Adil H; Basaria, Shehzad; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2018-05-01

    To assess the association of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) with thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease and heart failure) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A cohort of 3 422 male US military service members, retirees and their dependents, aged 40-64 years, was identified, who were prescribed TRT between 2006 and 2010 for low testosterone levels. The men in this cohort were matched on a 1:1 basis for age and comorbidities to men without a prescription for TRT. Event-free survival and rates of thromboembolism, cardiovascular events and OSA were compared between men using TRT and the control group, with a median follow-up of 17 months. There was no difference in event-free survival with regard to thromboembolism (P = 0.239). Relative to controls, men using TRT had improved cardiovascular event-free survival (P = 0.004), mainly as a result of lower incidence of coronary artery disease (P = 0.008). The risk of OSA was higher in TRT users (2-year risk 16.5% [95% confidence interval 15.1-18.1] in the TRT group vs 12.7% [11.4-14.1] in the control group. This study adds to growing evidence that the cardiovascular risk associated with TRT may be lower than once feared. The elevated risk of OSA in men using TRT is noteworthy. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessing the impacts of climate change and tillage practices on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Parajuli; P. Jayakody; G.F. Sassenrath; Y. Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated climate change impacts on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from three differ-ent tillage systems (conventional, reduced 1–close to conservation, and reduced 2–close to no-till), in theBig Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modelwas applied to the BSRW using observed stream flow and crop...

  1. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Hongwei; Shen, Yanjun; Liu, Changming; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Long, Di

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ∼2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP–USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources. (letter)

  2. The hydrological impacts of energy crop production in the UK. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, J. W.; Hall, R. L.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Clark, D. B.; Stratford, C.; Davies, H. N.; Marsh, T. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Riche, A.; Christian, D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out between March 2002 and January 2004 under ETSU Contract number B/CR/000783/00/00 by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford. It also describes the results of measurements made by Rothamsted Research staff under a sub-contract. The objectives of this work are: 1. To determine the effects on water availability at the catchment and sub-catchment scale, of production of energy crops, across England and Wales. 2. To indicate areas where...

  3. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  4. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  5. Protein metabolism in Turner syndrome and the impact of hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Riis, Anne Lene; Møller, Niels; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2007-09-01

    Studies have documented an altered body composition in Turner syndrome (TS). Body fat is increased and muscle mass is decreased. Ovarian failure necessitates substitution with female hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and HRT induces favourable changes in body composition. It is unknown how HRT affects protein metabolism. To test whether alterations in body composition before and after HRT in TS are a result of altered protein metabolism. We performed a randomized crossover study with active treatment (HRT in TS and oral contraceptives in controls) or no treatment. We studied eight women (age 29.7 +/- 5.6 (mean +/- SD) years) with TS, verified by karyotype, and eight age-matched controls (age 27.3 +/- 4.9 years). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. Protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by an amino acid tracer dilution technique using [(15)N]phenylalanine and [(2)H(4)]tyrosine. Substrate metabolism was examined by indirect calorimetry. Energy expenditure was comparable among TS and controls, and did not change during active treatment. Whole-body phenylalanine and tyrosine fluxes were similar in the untreated situations, and did not change during active treatment. Amino acid degradation and protein synthesis were similar in all situations. Muscle protein breakdown was similar among groups, and was not affected by treatment. Muscle protein synthesis rate and forearm blood flow did not differ among groups or due to treatment. Protein metabolism in TS is comparable to controls, and is not affected by HRT.

  6. Replacing Lectures with Small Groups: The Impact of Flipping the Residency Conference Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew M.; Mayer, Chad; Barrie, Michael; Greenberger, Sarah; Way, David P.

    2018-01-01

    The flipped classroom, an educational alternative to the traditional lecture, has been widely adopted by educators at all levels of education and across many disciplines. In the flipped classroom, learners prepare in advance of the face-to-face meeting by learning content material on their own. Classroom time is reserved for application of the learned content to solving problems or discussing cases. Over the past year, we replaced most residency program lectures with small-group discussions using the flipped-classroom model, case-based learning, simulation and procedure labs. In the new model, residents prepared for conference by reviewing a patient case and studying suggested learning materials. Conference day was set aside for facilitated small-group discussions about the case. This is a cross-cohort study of emergency medicine residents who experienced the lecture-based curriculum to residents in the new flipped-classroom curriculum using paired comparisons (independent t-tests) on in-training exam scores while controlling for program year level. We also compared results of the evaluation of various program components. We observed no differences between cohorts on in-training examination scores. Small-group methods were rated the same across program years. Two program components in the new curriculum, an updated format of both adult and pediatric case conferences, were rated significantly higher on program quality. In preparation for didactics, residents in the new curriculum report spending more time on average with outside learning materials, including almost twice as much time reviewing textbooks. Residents found the new format of the case conferences to be of higher quality because of the inclusion of rapid-fire case discussions with targeted learning points. PMID:29383050

  7. Nation-wide assessment of climate change impacts on crops in the Philippines and Peru as part of multi-disciplinary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change has been recognized as one of the most devastating factors. In many developing countries, however, few studies have focused on nation-wide assessment of crop yield and crop suitability in the future, and hence there is a large pressure on science to provide policy makers with solid predictions for major crops in the countries in support of climate risk management policies and programmes. FAO has developed the tool MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change) where statistical climate downscaling is combined with crop yield projections under climate change scenarios. Three steps are required to get the results: 1. The historical meteorological data such as temperature and precipitation for about 30 years were collected, and future climates were statistically downscaled to the local scale, 2. The historical crop yield data were collected and regression functions were made to estimate the yield by using observed climatic data and water balance during the growing period for each crop, and 3. The yield changes in the future were estimated by using the future climate data, produced by the first step, as an input to the yield regression functions. The yield was first simulated at sub-national scale and aggregated to national scale, which is intended to provide national policies with adaptation options. The methodology considers future changes in characteristics of extreme weather events as the climate projections are on daily scale while crop simulations are on 10-daily scale. Yields were simulated with two greenhouse gas concentration pathways (RCPs) for three GCMs per crop to account for uncertainties in projections. The crop assessment constitutes a larger multi-disciplinary assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture and vulnerability of livelihoods in terms of food security (e.g. water resources, agriculture market, household-level food security from socio

  8. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan

  9. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  10. Impact of anticoagulation therapy on valve haemodynamic deterioration following transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Trigo, María; Muñoz-García, Antonio J; Latib, Azeem; Auffret, Vincent; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Gutierrez, Enrique; Cheema, Asim N; Serra, Vicenç; Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Kefer, Joelle; Benitez, Luis Miguel; Leclercq, Florence; Mangieri, Antonio; Le Breton, Hervé; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Garcia Del Blanco, Bruno; Dager, Antonio; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Puri, Rishi; Pibarot, Philippe; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the changes in transvalvular gradients and the incidence of valve haemodynamic deterioration (VHD) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), according to use of anticoagulation therapy. This multicentre study included 2466 patients (46% men; mean age 81±7 years) who underwent TAVR with echocardiography performed at 12-month follow-up. Anticoagulation therapy was used in 707 patients (28.7%) following TAVR (AC group). A total of 663 patients received vitamin K antagonists, and 44 patients received direct oral anticoagulants. A propensity score matching analysis was performed to adjust for intergroup (AC vs non-AC post-TAVR) differences. A total of 622 patients per group were included in the propensity-matched analysis. VHD was defined as a ≥10 mm Hg increase in the mean transprosthetic gradient at follow-up (vs hospital discharge). The mean clinical follow-up was 29±18 months. The mean transvalvular gradient significantly increased at follow-up in the non-AC group within the global cohort (P=0.003), whereas it remained stable over time in the AC group (P=0.323). The incidence of VHD was significantly lower in the AC group (0.6%) compared with the non-AC group (3.7%, P<0.001), and these significant differences remained within the propensity-matched populations (0.6% vs 3.9% in the AC and non-AC groups, respectively, P<0.001). The occurrence of VHD did not associate with an increased risk of all-cause death (P=0.468), cardiovascular death (P=0.539) or stroke (P=0.170) at follow-up. The lack of anticoagulation therapy post-TAVR was associated with significant increments in transvalvular gradients and a greater risk of VHD. VHD was subclinical in most cases and did not associate with major adverse clinical events. Future randomised trials are needed to determine if systematic anticoagulation therapy post-TAVR would reduce the incidence of VHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  11. Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Alex; Panaullah, Golam M; Meharg, Andy A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of As in groundwater commonly found in Bangladesh and other parts of Asia not only pose a risk via drinking water consumption but also a risk in agricultural sustainability and food safety. This review attempts to provide an overview of current knowledge and gaps related to the assessment and management of these risks, including the behaviour of As in the soil-plant system, uptake, phytotoxicity, As speciation in foods, dietary habits, and human health risks. Special emphasis has been given to the situation in Bangladesh, where groundwater via shallow tube wells is the most important source of irrigation water in the dry season. Within the soil-plant system, there is a distinct difference in behaviour of As under flooded conditions, where arsenite (AsIII) predominates, and under nonflooded conditions, where arsenate (AsV) predominates. The former is regarded as most toxic to humans and plants. Limited data indicate that As-contaminated irrigation water can result in a slow buildup of As in the topsoil. In some cases the buildup is reflected by the As levels in crops, in others not. It is not yet possible to predict As uptake and toxicity in plants based on soil parameters. It is unknown under what conditions and in what time frame As is building up in the soil. Representative phytotoxicity data necessary to evaluate current and future soil concentrations are not yet available. Although there are no indications that crop production is currently inhibited by As, long-term risks are clearly present. Therefore, with concurrent assessments of the risks, management options to further prevent As accumulation in the topsoil should already have been explored. With regard to human health, data on As speciation in foods in combination with food consumption data are needed to assess dietary exposure, and these data should include spatial and seasonal variability. It is important to control confounding factors in assessing the risks. In a country where malnutrition

  12. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  13. A Case Study in Caribbean Climate Change: Impacts on Crop Suitability and Small Farmer Vulnerability in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, W. R.; Gamble, D. W.; Popke, J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines some of the implications of climate change for farming in the Caribbean, through an analysis of future crop suitability and a case study of climate variability and agricultural practices in St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica. To assess potential changes in Caribbean agriculture, we present results from a water budget model based on a 100-year regional climate projection of temperature and precipitation for the circum-Caribbean basin. We find that future water deficits in the region are climate type-dependent. Savanna climates experience the largest annual changes, while semi-arid environments are greatly impacted in the spring. When the impacts of temperature and precipitation are considered separately, we find that predicted future warming, and the associated increase in evapotranspiration, has a slightly larger climatological effect on crop water need than predicted decreases in precipitation. To illustrate how a changing climate regime may impact agricultural practices, we present results from recent fieldwork in St. Elizabeth Parish, one of the main farming regions on the island of Jamaica. Drawing on data from farmer interviews and a recently-installed weather mesonet, we highlight the ways in which local microclimates influence farmer livelihood strategies and community-level vulnerability. Initial results suggest that farmers are experiencing greater climate variability, and that communities with Savanna and semi-arid type climates may be more susceptible to drought than communities in wetter, higher-elevation microclimates. These changes have enhanced the importance of irrigation technology and water management strategies for successful farming. In this context, we argue, large, well-capitalized farmers may be better able to manage the uncertainties associated with climate change, leading to an uneven landscape of vulnerability across the region.

