WorldWideScience

Sample records for replacement crops impacts

  1. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  2. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Moreover, more intensive coffee production is associated with more intensive enset ... Keywords: Ethiopia, Cash crops, Food crops, Productivity, Enset. ... household food security at the household level is often based on the income cash.

  3. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  4. Agricultural impacts: Mapping future crop geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William R.

    2016-06-01

    Modelled patterns of climate change impacts on sub-Saharan agriculture provide a detailed picture of the space- and timescales of change. They reveal hotspots where crop cultivation may disappear entirely, but also large areas where current or substitute crops will remain viable through this century.

  5. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

  6. Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

  7. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates.

  8. Climate change impacts on crop yield,crop water productivity and food security-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinhong Kang; Shahbaz Khan; Xiaoyi Xi

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature related to the assessment of climate change impacts on crop productivity using climate,water and crop yield models.The existing studies present that climate change models with higher spatial resolution can be a way forward for future climate projections.Meanwhile,stochastic projections of more than one climate model are necessary for providing insights into model uncertainties as well as to develop risk management strategies.It is projected that water availability will increase in some parts of the world,which will have its own effect on water use efficiency and water allocation.Crop production can increase if irrigated areas are expanded or irrigation is intensified,but these may increase the rate of environmental degradation.Since climate change impacts on soil water balance will lead to changes of soil evaporation and plant transpiration,consequently,the crop growth period may shorten in the future impacting on water productivity.Crop yields affected by climate change are projected to be different in various areas,in some areas crop yields will increase,and for other areas it will decrease depending on the latitude of the area and irrigation application.Existing modelling results show that an increase in precipitation will increase crop yield,and what is more,crop yield is more sensitive to the precipitation than temperature.If water availability is reduced in the future,soils of high water holding capacity will be better to reduce the impact of drought while maintaining crop yield.With the temperature increasing and precipitation fluctuations,water availability and crop production are likely to decrease in the future.If the irrigated areas are expanded,the total crop production will increase;however,food and environmental quality may degrade.

  9. Quantifying the Impact of Tropospheric Ozone on Crops Productivity at regional scale using JULES-crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is causing significant crop production losses. Currently, O3 concentrations are projected to increase globally, which could have a significant impact on food security. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator modified to include crops (JULES-crop) is used here to quantify the impacts of tropospheric O3 on crop production at the regional scale until 2100. We evaluate JULES-crop against the Soybean Free-Air-Concentration-Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Experimental data from SoyFACE and various literature sources is used to calibrate the parameters for soybean and ozone damage parameters in soybean in JULES-crop. The calibrated model is then applied for a transient factorial set of JULES-crop simulations over 1960-2005. Simulated yield changes are attributed to individual environmental drivers, CO2, O3 and climate change, across regions and for different crops. A mixed scenario of RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 climatology and ozone are simulated to explore the implication of policy. The overall findings are that regions with high ozone concentration such as China and India suffer the most from ozone damage, soybean is more sensitive to O3 than other crops. JULES-crop predicts CO2 fertilisation would increase the productivity of vegetation. This effect, however, is masked by the negative impacts of tropospheric O3. Using data from FAO and JULES-crop estimated that ozone damage cost around 55.4 Billion USD per year on soybean. Irrigation improves the simulation of rice only, and it increases the relative ozone damage because drought can reduce the ozone from entering the plant stomata. RCP 8.5 scenario results in a high yield for all crops mainly due to the CO2 fertilisation effect. Mixed climate scenarios simulations suggest that RCP 8.5 CO2 concentration and RCP 2.6 O3 concentration result in the highest yield. Further works such as more crop FACE-O3 experiments and more Crop

  10. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  11. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have

  13. Introgression of transgenic crop alleles: Its evolutionary impacts on conserving genetic diversity of crop wild relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong LU

    2013-01-01

    Effective conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species is essential for the sustainable use and genetic improvement of crop varieties,which offers greater opportunities for world food security,particularly in modem agroecosystems where CWR diversity is under severe threat.Factors such as habitat fragmentation,human disturbances,global climate change,and invasion of harmful alien species have been identified to be responsible for losses and threats to CWR diversity.However,a neglected factor,gene introgression from domesticated species through repeated outcrossing,may have a significant impact on CWR diversity.Introgression can influence genetic diversity and evolutionary processes of CWR populations through effects such as demographic swarming,genetic assimilation,and selective sweep.When largely enhancing or reducing fitness of wild plants,the introgression of crop genes will impose more significant genetic and evolutionary impacts on CWR populations,leading to undesired consequences for conserved CWR populations and species.This situation is particularly true when genetically engineered (GE) crops are deployed for commercial cultivation.It is argued that a GE crop usually contains transgenes with strong natural selection advantages,and such transgenes introgressed into CWR populations may have strong impacts on their genetic diversity and evolutionary processes,threatening their conservation.This article reviews the challenge of crop-wild gene flow,and particularly transgene introgression from GE crops,for the in situ conservation of wild relative species.The design of effective management strategies for conserving CWR species under the scenario of extensive cultivation of GE crops is also discussed.

  14. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  15. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  16. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  17. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time requir

  18. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  19. Intensifying a semi-arid dryland crop rotation by replacing fallow with pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing dryland cropping system intensity in the semi-arid central Great Plains by reducing frequency of fallow can add diversity to cropping systems and decrease erosion potential. However elimination of the periodic fallow phase has been shown to reduce yields of subsequent crops in this region...

  20. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The avai

  1. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  2. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  3. Simulating changes in cropping practices in conventional and glyphosate-resistant maize. II. Weed impacts on crop production and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbach, Nathalie; Darmency, Henri; Fernier, Alice; Granger, Sylvie; Le Corre, Valérie; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Overreliance on the same herbicide mode of action leads to the spread of resistant weeds, which cancels the advantages of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Here, the objective was to quantify, with simulations, the impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds on crop production and weed-related wild biodiversity in HT maize-based cropping systems differing in terms of management practices. We (1) simulated current conventional and probable HT cropping systems in two European regions, Aquitaine and Catalonia, with the weed dynamics model FLORSYS; (2) quantified how much the presence of GR weeds contributed to weed impacts on crop production and biodiversity; (3) determined the effect of cultural practices on the impact of GR weeds and (4) identified which species traits most influence weed-impact indicators. The simulation study showed that during the analysed 28 years, the advent of glyphosate resistance had little effect on plant biodiversity. Glyphosate-susceptible populations and species were replaced by GR ones. Including GR weeds only affected functional biodiversity (food offer for birds, bees and carabids) and weed harmfulness when weed effect was initially low; when weed effect was initially high, including GR weeds had little effect. The GR effect also depended on cultural practices, e.g. GR weeds were most detrimental for species equitability when maize was sown late. Species traits most harmful for crop production and most beneficial for biodiversity were identified, using RLQ analyses. None of the species presenting these traits belonged to a family for which glyphosate resistance was reported. An advice table was built; the effects of cultural practices on crop production and biodiversity were synthesized, explained, quantified and ranked, and the optimal choices for each management technique were identified.

  4. The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J; Park, Julian

    2015-06-01

    The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, negative effects on nontarget species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant damage to the crop. Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if nonsusceptible secondary pest populations exceed economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers' disposal, and the sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible long-term ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology.

  5. Modelling impacts of climate change on arable crop diseases: progress, challenges and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, Fay; Qi, Aiming; Fitt, Bruce Dl

    2016-08-01

    Combining climate change, crop growth and crop disease models to predict impacts of climate change on crop diseases can guide planning of climate change adaptation strategies to ensure future food security. This review summarises recent developments in modelling climate change impacts on crop diseases, emphasises some major challenges and highlights recent trends. The use of multi-model ensembles in climate change modelling and crop modelling is contributing towards measures of uncertainty in climate change impact projections but other aspects of uncertainty remain largely unexplored. Impact assessments are still concentrated on few crops and few diseases but are beginning to investigate arable crop disease dynamics at the landscape level.

  6. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  7. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment.

  8. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  9. MeteoCrop DB: an agro-meteorological database coupled with crop models for studying climate change impacts on rice in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KUWAGATA, Tsuneo; YOSHIMOTO, Mayumi; ISHIGOOKA, Yasushi; HASEGAWA, Toshihiro; UTSUMI, Misako; NISHIMORI, Motoki; MASAKI, Yoshimitsu; SAITO, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An agro-meteorological database coupled with crop models (MeteoCrop DB) has been developed for studying the impacts of climate change on rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan (http://MeteoCrop.dc.affrc.go.jp...

  10. Impact of diverse soil microbial communities on crop residues decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Fida; Bennegadi-Laurent, Nadia; Ailhas, Jérôme; Leblanc, Nathalie; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Laval, Karine; Gattin, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soils provide many basic ecosystem services for our society and most of these services are carried out by the soil communities, thus influencing soils quality. Soil organic matter (SOM) can be considered as one of the most important soil quality indices for it plays a determinant role in many physical, chemical and biological processes, such as soil structure and erosion resistance, cation exchange capacity, nutrient cycling and biological activity (Andrews et al., 2004). Since a long time, exogenous organic inputs are largely used for improving agricultural soils, affecting highly soil fertility and productivity. The use of organic amendments such as crop residues influences the soil microbial populations' diversity and abundance. In the meantime, soil microbial communities play a major role in the organic matter degradation, and the effect of different microbial communities on the decomposition of crop residues is not well documented. In this context, studying the impact of crop residues on soil microbial ecology and the processes controlling the fate of plant residues in different management practices is essential for understanding the long-term environmental and agronomic effects on soil and organic matters. Our purpose in the present work was to investigate the decomposition by two contrasting microbial communities of three crop residues, and compare the effect of different residues amendments on the abundance and function of each soil microbial communities. Among the main crops which produce large amounts of residues, we focused on three different plants: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The residues degradation in two soils of different management practices and the microbial activity were evaluated by: microbial abundance (microbial carbon, culturable bacteria, total DNA, qPCR), in combination with functional indicators (enzymatic assays and Biolog substrate utilization), kinetics of C and N

  11. Global impacts of surface ozone changes on crop yields and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, Clifford; van Noije, Twan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone has detrimental impacts on vegetation and crop yields. In this study, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production and subsequent impacts on land use in the 2005-2050 period using results of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry and IMAGE integrated assessment model. For the crops

  12. Impacts of Future Climate Change on California Perennial Crop Yields: Model Projections with Climate and Crop Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D; Field, C; Cahill, K; Bonfils, C

    2006-01-10

    Most research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has focused on the major annual crops, yet perennial cropping systems are less adaptable and thus potentially more susceptible to damage. Improved assessments of yield responses to future climate are needed to prioritize adaptation strategies in the many regions where perennial crops are economically and culturally important. These impact assessments, in turn, must rely on climate and crop models that contain often poorly defined uncertainties. We evaluated the impact of climate change on six major perennial crops in California: wine grapes, almonds, table grapes, oranges, walnuts, and avocados. Outputs from multiple climate models were used to evaluate climate uncertainty, while multiple statistical crop models, derived by resampling historical databases, were used to address crop response uncertainties. We find that, despite these uncertainties, climate change in California is very likely to put downward pressure on yields of almonds, walnuts, avocados, and table grapes by 2050. Without CO{sub 2} fertilization or adaptation measures, projected losses range from 0 to >40% depending on the crop and the trajectory of climate change. Climate change uncertainty generally had a larger impact on projections than crop model uncertainty, although the latter was substantial for several crops. Opportunities for expansion into cooler regions are identified, but this adaptation would require substantial investments and may be limited by non-climatic constraints. Given the long time scales for growth and production of orchards and vineyards ({approx}30 years), climate change should be an important factor in selecting perennial varieties and deciding whether and where perennials should be planted.

  13. Changes in erosion and runoff due to replacement of pasture land with sugarcane crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The planting of sugarcane crops has expanded in the last decade in southeast Brazil, mainly due to its use for biofuel production (alcohol). This expansion in the State of São Paulo has occupied land that was previously used for cattle production. This change in land use affects soil and water throu...

  14. Replacing fallow with forage triticale in dryland crop rotations increases profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common dryland rotational cropping system in the semi-arid central Great Plains of the U.S. is wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.)-fallow (WCF). However, the 12-month fallow period following corn production has been shown to be relatively inefficient in storing precipitation during the...

  15. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  16. Regional Modelling for Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Crops Considering Environmental Impacts, Housing Value and Leisure Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Haruvy, Nava; Shalhevet, Sarit

    2006-01-01

    Regional planning should consider the impact of agricultural crops on housing value and leisure, as well as on the local environment. We designed an optimization model for allocating agricultural crops based on farmers profits as well as the impact on these three factors. Each crop creates a different landscape, as well as a different effect on shading and noise reduction. These in turn influence the value of nearby housing and the regional leisure opportunities. Each crop also has a positive...

  17. Impact of rapeseed cropping on the soil carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Antje Maria; Herbst, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Andres, Monique; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in Northern Germany. Since the cultivation of biofuel crops requires sustainability compared to fossil fuels by law, detailed knowledge about their green house gas (GHG) balance is necessary. The soil carbon balance is one of the key contributors to the total GHG balance and also very important for the assessment of soil fertility. However, the knowledge about the impact of different management practices on the soil carbon balance is very limited up to now. Therefore, we investigated the carbon fluxes of winter oilseed rape at field plots near Dedelow/Uckermark in NE Germany with different treatments of fertilization (mineral versus organic) and tillage (no-till and mulch-till versus ploughing). The dynamics of the carbon fluxes are mainly driven by the current climatic conditions but the overall response depends strongly on the ecosystem state (with its physiological and microbiological properties) which is affected by management. To get the full carbon flux dynamics but also the impact of the different management practices, two different approaches were used: The eddy covariance technique to get continuous fluxes throughout the year and the manual chamber technique to detect flux differences between specific management practices. The manual chamber measurements were conducted four-weekly as all-day campaigns using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. The fluxes in-between campaigns were gap-filled based on functional relationships with soil and air temperature (for the ecosystem respiration) and photosynthetic active radiation (for the gross primary production). All results presented refer to the cropping season 2012-2013. The combination of the two measurement techniques allows the evaluation of chamber fluxes including an independent estimate of the error on the overall balances. Despite the considerable errors, there are significant differences in the soil carbon

  18. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  19. Estimating the impact of mineral aerosols on crop yields in food insecure regions using statistical crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A.; Forest, C. E.; Kemanian, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant number of food-insecure nations exist in regions of the world where dust plays a large role in the climate system. While the impacts of common climate variables (e.g. temperature, precipitation, ozone, and carbon dioxide) on crop yields are relatively well understood, the impact of mineral aerosols on yields have not yet been thoroughly investigated. This research aims to develop the data and tools to progress our understanding of mineral aerosol impacts on crop yields. Suspended dust affects crop yields by altering the amount and type of radiation reaching the plant, modifying local temperature and precipitation. While dust events (i.e. dust storms) affect crop yields by depleting the soil of nutrients or by defoliation via particle abrasion. The impact of dust on yields is modeled statistically because we are uncertain which impacts will dominate the response on national and regional scales considered in this study. Multiple linear regression is used in a number of large-scale statistical crop modeling studies to estimate yield responses to various climate variables. In alignment with previous work, we develop linear crop models, but build upon this simple method of regression with machine-learning techniques (e.g. random forests) to identify important statistical predictors and isolate how dust affects yields on the scales of interest. To perform this analysis, we develop a crop-climate dataset for maize, soybean, groundnut, sorghum, rice, and wheat for the regions of West Africa, East Africa, South Africa, and the Sahel. Random forest regression models consistently model historic crop yields better than the linear models. In several instances, the random forest models accurately capture the temperature and precipitation threshold behavior in crops. Additionally, improving agricultural technology has caused a well-documented positive trend that dominates time series of global and regional yields. This trend is often removed before regression with

  20. Social Impacts of GM Crops in Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Fischer; Elisabeth Ekener-Petersen; Lotta Rydhmer; Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been argued that the fragmented knowledge on the social impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops is contributing to the polarised debate on the matter. This paper addresses this issue by systematically reviewing 99 peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004 on the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture; summarising current knowledge, and identifying research gaps. Economic impact studies currently dominate the literature and mainly report that GM crops provide ec...

  1. Regional crop modelling in Europe: The impact of climate conditions and farm characteristics on maize yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Boogaard, H.; Diepen, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change on regional crop yields are commonly assessed using process-based crop models. These models, however, simulate potential and water limited yields, which do not always relate to observed yields. The latter are largely influenced by crop management, wh

  2. The impact of new energy crops on weed flora diversification in energy cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glemnitz, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite various options in energy cropping for the diversification of agricultural land use, such as the introduction of new crops, in practice, there is a one-sided orientation toward the use of maize as biogas feedstock in Germany. One reason, why they are not yet introduced in practice, is that for most of them neither the agricultural feasibility nor their ecological and economic benefit could be clearly shown to the farmers up to now. As part of the research projects “Site-adapted Cropping Systems for Energy Crops” (EVA, and “Optimized energy cropping systems for the sustainable biogas production (Upscaling” the effects of three new energy crops have been tested under real farm conditions in two different regions in the northern part of Germany. The large scale field trial consisted of the comparison of the following energy crops: 0- maize as reference crop, 1- perennial Silphie (Silphium perfoliatum, 2- Szarvasi grass (Agropyron elongatum, and 3-perennial wild flower mixture. The trail has been investigated regarding the following effects: α-diversity at the plot scale, contribution to the β-diversity among the crops and species composition. The results suggest that the integration of the new perennial energy crop might contribute to an essential weed diversity enhancement. Weed flora diversity was between 2-4 times higher in most of the cases in the new energy crops compared to maize.

  3. Crop impaction resulting from feather ball formation in caged layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T Y; Aye, P P; Harr, B S

    1999-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in commercial poultry, including feather pulling and pica, have been known to occur when birds are exposed to an unfamiliar environment. We report here the development of crop impactions resulting from feather ball formation. Twelve specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were placed in one of three cages housed among a commercial layer flock in three different buildings on a farm site. Three weeks after placement, the birds were removed from the cages and given a physical exam. Chickens were thin, and one bird in each of the three caged groups had a palpable mass at the level of the thoracic inlet. At necropsy, a mass was noted in the crop. Upon further dissection, a wet, foul-smelling mass consisting of feathers and feed debris was recovered. Results from our case indicate that unfamiliar surroundings can cause pica in birds. Hence, avian researchers and veterinarians planning to introduce new birds into a flock, i.e., SPF birds, should consider the birds' previous environmental conditions prior to placement because sudden placement in unfamiliar surroundings can result in pica.

  4. Direct and indirect impacts of crop-livestock organization on mixed crop-livestock systems sustainability: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneessens, I; Veysset, P; Benoit, M; Lamadon, A; Brunschwig, G

    2016-11-01

    Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production. Our objective is to investigate if crop-livestock organization has both a direct and an indirect impact on mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) sustainability. In that objective, we build a whole-farm model parametrized on representative French sheep and crop farming systems in plain areas (Vienne, France). This model permits simulating contrasted MC-L systems and their subsequent sustainability through the following indicators of performance: farm income, production, N balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (/kg product) and MJ consumption (/kg product). Two MC-L systems were simulated with contrasted crop-livestock organizations (MC20-L80: 20% of crops; MC80-L20: 80% of crops). A first scenario - constraining no crop-livestock interactions in both MC-L systems - permits highlighting that crop-livestock organization has a significant direct impact on performances that implies trade-offs between objectives of sustainability. Indeed, the MC80-L20 system is showing higher performances for farm income (+44%), livestock production (+18%) and crop GHG emissions (-14%) whereas the MC20-L80 system has a better N balance (-53%) and a lower livestock MJ consumption (-9%). A second scenario - allowing for crop-livestock interactions in both MC20-L80 and MC80-L20 systems - stated that crop-livestock organization has a significant indirect impact on performances. Indeed, even if crop-livestock interactions permit

  5. Cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization impact on surface residue, soil carbon sequestration, and crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effect of management practices on soil C storage for obtaining C credit. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on dryland crop and surface residue C and soil organic C (SOC) at the 0-120 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2006 to 201...

  6. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential environmental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs A; Harris, Caroline; Stephenson, Gerry; Unsworth, John

    2008-04-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, large-scale experimental European data exist for GR sugar and fodder beets, and, to a lesser extent, GR oilseed rape. These GR crops are likely to have an impact both on the use of herbicides and on the environmental impact of the latter. From the data on these GR crops, it appears that quantities of herbicides applied to GR beets are decreased while those on GR soybean are slightly increased compared with their conventional counterparts. Depending on the parameters used for prediction or measurement of environmental impacts of GR crops, generally similar or less negative impacts were observed compared with conventional crops. Favourable environmental effects of the glyphosate-containing herbicide regimes on GR crops appear feasible, provided appropriate measures for maintaining biodiversity and prevention of volunteers and gene flow are applied.

  7. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  8. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  9. Crop domestication and its impact on naturally selected trophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yolanda H.; Gols, Rieta; Benrey, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Crop domestication is the process of artificially selecting plants to increase their suitability to human requirements: taste, yield, storage, and cultivation practices. There is increasing evidence that crop domestication can profoundly alter interactions among plants, herbivores, and their natu

  10. A global overview of biotech (GM) crops: adoption, impact and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, some were skeptical that genetically modified (GM) crops, now referred to as biotech crops, could deliver improved products and make an impact at the farm level. There was even more skepticism that developing countries would adopt biotech crops. The adoption of and commercialization of biotech crops in 2008 is reviewed. The impact of biotech crops are summarized including their contribution to: global food, feed and fiber security; a safer environment; a more sustainable agriculture; and the alleviation of poverty, and hunger in the developing countries of the world. Future prospects are discussed. Notably, Egypt planted Bt maize for the first time in 2008 thereby becoming the first country in the Arab world to commercialize biotech crops.

  11. 78 FR 26102 - Notice of Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman Memorial Replacement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman... to terminate the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Friedman Memorial Replacement Airport... for a replacement airport for Friedman Memorial Airport, Hailey, ID. The FAA proceeded with the...

  12. Is the possibility of replacing seed dressings containing neonicotinoids with other means of protection viable in major Polish agricultural crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyjaszczyk Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the limitations regarding the use of the neonicotinoids: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid there are no currently available insecticide seed dressings for oilseed rape in Poland. For maize here is only one seed dressing containing methiocarb available with a very narrow registered scope of use. The impact of limitations on protection possibilities of other major Polish agricultural crops is either negligible or non-existent. In consequence a group of economically important insect pests of maize [dungbeetles (Melolonthidae; click beetles (Elateridae; noctuid moths (Agrotinae] and oilseed rape [leaf miners (Agromyzidae, turnip sawfly (Athalia colibri Christ., cabbage weevils (Curculionidae, cabbage root fly (Hylemyia brassicae Bche., diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.] is left without any legal possibility of chemical control. For the other important pests of the early growth stage of oilseed rape development, there are only pyrethroids available together with one product containing chloropiryfos that can be applied once per vegetation season. Since both maize and oilseed rape are grown in Poland on the area of approximately 1 million ha (each crop, this situation raises concerns about production possibilities as well as development of pest resistance.

  13. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  14. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  15. Crop failure rates in a geoengineered climate: impact of climate change and marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, B.; Challinor, A.; Nicklin, K.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of geoengineering on crops has to date been studied by examining mean yields. We present the first work focusing on the rate of crop failures under a geoengineered climate. We investigate the impact of a future climate and a potential geoengineering scheme on the number of crop failures in two regions, Northeastern China and West Africa. Climate change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the number of crop failures in Northeastern China while reducing the number of crop failures in West Africa. In both regions marine cloud brightening is likely to reduce the number crop failures, although it is more effective at reducing mild crop failure than severe crop failure. We find that water stress, rather than heat stress, is the main cause of crop failure in current, future and geoengineered climates. This demonstrates the importance of irrigation and breeding for tolerance to water stress as adaptation methods in all futures. Analysis of global rainfall under marine cloud brightening has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of climate change on global wheat and groundnut production.

  16. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Trnka, M; Kersebaum, K C

    2011-01-01

    of warning and decision support systems with relevance for adaptation to climate change. The results show that farmers across Europe are currently adapting to climate change, in particular in terms of changing timing of cultivation and selecting other crop species and cultivars. The responses...... in the questionnaires show a surprisingly high proportion of negative expectations concerning the impacts of climate change on crops and crop production throughout Europe, even in the cool temperate northern European countries. The expected impacts, both positive and negative, are just as large in northern Europe...... incidents of heat waves and droughts without possibilities for effectively shifting crop cultivation to other parts of the years. A wide range of adaptation options exists in most European regions to mitigate many of the negative impacts of climate change on crop production in Europe. However, considering...

  17. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  18. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  19. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  20. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  1. The impact of climate and price risks on agricultural land use and crop management decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the impacts of climate change and of lower and more volatile crop price levels as currently observed in the European Union (EU) on optimal management decisions, average income and income risks in crop production in Western Switzerland. To this end, a bioeconomic

  2. Crop domestication and its impact on naturally selected trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yolanda H; Gols, Rieta; Benrey, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Crop domestication is the process of artificially selecting plants to increase their suitability to human requirements: taste, yield, storage, and cultivation practices. There is increasing evidence that crop domestication can profoundly alter interactions among plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies. Overall, little is known about how these interactions are affected by domestication in the geographical ranges where these crops originate, where they are sympatric with the ancestral plant and share the associated arthropod community. In general, domestication consistently has reduced chemical resistance against herbivorous insects, improving herbivore and natural enemy performance on crop plants. More studies are needed to understand how changes in morphology and resistance-related traits arising from domestication may interact with environmental variation to affect species interactions across multiple scales in agroecosystems and natural ecosystems.

  3. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  4. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  5. A numerical study on impact of crop canopy on mesoscale climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾新媛; 叶卓佳

    1996-01-01

    The impact of well watered mesoscale wheat planted on the mesoscale boundary layer structures of midlatitude arid area has been investigated by using a mesoscale biophysical meteorological model. The investigation indicates that mesoscale perturbations in temperature and specific humidity over crop area from the adjacent dry, bare soil, caused by the transpiration from the crop canopy and evaporation from underlying humid soil, result in a horizontal pressure gradient. A mesoscale circulation is forced by the pressure perturbation with a wind speed of about 5 m/s directing from the crop canopy to the bare soil in the lower boundary layer. In the daytime, the boundary layer structure over a complex terrain is determined by the interactions between upslope flow circulations and the circulations mentioned above when wheat crop canopies are located on plain and plateau. The impact of crop canopy scale on this thermally forced mesoscale circulation is also investigated.

  6. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  7. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  8. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2013: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper updates previous assessments of how crop biotechnology has changed the environmental impact of global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 553 million kg (−8.6%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by19.1%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2013, this was equivalent to removing 12.4 million cars from the roads. PMID:25760405

  9. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2014: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 581.4 million kg (−8.2%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient [EIQ]) by18.5%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2014, this was equivalent to removing nearly 10 million cars from the roads. PMID:27253265

  10. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2013: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper updates previous assessments of how crop biotechnology has changed the environmental impact of global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 553 million kg (-8.6%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 19.1%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2013, this was equivalent to removing 12.4 million cars from the roads.

  11. Social Impacts of GM Crops in Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been argued that the fragmented knowledge on the social impacts of genetically modified (GM crops is contributing to the polarised debate on the matter. This paper addresses this issue by systematically reviewing 99 peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004 on the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture; summarising current knowledge, and identifying research gaps. Economic impact studies currently dominate the literature and mainly report that GM crops provide economic benefits for farmers. Other social impacts are less well studied, but present a more complex picture. Studies on access to and benefits of GM crops show that these vary significantly depending on the political and regulatory setting. Substantial evidence indicates that intellectual property rights (IPR and the private industry’s dominance limit the access and utility of available GM crops to many farmers. Wellbeing is frequently discussed in the literature, but rarely investigated empirically. Existing evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. Impact studies from the Global North are virtually non-existent. Moreover, two-thirds of publications are based on previously published empirical evidence, indicating a need for new empirical investigations into the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture.

  12. Impacts of the Future Changes in Extreme Events on the Regional Crop Yield in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The changes in extreme events caused by climate change have the greatest impact on agricultural sector specifically crop yield. Therefore, it requires a clear understanding of how extreme events affect the crop yield and how it causes high economic losses. In this research, we cover the relationship between extreme events and the crop yield in Turkey for the period of 2020 - 2045 with respect to 1980 - 2005. We focus on the role of those extreme event causing natural disasters on the regional crop yield. This research comprises 2 parts. In the first part, the projection is performed according to the business as usual scenario of IPCC, RCP8.5, via the RegCM4.4 in order to obtain extreme event indices required for the crop assessment. In the second part, the crop yield and the extreme event indices are combined by applying the econometric analysis in order to see the relationship between natural disasters and crop yield. The risks for crop yield caused by the extreme events are estimated and interpreted. This study aims to assess the effect of frequency of expected extreme events on the crop yield at the cropland of Turkey. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  13. Methodologies for simulating impacts of climate change on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecophysiological models of crop growth have seen wide use in IPCC and related assessments. However, the diversity of modeling approaches constrains cross-study syntheses and increases potential for bias. We reviewed 139 peer-reviewed papers dealing with climate change and agriculture, considering si...

  14. Meta-analysis of climate impacts and uncertainty on crop yields in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jerry; Daccache, Andre; Hess, Tim; Haro, David

    2016-11-01

    Future changes in temperature, rainfall and soil moisture could threaten agricultural land use and crop productivity in Europe, with major consequences for food security. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of seven major crop types (viz wheat, barley, maize, potato, sugar beet, rice and rye) grown in Europe using a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis of data reported in 41 original publications from an initial screening of 1748 studies. Our approach adopted an established SR procedure developed by the Centre for Evidence Based Conservation constrained by inclusion criteria and defined methods for literature searches, data extraction, meta-analysis and synthesis. Whilst similar studies exist to assess climate impacts on crop yield in Africa and South Asia, surprisingly, no comparable synthesis has been undertaken for Europe. Based on the reported results (n = 729) we show that the projected change in average yield in Europe for the seven crops by the 2050s is +8%. For wheat and sugar beet, average yield changes of +14% and +15% are projected, respectively. There were strong regional differences with crop impacts in northern Europe being higher (+14%) and more variable compared to central (+6%) and southern (+5) Europe. Maize is projected to suffer the largest negative mean change in southern Europe (-11%). Evidence of climate impacts on yield was extensive for wheat, maize, sugar beet and potato, but very limited for barley, rice and rye. The implications for supporting climate adaptation policy and informing climate impacts crop science research in Europe are discussed.

  15. Assessing the impact of climate change on smallholder farmers’ crop net revenue in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agossou Gadédjisso-Tossou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Ricardian modelling approach to measure the impact of climate change variables such as temperature and rainfalls on smallholder famers’ crop net revenue in Togo. The obtained results show that climate has a nonlinear effect on crop net revenue. In rainy season, the marginal impact of temperature on farmers’ net revenue is negative, while the impact of rainfalls is positive. The scenarios of decrease of rainfalls and/or increase of the temperature show negative impacts on the agriculture of Togo given the already harsh climatic conditions in the country. Other variables such as educational attainment, access to extension services and livestock ownership are found to have positive impact on farmers’ crop net revenue. Consequently, policies aimed at improving those factors could improve smallholder farmers’ wellbeing.

  16. Impact of replacement of conventional Recloser with PulseCloser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgert Metko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional recloser stresses the circuit with current fault every time they reclose into a fault. After clearing a fault, a conventional recloser simply recloses the interrupters to continuously test the presence of the fault. If the fault is still there, the interrupters are tripped again. Then, after a time delay, the interrupters are reclosed. During reclosing operation of Automatic Recloser, including the faster recloser one, powerful transient processes occurs and significant amount of energy is feeding the fault, resulting in system-damaging and voltage sags. Replacing conventional recloser with PulseCloser one minimizes these effects and creates the possibility to use multiple reclosing even when traditional autoreclosing can not be allowed.PulseCloser Technology drastically reduces overcurrent stress on the system. Once the PulseCloser interrupts a fault, it sends the impulses to intelligently tests for current fault before reclosing. The relative let-through energy of a pulseclosing operation is typically less than 2% of a conventional reclosing operation. Pulseclosing is superior to conventional reclosing. It greatly reduces stress on system components as well as voltage sags experienced by customers’ upstream fault.This paper analyzes transient processes during simulation of operation of traditional recloser and PulseCloser type. Simulations are performed using ATP software. The simulations show the remarkable difference in current versus time during fault testing in the transmission line equipped with conventional recloser and PulseCloser. The analysis justifies the replacement of Conventional Recloser with PulseCloser one.

  17. Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production

  18. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  19. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  20. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional leve

  1. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  2. Simulated Near-term Climate Change Impacts on Major Crops across Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, S.; Mesa-Diez, J.; Obando-Bonilla, D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Moreno, P.; Fisher, M.; Prager, S.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Robust estimates of climate change impacts on agricultural production can help to direct investments in adaptation in the coming decades. In this study commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank, near-term climate change impacts (2020-2049) are simulated relative to a historical baseline period (1971-2000) for five major crops (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and dry bean) across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) using the DSSAT crop model. No adaptation or technological change is assumed, thereby providing an analysis of existing climatic stresses on yields in the region and a worst-case scenario in the coming decades. DSSAT is run across irrigated and rain-fed growing areas in the region at a 0.5° spatial resolution for each crop. Crop model inputs for soils, planting dates, crop varieties and fertilizer applications are taken from previously-published datasets, and also optimized for this study. Results show that maize and dry bean are the crops most affected by climate change, followed by wheat, with only minimal changes for rice and soybean. Generally, rain-fed production sees more severe yield declines than irrigated production, although large increases in irrigation water are needed to maintain yields, reducing the yield-irrigation productivity in most areas and potentially exacerbating existing supply limitations in watersheds. This is especially true for rice and soybean, the two crops showing the most neutral yield changes. Rain-fed yields for maize and bean are projected to decline most severely in the sub-tropical Caribbean, Central America and northern South America, where climate models show a consistent drying trend. Crop failures are also projected to increase in these areas, necessitating switches to other crops or investment in adaptation measures. Generally, investment in agricultural adaptation to climate change (such as improved seed and irrigation infrastructure) will be needed throughout the LAC region in the 21st century.

  3. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact.

  4. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  5. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462

  6. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  7. Assessing environmental impacts of constructed wetland effluents for vegetable crop irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, A; Consoli, S; Barbagallo, S; Branca, F; Farag, A; Licciardello, F; Cirelli, G L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and assess environmental impacts of reclaimed wastewater (RW), used for irrigation of vegetable crops, on soil, crop quality and irrigation equipment. During 2013, effluents of a horizontal sub-surface flow constructed treatment wetland (TW) system, used for tertiary treatment of sanitary wastewater from a small rural municipality located in Eastern Sicily (Italy), were reused by micro-irrigation techniques to irrigate vegetable crops. Monitoring programs, based on in situ and laboratory analyses were performed for assessing possible adverse effects on water-soil-plant systems caused by reclaimed wastewater reuse. In particular, experimental results evidenced that Escherichia coli content found in RW would not present a risk for rotavirus infection following WHO (2006) standards. Irrigated soil was characterized by a certain persistence of microbial contamination and among the studied vegetable crops, lettuce responds better, than zucchini and eggplants, to the irrigation with low quality water, evidencing a bettering of nutraceutical properties and production parameters.

  8. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  9. Impact of genetic selection on management of boar replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J A B; Buhr, M M

    2005-01-15

    Boars in an artificial insemination centre have been selected for their superior genetic potential, with 'superior' being defined as having traits the customer wants transmitted to his herd. The ability to meet the customers' needs depends on the heritability of the trait, the geneticist's success in devising a selection scheme for the trait in balance with other economically important traits, and the boar's ability to produce sperm that can fertilise oocytes. Genetic evaluation research over the past 20 years has greatly increased the number of traits for which a boar can be selected: currently in the Canadian national program, these include age at 100 kg, backfat at 100 kg, feed efficiency, lean yield and litter size. In the near future, traits that are very likely to be added to this selection list include piglet survival, marbling, loin eye area and structure traits. In Canada, sires are ranked on two estimated breeding value (EBV) indices; one, focused on development of terminal sire lines, is based on the growth and yield traits and another, primarily focused on maternal line development, de-emphasises these traits and incorporates litter size. Boars that are in Canadian AI centres because of their excellent growth traits are typically in the top 5-10% of the national population for terminal sire line index, but they may be only average or substandard for litter size. Conversely, boars selected to be in the top 5-10% for conveying such reproductive traits as litter size may only be in the top 33% for growth traits. The more offspring from a superior boar in either of these indices, the faster the population average for the trait improves. The original sire gets knocked out of the elite group, is culled and replaced by a higher ranked young boar from the now improved general population. Although genetic superiority should govern an AI centre's selection and culling of boars, decision-making in real life is seldom that simple. Selection criteria may be

  10. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEorganic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be

  11. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  12. Estimating the Impact and Spillover Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yield in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchway, E.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical regions of the world human-induced climate change is likely to impact negatively on crop yields. To investigate the impact of climate change and its spillover effect on mean and variance of crop yields in northern Ghana, the Just and Pope stochastic production function and the Spatial Durbin model were adopted. Surprisingly, the results suggest that both precipitation and average temperature have positive effects on mean crop yield during the wet season. Wet season average temperature has a significant spillover effect in the region, whereas precipitation during the wet season has only one significant spillover effect on maize yield. Wet season precipitation does not have a strong significant effect on crop yield despite the rainfed nature of agriculture in the region. Thus, even if there are losers and winners as a result of future climate change at the regional level, future crop yield would largely depend on future technological development in agriculture, which may improve yields over time despite the changing climate. We argue, therefore, that technical improvement in farm management such as improved seeds and fertilizers, conservation tillage and better pest control, may have a more significant role in increasing observed crop productivity levels over time. So investigating the relative importance of non-climatic factors on crop yield may shed more light on where appropriate interventions can help in improving crop yields. Climate change, also, needs to be urgently assessed at the level of the household, so that poor and vulnerable people dependent on agriculture can be appropriately targeted in research and development activities whose object is poverty alleviation.