  14. Assessing the risk of pesticide environmental impact in several Argentinian cropping systems with a fuzzy expert indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Sánchez, Daniel; Althaus, Rafael; Scotta, Roberto R; Bertolaccini, Isabel

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of transgenic soybean (Glycine max, L.) varieties resistant to glyphosate (GR soybeans) has rapidly expanded in Argentina, increasing pesticide use where only grasslands were previously cultivated. The authors compared an estimate of environmental risk for different crops and active ingredients using the IPEST index, which is based on a fuzzy-logic expert system. For IPEST calculations, four modules are defined, one reflecting the rate of application, the other three reflecting the risk for groundwater, surface water and air. The input variables are pesticide properties, site-specific conditions and characteristics of the pesticide application. The expert system calculates the value of modules according to the degree of membership of the input variables to the fuzzy subsets F (favourable) and U (unfavourable), and they can be aggregated following sets of decision rules. IPEST integrated values of >or= 7 reflect low environmental risk, and values of environmental contamination, and they are mainly used in maize. Groundwater was the most affected compartment. Fuzzy logic provided an easy tool combining different environmental components with pesticide properties to give a simple and accessible risk assessment. These findings provide information about active ingredients that should be replaced in order to protect water and air from pesticide contamination. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The impact of the immune system on the safety and efficiency of enzyme replacement therapy in lysosomal storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomfield, A; Jones, S A; Hughes, S M; Bigger, B W

    2016-07-01

    In the light of clinical experience in infantile onset Pompe patients, the immunological impact on the tolerability and long-term efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for lysosomal storage disorders has come under renewed scrutiny. This article details the currently proposed immunological mechanisms involved in the development of anti-drug antibodies and the current therapies used in their treatment. Given the current understanding of the adaptive immune response, it focuses particularly on T cell dependent mechanisms and the paradigm of using lymphocytic negative selection as a predictor of antibody formation. This concept originally postulated in the 1970s, stipulated that the genotypically determined lack of production or production of a variant protein determines an individual's lymphocytic repertoire. This in turn is the key factor in determining the potential severity of an individual's immunological response to ERT. It also highlights the need for immunological assay standardization particularly those looking at describing the degree of functional impact, robust biochemical or clinical endpoints and detailed patient subgroup identification if the true evaluations of impact are to be realised.

  16. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  17. Regional economic impacts of biomass based energy service use: A comparison across crops and technologies for East Styria, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trink, Thomas; Schmid, Christoph; Schinko, Thomas; Steininger, Karl W.; Loibnegger, Thomas; Kettner, Claudia; Pack, Alexandra; Toeglhofer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Biomass action plans in many European countries seek to expand biomass heat and fuel supply, mainly to be supplied by peripheral, agricultural regions. We develop a two-plus-ten-region energy-focused computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that acknowledges land competition in analysing the sub-state local-regional economic implications of such a strategy, embedded within a global context. Our model is based on a full cost analysis of selected biomass technologies covering a range of agricultural and forestry crops, as well as thermal insulation. The local-regional macroeconomic effects differ significantly across technologies and are governed by factors such as net labour intensity in crop production. The high land intensity of agricultural biomass products crowds out conventional agriculture, and thus lowers employment and drives up land prices and the consumer price index. The regional economic results show that net employment effects are positive for all forestry based biomass energy, and also show for which agriculture based biomass systems this is true, even when accounting for land competition. When regional consumer price development governs regional wages or when the agricultural sector is in strong enough competition to the international market, positive employment and welfare impacts vanish fully for agriculture based bio-energy.

  18. The Impact of Phosphorus Load and Water Through-Flow on Phytoplankton Standing Crop in a Dimitic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut L. Seip

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model has been developed for the mesotrophic Lake Mjesa (365 x 106 m2, 61' N, 11° E. Emphasis has been made on the interaction between biological and hydrodynamic variables. Simulation results for phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations in both the epilimnion and the hypolimnion compare fairly well with observations. Investigative simulations have been made to study the effects of injecting nutrients at different depths assuming three alternative schemes for diffusion across the thermoclinc. The overall results indicate that the phytoplankton standing crop is less sensitive to nutrient injection depths when diffusion increases, and that the high efficiency of hypolimnetic injection reported for some lakes in the literature will not be obtained in the present lake. Simulation studies of changes in river flow indicate that changes in peak flow time (inside the domain of natural variability have a greater impact on the phytoplankton standing crop ( less than 20% than changes in flow volume ( less than 6%. Simulations also indicate that light extinction caused by suspended particles associated with river flow may be important in sections of the lake.

  19. Impact of sowing density and nitrogen fertilization on Rumex obtusifolius L. development in organic winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leafed dock is very important in organic farming systems. Indeed, concerns about managing this weed without the use of herbicides is one of the major factors limiting the uptake of these systems by conventional farmers. Against this background, we analyzed the impact of two management practices on the development of R. obtusifolius populations in two winter cereal trials: spelt (Triticum spelta [L.] Thell. and triticale (×Triticosecale [A.Camus] Wittm.. The management factors were sowing density (SD and nitrogen fertilization (NF at the tillering stage. The results showed that an increase in SD and NF led to stronger crop growth and better soil coverage by the end of spring, demonstrated by a significant decrease in photosynthetic active radiation (PAR at soil level. However, although there was an SD effect, it was too weak in April to restrict an increase in R. obtusifolius populations through the recruitment of new R. obtusifolius plants. An increase in R. obtusifolius population density was also linked to an increase in the NF level, illustrating the nitrophilic character of this weed. Although an increase in SD and NF at the tillering stage led to a higher canopy density, these two practices failed to reduce R. obtusifolius density in the cereal crops. Nevertheless, cereal yields were shown to be maintained or improved. Our results indicate that, even when combining weed harrowing and some cultural weed control methods, this perennial weed is difficult to control.

  20. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    hypothesis: what may benefit the human system (farms, refineries, cities) may damage the environment. The hydrological and optimization models will be run interactively, with the optimization model run for 10 years and the resulting land use solution then used in the SWAT hydrologic model to provide more detailed information on river/ecosystem impacts, which are assessed using low flow analysis. Problem areas highlighted by this analysis can be targeted by implementing flow requirements at different locations in the watershed; these constraints are then added to the optimization model which is run for another 10 years, and the new solution again analyzed in more detail to assess the effectiveness of the imposed environmental measures. Preliminary results show that under proposed subsidies and current crop prices, the percentage of land planted with Miscanthus will increase to environmentally unsustainable levels, but that implementing flow and water quality constraints can mitigate the damage to some extent. Moreover, tributary and mainstem subwatersheds in the Sangamon do not respond equally, even in this very homogenous region, and thus the spatial context is important for understanding the tradeoffs between economic and hydrologic benefits, which become increasingly important in creating sustainable biofuel production.

  1. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  2. Simulated Frosts At Different Phenological Stages of the Potato Crop and Their Impact On Yields Cv Ccompis: Preliminary Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, T. E.; Ortega, A

    1994-01-01

    The frost damages on the potato crop were simulated through an experiment in the Jiscuani community, in Southern Peru, Puno. Five levels of foliar damage (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) in different phenological stages were evaluated for their impact on tuber yield. The most significant phenological damages resulted at plant germination and at the early stolon formation, when foliar damage was higher than 50%. Moreover, the greatest effect on yield was caused at flowering stage (100 days after planting), recording reductions from 15 to 55 % at the different damage levels. The methodology for the frost simulation, cutting foliar sections according damage levels and making further rubbing on foliar area was apparently adequate. (author) [es

  3. Androgen deprivation therapy impact on quality of life and cardiovascular health, monitoring therapeutic replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Landon W; Serefoglu, Ege; Gokce, Ahmet; Linder, Brian J; Sartor, Alton O; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-02-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly utilized in the management of both localized and advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The use of ADT is associated with several adverse events, physical changes, and development of medical comorbidities/mortality. The current article reviews known adverse events associated with ADT as well as treatment options, where available. Current recommendations and guidelines are cited for ongoing monitoring of patients receiving ADT. A PubMed search of topics relating to ADT and adverse outcomes was performed, with select articles highlighted and reviewed based on level of evidence and overall contribution. Reported outcomes of studies detailing adverse effects of ADT were reviewed and discussed. Where available, randomized trials and meta-analyses were reported. ADT may result in several adverse events including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, vasomotor symptoms, cognitive, psychological and quality of life impairments, weight gain, sarcopenia, increased adiposity, gynecomastia, reduced penile/testicular size, hair changes, periodontal disease, osteoporosis, increased fracture risk, diabetes and insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and anemia. The definitive impact of ADT on lipid profiles, cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, and all-cause mortality is currently unknown with available data. Treatment options to reduce ADT-related adverse events include changing to an intermittent treatment schedule, biophysical therapy, counseling, and pharmacotherapy. Patients treated with ADT are at increased risk of several adverse events and should be routinely monitored for the development of potentially significant morbidity/mortality. Where appropriate, physicians should reduce known risk factors and counsel patients as to known risks and benefits of therapy. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahara Africa. Hence, this study aim at examines and map spatio-temporal impacts of rainfall variability on water availability for maize yield using Geographic Information System (GIS). Major regions where maize is highly produced in Nigeria were ...

  5. Infiltration into cropped soils: effect of rain and sodium adsorption ratio-impacted irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Donald L; Wood, James D; Lesch, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity criteria for water suitability for irrigation have been developed for conditions where irrigation water is the only water source. It is not clear that these criteria are applicable to environments where there is a combination of rain and irrigation during the growing season. The interaction of rainfall with irrigation water is expected to result in increased sodicity hazard because of the low electrical conductivity of rain. In this study we examined the effects of irrigation waters of SAR 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol(1/2) L(-1/2) and electrical conductivities of 1 and 2 dS m(-1) on the infiltration rate of two soils with alternating cycles of rain (simulated with a rainfall sprinkler) and irrigation water, separated by drying cycles. The infiltration rate of surface samples from two soils, Kobase silty clay (fine, smectitic, frigid, Torrertic Haplustept) and Glendive very fine sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed superactive, calcareous, frigid Aridic Ustifluvent) were evaluated under alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropped conditions for over 140 d and under full canopy cover. Reductions in infiltration were observed for both soils for SAR above 2, and the reductions became more severe with increasing SAR. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements taken from undisturbed cores at the end of the experiment were highly variable, suggesting that in situ infiltration measurements may be preferred when evaluating SAR effects.

  6. Cover crops impact on excess rainfall and soil erosion rates in orchards and potato fields, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey; Gil, Eshel

    2015-04-01

    Bare soil and high drainage densities are common characteristics of intensive agriculture land. The couplings of these characteristics lead to high runoff and eroded soil volumes leaving the field or the orchard via the local drainage system into the fluvial system. This process increase flood risk due to massive deposition of the coarse fraction of the eroded soil and therefore reduces channel capacity to discharge the increase volumes of concentrated runoff. As a result drainage basin authorities are forced to invest large amount of money in maintaining and enlarging the drainage network. However this approach is un-sustainable. On the other hand, implementing cover crops (CC) and modification to current agricultural practices over the contributing area of the watershed seems to have more benefits and provide sustainable solution. A multi-disciplinary approach applied in commercial potatoes fields and orchards that utilize the benefit of CC shows great success as means of soil and water conservation and weed disinfestation without reduction in the yield, its quality or its profitability. The results indicate that it is possible to grow potatoes and citrus trees under CC with no reduction in yield or nutrient uptake, with more than 95% reduction in soil loss and more than 60% in runoff volumes and peak discharges.

  7. IMPACT OF TILLAGE, FERTILIZATION AND PREVIOUS CROP ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LUVISOL UNDER BARLEY FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR ŠIMANSKÝ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the results of our investigation into the effects of different tillage, fertilization and previous crop on the chemical properties of loamy soil under spring barley and winter barley. We observed an increase of humus quality. More marked changes were in CT (r = 0.663, P < 0.05 than in RT (0.648, P < 0.05 and N fertilization (r = 0.678, P < 0.05 and SB (r = 0.761, P < 0.01 as well. A higher amount of TOC positively affected on parameters of soil sorptive complex in CT as well as in N and in SM treatments. A higher amount of TOC positively effected the portion of Ca2+ under CT (r= 0.795, P < 0.05, but also increased exchangeable Na+ (r= 0.830, P < 0.05 and K+ (r= 0.881, P < 0.01 in RT and N treatments.