  13. The Impact of Climate and Its Variability on Crop Yield and Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population grows and the climate changes, having a secure food supply is increasingly important especially under water stressed-conditions. Although irrigation is a positive climate adaptation mechanism for agriculture, it has a potentially negative effect on water resources. It is therefore important to understand how crop yields due to irrigation are affected by climate variability and how irrigation may buffer against climate, allowing for more resilient agricultural systems. Efforts to solve these barely exposed questions can benefit from comprehending the influence of climate variability on crop yield and irrigation water use in the past. To do this, we use historical climate data,irrigation water use data and rainfed and irrigated crop yields over the US to analyze the relationship among climate, irrigation and delta crop yields, gained by subtracting rainfed yield from irrigated yield since 1970. We find that the increase in delta crop yield due to irrigation is larger for certain climate conditions, such that there are optimal climate conditions where irrigation provides a benefit and other conditions where irrigation proves to have marginal benefits when temperature increased to certain degrees. We find that crop water requirements are linked to potential evapotranspiration, yet actual irrigation water use is largely decoupled from the climate conditions but related with other causes. This has important implications for agricultural and water resource system planning, as it implies there are optimal climate zones where irrigation is productive and that changes in water use, both temporally and spatially, could lead to increased water availability without negative impacts on crop yields. Furthermore, based on the exposed relationship between crop yield gained by irrigation and climate variability, those models predicting the global harvest will be redress to estimate crop production in the future more accurately.

  14. Impacts of El Nino Southern Oscillation on the Global Yields of Major Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Sakurai, Gen; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Nino likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.15.4 but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Nina years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0).Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production.

  15. Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize or whole-crop wheat silages on the performance and meat quality of beef cattle offered two levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Lively, F O; Kilpatrick, D J; Moss, B W

    2007-05-01

    A randomised design involving 66 continental cross beef steers (initial live weight 523 kg) was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of maize or whole-crop wheat silages in grass silage-based diets on animal performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of beef cattle. Grass silage was offered either as the sole forage or in addition to either maize or whole-crop wheat silages at a ratio of 40:60, on a dry matter (DM) basis, alternative forage: grass silage. For the grass, maize, and whole-crop wheat silages, DM concentrations were 192, 276, and 319 g/kg, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were 110, 90, and 150 g/kg nitrogen, starch concentrations were not determined, 225, and 209 g/kg DM and in vivo DM digestibilities were 0.69, 0.69, and 0.58; respectively. The forages were offered ad libitum following mixing in a paddle type complete diet mixer wagon once per day, supplemented with either 3 or 5 kg concentrates per steer per day, in two equal feeds, for 92 days. For the grass, grass plus maize and grass plus whole-crop wheat silage-based diets food intakes were 8.38, 9.08, and 9.14 kg DM per day, estimated carcass gains were 514, 602, and 496 g/day and carcass weights were 326, 334, and 325 kg; respectively. Altering the silage component of the diet did not influence carcass composition or meat eating quality. Increasing concentrate feed level tended ( P = 0.09) to increase estimated carcass fat concentration and increased sarcomere length ( P quality. It is concluded that replacing grass silage with maize silage increased carcass gain, and weight due to higher intakes, and improved utilisation of metabolisable energy. Whilst replacing grass silage with whole-crop wheat silage increased live-weight gain, the reduced dressing proportion resulted in no beneficial effect on carcass gain, probably due to increased food intakes of lower digestible forage increasing gut fill. Meat quality or carcass composition were not altered by the

  16. Electronic cigarettes: health impact, nicotine replacement therapy, regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the adverse effects of conventional cigarettes on human health have been thoroughly examined, in the last 15 years we have witnessed the birth of electronic cigarettes. There are many types of these devices available on the market. Studies are still underway to determine their negative impact on the human body. Electronic cigarettes comprise of power supply and a vaporising system. The user inhales the aerosol produced by heating up the liquid containing nicotine. In contrast with conventional cigarettes, the tobacco is not combusted, thus the compositions of the aerosol and cigarette smoke are considerably different. Out of 93 chemical substances present in the e-cigarette smoke, the aerosol contains only acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, formaldehyde and nicotine. More toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are not present. The amount of evidence suggesting electronic cigarettes’ harmful effects on the human body is constantly increasing. Some reports imply that the electronic cigarettes negatively influence pregnancy, human psyche, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. They might also be involved in oncogenesis. With electronic cigarettes constantly gaining popularity, the question about the adverse effects of passive smoking becomes increasingly more relevant. Although various methods of helping people cease smoking or delivering nicotine to their bodies without burning toxic substances are being explored, electronic cigarettes are not recommended in nicotine substitution therapy. Legal regulations regarding electronic cigarettes are still being worked on. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects electronic cigarettes have on the human’s health.

  17. Impact of climate variability on various Rabi crops over Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, M. M.; Dhekale, B. S.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2016-11-01

    The Indian agriculture with its two prominent cropping seasons [summer (Kharif) and winter (Rabi)] is the mainstay of the rural economy. Northwest India (NWI) is an important region for the cultivation of Rabi crops grown during the period from October to April. In the present study, state wise impact analysis is carried out to ascertain the influence of climate indices Nino3.4 region Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local precipitation, soil moisture, minimum (T min), maximum (T max) and mean (T mean) temperatures on different Rabi crops (wheat, gram, rapeseed-mustard, oilseeds, and total Rabi food grains) over NWI during the years 1966-2011. To study the impact of climate variability on different Rabi crops, firstly, the influence of technology on the productivity of these crops has been removed by using linear function, as linear trend has noticed in all the time series. Correlation analysis provides an indication of the influence of local precipitation, soil moisture, T min, T max and T mean and some of its potential predictors (Nino3.4 region SST, SOI, AO, and NAO) on the productivity of different Rabi crops. Overall impact analysis indicates that the productivity of different Rabi crops in most of the places of NWI is most likely influenced by variability in local temperatures. Moreover, Nino3.4 region SST (SOI) positively (negatively) affects the productivity of gram, rapeseed-mustard, and total Rabi oilseeds in most of the states. The results of this study are useful in determining the strategies for increasing sustainable production through better agronomic practices.

  18. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  19. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  20. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingenen, van R.; Dentener, F.J.; Raes, F.; Krol, M.C.; Emberson, L.; Cofala, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are bas

  1. Impact of CAP Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Crop Farms in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of CAP reforms, particularly subsidies on technical efficiency of crop farms. An output distance function is employed and estimated together with an inefficiency effects model to capture the effects of CAP subsidies and farmer characteristics on farm efficiency. The m

  2. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Ferry, N.; Edwards, M. G.; Bell, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids. PMID:21444317

  4. Could Crop Roughness Impact the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The high concentration of both large-scale agriculture and wind power production in the United States Midwest region raises new questions concerning the interaction of the two activities. For instance, it is known from internal boundary layer theory that changes in the roughness of the land-surface resulting from crop choices could modify the momentum field aloft. Upward propagation of such an effect might impact the properties of the winds encountered by modern turbines, which typically span a layer from about 40 to 120 meters above the surface. As direct observation of such interaction would require impractical interference in the planting schedules of farmers, we use numerical modeling to quantify the magnitude of crop-roughness effects. To simulate a collocated farm and turbine array, we use version 3.4.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The hypothetical farm is inserted near the real location of the 2013 Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX). Reanalyses provide representative initial and boundary conditions. A month-long period spanning August 2013 is used to evaluate the differences in flows above corn (maize) and soybean crops at the mature, reproductive stage. Simulations are performed comparing the flow above each surface regime, both in the absence and presence of a wind farm, which consists of a parameterized 11x11 array of 1.8 MW Vestas V90 turbines. Appreciable differences in rotor-layer wind speeds emerge. The use of soybeans results in an increase in wind speeds and a corresponding reduction in rotor-layer shear when compared to corn. Despite the turbulent nature of flow within a wind farm, high stability reduces the impact of crop roughness on the flow aloft, particularly in the upper portion of the rotor disk. We use these results to estimate the economic impact of crop selection on wind power producers.

  5. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M R; Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Bell, H A

    2011-05-12

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids.

  6. The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

  7. The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

  8. Liming impacts on soils, crops and biodiversity in the UK: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J E; Bennett, A E; Newton, A C; White, P J; McKenzie, B M; George, T S; Pakeman, R J; Bailey, J S; Fornara, D A; Hayes, R C

    2017-08-11

    Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood. For instance, short-term liming impacts are detected on soil biota and in soil biological processes (such as in N cycling where liming can increase N availability for plant uptake). The impacts of liming on soil carbon storage are variable and strongly relate to soil type, land use, climate and multiple management factors. Liming influences all elements in soils and as such there are numerous simultaneous changes to soil processes which in turn affect the plant nutrient uptake; two examples of positive impact for crops are increased P availability and decreased uptake of toxic heavy metals. Soil physical conditions are at least maintained or improved by liming, but the time taken to detect change varies significantly. Arable crops differ in their sensitivity to soil pH and for most crops there is a positive yield response. Liming also introduces implications for the development of different crop diseases and liming management is adjusted according to crop type within a given rotation. Repeated lime applications tend to improve grassland biomass production, although grassland response is variable and indirect as it relates to changes in nutrient availability. Other indicators of liming response in grassland are detected in mineral content and herbage quality which have implications for livestock-based production systems. Ecological studies have shown positive impacts of liming on biodiversity; such as increased earthworm abundance that

  9. Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2017-07-03

    This paper provides an assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined impacts on yields, key variable costs of production, direct farm (gross) income and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has occurred at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2015. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $15.4 billion in 2015 and $167.8 billion for the 20 year period 1996-2015 (in nominal terms). These gains have been divided 49% to farmers in developed countries and 51% to farmers in developing countries. About 72% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 28% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 180 million tonnes and 358 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s.

  10. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-02

    This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $17.7 billion in 2014 and $150.3 billion for the 19-year period 1996-2014 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 65% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 35% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 158 million tonnes and 322 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s.

  11. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2013. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $20.5 billion in 2013 and $133.4 billion for the 18 years period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 70% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 30% coming from cost savings. The technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having added 138 million tonnes and 273 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s.

  12. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $17.7 billion in 2014 and $150.3 billion for the 19-year period 1996–2014 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 65% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 35% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 158 million tonnes and 322 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:27116697

  13. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    abstract This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2013. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $20.5 billion in 2013 and $133.4 billion for the 18 years period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 70% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 30% coming from cost savings. The technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having added 138 million tonnes and 273 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:25738324

  14. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scatasta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

  15. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  16. Comparing estimates of climate change impacts from process-based and statistical crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on crop productivity are of widespread interest to those concerned with addressing climate change and improving global food security. Two common approaches to assess these impacts are process-based simulation models, which attempt to represent key dynamic processes affecting crop yields, and statistical models, which estimate functional relationships between historical observations of weather and yields. Examples of both approaches are increasingly found in the scientific literature, although often published in different disciplinary journals. Here we compare published sensitivities to changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone from each approach for the subset of crops, locations, and climate scenarios for which both have been applied. Despite a common perception that statistical models are more pessimistic, we find no systematic differences between the predicted sensitivities to warming from process-based and statistical models up to +2 °C, with limited evidence at higher levels of warming. For precipitation, there are many reasons why estimates could be expected to differ, but few estimates exist to develop robust comparisons, and precipitation changes are rarely the dominant factor for predicting impacts given the prominent role of temperature, CO2, and ozone changes. A common difference between process-based and statistical studies is that the former tend to include the effects of CO2 increases that accompany warming, whereas statistical models typically do not. Major needs moving forward include incorporating CO2 effects into statistical studies, improving both approaches’ treatment of ozone, and increasing the use of both methods within the same study. At the same time, those who fund or use crop model projections should understand that in the short-term, both approaches when done well are likely to provide similar estimates of warming impacts, with statistical models generally

  17. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of `As Low As Reasonably Achievable` would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  18. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  19. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  20. Impacts of spatial heterogeneity on crop area mapping in Canada using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoliang; Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Shusen; Huang, Jingfeng; Mansaray, Lamin R.

    2016-09-01

    Accurately mapping crop area using coarse spatial resolution remote sensing imageries is challenging due to the existence of various spatial heterogeneities. The objective of this study is to analyze the accuracy of crop classification and area estimation affected by spatial heterogeneities, especially for sample impurity and landscape heterogeneity. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD09Q1 8-day composites and the derived phenology metrics were used to classify crop areas over Manitoba, Canada. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) approach was applied in the classification. The Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Land Cover Dataset with 30 m spatial resolution was used as the base map to determine the study regions and training and validation samples. The results allowed to conclude that: (1) the classification accuracy of MODIS imagery is sensitive to both sample impurity and landscape heterogeneity. Purity limitations in samples can have a large impact on the classification accuracy. Regions with more homogenous pixels are more likely to be accurately classified and vice versa; (2) the crop area estimation error is less sensitive to sample impurity. It is not only determined by the purity of training samples but also by the actual purity condition of the crop type. The purest training sample group does not correspond well with the lowest error; (3) the impact of configurational heterogeneity on the area estimation is more significant than that of the compositional heterogeneity. Overall, both the sample impurity and landscape heterogeneities can largely affect the classification accuracy while only configurational heterogeneity has significant influence on crop area estimation.

  1. Energy Crop-Based Biogas as Vehicle Fuel—The Impact of Crop Selection on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from six agricultural crops was analysed regarding energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG performance for vehicle fuel from a field-to-tank perspective, with focus on critical parameters and on calculation methods. The energy efficiency varied from 35% to 44%, expressed as primary energy input per energy unit vehicle gas produced. The GHG reduction varied from 70% to 120%, compared with fossil liquid fuels, when the GHG credit of the digestate produced was included through system expansion according to the calculation methodology in the ISO 14044 standard of life cycle assessment. Ley crop-based biogas systems led to the highest GHG reduction, due to the significant soil carbon accumulation, followed by maize, wheat, hemp, triticale and sugar beet. Critical parameters are biogenic nitrous oxide emissions from crop cultivation, for which specific emission factors for digestate are missing today, and methane leakage from biogas production. The GHG benefits were reduced and the interrelation between the crops changed, when the GHG calculations were instead based on the methodology stated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive, where crop contribution to soil carbon accumulation is disregarded. All systems could still reach a 60% GHG reduction, due to the improved agricultural management when digestate replaces mineral fertilisers.

  2. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  3. Considering the air quality impacts of bioenergy crop production: a case study involving Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William C; Barsanti, Kelley C; Baughman, Eowyn C; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2012-09-01

    The expanding production of bioenergy crops may impact regional air quality through the production of volatile organic compounds such as isoprene. To investigate the effects of isoprene-emitting crops on air quality, specifically ozone (O(3)) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, we performed a series of model runs using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) simulating a proposed cropland conversion to the giant cane Arundo donax for biomass production. Cultivation of A. donax in the relatively clean air of northeastern Oregon resulted in an average increase in 8 h O(3) levels of 0.52 ppb, while SOA was largely unaffected (<+0.01 μg m(-3)). Conversions in U.S. regions with reduced air quality (eastern Texas and northern Illinois) resulted in average 8 h O(3) increases of 2.46 and 3.97 ppb, respectively, with daily increases up to 15 ppb in the Illinois case, and daytime SOA increases up to 0.57 μg m(-3). While cultivation of isoprene-emitting bioenergy crops may be appropriate at some scales and in some regions, other areas may experience increased O(3) and SOA, highlighting the need to consider isoprene emissions when evaluating potential regional impacts of bioenergy crop production.

  4. Assessment of Impacts of Climate Variability on Crop Yield over the Terai Region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, S.; Acharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural sector in Nepal which alone contributes about 42 % of the total GDP have a huge influence on national economy. This sector is very much susceptible to climate change. This study is emphasized on Terai region (situated at an altitude of 60m to 300m) of Nepal which investigates the impacts of climate variability on various stages of cropping (paddy) periods such as transplant, maturity and harvest. The climate variables namely temperature and rainfall are used to explore the relationship between climate and paddy yields based on 30 years of historical observed data. Observed monthly rainfall and temperature data are collected from the department of hydrology and meteorology, and paddy yield data are collected from the Ministry of Agricultural Development. A correlation analysis will be carried out between the backward difference filtered climate parameters and the backward difference filtered rice yield. This study will also analyze average monthly and annual rainfall, and, min, max and mean temperature during the period of 1981-2010 based on 15 synoptic stations of Nepal. This study will visualize rainfall and temperature distribution over Nepal, and also evaluate the effect of change in rainfall and temperature in the paddy yield. While evaluating the impacts of climate on crop yield, this study will not consider the impact of irrigation in crop yield. The major results, climate distribution and its local/regional impacts on agriculture, could be utilized by planners, decision makers, and climate and agricultural scientists as a basis in formulating/implementing future plans, policies and projects.

  5. Impact of climate change on hydrological behaviour and crop production in a glacial river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    Himalayan valleys are confronting severe climate change related issues (flash flood and landslides, water scarcity in higher altitudes) because of fluctuating monsoon precipitation and increasing seasonal temperatures. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. The Beas is regionally significant as it holds two giant dams, one which annually diverts 4700 Mm3 of water to a nearby basin. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for Daily River flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). We then applied the models within a scenario-neutral framework to develop hydrological and crop yield Impact Response Surfaces (IRS) for future changes in annual temperature and precipitation for the region from AR5. Future Q10 and Q90 daily flows indicate amplified 'flash flood' situations and increased low flows, respectively, with increasing temperatures due to increased snowmelt from retreating glaciers. Under existing crop and irrigation management practices, the IRS show decreasing and increasing crop yields for summer (monsoon) and winter (post monsoon) crops, respectively, with rising temperature. The sensitivity of winter (post monsoon) crop yields to precipitation increases with increasing temperature. The paper will consider the implications of the research for future agricultural water management and the potential of agronomic and irrigation adaptation to offset yield losses

  6. Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland maize impacts the resident and active methanogenic microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Björn; Blaser, Martin B; Klose, Melanie; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland crops is a common management scheme allowing the reduction of water consumption along with the reduction of methane emission. The introduction of an upland crop into the paddy rice ecosystem leads to dramatic changes in field conditions (oxygen availability, redox conditions). However, the impact of this practice on the archaeal and bacterial communities has scarcely been studied. Here, we provide a comprehensive study focusing on the crop rotation between flooded rice in the wet season and upland maize (RM) in the dry season in comparison with flooded rice (RR) in both seasons. The composition of the resident and active microbial communities was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA. The archaeal community composition changed dramatically in the rotational fields indicated by a decrease of anaerobic methanogenic lineages and an increase of aerobic Thaumarchaeota. Members of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae and Methanocellaceae were equally suppressed in the rotational fields indicating influence on both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. On the contrary, members of soil crenarchaeotic group, mainly Candidatus Nitrososphaera, were higher in the rotational fields, possibly indicating increasing importance of ammonia oxidation during drainage. In contrast, minor effects on the bacterial community were observed. Acidobacteria and Anaeromyxobacter spp. were enriched in the rotational fields, whereas members of anaerobic Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing members of Deltaproteobacteria were found in higher abundance in the rice fields. Combining quantitative polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing data revealed increased ribosomal numbers per cell for methanogenic species during crop rotation. This stress response, however, did not allow the methanogenic community to recover in the rotational fields during re-flooding and rice

  7. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our understanding

  8. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our understanding

  9. The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Unsworth, J.B.; Harris, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s. Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide re

  10. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirttioja, N.; Carter, T.R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, M.; Acutis, M.; Supit, I.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the utility of the impact response surface (IRS) approach for investigating model ensemble crop yield responses under a large range of changes in climate. IRSs of spring and winter wheat Triticum aestivum yields were constructed from a 26-member ensemble of process-based crop sim

  11. Impact of total knee replacement practice: cost effectiveness analysis of data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferket, Bart S; Feldman, Zachary; Zhou, Jing; Oei, Edwin H; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Mazumdar, Madhu

    2017-03-28

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of total knee replacement on quality of life in people with knee osteoarthritis and to estimate associated differences in lifetime costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) according to use by level of symptoms.Design Marginal structural modeling and cost effectiveness analysis based on lifetime predictions for total knee replacement and death from population based cohort data.Setting Data from two studies-Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST)-within the US health system.Participants 4498 participants with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis aged 45-79 from the OAI with no previous knee replacement (confirmed by baseline radiography) followed up for nine years. Validation cohort comprised 2907 patients from MOST with two year follow-up.Intervention Scenarios ranging from current practice, defined as total knee replacement practice as performed in the OAI (with procedural rates estimated by a prediction model), to practice limited to patients with severe symptoms to no surgery.Main outcome measures Generic (SF-12) and osteoarthritis specific quality of life measured over 96 months, model based QALYs, costs, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios over a lifetime horizon.Results In the OAI, total knee replacement showed improvements in quality of life with small absolute changes when averaged across levels of confounding variables: 1.70 (95% uncertainty interval 0.26 to 3.57) for SF-12 physical component summary (PCS); -10.69 (-13.39 to -8.01) for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC); and 9.16 (6.35 to 12.49) for knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) quality of life subscale. These improvements became larger with decreasing functional status at baseline. Provision of total knee replacement to patients with SF-12 PCS scores osteoarthritis from the MOST cohort and were robust against various scenarios including increased rates of total

  12. Climate change impacts on crop yield in the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, Andrea; Ceglar, Andrej; Dentener, Frank; Niemeyer, Stefan; Dosio, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is strongly influenced by climate variability, climate extremes and climate changes. Recent studies on past decades have identified and analysed the effects of climate variability and extremes on crop yields in the Euro-Mediterranean region. As these effects could be amplified in a changing climate context, it is essential to analyse available climate projections and investigate the possible impacts on European agriculture in terms of crop yield. In this study, five model runs from the Euro-CORDEX initiative under two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) have been used. Climate model data have been bias corrected and then used to feed a mechanistic crop growth model. The crop model has been run under different settings to better sample the intrinsic uncertainties. Among the main results, it is worth to report a weak but significant and spatially homogeneous increase in potential wheat yield at mid-century (under a CO2 fertilisation effect scenario). While more complex changes seem to characterise potential maize yield, with large areas in the region showing a weak-to-moderate decrease.

  13. Modeling the Impacts of Soil Organic Carbon Content of Croplands on Crop Yields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-jun; WANG Li-gang; LI Hu; TANG Hua-jun; LI Chang-sheng; Eric Van Ranst

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the impacts of soil organic carbon(SOC)content on the grain yield of crops using a biogeochemical model(DNDC,denitrification-decomposition).Data on climate,soil properties,and farming management regimes of cropping systems were collected from six typical agricultural zones(northeast,north,northwest,mid-south,east and southwest regions of China,respectively)and integrated into a GIS database to support the model runs.According to the model,if the initial SOC content in the cropland was increased by 1g C kg-1,the crop yield may be increased by 176 kg ha-1 for maize in the northeast region,454 kg ha-1 for a maize-wheat rotation in the north region,328 kg ha-1 for maize in the northwest region,185 kg ha-1 for single-rice in the mid-south region,266 kg ha-1 for double-rice in east region,and 229 kg ha-1 for rice and wheat rotation in southwest region.There is a great potential for enhancing the crop yield by improving the SOC content in each region of China.

  14. Evaluation of bioenergy crop growth and the impacts of bioenergy crops on streamflow, tile drain flow and nutrient losses in an extensively tile-drained watershed using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Cibin, Raj; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Gitau, Margaret; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Kiniry, James R; Engel, Bernard A

    2017-09-19

    Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, and nutrient losses under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. Simulated results from bioenergy crop scenarios were compared with those from the baseline. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields were similar to observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (3.74Mg/ha/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (17.49Mg/ha/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production (279,000Mg/yr). Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of bioenergy crops on highly erodible areas and marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with the combination of other bioenergy crops. Potential areas for bioenergy crop production when meeting the criteria above were small (10.88km(2)), thus the ability to produce biomass and improve water quality was not substantial. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile

  15. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on survival after mitral valve replacement: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-feng; WU Yi-cheng; SHEN Wei-feng; KONG Ye

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the prosthesis-patient mismatch has a deleterious impact on survival after mitral valve replacement.Data sources A comprehensive literature search of PubMed,Embase,and ScienceDirect was carried out.References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.Study selection All articles published after January 1980 was initially considered.Non-English and non-human studies,case reports,and reviews were excluded from the initial search.References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.Results A total of 8 retrospective cohort studies were identified for this review.The overall incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (<1.3 to <1.2 cm2/m2) after mitral valve replacement ranged from 3.7% to 85.9% (moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (0.9 to 1.2 cm2/m2) in 37.4% to 69.5%,severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (<0.9 cm2/m2) in 8.7% to 16.4%).Four studies demonstrated an association of prosthesis-patient mismatch with reduced long-term survival,but the other four studies found no significant deleterious impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement.No definite conclusion could be derived from these conflicting results.Conclusions Current evidence is insufficient to derive a definite conclusion whether mitral prosthesis-patient mismatch affects long-term survival because of the biases and confounding factors that interfere with late clinical outcomes.Good-quality prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of mitral prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement in the future.

  16. European greenhouse gas fluxes from land use: the impact of expanding the use of dedicated bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Astley; Böttcher, Hannes; Clifton-Brown, John; Fuchs, Richard; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Ed; Obersteiner, Michael; Pogson, Mark; Richards, Mark; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy derived from vegetation cycles carbon to and from the atmosphere using the chemical energy fixed by the plants by photosynthesis using solar energy. However bioenergy is not carbon neutral as energy is used and greenhouse gasses (GHG) are emitted in the process of growing bioenergy feeedstocks and processing them into a usable fuel, whether it is biomass or liquid fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. Using bio instead of fossil fuels replaces greenhouse gas emissions from coal, oil and gas by those of the biofuel. To estimate the impact on European greenhouse gas fluxes of expanding the use of bioenergy, it is necessary to quantify the difference between the GHG emissions associated with producing and using the biofuel and the fossil fuel it replaces, and to take into account any emissions associated with the change from the original land use to that of growing the bioenergy feedstock. This involves estimating any displacement of food, fibre and timber production to other geographical areas. Here we report on a study of the GHG emissions from the potential increasing use of a variety of biofuels produced from feedstocks grown in the EU countries. The GHG emissions of the historical land use of EU27 have been modelled using ECOSSE on a 1 km grid to estimate the impact the agriculture intensification and land use change of the last 50 years and the associated crop yield gains. The excess land made available from the yield gains is considered to be available for use for bioenergy, and the yields of potential bioenergy feedstocks are estimated from EUROSTAT data or modelled using the bioenergy crop growth model MISCANFOR. These yields are used to calculate the energy used and GHG emissions associated with the use of the resulting biofuel using a life cycle analysis, and to estimate the organic matter input into the soil. The ECOSSE model is then used to estimate the soil carbon change and GHG emissions associated with the land use change to growing the

  17. The Impact of Tea Crop Insurance in the Development of Tea Industry (Case study: Otagvar, Langrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Insurance Fund has covered tea crop since (2003. Due to undisputable effect of tea industry in the livelihood and the economy of Northern cities and people of the region, the Fund’s performance gains its importance. So in this paper, we investigate the impact of tea crop insurance in development of tea industry and factors effective on this impact. Our main question to be answered is that whether, in the present situation, tea crop insurance has been able to wield its role in the development of tea industry. To provide an answer to the question above, we employed variety of qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Quantitative method has been done as survey and our instrument was a questionnaire the questions of which were answered by 200 farmers in Otagvar, Langrood. To achieve a better sample population, we have used the random and cluster methods of sampling. Qualitative method has used the discussion groups with insurance agents in Amlash and Kumleh and interview with experts of Organization for Rural Cooperation and Agricultural Insurance Fund.

  18. Impact of data quality and quantity and the calibration procedure on crop growth model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Sabine J.; Werisch, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Crop growth models are a commonly used tool for impact assessment of climate variability and climate change on crop yields and water use. Process-based crop models rely on algorithms that approximate the main physiological plant processes by a set of equations containing several calibration parameters as well as basic underlying assumptions. It is well recognized that model calibration is essential to improve the accuracy and reliability of model predictions. However, model calibration and validation is often hindered by a limited quantity and quality of available data. Recent studies suggest that crop model parameters can only be derived from field experiments in which plant growth and development processes have been measured. To be able to achieve a reliable prediction of crop growth under irrigation or drought stress, the correct characterization of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system is essential. In this context is the accurate simulation of crop development, yield and the soil water dynamics plays an important role. In this study we aim to investigate the importance of a site and cultivar-specific model calibration based on experimental data using the SVAT model Daisy. We investigate to which extent different data sets and different parameter estimation procedures affect particularly yield estimates, irrigation water demand and the soil water dynamics. The comprehensive experimental data has been derived from an experiment conducted in Germany where five irrigation regimes were imposed on cabbage. Data collection included continuous measurements of soil tension and soil water content in two plots at three depths, weekly measurements of LAI, plant heights, leaf-N-content, stomatal conductivity, biomass partitioning, rooting depth as well as harvested yields and duration of growing period. Three crop growth calibration strategies were compared: (1) manual calibration based on yield and duration of growing period, (2) manual calibration based on yield

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could

  20. Assessing the impact of climate variability and change on crop production in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interannual variability of crop yield in the Midwestern USA is closely related to extremes in spring and summer moisture conditions. For example, extensive summer drought in 2012 caused a 28% reduction in corn yield relative to early season predictions. In contrast, saturated soil conditions in spring 2013 have led to delayed planting and poor stand development. Therefore, when applying physically-based models to predict crop yield, soil moisture dynamics and physiological stresses must be correctly represented, especially under future climate scenarios where spring and summer moisture are projected to increase and decrease, respectively, over much of the Midwest. The overall objective of this research is to explore and improve the ability of an existing ecohydrology model (SWAT 2009) to simulate corn yield with respect to current and future climate and soil moisture variability. The model is first evaluated for four field scale sites in Iowa, Illinois and Ohio. Soil moisture is calibrated based on 5-6 years of layer specific data to ensure a realistic soil water representation either in dry or wet conditions. Then the calibrated model is used to evaluate the effects of climate variability on crop yield between 1991 and 2010. Finally, the model is run with down-scaled and bias-corrected CMIP5 data from three GCMs (CCSM4, GFDL-esm2m, MIROC5) and four emissions scenarios (RC2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). Soil moisture, physiological stresses and crop yield predictions for two future periods (2031-2050, 2071-2090) are compared with the baseline period (1991-2010) to quantify climate change impacts on crop yield due to excess/deficit moisture.

  1. Variability in environmental impacts of Brazilian soybean according to crop production and transport scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Spies, Airton; Soares, Sebastião Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Soybean production and its supply chain are highly dependent on inputs such as land, fertilizer, fuel, machines, pesticides and electricity. The expansion of this crop in Brazil in recent decades has generated concerns about its environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, two representative chains supplying soybeans to Europe were identified: Center West (CW) and Southern (SO) Brazil. Each supply chain was analyzed using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. We considered different levels of use of chemical and organic fertilizers, pesticides and machinery, different distances for transportation of inputs and different yield levels. Because transportation contributed strongly to environmental impacts, a detailed study was performed to identify the routes used to transport soybeans to seaports. Additionally, we considered different levels of land occupation and land transformation to represent the impact of deforestation in the CW region. Environmental impacts were calculated for 1000 kg of soybean up to and including the delivery to Europe at the seaport in Rotterdam, at 13% humidity. Overall results showed that the impacts are greater for CW than for SO for all impact categories studied, including acidification (7.7 and 5.3 kg SO(2) eq., respectively), climate change (959 and 510 kg CO(2) eq.), cumulative energy demand (12,634 and 6,999 MJ) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (4.9 and 3.1 kg 1,4-DCB eq.), except eutrophication and land occupation. The same trend was observed for the crop-production stage. Efforts to reduce chemical fertilizers and diesel consumption can reduce CO(2) emissions. Although deforestation for crop production has decreased in recent years, the contribution of deforestation to climate change and cumulative energy demand remains significant. In the CW scenario deforestation contributed 29% to climate change and 20% to cumulative energy demand. Results also showed that although there are different transportation options in Brazil, the current

  2. Evaluation of Bioenergy Crop Growth and the Impacts Of Bioenergy Crops on Streamflow, Tile Drain Flow and Nutrient Losses Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Gitau, M. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.; Kiniry, J. R.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenery crops are expected to produce large quantities of biofuel at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study bioenergy crop growth and the impacts on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstocks. In this study, SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine (DRAINMOD routine) and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, total nitrogen, nitrate load in flow, nitrate in tile flow, soluble nitrogen, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, mineral phosphorus and organic phosphorus under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields matched with observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (66,439 Mg/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (19,039 Mg/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production. Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of Miscanthus, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar on highly erodible areas, marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment load and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with production of other bioenergy crops. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwestern U.S.

  3. Environmental impacts of different crop rotations in terms of soil compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Philipp; Rücknagel, Jan; Jacobs, Anna; Märländer, Bernward; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Christen, Olaf

    2016-10-01

    Avoiding soil compaction caused by agricultural management is a key aim of sustainable land management, and the soil compaction risk should be considered when assessing the environmental impacts of land use systems. Therefore this project compares different crop rotations in terms of soil structure and the soil compaction risk. It is based on a field trial in Germany, in which the crop rotations (i) silage maize (SM) monoculture, (ii) catch crop mustard (Mu)_sugar beet (SB)-winter wheat (WW)-WW, (iii) Mu_SM-WW-WW and (iv) SB-WW-Mu_SM are established since 2010. Based on the cultivation dates, the operation specific soil compaction risks and the soil compaction risk of the entire crop rotations are modelled at two soil depths (20 and 35 cm). To this end, based on assumptions of the equipment currently used in practice by a model farm, two scenarios are modelled (100 and 50% hopper load for SB and WW harvest). In addition, after one complete rotation, in 2013 and in 2014, the physical soil parameters saturated hydraulic conductivity (kS) and air capacity (AC) were determined at soil depths 2-8, 12-18, 22-28 and 32-38 cm in order to quantify the soil structure. At both soil depths, the modelled soil compaction risks for the crop rotations including SB (Mu_SB-WW-WW, SB-WW-Mu_SM) are higher (20 cm: medium to very high risks; 35 cm: no to medium risks) than for those without SB (SM monoculture, Mu_SM-WW-WW; 20 cm: medium risks; 35 cm: no to low risks). This increased soil compaction risk is largely influenced by the SB harvest in years where soil water content is high. Halving the hopper load and adjusting the tyre inflation pressure reduces the soil compaction risk for the crop rotation as a whole. Under these conditions, there are no to low soil compaction risks for all variants in the subsoil (soil depth 35 cm). Soil structure is mainly influenced in the topsoil (2-8 cm) related to the cultivation of Mu as a catch crop and WW as a preceding crop. Concerning k

  4. Impact of crop rotation and soil amendments on long-term no-tilled soybean yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous cropping systems without cover crops are perceived as unsustainable for long-term yield and soil health. To test this, cropping sequence and cover crop effects on soybean (Glycine max L.) yields were assessed. Main effects were 10 cropping sequences of soybean, corn (Zea mays L.), and co...

  5. Climate Change and Projected Impacts in Agriculture: an Example on Mediterranean Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted the assignment of likelihoods to future climate projections. This allowed moving from the scenario-based approach to the risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change, thus providing more useful information for decision-makers that, as reported by Schneider (2001), need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts. The probabilistic approach to evaluate crop response to climate change mainly consists in applying an impact model (such as crop growth model) to a very large number of climate projections so to provide a probabilistic distribution of the variable selected to evaluate the impact. By comparing the outputs of the multi-simulation with a critical threshold (such as minimum yield below which it is not admissible to fall), it is possible to evaluate the risk related to future climate conditions. Unfortunately, such an approach is a time-consuming process due to the large number of model runs needed for such a procedure. An alternative method relies on the set up of impact response surfaces (RS) with respect to key climatic variables on which a probabilistic representation of projected changes in the same climatic variables may be overlaid (Fronzek et al. 2008). This approach was exploited within the ENSEMBLES EU Project aiming at assessing climate change impact on typical Mediterranean crops. This work presents the results of the project with a particular concerning about the assessment of risk, of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) yield falling below fixed thresholds, using probabilistic information about future climate. Methodology The simple mechanistic crop growth models, SIRIUS Quality (Jamieson et al., 1998) and VITE-model (Bindi et al., 1997a,b), were selected to respectively simulate durum wheat and grapevine yields in present and future scenarios. SIRIUS Quality is a

  6. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Maryann T; Mullin, Chris A; Frazier, Jim L; Ashcraft, Sara A; Leslie, Tim W; Mussen, Eric C; Drummond, Frank A

    2015-10-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009-2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9-10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving colonies at regular intervals during the respective crop blooming periods. The number of frames of adult bees was counted before and after bloom period. For pesticide analysis, we collected dead and dying bees near the hives, returning foragers, crop flowers, trapped pollen, and corn-flowers associated with the cotton crop. The number of departing foragers changed over time in all crops except almonds; general patterns in foraging activity included declines (cotton), noticeable peaks and declines (alfalfa, blueberries, cotton, corn, and pumpkins), and increases (apples and cantaloupes). The number of adult bee frames increased or remained stable in all crops except alfalfa and cotton. A total of 53 different pesticide residues were identified in samples collected across eight crops. Hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated for the combined residues for all crop-associated samples and separately for samples of dead and dying bees. A decrease in the number of departing foragers in cotton was one of the most substantial crop-associated impacts and presented the highest pesticide risk estimated by a summed pesticide residue HQ. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Evaluation of impact of steroid replacement treatment on bone health in children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, M; Soldano, L; Lonero, A; Ventura, A; Giordano, P; Cavallo, L; Grano, M; Brunetti, G; Faienza, M F

    2015-04-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the potential impact of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy on the bone mineral density of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Previous studies performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reported conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic GC replacement treatment in children with classical and non classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) by quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS), an easy, cheap, and radiation-free technique. The study population consisted of nineteen 21-OHD patients (nine males) on lifelong GC treatment. Anthropometric, hormonal, and treatment data were recorded for each patient, and bone quality was assessed by QUS measurements. QUS findings (amplitude-dependent speed of sound and bone transmission time) were normal in 21-OHD patients and did not correlate with duration of treatment, daily, total, and yearly hydrocortisone dose. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between QUS findings and 17α-hydroxy progesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, and testosterone levels. In conclusion, our results provide reassurance that currently used replacement doses of GC do not have a major impact on bone in patients with CAH. QUS seems to be a reliable tool for screening of bone health in children with 21-OHD.