  8. IMPACT OF TILLAGE, FERTILIZATION AND PREVIOUS CROP ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LUVISOL UNDER BARLEY FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR ŠIMANSKÝ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the results of our investigation into the effects of different tillage, fertilization and previous crop on the chemical properties of loamy soil under spring barley and winter barley. We observed an increase of humus quality. More marked changes were in CT (r = 0.663, P < 0.05 than in RT (0.648, P < 0.05 and N fertilization (r = 0.678, P < 0.05 and SB (r = 0.761, P < 0.01 as well. A higher amount of TOC positively affected on parameters of soil sorptive complex in CT as well as in N and in SM treatments. A higher amount of TOC positively effected the portion of Ca2+ under CT (r= 0.795, P < 0.05, but also increased exchangeable Na+ (r= 0.830, P < 0.05 and K+ (r= 0.881, P < 0.01 in RT and N treatments.

  9. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Impact of Continuous Cropping on the Diurnal Range of Dew Point Temperature during the Foliar Expansion Period of Annual Crops on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat M. Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to increase our knowledge of the role of land use in changing the regional climate. This study asked, “Has the increase in continuous cropping over the past 50 years on the Canadian Prairies influenced the daily mean and range of morning dew point temperatures (Td during the foliar expansion period (from mid-June to mid-July of annual field crops?” We found that there has been a general increase in the decadal average of mean daily Td and in the range of morning Td from the 1960s to the 2000s. The increase in the observed range of Td between the daily minimum value, which typically occurs near sunrise, and the late morning peak was found to be related to the increase in annual crop acreage and consequent decrease in summerfallow area. The relationship was more significant in the subhumid climatic zone than in the semiarid climatic zone, and it was influenced by whether the region was experiencing either wet, normal, or dry conditions.

  11. Impact of growing costs on the profitability of crop production in Poland in the mid-term perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this paper was to demonstrate the impact of cultivation intensity on economic of selected activities of crop production in Poland. The projection of income of these activities in mid-term perspective, i.e. in 2016, has also been developed. Studies have shown that for cultivation technology of low intensity, as compared to high, the economic results of examined activities were more favourable. The profitability of production, expressed as a ratio of the value of production to economic costs, was higher by 10.0 to 52.7%. According to the projection results, in the highly intensive cultivation, high costs and dynamics of growth, stronger than growth of income, had a negative impact on the level of income. It is expected, even with an exceptionally high yield, income level will be lower than in the cultivation of low intensity. The results show that the use of technological progress can reduce a negative impact of chemicals on the environment while maintaining the high economic efficiency of production.

  12. The impact of changes in LVEF and renal function on the prognosis of ICD patients after elective device replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberk, Bert; Robyns, Tomas; Garweg, Christophe; Floré, Vincent; Foulon, Stefaan; Voros, Gabor; Ector, Joris; Willems, Rik

    2017-10-01

    A proportion of patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in prevention of sudden cardiac death will only receive their first appropriate ICD therapy (AT) after device replacement. Clinical reassessment at the time of replacement could be helpful to guide the decision to replace or not in the future. All patients with an ICD for primary or secondary prevention in ischemic (ICM) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy were included in a single-center retrospective registry. The association of changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; cut-off at 35%), worsening renal function (decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 mL/min), and worsening New York Heart Association class at elective device replacement with mortality and AT was analyzed using adjusted Cox regression analysis. A total of 238 (33%) out of 727 patients received elective device replacement (86.1% male, 74.4% ICM, 42.9% primary prevention). During this replacement 20.2% received a device upgrade. The mean time to replacement was 6.4 ± 2.0 years and mean follow-up after replacement was 3.4 ± 3.0 years. Of patients who did not receive AT before replacement 23.1% received their first AT after replacement. Worsening renal function (hazard ratio [HR] 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-5.18) and a consistently LVEF ≤35% compared to a consistently LVEF >35% (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.19) at the time of replacement were independent predictors of mortality. Independent predictors of first AT after replacement could not be identified. Although reassessment of LVEF and renal function at replacement can be helpful in predicting total mortality, the clinical utility to guide reimplantation seemed limited. Our experience indicates that approximately 25% of patients received their first AT only after replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  14. Impact of seasonal forecast use on agricultural income in a system with varying crop costs and returns: an empirically-grounded simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Bazuin, J. T.; Nay, J.; Yeung, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    Access to seasonal climate forecasts can benefit farmers by allowing them to make more informed decisions about their farming practices. However, it is unclear whether farmers realize these benefits when crop choices available to farmers have different and variable costs and returns; multiple countries have programs that incentivize production of certain crops while other crops are subject to market fluctuations. We hypothesize that the benefits of forecasts on farmer livelihoods will be moderated by the combined impact of differing crop economics and changing climate. Drawing upon methods and insights from both physical and social sciences, we develop a model of farmer decision-making to evaluate this hypothesis. The model dynamics are explored using empirical data from Sri Lanka; primary sources include survey and interview information as well as game-based experiments conducted with farmers in the field. Our simulations show that a farmer using seasonal forecasts has more diversified crop selections, which drive increases in average agricultural income. Increases in income are particularly notable under a drier climate scenario, when a farmer using seasonal forecasts is more likely to plant onions, a crop with higher possible returns. Our results indicate that, when water resources are scarce (i.e. drier climate scenario), farmer incomes could become stratified, potentially compounding existing disparities in farmers’ financial and technical abilities to use forecasts to inform their crop selections. This analysis highlights that while programs that promote production of certain crops may ensure food security in the short-term, the long-term implications of these dynamics need careful evaluation.

  15. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  16. Environmental impact assessment of dutch tomato crop production in a Venlo glasshouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Torrellas, M.; Montero, J.I.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental impact assessment of the current situation of Dutch tomato production in a Venlo greenhouse in a temperate climate was developed as part of the EUPHOROS project. The project aims to develop a more sustainable greenhouse system with a reduction of external inputs yet with high

  17. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: an important first step for assessing impact of future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prakash N; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., >30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with >10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  19. Impacts of extreme heat and drought on crop yields in China: an assessment by using the DLEM-AG2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    China is not only one of the major agricultural production countries with the largest population in the world, but it is also the most susceptible to climate change and extreme events. Much concern has been raised about how extreme climate has affected crop yield, which is crucial for China's food supply security. However, the quantitative assessment of extreme heat and drought impacts on crop yield in China has rarely been investigated. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2), a highly integrated process-based ecosystem model with crop-specific simulation, here we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of extreme climatic heat and drought stress and their impacts on the yields of major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, and soybean) across China during 1981-2015, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that extreme heat and drought stress significantly reduced national cereal production and increased the yield gaps between potential yield and rain-fed yield. The drought stress was the primary factor to reduce crop yields in the semi-arid and arid regions, and extreme heat stress slightly aggravated the yield loss. The yield gap between potential yield and rain-fed yield was larger at locations with lower precipitation. Our results suggest that a large exploitable yield gap in response to extreme climatic heat-drought stress offers an opportunity to increase productivity in China by optimizing agronomic practices, such as irrigation, fertilizer use, sowing density, and sowing date.

  20. Assessing climate change impacts on winter cover crop nitrate uptake efficiency on the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in this region owing to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, little is known about climate change impacts on the ef...

  1. The impact of biogas technology adoption for farm households – empirical evidence from mixed crop and livestock farming systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the impact of biogas technology adoption as a livestock waste technology to support Mixed Crop and Livestock (MCL) farming among smallholder farmers in Indonesia. A cross sectional survey was conducted to collect data from 351 farm households (171 biogas adopters and 180...

  2. Dynamic Predictions of Crop Yield and Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa Due to Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Wittig, T.

    2012-12-01

    The highest damages from climate change are predicted to be in the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture is predicted to be especially vulnerable in this region because of its current state of high temperature and low precipitation and because it is usually rain-fed or relies on relatively basic technologies which therefore limit its ability to sustain in increased poor climatic conditions [1]. The goal of this research is to quantify the vulnerability of this ecosystem by projecting future changes in agriculture due to IPCC predicted climate change impacts on precipitation and temperature. This research will provide a better understanding of the relationship between precipitation and rain-fed agriculture in savannas. In order to quantify the effects of climate change on agriculture, the impacts of climate change are modeled through the use of a land surface vegetation dynamics model previously developed combined with a crop model [2,4]. In this project, it will be used to model yield for point cropland locations within sub-Saharan Africa between Kenya and Botswana with a range of annual rainfall. With this model, future projections are developed for what can be anticipated for the crop yield based on two precipitation climate change scenarios; (1) decreased depth and (2) decreased frequency as well as temperature change scenarios; (3) only temperature increased, (4) temperature increase dand decreased precipitation depth, and (5) temperature increased and decreased precipitation frequency. Therefore, this will allow conclusions to be drawn about how mean precipitation and a changing climate effect food security in sub-Saharan Africa. As an additional analysis, irrigation is added to the model as it is thought to be the solution to protect food security by maximizing on the potential of food production. In water-limited areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to consider water efficient irrigation techniques such as demand-based micro

  3. Use of pharmacy data to evaluate smoking regulations' impact on sales of nicotine replacement therapies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2005-06-01

    Recently, New York City and New York State increased cigarette excise taxes and New York City implemented a smoke-free workplace law. To assess the impact of these policies on smoking cessation in New York City, we examined over-the-counter sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Pharmacy sales data were collected in real time as part of nontraditional surveillance activities. We used Poisson generalized estimating equations to analyze the effect of smoking-related policies on pharmacy-specific weekly sales of nicotine patches and gum. We assessed effect modification by pharmacy location. We observed increases in NRT product sales during the weeks of the cigarette tax increases and the smoke-free workplace law. Pharmacies in low-income areas generally had larger and more persistent increases in response to tax increases than those in higher-income areas. Real-time monitoring of existing nontraditional surveillance data, such as pharmacy sales of NRT products, can help assess the effects of public policies on cessation attempts. Cigarette tax increases and smoke-free workplace regulations were associated with increased smoking cessation attempts in New York City, particularly in low-income areas.