  8. Old Dog New Tricks: Use of Point-based Crop Models in Grid-based Regional Assessment of Crop Management Technologies Impact on Future Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, J.; Wood, S.; Cenacchi, N.; Fisher, M.; Cox, C.

    2012-12-01

    HarvestChoice (harvestchoice.org) generates knowledge products to guide strategic investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A keynote component of the HarvestChoice analytical framework is a grid-based overlay of SSA - a cropping simulation platform powered by process-based, crop models. Calibrated around the best available representation of cropping production systems in SSA, the simulation platform engages the DSSAT Crop Systems Model with the CENTURY Soil Organic Matter model (DSSAT-CENTURY) and provides a virtual experimentation module with which to explore the impact of a range of technological, managerial and environmental metrics on future crop productivity and profitability, as well as input use. For each of 5 (or 30) arc-minute grid cells in SSA, a stack of model input underlies it: datasets that cover soil properties and fertility, historic and future climate scenarios and farmers' management practices; all compiled from analyses of existing global and regional databases and consultations with other CGIAR centers. Running a simulation model is not always straightforward, especially when certain cropping systems or management practices are not even practiced by resource-poor farmers yet (e.g., precision agriculture) or they were never included in the existing simulation framework (e.g., water harvesting). In such cases, we used DSSAT-CENTURY as a function to iteratively estimate relative responses of cropping systems to technology-driven changes in water and nutrient balances compared to zero-adoption by farmers, while adjusting model input parameters to best mimic farmers' implementation of technologies in the field. We then fed the results of the simulation into to the economic and food trade model framework, IMPACT, to assess the potential implications on future food security. The outputs of the overall simulation analyses are packaged as a web-accessible database and published

  9. ENSO and PDO-related climate variability impacts on Midwestern United States crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Chasity; Market, Patrick; Lupo, Anthony; Guinan, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    An analysis of crop yields for the state of Missouri was completed to determine if an interannual or multidecadal variability existed as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Corn and soybean yields were recorded in kilograms per hectare for each of the six climate regions of Missouri. An analysis using the Mokhov "method of cycles" demonstrated interannual, interdecadal, and multidecadal variations in crop yields. Cross-spectral analysis was used to determine which region was most impacted by ENSO and PDO influenced seasonal (April-September) temperature and precipitation. Interannual (multidecadal) variations found in the spectral analysis represent a relationship to ENSO (PDO) phase, while interdecadal variations represent a possible interaction between ENSO and PDO. Average crop yields were then calculated for each combination of ENSO and PDO phase, displaying a pronounced increase in corn and soybean yields when ENSO is warm and PDO is positive. Climate regions 1, 2, 4, and 6 displayed significant differences (p value of 0.10 or less) in yields between El Niño and La Niña years, representing 55-70 % of Missouri soybean and corn productivity, respectively. Final results give the opportunity to produce seasonal predictions of corn and soybean yields, specific to each climate region in Missouri, based on the combination of ENSO and PDO phases.

  10. The Impact of Traditional Culture on Farmers’ Moral Hazard Behavior in Crop Production: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To obtain higher yields, farmers may excessively use pesticides when they grow crops (like rice, vegetables, or fruit, causing moral hazard behavior. This paper examines how Chinese farmers’ moral hazard behavior in crop production is influenced by their traditional culture. A semi-parametric logistic model is used to investigate the impact of Chinese traditional culture on farmers’ moral hazard behavior. The results reveal that Chinese traditional culture has a positive effect on ameliorating the farmers’ excessive use of pesticides in crop production, which leads to a moral hazard in agro-product safety. Specifically, when we control for extraneous variables, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 15% if farmers consider their traditional culture in their production decisions. Moreover, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 17% if farmers consider the traditional culture as a powerful restraint regarding the use of pesticides. Our analysis provides some supportive evidence on the effect of Chinese traditional culture on mitigating farmers’ excessive use of pesticides.

  11. Impact Assessment of Salinization Affected Soil on Greenhouse Crops using SALTMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Polyxeni; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Varouchakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess the effects of soil salinization on greenhouse crops and the potential benefits of rainwater harvesting as a soil amelioration technology. The study deals with the following scenarios: (a) variation of irrigation water salinity from 3,000 μS/cm to 500 μS/cm through mixing with rainwater, (b) crop substitution for increased tolerance and (c) climatic variability to account for the impact of climate change. In order to draw meaningful conclusions, a model that takes into account vegetation interaction, soil, irrigation water and climate variables is required. The SALTMED model is a reliable and tested physical process model that simulates evapotranspiration, plant water uptake, water and solute transport to estimate crop yield and biomass production under all irrigation systems. SALTMED is tested with the above scenarios in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, in the Island of Crete, Greece. Simulations are conducted for typical cultivations of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum anuumm and Solanum melongena. Preliminary results indicate the optimal combination from a set of solutions concerning the soil and water parameters can be beneficial against the salinization threat. Future research includes the validation of the results with field experiments. Keywords: salinization, greenhouse, tomato, SALTMED, rainwater, RECARE

  12. Impact of Crop Rotation on Pathotype and Genetic Structure of Phythophthora sojae in Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Li-ming; Li Shuang; Sui Zhe; Huang Jing; Chen Qiu-ming; Suo Bing; Ding Jun-jie; Liu Wei-ting; Wen Jing-zhi

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the impact of crop rotation on the pathotype and genetic structure ofPhythophthora sojae in fields, 372 isolates ofP. sojae were obtained from long-term localisation experimental fields in Heilongjiang Province of China. The hypocotyl inoculation method was used to characterize the virulence ofP. sojaeon 13 differential cultivars, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to analyze difference in the genetic structure ofP. sojae. The results indicated that an abundant diversity of genetic structures and pathotypes ofP. sojae, a more uniform distribution of pathotypes and less dominance of pathotypes occurred in corn-soybean and wheat-soybean rotation fields than in a continuous soybean mono-cropping field. These findings suggested thatP. sojae did not easily become the dominant race in rotation fields, which maintain disease resistance in soybean varieties. Therefore, the results of this study suggested that Phytophthora stem and root rot of soybeans could be effectively controlled by rotating soybeans with non-host crops of corn and wheat.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tomohisa; Aydin, Mehmet; Haraguchi, Tomokazu

    2007-10-16

    A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models-GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI)-for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model-RCM-for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO₂ concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15% according to the CGCM2, and 28 and 22% according to the RCM

  14. Impact of Uncertainty in SWAT Model Simulations on Consequent Decisions on Optimal Crop Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N.; Sudheer, K. P.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing quantities of non-renewable forms of energy have caused an increasing interest in the renewable sources of energy, such as biofuel, in the recent years. However, the demand for biofuel has created a concern for allocating grain between the fuel and food industry. Consequently, appropriate regulations that limit grain based ethanol production have been developed and are put to practice, which resulted in cultivating perennial grasses like Switch grass and Miscanthus to meet the additional cellulose demand. A change in cropping and management practice, therefore, is essential to cater the conflicting requirement for food and biofuel, which has a long-term impact on the downstream water quality. Therefore it is essential to implement optimal cropping practices to reduce the pollutant loadings. Simulation models in conjunction with optimization procedures are useful in developing efficient cropping practices in such situations. One such model is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which can simulate both the water and the nutrient cycle, as well as quantify long-term impacts of changes in management practice in the watershed. It is envisaged that the SWAT model, along with an optimization algorithm, can be used to identify the optimal cropping pattern that achieves the minimum guaranteed grain production with less downstream pollution, while maximizing the biomass production for biofuel generation. However, the SWAT simulations do have a certain level of uncertainty that needs to be accounted for before making decisions. Therefore, the objectives of this study are twofold: (i) to understand how model uncertainties influence decision-making, and (ii) to develop appropriate management scenarios that account the uncertainty. The simulation uncertainty of the SWAT model is assessed using Shuffled Complex Evolutionary Metropolis Algorithm (SCEM). With the data collected from St. Joseph basin, IN, USA, the preliminary results indicate that model

  15. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: weiwu@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Ma, Baoluo, E-mail: Baoluo.Ma@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  16. CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) for weather impact assessment on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommes, René; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Ning; Feng, Xueliang; Zeng, Hongwei; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) are a monitoring tool developed by the CropWatch global crop monitoring system in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; www.cropwatch.com.cn, Wu et al Int J Digital Earth 7(2):113-137, 2014, Wu et al Remote Sens 7:3907-3933, 2015). Contrary to most other environmental and agroclimatic indicators, they are "agronomic value-added", i.e. they are spatial values averaged over agricultural areas only and they include a weighting that enhances the contribution of the areas with the largest production potential. CWAIs can be computed for any time interval (starting from dekads) and yield one synthetic value per variable over a specific area and time interval, for instance a national annual value. Therefore, they are very compatible with socio-economic and other variables that are usually reported at regular time intervals over administrative units, such as national environmental or agricultural statistics. Two of the CWAIs are satellite-based (RAIN and Photosynthetically Active radiation, PAR) while the third is ground based (TEMP, air temperature); capitals are used when specifically referring to CWAIs rather than the climate variables in general. The paper first provides an overview of some common agroclimatic indicators, describing their procedural, systemic and normative features in subsequent sections, following the terminology of Binder et al Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:71-81 (2010). The discussion focuses on the systemic and normative aspects: the CWAIs are assessed in terms of their coherent description of the agroclimatic crop environment, at different spatial scales (systemic). The final section shows that the CWAIs retain key statistical properties of the underlying climate variables and that they can be compared to a reference value and used as monitoring and early warning variables (normative).

  17. CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) for weather impact assessment on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommes, René; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Ning; Feng, Xueliang; Zeng, Hongwei; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-01

    CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) are a monitoring tool developed by the CropWatch global crop monitoring system in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; http://www.cropwatch.com.cn, Wu et al Int J Digital Earth 7(2):113-137, 2014, Wu et al Remote Sens 7:3907-3933, 2015). Contrary to most other environmental and agroclimatic indicators, they are "agronomic value-added", i.e. they are spatial values averaged over agricultural areas only and they include a weighting that enhances the contribution of the areas with the largest production potential. CWAIs can be computed for any time interval (starting from dekads) and yield one synthetic value per variable over a specific area and time interval, for instance a national annual value. Therefore, they are very compatible with socio-economic and other variables that are usually reported at regular time intervals over administrative units, such as national environmental or agricultural statistics. Two of the CWAIs are satellite-based (RAIN and Photosynthetically Active radiation, PAR) while the third is ground based (TEMP, air temperature); capitals are used when specifically referring to CWAIs rather than the climate variables in general. The paper first provides an overview of some common agroclimatic indicators, describing their procedural, systemic and normative features in subsequent sections, following the terminology of Binder et al Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:71-81 (2010). The discussion focuses on the systemic and normative aspects: the CWAIs are assessed in terms of their coherent description of the agroclimatic crop environment, at different spatial scales (systemic). The final section shows that the CWAIs retain key statistical properties of the underlying climate variables and that they can be compared to a reference value and used as monitoring and early warning variables (normative).

  18. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  19. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  20. Assessing the impact of arthropod natural enemies on crop pests at the field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Davies, Andrew P; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    There are many reasons why it is important that we find ways to conserve, and better utilize natural enemies of invertebrate crop pests. Currently, measures of natural enemy impact are rarely incorporated into studies that purport to examine pest control. Most studies examine pest and natural enemy presence and/or abundance and then qualitatively infer impact. While this provides useful data to address a range of ecological questions, a measure of impact is critical for guiding pest management decision-making. Often some very simple techniques can be used to obtain an estimate of natural enemy impact. We present examples of field-based studies that have used cages, barriers to restrict natural enemy or prey movement, direct observation of natural enemy attack, and sentinel prey items to estimate mortality. The measure of natural enemy impact used in each study needs to be tailored to the needs of farmers and the specific pest problems they face. For example, the magnitude of mortality attributed to natural enemies may be less important than the timing and consistency of that mortality between seasons. Tailoring impact assessments will lead to research outcomes that do not simply provide general information about how to conserve natural enemies, but how to use these natural enemies as an integral part of decision-making.

  1. Development of daily temperature scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.

    2017-05-01

    Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of temperature scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected temperatures on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air temperature predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future temperatures of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum temperatures over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.

  2. Development of daily temperature scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.

    2016-02-01

    Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of temperature scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected temperatures on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air temperature predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future temperatures of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum temperatures over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.

  3. A modelling framework to assess climate change and adaptation impact on heterogeneous crop-livestock farming communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, P.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Chibwana, G.A.; Crespo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will impact the productivity of maize-based crop-livestock systems and the livelihoods of smallholders depending on them in semi-arid Zimbabwe. The large diversity in resource endowment and production objectives in rural communities differentially influences this impact and the adapta

  4. A modelling framework to assess climate change and adaptation impact on heterogeneous crop-livestock farming communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, P.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Chibwana, G.A.; Crespo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will impact the productivity of maize-based crop-livestock systems and the livelihoods of smallholders depending on them in semi-arid Zimbabwe. The large diversity in resource endowment and production objectives in rural communities differentially influences this impact and the adapta

  5. Economic impacts of short-rotation woody crops for energy or oriented strand board: a Minnesota case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Lazarus; Douglas G. Tiffany; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2011-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid poplars are becoming increasingly competitive with agriculture on marginal land. The trees can be grown for energy and for traditional uses such as oriented strandboard. Using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) software, we modeled the impacts of shifting land use from hay and pasture for cow-calf beef operations to...

  6. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential enviromental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Harris, C.; Stephenson, G.R.; Unsworth, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition,

  7. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential enviromental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Harris, C.; Stephenson, G.R.; Unsworth, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, la

  8. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential enviromental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Harris, C.; Stephenson, G.R.; Unsworth, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, la

  9. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit-Eisenmann, H.; Epailly, E.; Velten, M.; Radojevic, J.; Eisenmann, B.; Kremer, H.; Kindo, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). METHODS: The study

  10. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Green

    Full Text Available Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  11. Quantifying the impact of land degradation on crop production: the case of Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; Keyzer, M. A.; Ndiaye, D.

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation has been a persistent problem in Senegal for more than a century and by now has become a serious impediment to long-term development. In this paper, we quantify the impact of land degradation on crop yields using the results of a nationwide land degradation assessment. For this, the study needs to address two issues. First, the land degradation assessment comprises qualitative expert judgements that have to be converted into more objective, quantitative terms. We propose a land degradation index and assess its plausibility. Second, observational data on soils, land use, and rainfall do not provide sufficient information to isolate the impact of land degradation. We, therefore, design a pseudo-experiment that for sites with otherwise similar circumstances compares the yield of a site with and one without land degradation. This pairing exercise is conducted under a gradual refining of the classification of circumstances, until a more or less stable response to land degradation is obtained. In this way, we hope to have controlled sufficiently for confounding variables that will bias the estimation of the impact of land degradation on crop yields. A small number of shared characteristics reveal tendencies of "severe" land degradation levels being associated with declining yields as compared to similar sites with "low" degradation levels. However, as we zoom in at more detail some exceptions come to the fore, in particular in areas without fertilizer application. Yet, our overall conclusion is that yield reduction is associated with higher levels of land degradation, irrespective of whether fertilizer is being applied or not.

  12. Environmental impacts of water use in global crop production: hotspots and trade-offs with land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan; Bayer, Peter; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-07-01

    Global crop production is causing pressure on water and land resources in many places. In addition to local resource management, the related environmental impacts of commodities traded along international supply chains need to be considered and managed accordingly. For this purpose, we calculate the specific water consumption and land use for the production of 160 crops and crop groups, covering most harvested mass on global cropland. We quantify indicators for land and water scarcity with high geospatial resolution. This facilitates spatially explicit crop-specific resource management and regionalized life cycle assessment of processed products. The vast cultivation of irrigated wheat, rice, cotton, maize, and sugar cane, which are major sources of food, bioenergy, and fiber, drives worldwide water scarcity. According to globally averaged production, substituting biofuel for crude oil would have a lower impact on water resources than substituting cotton for polyester. For some crops, water scarcity impacts are inversely related to land resource stress, illustrating that water consumption is often at odds with land use. On global average, maize performs better than rice and wheat in the combined land/water assessment. High spatial variability of water and land use related impacts underlines the importance of appropriate site selection for agricultural activities.

  13. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  14. Impact of pulmonary hypertension on in-hospital outcome after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Anja; Kaier, Klaus; Reinecke, Holger; Frankenstein, Lutz; Zirlik, Andreas; Bothe, Wolfgang; von Zur Mühlen, Constantin; Zehender, Manfred; Reinöhl, Jochen; Bode, Christoph; Stachon, Peter

    2017-09-20

    We aimed to analyse the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on the in-hospital outcome of either surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Data from all 107,057 patients undergoing isolated SAVR or TAVR in Germany between 2007 and 2014 were provided by the German Federal Bureau of Statistics. About 18% of patients with aortic valve stenosis suffered from PH. Patients with PH had more comorbidities with consequently increased EuroSCORE (TAVR without PH: 12.3%; with PH: 24%). The presence of PH led to an increase of in-hospital strokes, bleedings, acute kidney injuries, and pacemaker implantations in both treatment groups (TAVR and SAVR), but the PH-associated increase of complications and mortality was less pronounced among patients receiving TAVR (mortality after TAVR without PH: 5.4%; with PH: 7.2%). After baseline risk adjustment, the TAVR procedure was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital stroke (OR 0.81, p=0.011), bleeding (OR 0.22, p<0.001), and mortality (OR 0.70, p=0.005) among PH patients, and in comparison to surgical treatment. PH is a risk factor for worse outcome of SAVR and TAVR. This fact is less pronounced among TAVR patients. Our data suggest a shift towards the transcatheter approach in patients suffering from PH.