  4. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Epailly, Eric; Velten, Michel; Radojevic, Jelena; Eisenmann, Bernard; Kremer, Hélène; Kindo, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). The study included 75 patients who had undergone isolated mechanical AVR for aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular (LV) function between 1994 and 2012. Their functional capacity was evaluated on average 4.6 years after AVR by exercise testing, including measurement of their VO 2max , and by determining their New York Heart Association functional class and Short Form-36 score. Two groups were defined by measuring the patients' indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) by transthoracic echocardiography: a PPM group (iEOA < 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ) and a no-PPM group (iEOA ≥ 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ). PPM was present in 37.0% of the patients. The percentage of the predicted VO 2max achieved was significantly lower in the PPM group (86.7 ± 19.5% vs 97.5 ± 23.0% in the no-PPM group; P = 0.04). Compared with the no-PPM group, the PPM group contained fewer patients in New York Heart Association functional class I and their mean Short Form-36 physical component summary score was significantly lower. The mean transvalvular gradient was significantly higher in the PPM group than in the no-PPM group (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic function and LV mass had normalized in both groups. PPM is associated in the long term with moderate but significant impairment of functional capacity, despite optimal LV reverse remodelling and normalization of LV systolic and diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of terracing on soil erosion control and crop yield in two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebuka, Jules; Ryken, Nick; Uwimanzi, Aline; Nkundwakazi, Olive; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion remains a serious limiting factor to the agricultural production in Rwanda. Terracing has been widely adopted in many parts of the country in the past years, but its effectiveness is not yet known. Besides the standard radical (bench) terraces promoted by the government, also progressive terraces (with living hedges) become adopted mainly by the farmers. The aim of this study was to measure short-term (two consecutive rainy seasons 2016A and 2016B) run-off and soil losses for existing radical (RT) and progressive (PT) terraces versus non-protected (NP) fields using erosion plots installed in two agro-ecological zones, i.e. Buberuka highlands (site Tangata) and Eastern plateau (site Murehe) and determine their impacts on soil fertility and crop production. The erosion plot experiment started with a topsoil fertility assessment and during the experiment, maize was grown as farmer's cropping preference in the area. Runoff data were captured after each rainfall event and the collected water samples were dried to determine soil loss. Both erosion control measures reduced soil losses in Tangata, with effectiveness indices ranging from 43 to 100% when compared to the NP plots. RT showed the highest effectiveness, especially in season A. In Murehe, RT minimized runoff and soil losses in both seasons. Yet, the PT were largely inefficient, leading to soil losses exceeding those on the NP plots (ineffectiveness index of -78% and -65% in season A and B, respectively). Though topsoil fertility assessment in the erosion plots showed that the soil quality parameters were significantly higher in RT and NP plots compared to the PT plots on both sites, maize grain yield was not correlated with the physical effectiveness of the erosion control measures. Finally, the effectiveness of soil erosion control measures as well as their positive impacts on soil fertility and production differ not only by terracing type but also by agro-ecological zone and the management or

  6. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Trnka, M; Kersebaum, K C

    2011-01-01

    The studies on anthropogenic climate change performed in the last decade over Europe show consistent projections of increases in temperature and different patterns of precipitation with widespread increases in northern Europe and decreases over parts of southern and eastern Europe. In many...... countries and in recent years there is a tendency towards cereal grain yield stagnation and increased yield variability. Some of these trends may have been influenced by the recent climatic changes over Europe. A set of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires on perceived risks and foreseen impacts...... of climate and climate change on agriculture in Europe was distributed to agro-climatic and agronomy experts in 26 countries. Europe was divided into 13 Environmental Zones (EZ). In total, we had 50 individual responses for specific EZ. The questionnaires provided both country and EZ specific information...

  7. Impact of continued use of profenofos on soil as a consequence of cotton crop protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, A.W.; Bayot, R.G.; Quintana, B.B.; Austria, L.M.; Bobiles, S.C.; Villanueva, A.G.R.

    2001-01-01

    The same area was used since the project started in 1995 in the study to determine the impact of continued use of profenofos on soil properties in a cotton field. The effect on microbial population was minimal. Total bacterial, Bacillus and fungal counts generally decreased during the first spraying but recovered after the succeeding applications of profenofos. Basal respiration was not affected by profenofos treatment. Substrate induced respiration was not affected in the first spraying but was stimulated after the second and third sprayings. Movement of profenofos in the soil was slow when the soil was maintained at field capacity. It is easily degraded in the soil. The differences in organic volatiles, cumulative percent mineralization and bound residue formation of 14 C-2,4-D in untreated soil and farmer's field soil previously treated with cypermethrin, isoprocarb and profenofos were not statistically significant. (author)

  8. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  9. A methodological approach for deriving regional crop rotations as basis for the assessment of the impact of agricultural strategies using soil erosion as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Fürst, Christine; Thiel, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties in crop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way. In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques. Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultivation of energy crops. Environmental impacts, competitive utilization and potentials; Anbau von Energiepflanzen. Umweltauswirkungen, Nutzungskonkurrenzen und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    This background paper under consideration reports on the utilization of energy crops with regard to energy supply and climate change. Energy crops are renewable plants which are grown only for energy utilization. The harvested biomass is prepared for the power supply, heat supply and fuel supply by means of different usage paths.

  11. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. The impact of domestication and crop improvement on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in cereals: insights from genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Ramírez-Flores, M Rosario; Olalde-Portugal, Víctor; Paszkowski, Uta

    2018-04-15

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Recruitment of plant metabolites and hormones as signals in AM symbiosis III. Phytohormones are regulators of AM symbiosis and targets of plant breeding IV. Variations in host response to AM symbiosis V. Outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Cereals (rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and the millets) provide over 50% of the world's caloric intake, a value that rises to > 80% in developing countries. Since domestication, cereals have been under artificial selection, largely directed towards higher yield. Throughout this process, cereals have maintained their capacity to interact with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, beneficial symbionts that associate with the roots of most terrestrial plants. It has been hypothesized that the shift from the wild to cultivation, and above all the last c. 50 years of intensive breeding for high-input farming systems, has reduced the capacity of the major cereal crops to gain full benefit from AM interactions. Recent studies have shed further light on the molecular basis of establishment and functioning of AM symbiosis in cereals, providing insight into where the breeding process might have had an impact. Classic phytohormones, targets of artificial selection during the generation of Green Revolution semi-dwarf varieties, have emerged as important regulators of AM symbiosis. Although there is still much to be learnt about the mechanistic basis of variation in symbiotic outcome, these advances are providing an insight into the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in agronomic systems. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  14. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is a very important crop growing area, comprising seven sub-regions: Xing’anling (XA), Sanjiang (SJ), Northwest Songliao (NSL), Central Songliao (CSL), Southwest Songliao (SSL), Changbaishan (CB) and Liaodong (LD), which has been severely affected...... to become more severe for crop production under climate change. Adaptation measures that have already been implemented in recent decades to cope with current climatic limitations include changes in timing of cultivation, variety choice, soil tillage practices, crop protection, irrigation and use of plastic...

  15. Impacts of plastic film mulching on crop yields, soil water, nitrate, and organic carbon in Northwestern China: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dedi; Chen, Lei; Qu, Hongchao; Wang, Yilin; Misselbrook, Tom; Jiang, Rui

    2018-04-01

    In order to increase crop yield in semi-arid and arid areas, plastic film mulching (PFM) is widely used in Northwestern China. To date, many studies have addressed the effects of PFM on soil physical and biochemical properties in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China, but the findings of different studies are often contradictory. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the impacts of PFM on soil water content, soil nutrients and food production is needed. We compiled the results of 1278 observations to evaluate the overall effects of PFM on soil water content, the distribution of nitrate and soil organic carbon, and crop yield in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China. Our results showed that PFM increased soil moisture and nitrate concentration in topsoils (0-20 cm) by 12.9% and 28.2%, respectively, but slightly decreased (1.8%) soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the 0-10 cm soil layer. PFM significantly increased grain yields by 43.1%, with greatest effect in spring maize (79.4%). When related to cumulative precipitation during the crop growing season, yield increase from PFM was greatest (72.8%) at 200-300 mm, which was attributed to the large increase for spring maize and potato, implying that crop zoning would be beneficial for PFM in this region. When related to N application rate, crop yields benefited most from PFM (80.2%) at 200-300 kg/ha. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that PFM increased economic return by an average of 29.5%, with the best improvement for spring maize (71.1%) and no increase for spring wheat. In conclusion, PFM can significantly increase crop yield and economic return (especially for spring maize) in rain-fed agriculture areas of Northwestern China. Crop zoning is recommended for PFM to achieve the largest economic benefit. However, full account needs to be taken of the environmental impacts relating to N loss, SOC depletion and film pollution to evaluate the sustainability of PFM systems and further research is

  16. Use of Drought Index and Crop Modelling for Drought Impacts Analysis on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Loss in Bandung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, E.; Impron; Perdinan

    2017-03-01

    Drought impacts on crop yield loss depend on drought magnitude and duration and on plant genotype at every plant growth stages when droughts occur. This research aims to assess the difference calculation results of 2 drought index methods and to study the maize yield loss variability impacted by drought magnitude and duration during maize growth stages in Bandung district, province of West Java, Indonesia. Droughts were quantified by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at 1- to 3-month lags for the January1986-December 2015 period data. Maize yield responses to droughts were simulated by AquaCrop for the January 1986-May 2016 period of growing season. The analysis showed that the SPI and SPEI methods provided similar results in quantifying drought event. Droughts during maize reproductive stages caused the highest maize yield loss.

  17. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  18. Impact of chashma right-canal on energy-inputs and crop production in dera ismail khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Rehman, A.; Singh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the patterns of energy-consumption and their relationship with crop-production and poverty-alleviation of the farming community, before and after the completion of Chashma Right-Bank Canal (CRBC) Project. A survey was made of daily inputs of energy for crop-production operations on more than 60 crop plots of 10 farms in three villages. The selection of farms in the villages was based on the financial condition of the farmers, as judged by the main power-source (bullock or tractor) that the farmer uses on his farm. Sources of energy recorded on biweekly basis were: human labor, bullocks and tractors. Crops-yields and values of output were recorded. Energy-inputs were computed on per hectare basis by summing the energy inputs to all crop-plots. Results indicated that the use of tractors does result in a reduction of human labor-hours and bullock-energy on per hectare basis. Due to lack of a permanent source of irrigation (crops were dependent on rain and floodwater), the crop-yield in the study areas was low before CRBC improvement work. Moreover, floods also damaged the crops on some plots before harvesting; therefore the consumption of energy on both bullock-operated farms (BOF) and Tractor-Operated Farms (TOF) was very low in the 1992-93 year. Post CRBC project, during 1997-98 and 2000-2001, the farms used more energy. In 1997-98, TOF obtained higher wheat-yields than BOF. However, in 2000-2001, both BOF and TOF were using tractors as their main power source, which indirectly indicated a reduction 'in poverty. As the yields and therefore crop-values were higher on TOF than BOF, the TOF obtained higher gross margins. Cost of production was low in 1992-93, but the crop-values were also low, so the gross margins remained low. Results indicate that there will be an increase in production and a reduction in cost of production through mechanized farming, however, there will be an increase in energy

  19. Investigating Impacts of Alternative Crop Market Scenarios on Land Use Change with an Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed an agent-based model (ABM to simulate farmers’ decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. Farm profit maximization constrained by farmers’ profit expectations for land committed to biofuel crop production was used as the decision rule. Empirical parameters characterizing farmers’ profit expectations were derived from an agricultural landowners and operators survey and integrated in the ABM. The integration of crop production cost models and the survey information in the ABM is critical to producing simulations that can provide realistic insights into agricultural land use planning and policy making. Model simulations were run with historical market prices and alternative market scenarios for corn price, soybean to corn price ratio, switchgrass price, and switchgrass to corn stover ratio. The results of the comparison between simulated cropland percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields. The simulation results for alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed in eastern Iowa show that farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form of perennial grasses or corn stover as a more risky enterprise than their current crop production systems, likely because of market and production risks and lock in effects. As a result farmers do not follow a simple farm-profit maximization rule.

  20. Impact of frailty markers on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: insights from a Japanese multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Masanori; Kano, Seiji; Kagase, Ai; Kodama, Atsuko; Koyama, Yutaka; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kohsaka, Shun; Tada, Norio; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Naganuma, Toru; Araki, Motoharu; Shirai, Shinichi; Mizutani, Kazuki; Tabata, Minoru; Ueno, Hiroshi; Takagi, Kensuke; Higashimori, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    There are no standardized criteria for measuring patients' frailty. We examined prognosis based on four frailty markers [serum albumin level, grip strength, gait speed, and clinical frailty scale (CFS)] in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) between October 2013 and April 2016 and were recorded in the Optimized CathEter vAlvular iNtervention (OCEAN) Japanese multicenter registry. Serum albumin level was assessed by dividing patients into two groups: hypoalbuminemia or non-hypoalbuminemia according to their serum albumin level. Clinical outcomes including all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality rates after TAVR were compared. During the follow-up period cumulative all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality rates were significantly higher in the hypoalbuminemia group than in the non-hypoalbuminemia group. This result remained unchanged even after a propensity-matched model was used in terms of cumulative all-cause and non-cardiovascular mortality; however, differences in cardiovascular mortality rates were attenuated. To consider the impact of grip strength patients were divided into a low or high peak grip strength group based on classification and regression tree (CART) survival analysis. The clinical outcomes for each sex were compared between the two groups. In both sexes the cumulative 1-year mortality rates were significantly different between the two groups. To investigate gait speed patients were classified into two gait speed groups (low or high gait speed group) based on CART survival analysis. Clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The cumulative 1-year mortality rate was significantly different between the two gait speed groups. The effect of CFS on prognosis after TAVR was assessed. Patients were categorized into five groups based on the following CFS scores: CFS1-3, CFS4, CFS5, CFS6, and CFS ≥7. We evaluated the relationship between the CFS score and other indicators

  1. Incidence, Prognostic Impact, and Predictive Factors of Readmission for Heart Failure After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Eric; Doutriaux, Maxime; Bettinger, Nicolas; Tron, Christophe; Fauvel, Charles; Bauer, Fabrice; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Bouhzam, Najime; Litzler, Pierre-Yves; Cribier, Alain; Eltchaninoff, Hélène

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, prognostic impact, and predictive factors of readmission for congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with severe aortic stenosis treated by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). TAVR is indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in whom surgery is considered high risk or is contraindicated. Readmission for CHF after TAVR remains a challenge, and data on prognostic and predictive factors are lacking. All patients who underwent TAVR from January 2010 to December 2014 were included. Follow-up was achieved for at least 1 year and included clinical and echocardiographic data. Readmission for CHF was analyzed retrospectively. This study included 546 patients, 534 (97.8%) of whom were implanted with balloon-expandable valves preferentially via the transfemoral approach in 87.8% of cases. After 1 year, 285 patients (52.2%) had been readmitted at least once, 132 (24.1%) for CHF. Patients readmitted for CHF had an increased risk for death (p < 0.0001) and cardiac death (p < 0.0001) compared with those not readmitted for CHF. On multivariate analysis, aortic mean gradient (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.99; p = 0.03), post-procedural blood transfusion (HR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.13 to 5.56; p = 0.009), severe post-procedural pulmonary hypertension (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.07; p < 0.0001), and left atrial diameter (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.01; p = 0.02) were independently associated with CHF readmission at 1 year. Readmission for CHF after TAVR was frequent and was strongly associated with 1-year mortality. Low gradient, persistent pulmonary hypertension, left atrial dilatation, and transfusions were predictive of readmission for CHF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Field Size on the Environment and Energy Crop Production Efficiency for a Sustainable Indigenous Bioenergy Supply Chain in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Deverell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates, using the GIS platform, the potential impacts of meeting national bioenergy targets using only indigenous sources of feedstock on the habitats and carbon stores that exist within Ireland’s field boundaries. A survey of the Republic of Irelands field was conducted in order to estimate and map the size and geographic distribution of the Republic of Ireland’s field boundaries. The planting and harvesting costs associated with possible bioenergy crop production systems were determined using the relationship between the seasonal operating efficiency and the average field size. The results indicate that Ireland will need a large proportion of its current agricultural area (at least 16.5% in order to its meet national bioenergy targets by 2020. The demand cannot be met by the current area that both has suitable soil type for growing the bioenergy crops and is large enough for the required operating efficiency. The results of this study indicate that implementing and meeting national bioenergy targets using only indigenous feedstock will likely impact the country’s field boundary resources negatively, as crop producers seek to improve production efficiency through field consolidation and field boundary removal. It was found that such boundary removal results in a loss of up to 6 tC/km2 and 0.7 ha/km of previously permanent habitat where average field size is small. The impact of field consolidation on these resources reduces substantially as larger fields become consolidated.

  3. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  4. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: An important first step for assessing impact of future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prakash N., E-mail: p.dixit@cgiar.org; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., > 30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with > 10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. - Highlights: • LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters. • LARS-WG can serve

  5. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: An important first step for assessing impact of future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Prakash N.; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., > 30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with > 10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. - Highlights: • LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters. • LARS-WG can serve

  6. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and the Impact of Estrogen Replacement Therapy: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marouane Boukhris; Salvatore Davide Tomasello; Francesco Marzà; Sonia Bregante; Francesca Romana Pluchinotta; Alfredo Ruggero Galassi

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in postmenopausal women (PMW); moreover its mortality exceeds those for breast cancer in women at all ages. Type II diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and there is some evidence that the risk conferred by diabetes is greater in women than in men. It was established that the deficiency of endogenous estrogens promotes the atherosclerosis process. However, the impact of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on cardiovascular pr...

  8. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  9. Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy in Childhood on Long-Term Socioprofessional Outcomes: A 30-year Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, Lidwien A.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate socioprofessional outcomes after 30 years of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and explore predictors of these outcomes. The cohort comprised all Dutch patients, born before 1979, who started RRT at age <15 years in 1972-1992. Outcomes including family life, educational attainment, and

  10. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  11. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  12. Impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch following aortic valve replacement on short-term survival: a retrospective single center analysis of 632 consecutive patients with isolated stented biological aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Grischa; Ogbamicael, Selam Abraham; Jochens, Arne; Frank, Derk; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Jochen; Petzina, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) on short-term and long-term mortality remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of PPM and its impact on short-term survival in a large cohort of patients treated with isolated stented biological AVR in a single institution. We analyzed retrospectively data of 632 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis undergoing isolated stented biological AVR between January 2007 and February 2012 at our institution. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Statistical analyses were performed to identify influencing variables on valve size implanted. Of the 632 patients investigated, 46% were females and mean age was 71.9 ± 10.4 years. PPM was observed in 93.8% (593 of 632 patients). In 71% of the patients, moderate (0.65-0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) PPM was present and in 22.8% severe (body mass index, and body surface area as simultaneous predictors of the valve size implanted (R(2)= 0.39). PPM had no discernable impact on short-term survival, although it was present in 93.8% of our patients following isolated stented biological AVR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Impact of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Winter Wheat and Cropping System Performance across Precipitation Gradients in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai M. Maaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological instability and low resource use efficiencies are concerns for the long-term productivity of conventional cereal monoculture systems, particularly those threatened by projected climate change. Crop intensification, diversification, reduced tillage, and variable N management are among strategies proposed to mitigate and adapt to climate shifts in the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW. Our objectives were to assess these strategies across iPNW agroecological zones and time for their impacts on (1 winter wheat (WW (Triticum aestivum L. productivity, (2 crop sequence productivity, and (3 N fertilizer use efficiency. Region-wide analysis indicated that WW yields increased with increasing annual precipitation, prior to maximizing at 520 mm yr−1 and subsequently declining when annual precipitation was not adjusted for available soil water holding capacity. While fallow periods were effective at mitigating low nitrogen (N fertilization efficiencies under low precipitation, efficiencies declined as annual precipitation exceeded 500 mm yr−1. Variability in the response of WW yields to annual precipitation and N fertilization among locations and within sites supports precision N management implementation across the region. In years receiving <350 mm precipitation yr−1, WW yields declined when preceded by crops rather than summer fallow. Nevertheless, WW yields were greater when preceded by pulses and oilseeds rather than wheat across a range of yield potentials, and when under conservation tillage practices at low yield potentials. Despite the yield penalty associated with eliminating fallow prior to WW, cropping system level productivity was not affected by intensification, diversification, or conservation tillage. However, increased fertilizer N inputs, lower fertilizer N use efficiencies, and more yield variance may offset and limit the economic feasibility of intensified and diversified cropping systems.

  14. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  15. Final guidelines for an Environmental Impact Statement on the proposed construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines are based on the requirements of paragraphs 4.1 and 4.3 of the Administrative Procedures under the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 (EPIP Act).The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been designated as proponent under the EPIP Act in relation to the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC). The term 'environment' refers to all aspects of the surroundings of human beings, whether affecting human beings as individuals or in social groupings. It includes the natural environment, the built environment, and social aspects of our surroundings. The definition covers such factors as air, water, soils, flora,fauna, buildings, roads, employment, hazards and risks, and safety. As set out in the guidelines, the scope of this assessment shall encompass those issues and alternatives directly related to the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the LHSTC. The EIS will need to make clear the site selection criteria used, and the basis, in assessing Lucas Heights as being suitable for a new reactor. While the EIS will address all aspects of the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor, it will not address issues associated with the treatment of spent nuclear fuel rods from the existing High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR facility). The EIS will also address issues associated with the eventual decommissioning of the proposed replacement reactor, and eventual decommissioning of the existing HIFAR facility

  16. Integrated remote sensing imagery and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling approach for impact evaluation of flood on crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huili; Liang, Zhongyao; Liu, Yong; Liang, Qiuhua; Xie, Shuguang

    2017-10-01

    The projected frequent occurrences of extreme flood events will cause significant losses to crops and will threaten food security. To reduce the potential risk and provide support for agricultural flood management, prevention, and mitigation, it is important to account for flood damage to crop production and to understand the relationship between flood characteristics and crop losses. A quantitative and effective evaluation tool is therefore essential to explore what and how flood characteristics will affect the associated crop loss, based on accurately understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of flood evolution and crop growth. Current evaluation methods are generally integrally or qualitatively based on statistic data or ex-post survey with less diagnosis into the process and dynamics of historical flood events. Therefore, a quantitative and spatial evaluation framework is presented in this study that integrates remote sensing imagery and hydraulic model simulation to facilitate the identification of historical flood characteristics that influence crop losses. Remote sensing imagery can capture the spatial variation of crop yields and yield losses from floods on a grid scale over large areas; however, it is incapable of providing spatial information regarding flood progress. Two-dimensional hydraulic model can simulate the dynamics of surface runoff and accomplish spatial and temporal quantification of flood characteristics on a grid scale over watersheds, i.e., flow velocity and flood duration. The methodological framework developed herein includes the following: (a) Vegetation indices for the critical period of crop growth from mid-high temporal and spatial remote sensing imagery in association with agricultural statistics data were used to develop empirical models to monitor the crop yield and evaluate yield losses from flood; (b) The two-dimensional hydraulic model coupled with the SCS-CN hydrologic model was employed to simulate the flood evolution process

  17. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  18. The impact of a weight reduction program with and without meal-replacement on health related quality of life in middle-aged obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohkan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Milliron, Brandy J; Frey, Ingrid; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Vitolins, Mara; Berg, Aloys

    2014-03-12

    In addition to an increased risk for chronic illnesses, obese individuals suffer from social stigmatization and discrimination, and severely obese people may experience greater risk of impaired psychosocial and physical functioning. Lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been reported among obese persons seeking intensive treatment for their disease. To aid in the treatment of obesity, meal replacements have been recommended as an effective therapeutic strategy for weight loss, particularly when consumed in the beginning of an intervention. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of two 12-month weight reduction interventions (one arm including a meal replacement) on changes in HRQOL among obese females. This controlled trial compared two versions of a standardized 12-month weight reduction intervention: the weight-reduction lifestyle program without a meal replacement (LS) versus the same lifestyle program with the addition of a soy-based meal replacement product (LSMR). 380 women (LS: n = 190, LSMR: n = 190) were matched by age, gender, and weight (51.4 ± 7.0 yrs., 35.5 ± 3.03 kg/m2). This sample of women all completed the 12-month lifestyle intervention that was part of a larger study. The lifestyle intervention included instruction on exercise/sport, psychology, nutrition, and medicine in 18 theoretical and 40 practical units. Led by a sport physiologist, participants engaged in group-based exercise sessions once or twice a week. To evaluate HRQOL, all participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Anthropometric, clinical, physical performance (ergometric stress tests), and self-reported leisure time physical activity (hours/day) data were collected. The LSMR sample showed lower baseline HRQOL scores compared to the LS sample in six of eight HRQOL dimensions, most significant in vitality and health perception (p meal replacement product. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00356785.