  15. Replacement names for two homonyms of Liothrips brevitubus Karny: one from California, the other for a species damaging Jatropha crops in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence; Goldarazena, Arturo; Lopez-Guillen, Guillermo; Hance, Thierry

    2016-12-21

    There are nearly 280 species of Liothrips listed from around the world (ThripsWiki 2016), all of them presumably feeding and breeding on the leaves of higher plants, and sometimes inducing or being associated with galls (Mound 1994). Despite this, for most of these species the identity of the plant species on which they are dependent is rarely known, and a particularly high proportion of the species are based on few specimens or even single individuals (cf Table 1). As a result, the identity of many of these named species continues to be in doubt. Modern identification keys are available only to the 23 Liothrips species known from Japan (Okajima 2006), the four European species known from Iran (Minaei & Mound 2014), and 14 species from Illinois (Stannard 1968). In contrast, the keys to 16 species of Liothrips from Brazil (Moulton 1933), to more than 80 species from Indonesia (Priesner 1968), and to 50 species from India (Ananthakrishnan & Sen 1980), are of little more than archival interest, in that they are based on few specimens with little allowance for intraspecific variation. Mound & Marullo (1996) listed over 80 Liothrips species from the Americas, although some of these are now placed in Pseudophilothrips (see Mound et al. 2010). That list included two homonyms of the Indonesian species Liothrips brevitubus Karny, one from Mexico and one from California. The homonym from Mexico is here recognised as applying to a species that in 2015 caused severe damage to a crop of Jatropha curcas in Chiapas. The objectives here are to provide a valid name for this pest, to facilitate its recognition among the 13 species of Liothrips recorded from Mexico (Table I), and also to replace the homonym from California.

  16. Using Different Spatial Scales of Climate Data for Regional Climate Impact Assessment: Effect on Crop Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Trabucco, A.; Montesarchio, M.; Mercogliano, P.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    The high vulnerability of the agricultural sector to climate conditions causes serious concern regarding climate change impacts on crop development and production, particularly in vulnerable areas like the Mediterranean Basin. Crop simulation models are the most common tools applied for the assessment of such impacts on crop development and yields, both at local and regional scales. However, the use of these models in regional impact studies requires spatial input data for weather, soil, management, etc, whose resolution could affect simulation results. Indeed, the uncertainty in projecting climate change impacts on crop phenology and yield at the regional scale is affected not only by the uncertainty related to climate models and scenarios, but also by the downscaling methods and the resolution of climate data. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of spatial resolutions of climate projections in estimating maturity date and grain yield for different varieties of durum wheat, common wheat and maize in Italy. The simulations were carried out using the CSM-CERES-Wheat and CSM-CERES-Maize crop models included in the DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, parameterized and evaluated in different experimental sites located in Italy. Dynamically downscaled climate data at different resolutions and different RCP scenarios were used as input in the crop models. A spatial platform, DSSAT-CSM based, developed in R programming language was applied to perform the simulation of maturity date and grain yield for durum wheat, common wheat and maize in each grid cell. Results, analyzed at the national and regional level, will be discussed.

  17. Analysis of the Impact of the Growing Area of Food Crops on Farmers’ Income in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; FENG; Chongguang; LI

    2013-01-01

    As a major agricultural province,Yunnan has always attached great importance to food production,and the proportion of the growing area of food crops to the growing area of total crops is more than one half in Yunnan Province,but the grain production efficiency has been low in recent years.Therefore,under the guidance of stabilizing food production and adjusting structure proposed by Yunnan provincial government,we analyze the impact of the growing area of food crops on farmers’ income,based on the recent trends of the growing area of food crops.Finally we put forth the following recommendations:developing the food production based on market; rationally making overall arrangement of planting structure; paying attention to the agricultural science and technology progress.

  18. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  19. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  20. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Geospatial analysis. GIS Interpolation and other geospatial Analysis techniques were carried out to ... means of Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to plan crops ... rainwater variability on water availability for crop maize ...

  1. Impact of meteorological drought on crop yield on pan-European scale, 1979-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, Larissa; Rego, Francisco Castro; Dias, Susana; Bifulco, Carlo; Stagge, James H.; Rocha, Marta; Lanen, van Henny

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between crop yield anomalies of five major crops and meteorological indices on the pan-European scale. The crop yield data were obtained from Eurostat for the EU administrative Regions (NUTS). The meteorological indices (Standardized Precipitation Index, S

  2. Impact of meteorological drought on crop yield on pan-European scale, 1979-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, Larissa; Rego, Francisco Castro; Dias, Susana; Bifulco, Carlo; Stagge, James H.; Rocha, Marta; Lanen, van Henny

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between crop yield anomalies of five major crops and meteorological indices on the pan-European scale. The crop yield data were obtained from Eurostat for the EU administrative Regions (NUTS). The meteorological indices (Standardized Precipitation Index, S

  3. The impact of large-scale circulation patterns on summer crop yields in IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale circulations patterns (ENSO, NAO) have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather, and therefore on crop yield over many parts of the world(Garnett and Khandekar, 1992; Aasa et al., 2004; Rozas and Garcia-Gonzalez, 2012). In this study, we analyze the influence of large-scale circulation patterns and regional climate on the principal components of maize yield variability in Iberian Peninsula (IP) using reanalysis datasets. Additionally, we investigate the modulation of these relationships by multidecadal patterns. This study is performed analyzing long time series of maize yield, only climate dependent, computed with the crop model CERES-maize (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5). To simulate yields, reanalysis daily data of radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation were used. The reanalysis climate data were obtained from National Center for Environmental Prediction (20th Century and NCEP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data server (ERA 40 and ERA Interim). Simulations were run at five locations: Lugo (northwestern), Lerida (NE), Madrid (central), Albacete (southeastern) and Córdoba (S IP) (Gabaldón et al., 2013). From these time series standardized anomalies were calculated. Afterwards, time series were time filtered to focus on the interannual-to-multiannual variability, splitting up in two components: low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) time scales. The principal components of HF yield anomalies in IP were compared with a set of documented patterns. These relationships were compared with multidecadal patterns, as Atlanctic Multidecadal Oscillations (AMO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillations (IPO). The results of this study have important implications in crop forecasting. In this way, it may have a positive impact on both public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance

  4. On the impact of the choice of the evapotranspiration equation in a crop model : climate data error propagation and climate change impact projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarohetra, J.; Sultan, B.

    2013-12-01

    As it enables the understanding and the quantification of the transfer of water in ecosystems and from ecosystems to the atmosphere, evapotranspiration is a key component to assess climate impact on hydrology and agriculture. In crop models, the estimation of the evapotranspiration rate requires first calculating potential or reference evapotranspiration from climate data. To compute reference evapotranspiration different formulas requiring more or less climate data are used. The choice of the formulation of this key process is very likely to have an impact on calculated crop yield. The FAO recommends using the Penman-Monteith (PM) equation if all the climate data required for this equation are available and using Hargreaves (H) equation when climate data, especially net radiation, are missing. The Priestley-Taylor equation is also widely used in crop models. Which of these equations is the most accurate when all the climate data required are available but contain errors ? Does the choice of the evapotranspiration equation have an impact on crop yield projection in a context of climate change ? Does the use of some equations induce more pessimistic crop yield projection ? We studied the impact of the reference evapotranspiration equations on simulated crop yield using climate data with errors. 4 equations (PM, H and 2 versions of the Priestley-Taylor equation - PT) were tested simulating pearl millet over 12 stations in Senegal. In this case, we found that the use of a PT equation may introduce a percent mean bias error of more than -35% on simulated crop yield while it is limited to 2% when using the H equation. The influence of the evapotranspiration equation on the quantification of climate change impact on crop yield is examined applying the AgMIP C3MP protocol over the 12 stations in Senegal then analyzing ISI-AgMIP GGCM Intercomparison fast-track project outputs over the world. Our preliminary results show that crop yields computed using a PT equation are

  5. Simulated vs. empirical weather responsiveness of crop yields: US evidence and implications for the agricultural impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malcolm N.; Wing, Ian Sue; De Cian, Enrica

    2017-07-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are the workhorse of assessments of the agricultural impacts of climate change. Yet the changes in crop yields projected by different models in response to the same meteorological forcing can differ substantially. Through an inter-method comparison, we provide a first glimpse into the origins and implications of this divergence—both among GGCMs and between GGCMs and historical observations. We examine yields of rainfed maize, wheat, and soybeans simulated by six GGCMs as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project-Fast Track (ISIMIP-FT) exercise, comparing 1981-2004 hindcast yields over the coterminous United States (US) against US Department of Agriculture (USDA) time series for about 1000 counties. Leveraging the empirical climate change impacts literature, we estimate reduced-form econometric models of crop yield responses to temperature and precipitation exposures for both GGCMs and observations. We find that up to 60% of the variance in both simulated and observed yields is attributable to weather variation. A majority of the GGCMs have difficulty reproducing the observed distribution of percentage yield anomalies, and exhibit aggregate responses that show yields to be more weather-sensitive than in the observational record over the predominant range of temperature and precipitation conditions. This disparity is largely attributable to heterogeneity in GGCMs’ responses, as opposed to uncertainty in historical weather forcings, and is responsible for widely divergent impacts of climate on future crop yields.

  6. Impacts of HIV/AIDS on Labor Allocation and Crop Diversity : do Stages of the Disease Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreselassie, K.; Price, L.L.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of HIV/AIDS on labor allocation and crop diversity. The study is based on an in-depth analysis of 4 case studies in Ethiopia. A novel element in the study is the emphasis on the distinction of various stages in which the disease affects families. Results show that im

  7. Impact of Cover Cropping and Landscape Positions on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Northeastern Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Walter, M. T.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Studies investigating agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions tend to rely on plot-scale experiments. However, to understand the impacts of agricultural practices at a larger scale, it is essential to consider the variability of landscape characteristics along with management treatments. This study compared N2O emissions from a fertilizer-based, conventionally managed farm and an organically managed farm that uses legume cover crops as a primary nutrient source. The objective of the study was to assess how management regimes and slope positions interact to impact N2O emissions and soil characteristics. The field experiment was conducted in two adjacent grain farms in upstate New York that both have been under consistent management for 20 years. In the organic farm, red clover was frost-seeded into a winter grain (spelt), and then incorporated in the spring as a nutrient source for the subsequent corn plants. In contrast, the conventionally managed farm used inorganic fertilizer as the nutrient source. Gas measurement was conducted at two landscape positions at both farms: 1) shoulder and 2) toeslope positions. Comparable N2O emissions were found in the clover-corn phase in the organic site and the bare fallow-corn phase in the conventional site. The spelt-corn phase in the organic farm had the lowest N2O emissions. Soil nitrate concentration was the best predictor for seasonal average N2O emissions. The impact of landscape position on N2O emissions was only found in the conventional site, which was driven by higher denitrfication at toeslopes. In the organic farm, such effect was confounded by higher clover biomass at shoulder slopes. Our study shows that the impact of landscape characteristics on N2O emissions could differ across sites based on the complex interplay between environmental conditions and management.

  8. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  9. Using statistical model to simulate the impact of climate change on maize yield with climate and crop uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi; Chen, Sining

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of the impact of climate change on crop productions with considering uncertainties is essential for properly identifying and decision-making agricultural practices that are sustainable. In this study, we employed 24 climate projections consisting of the combinations of eight GCMs and three emission scenarios representing the climate projections uncertainty, and two crop statistical models with 100 sets of parameters in each model representing parameter uncertainty within the crop models. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on maize (Zea mays L.) yield at three locations (Benxi, Changling, and Hailun) across Northeast China (NEC) in periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069, taking 1976-2005 as the baseline period. The multi-models ensembles method is an effective way to deal with the uncertainties. The results of ensemble simulations showed that maize yield reductions were less than 5 % in both future periods relative to the baseline. To further understand the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty, such as climate projections and crop model parameters, in ensemble yield simulations, variance decomposition was performed. The results indicated that the uncertainty from climate projections was much larger than that contributed by crop model parameters. Increased ensemble yield variance revealed the increasing uncertainty in the yield simulation in the future periods.

  10. Impact of Tillage and Fertilizer Application Method on Gas Emissions in a Corn Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. SMITH; D. WATTS; T. WAY; H. TORBERT; S. PRIOR

    2012-01-01

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas ernissions from soil.This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources,land management practices,and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas (CO2,CH4,and N2O) emissions.A new prototype implement developed for applying poultry litter in subsurface bands in the soil was used in this study.The field site was located at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center in the Appalachian Plateau region of northeast Alabama,USA,on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy,siliceous,subactive,thermic Typic Hapludults).Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions followed GRACEnet (greenhouse gas reduction through agricultural carbon enhancement network) protocols to assess the effects of different tillage (conventional vs.no-tillage) and fertilizer placement (subsurface banding vs.surface application) practices in a corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system.Fertilizer sources were urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN),ammonium nitrate (AN) and poultry litter (M) applied at a rate of 170 kg ha -1 of available N.Banding of fertilizer resulted in the greatest concentration of gaseous loss (CO2 and N2O) compared to surface applications of fertilizer.Fertilizer banding increased CO2 and N2O toss on various sampling days throughout the season with poultry litter banding emitting more gas than UAN banding.Conventional tillage practices also resulted in a higher concentration of CO2 and N2O loss when evaluating tillage by sampling day.Throughout the course of this study,CH4 flux was not affected by tillage,fertilizer source,or fertilizer placement method.These results suggest that poultry litter use and banding practices have the potential to increase greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  12. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  13. Impact of Cropping Methods on Biodiversity in Coffee Agroecosystems in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Gillison

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of biodiversity and productivity in forested lands requires an understanding of key interactions between socioeconomic and biophysical factors and their response to environmental change. Appropriate baseline data are rarely available. As part of a broader study on biodiversity and profitability, we examined the impact of different cropping methods on biodiversity (plant species richness along a subjectively determined land-use intensity gradient in southern Sumatra, ranging from primary and secondary forest to coffee-farming systems (simple, complex, with and without shade crops and smallholder coffee plantings, at increasing levels of intensity. We used 24 (40 x 5 m plots to record site physical data, including soil nutrients and soil texture together with vegetation structure, all vascular plant species, and plant functional types (PFTs - readily observable, adaptive, morphological features. Biodiversity was lowest under simple, intensive, non-shaded farming systems and increased progressively through shaded and more complex agroforests to late secondary and closed-canopy forests. The most efficient single indicators of biodiversity and soil nutrient status were PFT richness and a derived measure of plant functional complexity. Vegetation structure, tree dry weight, and duration of the land-use type, to a lesser degree, were also highly correlated with biodiversity. Together with a vegetation, or V index, the close correspondence between these variables and soil nutrients suggests they are potentially useful indicators of coffee production and profitability across different farming systems. These findings provide a unique quantitative basis for a subsequent study of the nexus between biodiversity and profitability.

  14. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkat, Rose C; Calari, Alberto; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2011-08-03

    Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA) were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya) contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a) primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b) primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully.

  15. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuly Fatemeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV, Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully.

  16. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  17. Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Technology Adoption and Crops Yield: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab. The data for the study was collected from three main districts of central Punjab Province i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad. In total 234 farmers were interviewed. The impact of agricultural extension services was estimated on adoption of new improved technologies and crop yields. The propensity score matching approach for impact evaluation was employed in the current study to correct for potential sample selection biasedness that may arise due to systematic differences between the farmers having benefited from agricultural extension services and not benefited from agricultural extension services. The empirical results indicate that agricultural extension services play a significant role in adoption of improved agricultural technologies like laser leveling, rice and wheat varieties. The farmers having benefitted from agricultural extension services were also getting higher rice and wheat yields. The results also indicates that mostly the large farmers are getting benefits from agricultural extension services and small scale farmers have less access to agricultural extension services.

  18. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M; McCarty, Gregory W; Hively, W Dean; Lang, Megan W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  19. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Lee

    Full Text Available The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC. The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean, with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  20. The impact of drug reimbursement policy on rates of testosterone replacement therapy among older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Piszczek

    Full Text Available Despite a lack of data describing the long-term efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT, prescribing of testosterone to older men has increased with the availability of topical formulations. The magnitude of this increase and the impact of formulary restrictions on testosterone prescribing are poorly characterized.We conducted a time series analysis using the linked health administrative records of men aged 66 years or older in Ontario, Canada between January 1, 1997 and March 31, 2012. We used interventional autoregressive integrated moving average models to examine the impact of a restrictive drug reimbursement policy on testosterone prescribing and examined the demographic profile of men initiating testosterone in the final 2 years of the study period.A total of 28,477 men were dispensed testosterone over the study period. Overall testosterone prescribing declined 27.9% in the 6 months following the implementation of the restriction policy (9.5 to 6.9 men per 1000 eligible; p<0.01. However, the overall decrease was temporary and testosterone use exceeded pre-policy levels by the end of the study period (11.0 men per 1000 eligible, largely driven by prescriptions for topical testosterone (4.8 men per 1000 eligible. Only 6.3% of men who initiated testosterone had a documented diagnosis of hypogonadism, the main criteria for TRT reimbursement according to the new policy.Government-imposed restrictions did not influence long-term prescribing of testosterone to older men. By 2012, approximately 1 in every 90 men aged 66 or older was being treated with TRT, most with topical formulations.

  1. The impact of drug reimbursement policy on rates of testosterone replacement therapy among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Jolanta; Mamdani, Muhammad; Antoniou, Tony; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Despite a lack of data describing the long-term efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), prescribing of testosterone to older men has increased with the availability of topical formulations. The magnitude of this increase and the impact of formulary restrictions on testosterone prescribing are poorly characterized. We conducted a time series analysis using the linked health administrative records of men aged 66 years or older in Ontario, Canada between January 1, 1997 and March 31, 2012. We used interventional autoregressive integrated moving average models to examine the impact of a restrictive drug reimbursement policy on testosterone prescribing and examined the demographic profile of men initiating testosterone in the final 2 years of the study period. A total of 28,477 men were dispensed testosterone over the study period. Overall testosterone prescribing declined 27.9% in the 6 months following the implementation of the restriction policy (9.5 to 6.9 men per 1000 eligible; ptestosterone use exceeded pre-policy levels by the end of the study period (11.0 men per 1000 eligible), largely driven by prescriptions for topical testosterone (4.8 men per 1000 eligible). Only 6.3% of men who initiated testosterone had a documented diagnosis of hypogonadism, the main criteria for TRT reimbursement according to the new policy. Government-imposed restrictions did not influence long-term prescribing of testosterone to older men. By 2012, approximately 1 in every 90 men aged 66 or older was being treated with TRT, most with topical formulations.