  19. Errors and uncertainties introduced by a regional climate model in climate impact assessments: example of crop yield simulations in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarohetra, Johanna; Pohl, Benjamin; Sultan, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of estimating the potential impacts of climate change has led to an increasing use of dynamical downscaling to produce fine spatial-scale climate projections for impact assessments. In this work, we analyze if and to what extent the bias in the simulated crop yield can be reduced by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis) rainfall and radiation data. Then, we evaluate the uncertainties resulting from both the choice of the physical parameterizations of the WRF model and its internal variability. Impact assessments were performed at two sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and by using two crop models to simulate Niger pearl millet and Benin maize yields. We find that the use of the WRF model to downscale ERA-Interim climate data generally reduces the bias in the simulated crop yield, yet this reduction in bias strongly depends on the choices in the model setup. Among the physical parameterizations considered, we show that the choice of the land surface model (LSM) is of primary importance. When there is no coupling with a LSM, or when the LSM is too simplistic, the simulated precipitation and then the simulated yield are null, or respectively very low; therefore, coupling with a LSM is necessary. The convective scheme is the second most influential scheme for yield simulation, followed by the shortwave radiation scheme. The uncertainties related to the internal variability of the WRF model are also significant and reach up to 30% of the simulated yields. These results suggest that regional models need to be used more carefully in order to improve the reliability of impact assessments. (letter)

  20. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  1. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  2. Impact of broadcasting a cereal rye or oat cover crop before corn and soybean harvest on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn and soybean rotation in Iowa has no living plants taking up water and nutrients from crop maturity until planting, a period of over six months in most years. In many fields, this results in losses of nitrate in effluent from artificial drainage systems during this time. In a long-term fiel...

  3. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  4. A Critical Assessment of Methods for Analysis of Social Welfare Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Demont, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of existing literature on economic and environmental costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops focusing on methodological issues arising from this literature. Particular attention is given to the production function framework commonly used to quantify costs and

  5. Integrated crop protection and environment exposure to pesticides: methods to reduce use and impact of pesticides in arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of Integrated Farming Systems for arable farming are being developed in the Netherlands based on a coherent methodology elaborated in an European Union concerted action. The role of crop protection in Integrated systems is, additional to all other methods, to efficiently control the

  6. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa,...

  7. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  8. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most

  9. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  10. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  11. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  12. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  13. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error <5%), but the spatial variability lacked accuracy (root mean square error = 1.3 t ha-1). The model root mean square error for yield prediction was highly correlated with the distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution

  14. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  15. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Spencer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR. Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  16. The impact of age on the postoperative response of the diastolic function and left ventricular mass regression after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Teruya; Toda, Koichi; Kuratani, Toru; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    We examined the impact of advanced age on left ventricular mass regression and the change in the diastolic function after aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis. The present study included 129 patients who underwent either surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement and 1-year postoperative echocardiography. The patient characteristics and echocardiographic findings were compared between patients who were regression was significantly greater (p = 0.02) and diastolic dysfunction was less prevalent in group Y (p = 0.02) in comparison to group O. The change in E/e' was significantly correlated with the left ventricular mass regression in group Y (p = 0.02), but not in Group O (p = 0.21). The patients in group O were less susceptible to improvements in myocardial remodeling and the diastolic function in comparison to those in group Y. The altered physiological response to aortic valve replacement might help to determine the appropriate timing of surgery in elderly patients.

  17. Finding of No Significant Impact for Porposed Replacement of Senior Officers Quarters Project, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-08

    renovation from the four existing units would nearly equal tbe cost of reconstructing new lll’lils. No Action Alternative: tinder the11o action...cumulative impacts." 4.10 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN-TERM USES AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG- TERM PRODUCTIVITY Preferred Action: Implementation of the preferred...Indirect and Cumulative Impacts ........................................................................ 24 3.10 Relationship between Short-Term Uses

  18. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  19. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, R.P.; Aulicino, M.B.; Mónaco, C.I.; Kripelz, N.; Cordo, C.A.

    2015-07-01

    Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina). Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth) were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/gof soil). The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H). The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices. (Author)

  20. Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (≤26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

  1. Winter rye as a bioenergy feedstock: impact of crop maturity on composition, biological solubilization and potential revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiongjun; DiMarco, Kay; Richard, Tom L; Lynd, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Winter annual crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L) can produce biomass feedstock on seasonally fallow land that continues to provide high-value food and feed from summer annuals such as corn and soybeans. As energy double crops, winter grasses are likely to be harvested while still immature and thus structurally different from the fully senesced plant material typically used for biofuels. This study investigates the dynamic trends in biomass yield, composition, and biological solubilization over the course of a spring harvest season. The water soluble fraction decreased with increasing maturity while total carbohydrate content stayed roughly constant at about 65%. The protein mass fraction decreased with increasing maturity, but was counterbalanced by increasing harvest yield resulting in similar total protein across harvest dates. Winter rye was ground and autoclaved then fermented at 15 g/L total solids by either (1) Clostridium thermocellum or (2) simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using commercial cellulases (CTec2 and HTec2) and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Solubilization of total carbohydrate dropped significantly as winter rye matured for both C. thermocellum (from approximately 80% to approximately 50%) and SSCF (from approximately 60% to approximately 30%). C. thermocellum achieved total solubilization 33% higher than that of SSCF for the earliest harvest date and 50% higher for the latest harvest date. Potential revenue from protein and bioethanol was stable over a range of different harvest dates, with most of the revenue due to ethanol. In a crop rotation with soybean, recovery of the soluble protein from winter rye could increase per hectare protein production by 20 to 35%. Double-cropping winter rye can produce significant biomass for biofuel production and feed protein as coproduct without competing with the main summer crop. During a 24-day harvest window, the total carbohydrate content remained

  2. Impacts of climate change and climate extremes on major crops productivity in China at a global warming of 1.5 and 2.0 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A new temperature goal of holding the increase in global average temperature well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels has been established in the Paris Agreement, which calls for an understanding of climate risk under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effects of climate change on growth and productivity of three major crops (i.e. maize, wheat, rice in China during 2106–2115 in warming scenarios of 1.5 and 2.0 °C using a method of ensemble simulation with well-validated Model to capture the Crop–Weather relationship over a Large Area (MCWLA family crop models, their 10 sets of optimal crop model parameters and 70 climate projections from four global climate models. We presented the spatial patterns of changes in crop growth duration, crop yield, impacts of heat and drought stress, as well as crop yield variability and the probability of crop yield decrease. Results showed that climate change would have major negative impacts on crop production, particularly for wheat in north China, rice in south China and maize across the major cultivation areas, due to a decrease in crop growth duration and an increase in extreme events. By contrast, with moderate increases in temperature, solar radiation, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentration, agricultural climate resources such as light and thermal resources could be ameliorated, which would enhance canopy photosynthesis and consequently biomass accumulations and yields. The moderate climate change would slightly worsen the maize growth environment but would result in a much more appropriate growth environment for wheat and rice. As a result, wheat, rice and maize yields would change by +3.9 (+8.6, +4.1 (+9.4 and +0.2 % (−1.7 %, respectively, in a warming scenario of 1.5 °C (2.0 °C. In general, the warming scenarios would bring more opportunities than

  3. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleman Saxena, Alder; Cadima Fuentes, Ximena; Gonzales Herbas, Rhimer; Humphries, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  4. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of climatic shifts on the production and processing of native and traditional crops in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alder eKeleman Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data was collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed-methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes a the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia; and b the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp., oca (Oxalis tuberosa, tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis, papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus, and charkay (llama or sheep jerky. Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Further, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. While these findings are drawn from a single case-study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, indigenous food systems. Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture, and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  5. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  6. Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Wolf, J.; Kabat, P.; Baruth, B.; Ludwig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change impacts on potential and rainfed crop yields on the European continent were studied using output of three General Circulation Models and the Crop Growth Monitoring System in combination with a weather generator. Climate change impacts differ per crop type and per CO2 emission

  7. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  8. Characterization of cover crops by NMR spectroscopy: impacts on soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under tillage regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cover crops by solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and its effects on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Acrustox. Cover crops (Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus and natural fallow were studied in rotation with maize under conventional and no-tillage regimes. Tissues of Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus were analyzed using CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected at the end of the growing season of the cover crops (September 2002 and during the grain filling period in corn from 0-5 and 5-10 cm layers. Cajanus cajan presented the lowest content of polysaccharides and along with Mucuna pruriens presented the highest percentage of aromatic carbon compounds, reflecting the slow decomposition of highly lignified material. Carbon stocks were higher in the superficial soil layer and under no-tillage due to the accumulation and slower decomposition of plant tissues under these conditions. Increases in the C/N ratio of the soil with Mucuna pruriens and the C/P ratio with Cajanus cajan in the dry season were also related to slower rates of decomposition, caused by the large concentration of aromatic compounds in the tissues of these species. The higher C/P ratios found at 0-5 cm layer are due to higher values of P (Mehlich-1 at 5-10 cm (25 mg kg-1 layer and the higher concentration of carbon in the superficial soil layer as a result of the accumulation of plant residues.

  9. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-01

    To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Multivariate time-series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Population of Scotland. Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = -£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = -£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately within 1 month of broadcast and was sustained for at least 6 months. © 2017 The

  10. Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy in Childhood on Long-Term Socioprofessional Outcomes: A 30-year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Lidwien A; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate socioprofessional outcomes after 30 years of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and explore predictors of these outcomes. The cohort comprised all Dutch patients, born before 1979, who started RRT at age regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of socioprofessional outcomes. Mean age and time on RRT in 2010 were 40.6 years (range 32.1-52.4) and 28.9 years (range 18.1-39.7), respectively. Patients were less likely to be employed (62.5% vs 81.0%) and have children (28.8% vs 64.8%) compared with the age-matched general population. Comorbidities, dialysis, short stature, and fewer milestones on autonomy were associated with adverse outcomes. Compared with 2000, in 2010 more patients lived with a partner (68.8% vs 43.0%), and more patients had completed a high level educational degree (22.5% vs 13.9%). However, more patients were unable to work on medical grounds in 2010 (36.3% vs 16.3%). Survivors of pediatric end-stage renal disease may gain social autonomy and optimal educational attainment at an older age compared with their general population counterparts. Awareness among health care professionals of the potential of these children and tailored psychosocial interventions might improve socioprofessional development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of secondary hyperparathyroidism on ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis in hemodialysis-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    In hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients, secondary hyperparathyroidism induces cardiac hypertrophy. This study investigated whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels affect the degree of left ventricular (LV) mass regression in HD patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). We retrospectively obtained preoperative and 2-year postoperative echocardiography and intact PTH measurements in 88 HD patients who underwent AVR, with bioprostheses (n = 35, 40%) and mechanical valves (n = 53, 60%) of effective orifice area >0.80 cm2/m2, between January 1997 and December 2010. The LV mass decreased significantly from 308 ± 88 to 217 ± 68 g at follow-up of 28 ± 4 months after AVR (p regression at follow-up was inversely related to preoperative PTH values (R = 0.44, p = 0.001). The LV mass regression at follow-up was significantly smaller in the patients (n = 47) with PTH ≥100 pg/mL than in those (n = 41) with PTH regression at 2-year follow-up (β = 0.23, r2 = 0.24, p = 0.02). In conclusion, the HD patients with high levels of PTH presented with less LV mass regression after AVR for AS without patient-prosthesis mismatch. Secondary hyperparathyroidism may impair regression of cardiac hypertrophy after AVR in HD patients with AS.