  2. The Impact of Renal Failure and Renal Replacement Therapy on Outcome During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Elio; Lamanna, Irene; Fagnoul, David; Vincent, Jean-Louis; De Backer, Daniel; Silvio Taccone, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients treated with veno-arterial (VA-) or veno-venous (VV-) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In this setting, the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) can help to optimize fluid status but may also negatively impact on patients' outcome. In contrast, the relationship between AKI, CRRT, and survival in critically ill adult patients receiving ECMO is not well defined. The institutional ECMO database (n = 162) from November 2008 to December 2013, excluding patients with ICU survival ECMO and 56 with VV-ECMO). Of these, 95 developed AKI, 63 (47%) of whom required CRRT; thus three groups of patients were identified: (a) no AKI; (b) AKI without CRRT (AKINOCRRT ); and (c) CRRT with AKI (AKICRRT ). AKINOCCRT patients were more likely to have preexisting heart disease, to be more severely ill, and to be treated with VA-ECMO than those without AKI. AKICRRT patients were also more likely to be treated with VA-ECMO, had more organ dysfunction at the time of ECMO insertion, and needed more transfusions and inotropic agents than patients without AKI. ICU mortality was 53% (72/135) and was similar in the three groups, even when different AKI stages or VA/VV-ECMO were analyzed separately. In this study, the use of CRRT was not associated with an increased mortality in an adult population of patients treated with ECMO, even after adjustment for confounders.

  3. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  4. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  5. Climate change impact and potential adaptation strategies under alternate realizations of climate scenarios for three major crops in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Marcello; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Duveiller, Gregory; Niemeyer, Stefan; Fumagalli, Davide

    2015-07-01

    This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables and CO2 on three major crops, namely wheat, rapeseed and sunflower, in EU27 Member States. We also investigated some technical adaptation options which could offset climate change impacts. The time-slices 2000, 2020 and 2030 were chosen to represent the baseline and future climate, respectively. Furthermore, two realizations within the A1B emission scenario proposed by the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), from the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 GCM, were selected. A time series of 30 years for each GCM and time slice were used as input weather data for simulation. The time series were generated with a stochastic weather generator trained over GCM-RCM time series (downscaled simulations from the ENSEMBLES project which were statistically bias-corrected prior to the use of the weather generator). GCM-RCM simulations differed primarily for rainfall patterns across Europe, whereas the temperature increase was similar in the time horizons considered. Simulations based on the model CropSyst v. 3 were used to estimate crop responses; CropSyst was re-implemented in the modelling framework BioMA. The results presented in this paper refer to abstraction of crop growth with respect to its production system, and consider growth as limited by weather and soil water. How crop growth responds to CO2 concentrations; pests, diseases, and nutrients limitations were not accounted for in simulations. The results show primarily that different realization of the emission scenario lead to noticeably different crop performance projections in the same time slice. Simple adaptation techniques such as changing sowing dates and the use of different varieties, the latter in terms of duration of the crop cycle, may be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of climate change in most areas, although response to best adaptation (within the techniques tested) differed across crops. Although a negative impact of climate

  6. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the watershed.

  7. Impacts of multiple global environmental changes on African crop yield and water use efficiency: Implications to food and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.; Xu, R.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Zhang, B.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to climate change and climate variability. Much concern has been raised about the impacts of climate and other environmental factors on water resource and food security through the climate-water-food nexus. Understanding the responses of crop yield and water use efficiency to environmental changes is particularly important because Africa is well known for widespread poverty, slow economic growth and agricultural systems particularly sensitive to frequent and persistent droughts. However, the lack of integrated understanding has limited our ability to quantify and predict the potential of Africa's agricultural sustainability and freshwater supply, and to better manage the system for meeting an increasing food demand in a way that is socially and environmentally or ecologically sustainable. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2) driven by spatially-explicit information on land use, climate and other environmental changes, we have assessed the spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency across entire Africa in the past 35 years (1980-2015) and the rest of the 21st century (2016-2099). Our preliminary results indicate that African crop yield in the past three decades shows an increasing trend primarily due to cropland expansion (about 50%), elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition. However, crop yield shows substantially spatial and temporal variation due to inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and spatial heterogeneity of environmental drivers. Climate extremes especially droughts and heat wave have largely reduced crop yield in the most vulnerable regions. Our results indicate that N fertilizer could be a major driver to improve food security in Africa. Future climate warming could reduce crop yield and shift cropland distribution. Our study further suggests that improving water use efficiency through land

  8. Forecasting climate change impacts and evaluation of adaptation options for maize cropping in the hilly terrain of Himalayas: Sikkim, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Proloy; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the climate change impacts on rainfed maize yield using AquaCrop and CERES-maize crop simulation models, and evaluation of adaptation measures were performed for Sikkim state of India. Data related to crop phenology retrieved from the field experiments were used to calibrate and validate the crop models for three representative sites. Climate projections of six global circulation models (ECHAM5, CCSM, HadCM3, CSIRO-MK3.0, CGCM3.1, and MIROC3.2) for scenarios A2 and B2 were bias-corrected at station scale by power law transformation. Simulation results by the two crop models indicate a significant declination in the yield of NLD-White variety of maize ranging from 4.7 ± 1.4 to 20.4 ± 7.2 % for the future time windows under A2 scenario and 2.5 ± 0.9 to 15.8 ± 5.7 % under B2 scenario relative to the yield simulated for the baseline period of 1991-2000. It is also observed that, for a particular temperature, yield remarkably increases with escalated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. On contrary, increase in temperature reduces the yield at a particular CO2 concentration. The overall decline in the yield under future climate scenarios can be alleviated by early planting, appropriate nutrient management, introducing supplementary irrigation, and shifting to heat-tolerant varieties.

  9. ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT FARMER FIELD SCHOOL PROGRAM ON CORN PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Kariyasa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic supply of corn in Indonesia has not been able to meet demand satisfactorily due to demand rising faster than supply. Therefore, Indonesia has been continuously importing corn about of 10% of the total demand. To address this problem, the Indonesian government started to implement the Farmer Field School of Integrated Crop Management (ICM-FFS program on corn production since 2009. This study aimed to assess the impact of ICM-FFS on corn productivity, comparative and competitive advantages to produce corn as well as farmer’s income. The study found that ICM-FFS program could increase corn productivity by 30.95% of non ICM-FFS farms, of which 27.94% contributed by the difference in input use, while only 3.01% contributed by technological change. ICM-FFS farms were able to increase farmer’s income by 71.03% and social welfare by 94.69% compared to non ICMFFS farms. Through this program, Indonesia had higher comparative advantage in producing corn as an import substitute. The provision of competitive input and output markets, enhanced technical assistance to improve corn productivity and quality, and increasing attention on corn ICM-FFS development could be considered as policy directions to improve the next implementation strategies of corn production in Indonesia.

  10. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-German, S.; Bardaji, I.; Garrido, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices in the European Union (EU). EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain lettuce and celery to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers. (Author)

  11. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Garcia-German

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM practices in the European Union (EU. EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain - lettuce and celery - to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers.

  12. Impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on crop response and soil ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Medhioub, Mounir; Zhou, John; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid regions, such as Tunisia, and marginal quality water is gradually being used in agriculture. This study aims to study the impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on the health of soil and food crops. The key findings are that the effluents of Sfax wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) did not meet the relevant guidelines, therefore emitting a range of organic (e.g., up to 90 mg L(-1) COD and 30 mg L(-1) BOD5) and inorganic pollutants (e.g., up to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.1 mg L(-1) Cd) in the receiving aquatic environments. Greenhouse experiments examining the effects of wastewater reuse on food plants such as tomato, lettuce, and radish showed that the treated effluent adversely affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme contents. However, the pollution burden and biological effects on plants were substantially reduced by using a 50 % dilution of treated sewage effluent, suggesting the potential of reusing treated effluent in agriculture so long as appropriate monitoring and control is in place.

  13. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  14. Simulating crop phenology in the Community Land Model and its impact on energy and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reasonable representation of crop phenology and biophysical processes in land surface models is necessary to accurately simulate energy, water and carbon budgets at the field, regional, and global scales. However, the evaluation of crop models that can be coupled to earth system models is relative...

  15. Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two main traits that have been introduced into genetically modified crops that are currently on the market, viz., herbicide and insect resistance, likely affect pesticide use on these crops. Various surveys have been carried out, such as those of the USDAERS and NCFAP, comparing the pesticide use on

  16. Impacts of organic conservation tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agrichemicals are used for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made t...

  17. An energy balance approach for mapping crop waterstress and yield impacts over the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing demand for timely, spatially distributed information regarding crop condition and water use to inform agricultural decision making and yield forecasting efforts. Remote sensing of land-surface temperature has proven valuable for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) and crop stress from...

  18. Research Advances of Impacts of Climate Changes on Crop Climatic Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture received most direct influences from climate changes. Because of climate changes, agricultural climate resources changed and thus influenced climate adaptability of agricultural products. The growth and output of crops were finally affected. The calculation method and application of agricultural products in recent years were summarized. Several questions about the response of agricultural crops to climate elements were proposed for attention.

  19. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  20. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais], E-mail: kapo@cdtn.br; Menezes, Maria A.B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Servico de Reator e Irradiacoes], E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Taddei, Maria H.T. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/LAPOC), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radioquimica], E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br; Mello, Jaime W.V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos], E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.br; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Meio Ambiente e Tecnicas Nucleares], E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of {sup 232}Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, {sup 238}U by delayed neutron counting technique, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra (240 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 228}Ra

  1. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  3. The right ventricle in Fabry disease: natural history and impact of enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Markus; Breunig, Frank; Beer, Meinrad; Herrmann, Sebastian; Strotmann, Jörg; Hu, Kai; Emmert, Andrea; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Storage of globotriaosylceramides is present in the left and right ventricles of patients with Fabry disease. Improvement of left ventricular morphology and function during enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has previously been reported. To analyse the effects of long term ERT on right ventricular morphology and function. This was a prospective follow-up of 75 genetically confirmed consecutive Fabry patients for 3.1±1.8 years. According to treatment guidelines the natural history was followed in 18 patients, whereas 57 patients received ERT. Standard echocardiography, strain rate imaging for regional deformation of the right and left ventricle, and magnetic resonance tomography with late enhancement (LE) imaging for the detection of fibrosis were all performed at yearly intervals. Right ventricular hypertrophy was evident in 53 patients (71%) at baseline. A significant positive correlation was found between left and right ventricular wall thickness (r=0.76; pright ventricle. Patients with LE in the left ventricle presented with the lowest right ventricular deformation properties. In contrast to the left ventricle, there was no change in right ventricular wall thickness (baseline 6.9±1.6 mm vs follow-up 6.7±1.5 mm; p=0.44) or systolic strain rate (2.2±0.7/s vs 2.1±0.8/s; p=0.31) during follow-up with ERT. The degree of right ventricular involvement in Fabry disease is related to the left ventricular cardiomyopathy stage. ERT seems to have no direct impact on right ventricular morphology and function.

  4. Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    Rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide and 45% in Asia. Turning away from permanently flooded rice cropping systems for mitigating future water scarcity and reducing methane emissions, however, will alter a variety of ecosystem services with potential adverse effects to both the environment and agricultural production. Moreover, implementing systems that alternate between flooded and non-flooded crops increases the risk of disruptive effects. The multi-disciplinary DFG research unit ICON aims at exploring and quantifying the ecological consequences of altered water regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop diversification (irrigated rice vs. aerobic rice vs. maize), and different fertilization strategies (conventional, site-specific, and zero N fertilization). ICON particularly focuses on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, green-house gas (GHG) emissions, water balance, soil biotic processes and other important ecosystem services. The overarching goal is to provide the basic process understanding that is necessary for balancing the revenues and environmental impacts of high-yield rice cropping systems while maintaining their vital ecosystem services. To this aim, a large-scale field experiment has been established at the experimental farm of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). Ultimately, the experimental results are analyzed in the context of management scenarios by an integrated modeling of crop development (ORYZA), carbon and nitrogen cycling (MoBiLE-DNDC), and water fluxes (CMF), providing the basis for developing pathways to a conversion of rice-based systems towards higher yield potentials under minimized environmental impacts. In our presentation, we demonstrate the set-up of the controlled large-scale field experiment for simultaneous assessment of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budgets. We show and discuss first results for: - Quantification and assessment of the net-fluxes of CH4

  5. Impacts of Organic Zero Tillage Systems on Crops, Weeds, and Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress annual weeds, but large amounts are needed for adequate early season weed control. Established perennial weeds are not controlled by cover crop mulch. Integrated weed management strategies that include other cultural as well as biological and mechanical controls have potential and need to be incorporated into organic zero tillage research efforts. Market crop performance in organic zero tillage systems has been mixed because of weed, nutrient cycling, and other problems that still must be solved. Soil quality benefits have been demonstrated in comparisons between organic conservation tillage and inversion tillage systems, but studies that include zero tillage treatments are lacking. Research is needed which identifies agronomic strategies for optimum market crop performance, acceptable levels of weed suppression, and soil quality benefits following adoption of organic zero tillage.

  6. Grazing and no-till cropping impacts on nitrogen retention in dryland agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Megan L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Burke, Ingrid C; Peterson, Gary; Schimel, David S; Cole, C Vernon; Elliott, Edward T; Westfall, Dwayne G

    2014-11-01

    As the world's population increases, marginal lands such as drylands are likely to become more important for food production. One proven strategy for improving crop production in drylands involves shifting from conventional tillage to no-till to increase water use efficiency, especially when this shift is coupled with more intensive crop rotations. Practices such as no-till that reduce soil disturbance and increase crop residues may promote C and N storage in soil organic matter, thus promoting N retention and reducing N losses. By sampling soils 15 yr after a N tracer addition, this study compared long-term soil N retention across several agricultural management strategies in current and converted shortgrass steppe ecosystems: grazed and ungrazed native grassland, occasionally mowed planted perennial grassland, and three cropping intensities of no-till dryland cropping. We also examined effects of the environmental variables site location and topography on N retention. Overall, the long-term soil N retention of >18% in these managed semiarid ecosystems was high compared with published values for other cropped or grassland ecosystems. Cropping practices strongly influenced long-term N retention, with planted perennial grass systems retaining >90% of N in soil compared with 30% for croplands. Grazing management, topography, and site location had smaller effects on long-term N retention. Estimated 15-yr N losses were low for intact and cropped systems. This work suggests that semiarid perennial grass ecosystems are highly N retentive and that increased intensity of semiarid land management can increase the amount of protein harvested without increasing N losses. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Water and Crop Yields in the Glacial Dominated Beas River Basin in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Ojha, C. S. P. S.; Adeloye, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan valleys are confronting severe climate change related issues (floods in summer, flash flood and landslides, water scarcity in higher altitudes) because of fluctuating monsoon precipitation and increasing seasonal temperatures. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. The Beas is regionally significant as it holds two giant dams, one which annually diverts 4700 Mm3 of water to a nearby basin. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for Daily River flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). We then applied the models within a scenario-neutral framework to develop hydrological and crop yield Impact Response Surfaces (IRS) for future changes in annual temperature and precipitation for the region from AR5. Future Q10 and Q90 daily flows indicate amplified 'flash flood' situations and increased low flows, respectively, with increasing temperatures due to increased snowmelt from retreating glaciers. Under existing crop and irrigation management practices, the IRS show decreasing and increasing crop yields for summer (monsoon) and winter (post monsoon) crops, respectively, with rising temperature. Climate change scenario studies shows that, the sensitivity of winter (post monsoon) crop yields to precipitation increases with increasing temperature. The paper will consider the implications of the research for future agricultural water resource management and the potential of adaptation to offset yield losses

  8. US Food Security and Climate Change: Mid-Century Projections of Commodity Crop Production by the IMPACT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Gustafson, D. I.; Beachy, R.; Nelson, G. C.; Mason-D'Croz, D.; Palazzo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. The lack of additional arable land and availability of freshwater have long been constraints on agriculture. Changes in trends of weather conditions that challenge physiological limits of crops, as projected by global climate models, are expected to exacerbate the global food challenge toward the middle of the 21st century. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. We use the DSSAT crop modeling suite, together with mid-century projections of four AR4 global models, as input to the International Food Policy Research Institute IMPACT model to project the impact of climate change on food security through the year 2050 for internationally traded crops. IMPACT is an iterative model that responds to endogenous and exogenous drivers to dynamically solve for the world prices that ensure global supply equals global demand. The modeling methodology reconciles the limited spatial resolution of macro-level economic models that operate through equilibrium-driven relationships at a national level with detailed models of biophysical processes at high spatial resolution. The analysis presented here suggests that climate change in the first half of the 21st century does not represent a near-term threat to food security in the US due to the availability of adaptation strategies (e.g., loss of current growing regions is balanced by gain of new growing regions). However, as climate continues to trend away from 20th century norms current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to enable agriculture to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios from higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in climate model projections (particularly precipitation) is a limitation to impact

  9. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale forcing datasets to describe the climate, the surface characteristics (soil texture, vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation. This paper investigates the errors in these forcing variables and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs land surface model over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing datasets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the Leaf Area Index (LAI cycles derived from the Ecoclimap-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional datasets which includes the ERA-Interim low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre dataset (GPCC and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The methodology consists in comparing the simulation achieved using large-scale forcing datasets with the simulation achieved using local observations for each forcing variable. The relative impacts of the forcing variables on simulated ET are compared with each other and with the model uncertainties triggered by errors in soil parameters. LAI and the lack of irrigation in the simulation generate the largest mean deviations in ET between the large-scale and the local-scale simulations (equivalent to 24 and 19 months of ET over 12 yr. The climate induces smaller mean deviations equivalent to 7–8 months of ET over 12 yr. The soil texture has the lowest impact (equivalent to 3 months of ET. However, the impact of errors in the forcing variables is smaller than the impact triggered by errors in the soil parameters (equivalent to 27 months of ET. The

  10. A global and spatially explicit assessment of climate change impacts on crop production and consumptive water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Röckström, Johan; Abbaspour, Karim; Zehnder, Alexander J B

    2013-01-01

    Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term) and the 2090s (long term), respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental) but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell). Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security.

  11. A global and spatially explicit assessment of climate change impacts on crop production and consumptive water use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Liu

    Full Text Available Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term and the 2090s (long term, respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell. Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security.

  12. A Global and Spatially Explicit Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Consumptive Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Röckström, Johan; Abbaspour, Karim; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term) and the 2090s (long term), respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental) but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell). Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security. PMID:23460901

  13. Impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms – 3 systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops producing Cry toxins, originating from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has raised environmental concerns over their sustainable use and consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural land. During the last two decades...

  14. Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on the yield of agricultural crops. Technical bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M.C.; Spruill, S.E.; Rawlings, J.O.; Lesser, V.M.

    1989-11-01

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) was formed in 1980 to assess the effects of air pollutants on major agricultural crop yields. NCLAN consisted of U. S. government and non-government organizations that conducted field experiments, crop yield modeling, and economic analyses. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were selected as the air pollutant treatments for NCLAN studies because they were known to cause damage to vegetation. Experimental methods and results from individual studies have been reported by the principal investigators in many publications. The purpose of the publication is to summarize the statistical methods used in the combined analyses, to present the polynomial and Weibull ozone dose-response equations determined in the combined analyses, and to summarize the effects of ozone on crop yields by presenting estimated relative yield losses for postulated levels of ozone pollution.