  12. Comparative impact of AAV and enzyme replacement therapy on respiratory and cardiac function in adult Pompe mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin J Falk

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for degradation of lysosomal glycogen (acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory muscle weakness are primary features of this disorder. To attenuate the progressive and rapid accumulation of glycogen resulting in cardiorespiratory dysfunction, adult Gaa−/− mice were administered a single systemic injection of rAAV2/9-DES-hGAA (AAV9-DES or bimonthly injections of recombinant human GAA (enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Assessment of cardiac function and morphology was measured 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatment while whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic contractile function was evaluated at 3 months post-treatment in all groups. Gaa−/− animals receiving either AAV9-DES or ERT demonstrated a significant improvement in cardiac function and diaphragmatic contractile function as compared to control animals. AAV9-DES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in cardiac dimension (end diastolic left ventricular mass/gram wet weight; EDMc at 3 months postinjection. Neither AAV nor ERT therapy altered minute ventilation during quiet breathing (eupnea. However, breathing frequency and expiratory time were significantly improved in AAV9-DES animals. These results indicate systemic delivery of either strategy improves cardiac function but AAV9-DES alone improves respiratory parameters at 3 months post-treatment in a murine model of Pompe disease.

  13. Long-term impact of farm management and crops on soil microorganisms assessed by combined DGGE and PLFA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnari, Fabio; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Campanelli, Gabriele; Leteo, Fabrizio; Della Vella, Umberto; Schirone, Maria; Suzzi, Giovanna; Pisante, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, long-term organic and conventional managements were compared at the experimental field of Monsampolo del Tronto (Marche region, Italy) with the aim of investigating soil chemical fertility and microbial community structure. A polyphasic approach, combining soil fertility indicators with microbiological analyses (plate counts, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] and phospholipid fatty acid analysis [PLFA]) was applied. Organic matter, N as well as some important macro and micronutrients (K, P, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn) for crop growth, were more available under organic management. Bacterial counts were higher in organic management. A significant influence of management system and management x crop interaction was observed for total mesophilic bacteria, nitrogen fixing bacteria and actinobacteria. Interestingly, cultivable fungi were not detected in all analyzed samples. PLFA biomass was higher in the organic and Gram positive bacteria dominated the microbial community in both systems. Even if fungal biomass was higher in organic management, fungal PCR-DGGE fingerprinting revealed that the two systems were very similar in terms of fungal species suggesting that 10 years were not enough to establish a new dynamic equilibrium among ecosystem components. A better knowledge of soil biota and in particular of fungal community structure will be useful for the development of sustainable management strategies.

  14. Global impact of a climate treaty if the Human Development Index replaces GDP as a welfare proxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the implications of shifting the narrative of climate policy evaluation from one of costs/benefits or economic growth to a message of improving social welfare. Focusing on the costs of mitigation and the associated impacts on gross domestic product (GDP) may translate into a

  15. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  16. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  17. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  18. A Multicenter Approach Evaluating the Impact of Vitamin E-Blended Polyethylene in Cementless Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, VITAS

    2014-01-01

    Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant

  19. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin E-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jäger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development

  20. 78 FR 17606 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... definition of ``crop year'' by removing the term ``citrus'' and adding the term ``insured'' in its place; 0 v... is planning to replace the category of ``type'' in the actuarial documents with four categories named... category of ``practice'' in the actuarial documents with four categories named ``cropping practice...

  1. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr−1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN or total phosphorus (TP as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  2. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zhigao

    2017-12-06

    Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr -1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH₄⁺-N, total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater) quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  3. Impact of Reducing Polarimetric SAR Input on the Uncertainty of Crop Classifications Based on the Random Forests Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loosvelt, Lien; Peters, Jan; Skriver, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of multidate polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for highly accurate land cover classification has been acknowledged in the literature, the high dimensionality of the data set remains a major issue. This study presents two different strategies to reduce the number...... acquired by the Danish EMISAR on four dates within the period April to July in 1998. The predictive capacity of each feature is analyzed by the importance score generated by random forests (RF). Results show that according to the variation in importance score over time, a distinction can be made between...... general and specific features for crop classification. Based on the importance ranking, features are gradually removed from the single-date data sets in order to construct several multidate data sets with decreasing dimensionality. In the accuracy-oriented and efficiency-oriented reduction, the input...

  4. Belowground Interactions Impact the Soil Bacterial Community, Soil Fertility, and Crop Yield in Maize/Peanut Intercropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping has been widely used to control disease and improve yield in agriculture. In this study, maize and peanut were used for non-separation intercropping (NS, semi-separation intercropping (SS using a nylon net, and complete separation intercropping (CS using a plastic sheet. In field experiments, two-year land equivalent ratios (LERs showed yield advantages due to belowground interactions when using NS and SS patterns as compared to monoculture. In contrast, intercropping without belowground interactions (CS showed a yield disadvantage. Meanwhile, in pot experiments, belowground interactions (found in NS and SS improved levels of soil-available nutrients (nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P and enzymes (urease and acid phosphomonoesterase as compared to intercropping without belowground interactions (CS. Soil bacterial community assay showed that soil bacterial communities in the NS and SS crops clustered together and were considerably different from the CS crops. The diversity of bacterial communities was significantly improved in soils with NS and SS. The abundance of beneficial bacteria, which have the functions of P-solubilization, pathogen suppression, and N-cycling, was improved in maize and peanut soils due to belowground interactions through intercropping. Among these bacteria, numbers of Bacillus, Brevibacillus brevis, and Paenibacillus were mainly increased in the maize rhizosphere. Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, and Rhizobium were mainly increased in the peanut rhizosphere. In conclusion, using maize and peanut intercropping, belowground interactions increased the numbers of beneficial bacteria in the soil and improved the diversity of the bacterial community, which was conducive to improving soil nutrient (N and P supply capacity and soil microecosystem stability.

  5. Impact of Aortic Valve Replacement on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Bakkali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement on left ventricular function and remodeling among patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: In this retrospective bicentric study extended over a 15-year period, 61 consecutive patients underwent isolated AVR for severe AS associated to reduced LV function. The mean age was 58.21 ± 12.50 years and 83.60 % were men. 70.50% of patients were in class III or IV NYHA. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 32.9 ± 5.6.The mean LVEDD and LVESD were respectively 63.6 ± 9.2 and 50.2 ± 8.8 mm. The mean calculated logistic EuroScore was 12.2 ±4.5. Results: The hospital mortality was 11.5%. Morbidity was marked mainly by low output syndrome in 40.8% of cases. After a median follow-up of 38 months we have recorded 3 deaths. Almost all survivors were in class I and II of NYHA. The mean LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters decreased significantly at late postoperative stage. The mean LV ejection fraction increased significantly from 32.9 ± 5.6 to 38.2 ± 9.3 and to 50.3 ± 9.6 in early and late postoperative stages, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that increased early postoperative LVEF (β= 0.44, 95% CI [0.14; 0.75], p=0.006 and low mean transprosthesis gradient (β=-0.72, 95% CI [-1.42; -0.02], p= 0.04 were the independent predictors of left ventricular systolic function recovery. Conclusion: Patients with aortic valve stenosis and impaired LV systolic function benefited from AVR as regard improvement of LV function parameters and regression of the LV diameters .This improvement depends mainly on early postoperative LVEF and mean transprosthesis gradient.

  6. The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Tingju

    2018-06-01

    The water-food-energy-GHG nexus under climate change has been gaining increasing attention from both the research and policy communities, especially over the past several years. However, most existing nexus studies are qualitative and explorative in nature. So far, very few studies provide integrated analysis of this nexus across all the four sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine this nexus by assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production through the change in water availability, evaluating the adjustment responses and resulting energy consumption and GHG emission, with the Northeast China as a case study. Based on our simulation results, by 2030, climate change is projected to increase water supply and demand gap for irrigation in Northeast China. Due to the increase in water scarcity, irrigated areas will decrease, and the cropping pattern will be adjusted by increasing maize sown areas and decreasing rice sown areas. As a result, the total output of crops and profits will clearly be reduced. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emission from irrigation will be reduced. This study suggests that climate change impact assessment fully consider the nexus among water, food, energy and GHG; however, more studies need to be conducted in the future.

  7. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewers for their comments and suggestions. ... Asia and Africa) devoted special issues to focus on the significance and ... Adjustment Program (SAP) and economic liberalization throughout sub- ..... of students in each household. ... collaboration with various institutions (University of Oxford, UK and International Food.

  8. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    absence of price equation, the effect of any disequilibrium between aggregate .... Many estimators could have been considered, but in order to limit the size and cost of ... Ordinary least squares plus first- and second-order serial correlation.

  9. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There may be uncertainty about the relationships between instruments and ... For example, economic growth is a key instrument for reaching a range of ... initial conditions for subsequent high growth and poverty reduction (see McMahon.

  10. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  11. Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and the Impact of Estrogen Replacement Therapy: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Boukhris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in postmenopausal women (PMW; moreover its mortality exceeds those for breast cancer in women at all ages. Type II diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and there is some evidence that the risk conferred by diabetes is greater in women than in men. It was established that the deficiency of endogenous estrogens promotes the atherosclerosis process. However, the impact of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT on cardiovascular prevention remains controversial. Some authors strongly recommend it, whereas others revealed a concerning trend toward harm. This review tries to underlines the different components of cardiovascular risk in diabetic PMW and to define the place of ERT.

  12. Economics of wheat based cropping systems in rainfed areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, A.; Umair, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Pothwar tract of rainfed area has enormous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate -15 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM at the rate 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time. (author)

  13. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Estruch

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata, the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043 and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025 were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of

  14. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  15. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement: budget impact analysis of apixaban in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and burdensome cardiovascular condition, frequently leading to severe complications and requiring high-cost healthcare interventions. New oral anticoagulants (nOACs have demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in VTE prevention of patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR, a condition that is typically associated to cardiovascular disease. The Italian Healthcare Service (SSN has recently approved the latest nOAC, apixaban. The present article aims to evaluate its economic impact in the perspective of the Italian SSN.METHODS: We conducted a budget impact analysis to estimate clinical outcomes and economic consequences associated to the reimbursement of apixaban, in the prevention of VTE as a consequence of major orthopedic surgery, over a three-year time horizon. In our analysis we compared two alternative scenarios, with apixaban either reimbursed (Scenario B or not reimbursed (Scenario A by the Italian SSN, and estimated the difference of healthcare costs between the two scenarios. Only direct healthcare costs have been considered.RESULTS: According to market assumptions, it is estimated that 1.2%, 3.7%, and 6.5% of THR patients, and 1.2%, 3.8% and 6.7% of TKR patients, would be treated with apixaban over the first three years since launch. At the estimated daily cost of apixaban (€2.48/die, this would translate into a budget impact of €14.3 mln, €45.5 mln, and €81.4 mln at years 1, 2 and 3 since launch, respectively. This expenditure would be more than offset by savings, due to: i reduction of prescriptions of alternative treatment options (other nOACs, low-molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux; ii reduction of the economic burden attributable of CV complications of VTE. Finally, Scenario B resulted slightly favourable compared to Scenario A, leading to economic savings for about €50 thousands over three years. Sensitivity analyses confirmed

  16. Economic factors influencing potential use of cellulosic crop residues for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines cellulosic crop residues for biopower production in the context of (greenhouse gas) GHG emission mitigation. We employ sector modeling to simulate future market potential for biopower production from crop residues. Our findings suggest that in order for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the carbon or (carbon dioxide) CO 2 equivalent GHG price must rise to about 15 dollars per ton or the price of coal has to increase to about 43 dollars per ton. We find that crop residues with higher heat content have greater opportunities in biopower production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, our evidence shows that improvements in crop yields do not have much impact on biopower production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact but only if the CO 2 equivalent price rises substantially. Moreover, our analysis indicates the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces transportation cost and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission pricing could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biomass feedstocks in their fuel-mix power generation portfolios and achieve GHG emission reductions. - Highlights: • Crop residues with higher heat content have greater market opportunities. • Improvement in crop and residue yields does not have much impact on biopower production. • Advancement in biopower production technology does not encourage more use of crop residues. • The main factor that induces biopower production is an increase in future carbon prices

  17. Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the South region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, Patrick Ntonga; Mbida, Jean Arthur Mbida; Tonga, Calvin; Belong, Philippe; Ngo Hondt, Odette Etoile; Magne, Gaëlle Tamdem; Peka, Marie Florence; Lehman, Leopold Gustave

    2015-05-28

    The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes' diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon. The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared. Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p agriculture (p = 0.2). These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities

  18. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  19. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  20. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov E Burlakova

    Full Text Available Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  1. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakova, Lyubov E; Tulumello, Brianne L; Karatayev, Alexander Y; Krebs, Robert A; Schloesser, Donald W; Paterson, Wendy L; Griffith, Traci A; Scott, Mariah W; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  2. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    NNSA, an agency within DOE, proposes to replace the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The CMRR EIS examines the potential environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action of consolidating and relocating the mission-critical CMR capabilities from a degraded building to a new modern building(s). The existing CMR Building, constructed in the early 1950s, houses most of LANL's analytical chemistry and materials characterization AC and MC capabilities. Other capabilities at the CMR Building include actinide processing, waste characterization, and nondestructive analysis that support a variety of NNSA and DOE nuclear materials management programs. In 1992, DOE initiated planning and implementation of CMR Building upgrades to address specific safety, reliability, consolidation, and security and safeguards issues. Later, in 1997 and 1998, a series of operational, safety, and seismic issues surfaced regarding the long-term viability of the CMR Building. Because of these issues, DOE determined that the extensive upgrades originally planned would be much more expensive and time consuming and of only marginal effectiveness. As a result, DOE decided to perform only the upgrades necessary to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the CMR Building through 2010 and to seek an alternative path for long-term reliability. The CMRR EIS evaluates the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action. The Proposed Action is to replace the CMR Building. The Preferred Alternative is to construct a new CMRR Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55, consisting of two or three buildings. One of the new buildings would provide space for administrative offices and support functions. The other building(s) would provide secure laboratory spaces for research and analytical support activities. The buildings would be expected to operate for a minimum of 50 years. Tunnels could be

  4. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pbalance but also with regard to soil fertility. New upland crop management practices where first implemented during land-preparation for dry season (July) 2015 where i) 6t/ha rice straw

  6. Predicting rodent impact in crop fields by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis of their diet preferences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Čižmář, D.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2010), s. 773-776 ISSN 0261-2194 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Agroecosystem * Fecal analysis * Apodemus * Food choice tests * Microtus * NIRS Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2010

  7. Impact of Compost Application during 5 Years on Crop Production, Soil Microbial Activity, Carbon Fraction, and Humification Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jindo, K.; Chocano, C.; Melgares de Aguilar, J.; González, D.; Hernandez, T.; García, C.

    2016-01-01

    Compost amendment is considered as a practical tool to increase the soil organic matter (SOM), which contributes to agricultural sustainability. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the impacts of organic soil management over 5 years on orchard prune production (Prunus salicina),

  8. Impacts of climate change on drought: changes to drier conditions at the beginning of the crop growing season in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Rosa Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intensification of drought incidence is one of the most important threats of the 21st century with significant effects on food security. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the understanding of the regional impacts of climate change on this hazard. This study assessed long-term trends in probability-based drought indices (Standardized Precipitation Index and Standardized Evapotranspiration Index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Owing to the multi-scalar nature of both indices, the analyses were performed at 1 to 12-month time scales. The indices were calculated by means of a relativist approach that allowed us to compare drought conditions from different periods. The years 1961-1990 were used as the referential period. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such relativist approach is used in historical trend analysis. The results suggest that the evapotranspiration rates have intensified the regional drought conditions. The time scale used to calculate the indices significantly affected the outcomes of drought trend assessments. The reason behind this feature is that the significant changes in the monthly regional patterns are limited to a specific period of the year. More specifically, virtually all significant changes have been observed during the first trimester of the rainy season (October, November and December. Considering that this period corresponds to critical plant growth stages (flowering/regrowth/sprouting of several major crops (e.g. Sugarcane and Citrus, we may conclude that these significant changes have increased the risk of crop yield reductions due to agricultural drought.

  9. Regional climate change impacts on agricultural crop production in Central and Eastern Europe – hotspots, regional differences and common trends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Semerádová, Daniela; Thaler, S.; Svobodová, Eva; Hlavinka, P.; Šiška, B.; Takáč, J.; Malatinská, L.; Nováková, M.; Dubrovský, Martin; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 787-812 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : water-use efficiency * winter-wheat * change scenarios * elevated co2 * soil workability * atmospheric co2 * atmospheric co2 * yield * variability * model Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  10. Regional climate change impacts on agricultural crop production in Central and Eastern Europe – hotspots, regional differences and common trends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semerádová, D.; Thaler, S.; Svobodová, E.; Hlavinka, P.; Šiška, B.; Takáč, J.; Malatinská, L.; Nováková, M.; Dubrovský, Martin; Žalud, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 787-812 ISSN 0021-8596 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : water-use efficiency * winter-wheat * change scenarios * elevated co2 * soil workability * atmospheric co2 * land-use * yield * variability * model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9071357

  11. Nitrogen replacement value of alfalfa to corn and wheat under irrigated Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesta, A.; Lloveras, J.

    2010-01-01

    In crop rotations that include alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), agronomic and environmental concerns mean that it is important to determine the N fertilizer contribution of this legume for subsequent crops in order to help to increase the sustainability of cropping systems. To determine the N fertilizer replacement value (FRV) of a 2-yr alfalfa crop on subsequent crops of corn (Zea mays L.) followed by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under irrigated Mediterranean conditions, two 4-yr rotations (alf...

  12. Use of large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize heterogeneous subsurface structures and their impact on crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Cosimo; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Kaufmann, Manuela Sarah; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Soil subsurface structures can play a key role in crop performance, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI have been shown to be able of providing information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous work with EMI has typically not reached beyond the field scale. The objective of this study is to use large-scale multi-configuration EMI to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and the associated impact on crop vegetation at the km2 scale. For this, we carried out an intensive measurement campaign and collected high spatial resolution multi-configuration EMI data on an agricultural area of approx. 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with a maximum depth of investigation of around 2.5 m. We measured using two EMI instruments simultaneously with a total of nine coil configurations. The instruments were placed inside polyethylene sleds that were pulled by an all-terrain-vehicle along parallel lines with a spacing of 2 to 2.5 m. The driving speed was between 5 and 7 km h-1 and we used a 0.2 Hz sampling frequency to obtain an in-line resolution of approximately 0.3 m. The survey area consists of almost 50 different fields managed in different way. The EMI measurements were collected between April and December 2016 within a few days after the harvest of each field. After data acquisition, EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid. The resulting EMI maps allowed us to identify three main areas with different subsurface heterogeneities. The differences between these areas are likely related to the late quaternary geological history (Pleistocene and Holocene) of the area that resulted in spatially variable soil texture and layering, which has a strong impact on spatio-temporal soil water content variability. The high resolution surveys also allowed us to identify small scale

  13. Impact of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch estimated by echocardiographic-determined effective orifice area on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florath, Ines; Albert, Alexander; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Ennker, Ina Carolin; Ennker, Jrgen

    2008-06-01

    The impact of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement estimated by various variables such as projected indexed effective orifice area and internal geometric orifice area obtained from in vivo or in vitro published data is still controversial. The effective orifice area was measured by echocardiography in 533 patients. The mean age of the patients was 71 +/- 9 years; mean follow-up time was 4.7 +/- 2.2 years. The impact of severe (indexed effective orifice area regression. Severe mismatch (hazard ratio: 1.9 [1.08-3.21]) was a significant predictor of survival time after adjustment for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, New York Heart Association class, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin level. The 5- and 7-year survival rates were 71% +/- 4% and 54% +/- 8% for patients with severe mismatch and 83% +/- 4% and 80% +/- 8% for patients with mild mismatch, respectively. The correlation between projected and measured indexed effective orifice area was of medium strength (r = 0.49), and the frequency of observed mismatch depended linearly on the projected indexed effective orifice area. Although projected indexed effective orifice area and indexed internal geometric orifice area were significant predictors of severe mismatch, the sensitivity and specificity for severe prosthesis-patient mismatch were only 75% and 52%, using an optimal threshold of projected indexed effective orifice area defined by the Youden index. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch estimated by effective orifice area measured within 10 days was an independent risk factor of survival time. Projected indexed effective orifice area determined at surgery does not sufficiently predict mismatch.

  14. The potential and biological test on cloned cassava crop remains on local sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, R.; Umar, S.; Hanum, C.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at knowing the potential of cloned cassava crop remains dry matter and the impact of the feeding of the cloned cassava crop remains based complete feed on the consumption, the body weight gain, and the feed conversion of the local male sheep with the average of initial body weight of 7.75±1.75 kg. The design applied in the first stage research was random sampling method with two frames of tile and the second stage research applied Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) treatments and four (4) replicates. These treatments consisted of P1 (100% grass); P2 (50% grass, 50% complete feed pellet); P3 (100% complete feed from the raw material of cloned cassava crop remaining). Statistical tests showed that the feeding of complete feed whose raw material was from cloned cassava crop remains gave a highly significant impact on decreasing feed consumption, increasing body weight, lowering feed conversion, and increasing crude protein digestibility. The conclusion is that the cloned cassava crop remains can be used as complete sheep feed to replace green grass and can give the best result.

  15. Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon J; Kovats, R Sari; Chalabi, Zaid

    2011-12-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a model for estimating future undernutrition that accounts for food and nonfood (socioeconomic) causes and can be linked to available regional scenario data. We estimated child stunting attributable to climate change in five regions in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2050. We used current national food availability and undernutrition data to parameterize and validate a global model, using a process-driven approach based on estimations of the physiological relationship between a lack of food and stunting. We estimated stunting in 2050 using published modeled national calorie availability under two climate scenarios and a reference scenario (no climate change). We estimated that climate change will lead to a relative increase in moderate stunting of 1-29% in 2050 compared with a future without climate change. Climate change will have a greater impact on rates of severe stunting, which we estimated will increase by 23% (central SSA) to 62% (South Asia). Climate change is likely to impair future efforts to reduce child malnutrition in South Asia and SSA, even when economic growth is taken into account. Our model suggests that to reduce and prevent future undernutrition, it is necessary to both increase food access and improve socioeconomic conditions, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  17. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  18. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  19. The limit of irrigation adaption due to the inter-crop conflict of water use under changing climate and landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kotoku, M.; Sakurai, G.; Nishimori, M.

    2017-12-01

    Replacing rainfed cropping system by irrigated one is assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation in agriculture. However, in many agricultural impact assessments, future irrigation scenarios are externally given and do not consider variations in the availability of irrigation water under changing climate and land use. Therefore, we assess the potential effects of adaption measure expanding irrigated area under climate change by using a large-scale crop-river coupled model, CROVER [Okada et al. 2015, JAMES]. The CROVER model simulates the large-scale terrestrial hydrological cycle and crop growth depending on climate, soil properties, landuse, crop cultivation management, socio-economic water demand, and reservoir operation management. The bias-corrected GCMs outputs under the RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The future expansion of irrigation area was estimated by using the extrapolation method based on the historical change in irrigated and rainfed areas. As the results, the irrigation adaptation has only a limited effect on the rice production in East Asia due to the conflict of water use for irrigation with the other crops, whose farmlands require unsustainable water extraction with the excessively expanding irrigated area. In contrast, the irrigation adaptation benefits maize production in Europe due to the little conflict of water use for irrigation. Our findings suggest the importance of simulating the river water availability and crop production in a single model for the more realistic assessment in the irrigation adaptation potential effects of crop production under changing climate and land use.

  20. Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2–19 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Design Cross-sectional modeling study. Setting Data from the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants A total of 8,112 children aged 2–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Analysis Survey-weighted linear regression models. Results Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interva