  15. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops; Impacts de l'ozone sur les arbres et les recoltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M. [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO{sub x}, which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  16. Using SEBAL to Investigate How Variations in Climate Impact on Crop Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Papadavid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water allocation to crops, and especially to the most water intensive ones, has always been of great importance in agricultural processes. Deficit or excessive irrigation could create either crop health-related problems or water over-consumption, respectively. The latter could lead to groundwater depletion and deterioration of its quality through deep percolation of agrichemical residuals. In this context, and under the current conditions where Cyprus is facing effects of possible climate changes, the purpose of this study seeks to estimate the needed crop water requirements of the past (1995–2004 and the corresponding ones of the present (2005–2015 in order to test if there were any significant changes regarding the crop water requirements of the most water-intensive trees in Cyprus. The Mediterranean region has been identified as the region that will suffer the most from variations of climate. Thus the paper refers to effects of these variations on crop evapotranspiration (ETc using remotely-sensed data from Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI employing a sound methodology used worldwide, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL. Though the general feeling is that of changes on climate will consequently affect ETc, our results indicate that there is no significant effect of climate variation on crop evapotranspiration, despite the fact that some climatic factors have changed. Applying Student’s t-test, the mean values for the most water-intensive trees in Cyprus of the 1994–2004 decade have shown no statistical difference from the mean values of 2005–2015 for all the cases, concluding that the climate change taking place in the past decades in Cyprus have either not affected the crop evapotranspiration or the crops have managed to adapt to the new environmental conditions through time.

  17. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. Analysis of economic impact between the modality of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Denise Sbrissia E Silva; Bignelli, Alexandre Tortoza; Hokazono, Silvia Regina; Danucalov, Itamara; Siemens, Tobias August; Meyer, Fernando; Santos, Luiz Sergio; Martins, Ziliane Caetano Lopes; Mierzwa, Tiago César; Furquim, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem, determining the reduction in life expectancy and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. An observational, cohort, retrospective, based on patient's medical records data with CKD under hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation in the city of Curitiba, in the period from January to June 2014, evacuativo the financial impact on the Unified Health System (SUS) and the supplementary health. The lowest cost of a kidney transplant in the first year was R$ 40,743.03 when cyclosporine was used and the highest was R$ 48,388.17 with the use of tacrolimus. In the second year post-transplant, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have a higher cost compared to kidney transplant. Transplantation with deceased donor, treated with tacrolimus: R$ 67,023.39; Hemodialysis R$ 71,717.51 and automated peritoneal dialysis automatic R$ 69,527.03. After the first two years of renal replacement therapy, transplantation demonstrates lower costs to the system when compared to other modalities evaluated. Based on that, this therapy justifies improvements in government policies in this sector. A doença renal crônica (DRC) é um grande problema de saúde, determina redução na expectativa de vida e aumento dos riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Estudo observacional, de coorte, retrospectivo, baseado em dados de prontuários de pacientes com DRC em hemodiálise, diálise peritoneal e transplante renal na cidade de Curitiba, no período de janeiro a junho de 2014, avaliando o impacto financeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e na saúde suplementar. O menor custo de um transplante renal no primeiro ano foi de R$ 40.743,03, quando utilizada a ciclosporina, e o maior de R$ 48.388,17, com a utilização do tacrolimo. Já no segundo ano pós-transplante, a hemodiálise e a diálise peritoneal têm valor superior ao transplante renal. Transplante com doador falecido, com tacrolimo: R$ 67.023,39; hemodiálise R$ 71

  19. Assessing future drought impacts on yields based on historical irrigation reaction to drought for four major crops in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Lin, Xiaomao

    2016-04-15

    Evaluation of how historical irrigation reactions can adapt to future drought is indispensable to irrigation policy, however, such reactions are poorly quantified. In this paper, county-level irrigation data for maize, soybean, grain sorghum, and wheat crops in Kansas were compiled. Statistical models were developed to quantify changes of irrigation and yields in response to drought for each crop. These were then used to evaluate the ability of current irrigation to cope with future drought impacts on each crop based on an ensemble Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) prediction under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 scenario. Results indicate that irrigation in response to drought varies by crop; approximately 10 to 13% additional irrigation was applied when PDSI was reduced by one unit for maize, soybean, and grain sorghum. However, the irrigation reaction for wheat exhibits a large uncertainty, indicating a weaker irrigation reaction. Analysis of future climate conditions indicates that maize, soybean, and grain sorghum yields would decrease 2.2-12.4% at the state level despite additional irrigation application induced by drought (which was expected to increase 5.1-19.0%), suggesting that future drought will exceed the range that historical irrigation reactions can adapt to. In contrast, a lower reduction (-0.99 to -0.63%) was estimated for wheat yields because wetter climate was projected in the central section of the study area. Expanding wheat areas may be helpful in avoiding future drought risks for Kansas agriculture. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Impact of climate variability on N and C flux within the life cycle of biofuels produced from crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, G.; Block, P. J.; Adler, P. R.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels from agricultural feedstocks (lignocellulose) are under development to meet national policy objectives for producing domestic renewable fuels. Using crop residues such as corn stover as feedstock for biofuel production can minimize the risks associated with food market disruption; however, it demands managing residue removal to minimize soil carbon loss, erosion, and to ensure nutrient replacement. Emissions of nitrous oxide and changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) are subject to variability in time due to local climate conditions and cultivation practices. Our objective is to investigate the effect of climate inputs (precipitation and temperature) on biogeochemical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O and SOC expressed as CO2) within the life cycle of biofuels produced from agricultural residues. Specifically, we investigate the impact of local climate variability on soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes over a 20-year biorefinery lifetime where biomass residue is used for lignocellulosic ethanol production. We investigate two cases studied previously (Pourhashem et al, 2013) where the fermentable sugars in the agricultural residue are converted to ethanol (biofuel) and the lignin byproduct is used in one of two ways: 1) power co-generation; or 2) application to land as a carbon/nutrient-rich amendment to soil. In the second case SOC losses are mitigated through returning the lignin component to land while the need for fertilizer addition is also eliminated, however in both cases N2O and SOC are subject to variability due to variable climate conditions. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to predict soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes considering soil characteristics, tillage practices and local climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall). We address the impact of climate variability on the soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes by implementing a statistical bootstrap resampling method based on a historic data set (1980 to 2000). The ensuing probabilistic outputs from the

  1. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  2. The Impact Of Climate Change On Production Of Multiple Food Crops In The 21st Century- An Analysis Based On Two Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Lawrence, P.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change presents potential risks to global food supply. To date, understanding of climate change effects on crop production remains uncertain due to (1) uncertainties in projected climate change trends and their spatial and temporal variability; (2) uncertainties in the physiological, genetic and molecular basis of crop adaptation to climate change and adaptive management practices and (3) uncertainties in current land surface models to estimate crop adaptation to climate change. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to assess the impact of climate change on the production of row crops (corn, soybean, rice, cotton, sugarcane and wheat) at global and regional scales. The results are compared to the corresponding simulations performed with the crop model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Three questions are addressed: (1) what is the impact of different climate change projections on global crop production; (2) what is the effect of crop adaptation and adaptive management practices on projected crop production; and (3) how do model differences in ISAM and CLM4.5 impact projected global crop production and adaptive management practices over the 21st century. ISAM and CLM4.5 have been included in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Both models consider the effects of temperature, light and soil water and nitrogen availability on crop photosynthesis and temperature control on crop phenology and carbon allocation. ISAM also considers the adaptation of crop phenology, carbon allocation and structures growth to drought, light stress and N stress. The effects of model differences on projected crop production are evaluated by performing the following experiments. Each model is driven with historical atmospheric forcing data (1901-2005) and projected atmospheric forcing data (2006-2100) under RCP 4.5 or RCP 8.5 from CESM CMIP5 simulations to estimate the effects of different

  3. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  4. Impact of catch crop mixtures and soils on microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbano, Claudia S.; Große, Julia; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    In light of the projected world's population growth, food supplies will necessary have to increase. Soils are an essential component for achieving this expansion and its quality and fertility are crucial for bio-economic productivity. Catch crops can be an option to preserve or even improve soil productivity because of their effect on soil fertility and health. A long-term field experiment of the CATCHY project (Catch-cropping as an agrarian tool for continuing soil health and yield-increase) with two contrasting crop rotations was established in two different locations in Northern and Southern Germany. Single catch crops (white mustard, Egyptian clover, phacelia and bristle oat), catch crop mixtures (a mixture of the above and a commercial mixture) and main crops (wheat and maize) have been grown. To investigate how catch crops can affect the microbial diversity and particularly the microbial nitrogen cycling communities, we are studying first the short-term effect of different catch crop mixtures on the microbiomes associated with soils and roots. We compared these microbiomes with wheat plants, representing the microbial community before a catch crop treatment. Roots, rhizosphere and bulk soils were collected from representative samples of wheat plants from one field. The same compartments were also sampled from one fallow treatment and three catch crops variants from three fields each. The variants consisted of white mustard and the two catch crop mixtures. All fields were sampled by triplicate. Quantitative analyses were carried out by qPCR based on key functional marker genes for mineralization (ureC), nitrification (amoA), dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium -DNRA- (nrfA), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ), and nitrogen fixation (nifH). These genes were targeted at the DNA and RNA level for the characterization of the microbial population and the actual transcription activity, respectively. We detected the presence and activity of

  5. Coupled socioeconomic-crop modelling for the participatory local analysis of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Wang, L. Y.; Rojas, M.; Carrera, J.; Gálvez, J.; Tuy, H. A.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.

    2015-12-01

    The modelling of the impacts of climate change on agriculture requires the inclusion of socio-economic factors. However, while cropping models and economic models of agricultural systems are common, dynamically coupled socio-economic-biophysical models have not received as much success. A promising methodology for modelling the socioeconomic aspects of coupled natural-human systems is participatory system dynamics modelling, in which stakeholders develop mental maps of the socio-economic system that are then turned into quantified simulation models. This methodology has been successful in the water resources management field. However, while the stocks and flows of water resources have also been represented within the system dynamics modelling framework and thus coupled to the socioeconomic portion of the model, cropping models are ill-suited for such reformulation. In addition, most of these system dynamics models were developed without stakeholder input, limiting the scope for the adoption and implementation of their results. We therefore propose a new methodology for the analysis of climate change variability on agroecosystems which uses dynamically coupled system dynamics (socio-economic) and biophysical (cropping) models to represent both physical and socioeconomic aspects of the agricultural system, using two case studies (intensive market-based agricultural development versus subsistence crop-based development) from rural Guatemala. The system dynamics model component is developed with relevant governmental and NGO stakeholders from rural and agricultural development in the case study regions and includes such processes as education, poverty and food security. Common variables with the cropping models (yield and agricultural management choices) are then used to dynamically couple the two models together, allowing for the analysis of the agroeconomic system's response to and resilience against various climatic and socioeconomic shocks.

  6. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  7. Impact of N fertilization on C balance and soil quality in maize-dhaincha cropping sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Banashree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess N fertilization to achieve high crop yield is a grand old practice in developing countries. However, inorganic nutrient sources considerably replenish soil organic C (SOC. In the present study, we applied six different levels of N keeping P and K constant for maize, grown under maize (Zea mays - dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata cropping sequence. We recorded high crop yield, profuse root biomass and SOC stock with increasing N fertilization. Moreover, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon and particulate organic carbon improved significantly with increasing levels of N. Conversely, bulk density, mineral associated organic carbon and pH decreased with increasing application of inorganic N. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was recorded between root biomass and soil organic carbon. A study of the sensitivity index showed particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon to be good indicators of nutrient management practices. Dhaincha cultivation accelerated C and N mineralization in soil, which is reflected in increased biomass and crop yield. Hence, we conclude that inorganic N fertilization rate (7280 kg ha-1 in maize-dhaincha cropping sequence successfully maintains the SOC balance and optimize N stock in soil.

  8. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  9. The impact of the EU regulatory constraint of transgenic crops on farm income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julian; McFarlane, Ian; Phipps, Richard; Ceddia, Graziano

    2011-07-01

    World population and the need for nutritious food continue to grow. For 14 years farmers from a range of countries across the globe have been accessing transgenic technologies either to reduce crop production costs, increase yield and/or to exploit a range of rotational benefits. In 2009 134 Mha of transgenic crops was grown. The arable area of the EU 27 is approximately 102 Mha; however, only about 0.1 Mha of transgenic crops, mainly maize in Spain, is grown in the EU. This is in part due to limited approvals before the establishment of a moratorium on the cultivation of transgenic crops. In this paper we estimate the revenue foregone by EU farmers, based on the potential hectarages of IR and HT transgenic crops that have been economically successful elsewhere if they were to be grown in areas of the EU where farmers could expect an overall financial benefit. This benefit would accrue primarily from reduced input costs. We estimate that if the areas of transgenic maize, cotton, soya, oil seed rape and sugar beet were to be grown where there is agronomic need or benefit then farmer margins would increase by between €443 and €929 M/year. It is noted that this margin of revenue foregone is likely to increase if the current level of approval and growth remains low, as new transgenic events come to market and are rapidly taken up by farmers in other parts of the world.

  10. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG). Methods:

  11. Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, Laszlo; Nemeth, Tibor; Nagy, Peter; Dallos, Gabor; Sotonyi, Peter; Fehervari, Imre; Nemes, Balazs; Gorog, Denes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sarvary, Enikoe; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benkoe, Tamas; Piros, Laszlo; Jaray, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous, tub

  12. The impact of waiting for total joint replacement on pain and functional status: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, T.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Sluis, G. van der; Elings, J.; Dronkers, J.J.; Aiken, A.B.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To systematically describe changes in pain and functioning in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) awaiting total joint replacement (TJR), and to assess determinants of this change. Methods: MEDLINE®, EMBASE, CINAHL® and Cochrane Database were searched through June 2008. The reference lists

  13. [The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy training on nursing competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltzenlogel, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Specific training adapted to the needs of caregivers in intensive care enables professional competence and quality of care to be developed in continuous renal replacement therapy. In addition, it contributes to reducing the stress felt by caregivers and the costs of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG). Methods: B

  15. Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, Laszlo; Nemeth, Tibor; Nagy, Peter; Dallos, Gabor; Sotonyi, Peter; Fehervari, Imre; Nemes, Balazs; Gorog, Denes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sarvary, Enikoe; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benkoe, Tamas; Piros, Laszlo; Jaray, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P.

    Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous,

  16. Impacts of changing cropping pattern on virtual water flows related to crops transfer: a case study for the Hetao irrigation district, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining; Sun, Shikun; Cao, Xinchun

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of cropping patterns is a prerequisite for their optimisation, and evaluation of virtual water flows could shed new light on water resources management. This study is intended to explore the effects of cropping pattern changes between 1960 and 2008 on virtual water flows related to crops transfer in the Hetao irrigation district, China. (1) The sown area of crops increased at an average rate of 3.57 × 10(3) ha year(-1) while the proportion of sown grain crops decreased from 92.83% in the 1960s to 50.22% in the 2000s. (2) Virtual water content decreased during the study period while net virtual water exports increased since the 1980s. (3) Assuming that the cropping pattern was constant and was equal to the average 1960s value, accumulated net virtual water export in 1980-2008 would have been 4.76 × 10(9) m(3) greater than that in the actual cropping pattern scenario. Cropping pattern changes in the Hetao irrigation district could not only be seen as resulting from the pursuit for higher economic returns, but also as a feedback response to limited water resources. A systematic framework is still needed for future cropping pattern planning by taking food security, continued agricultural expansion and other constraints into consideration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Using the CLM Crop Model to assess the impacts of changes in Climate, Atmospheric CO2, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Geographic Distribution on Historical and Future Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the start of the green revolution global crop yields have increased linearly for most major cereal crops, so that present day global values are around twice those of the 1960s. The increase in crop yields have allowed for large increases in global agricultural production without correspondingly large increases in cropping area. Future projections under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) framework and other assessments result in increases of global crop production of greater than 100% by the year 2050. In order to meet this increased agricultural demand within the available arable land, future production gains need to be understood in terms of the yield changes due to changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and adaptive management such as irrigation and fertilizer application. In addition to the changes in crop yield, future agricultural demand will need to be met through increasing cropping areas into what are currently marginal lands at the cost of existing forests and other natural ecosystems. In this study we assess the utility of the crop model within the Community Land Model (CLM Crop) to provide both historical and future guidance on changes in crop yields under a range of global idealized crop modeling experiments. The idealized experiments follow the experimental design of the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) in which CLM Crop is a participating model. The idealized experiments consist of global crop simulations for Cotton, Maize, Rice, Soy, Sugarcane, and Wheat under various climate, atmospheric CO2 levels, irrigation prescription, and nitrogen fertilizer application. The time periods simulated for the experiments are for the Historical period (1901 - 2005), and for the two Representative Concentration Pathways of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2006 - 2100). Each crop is simulated on all land grid cells globally for each time period with atmospheric forcing that is a combination of: 1. transient climate and CO2; 2. transient climate

  18. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...... germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CLIMATIC FACTORS AND THEIR IMPACT ON CROP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The data records of crop productivity shows wide fluctuations from one year to another, these being influencedsignificantly by the conditions climate variability. In general, climate variability affects all sectors of the economy,but, in particular, the agricultural sector it is the most exposed. This study aims an statistical analyze the effectsinduced by climatological factors on the main agricultural crops, quantified in agroclimatic risks at local andregional levels, for the period 1990-2000, in Ialomita county. Thus, we used statistical data relating to the twogroups of variables: 1 agricultural productions (for the main crops – wheat and rye, corn, sunflower, sugar beet,potatoes, vegetables and 2 climatology data (for the main climatological factors – average temperatures, rainfall,the sunshine duration and the nebulosity and we analysed the possible correlations for those major variables.

  20. Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

  1. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montaño, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS

  2. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garrigues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is −0.24 mm day−1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the

  3. Impacts of Different Assimilation Methodologies on Crop Yield Estimates Using Active and Passive Microwave Dataset at L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Bindlish, R.; Judge, J.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimates of crop yield are important for managing agricultural production and food security. Although the crop growth models, such as the Decision Support System Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), have been used to simulate crop growth and development, the crop yield estimates still diverge from the reality due to different sources of errors in the models and computation. Auxiliary observations may be incorporated into such dynamic models to improve predictions using data assimilation. Active and passive (AP) microwave observations at L-band (1-2 GHz) are sensitive to dielectric and geometric properties of soil and vegetation, including soil moisture (SM), vegetation water content (VWC), surface roughness, and vegetation structure. Because SM and VWC are one of the governing factors in estimating crop yield, microwave observations may be used to improve crop yield estimates. Current studies have shown that active observations are more sensitive to the surface roughness of soil and vegetation structure during the growing season, while the passive observations are more sensitive to the SM. Backscatter and emission models linked with the DSSAT model (DSSAT-A-P) allow assimilation of microwave observations of backscattering coefficient (σ0) and brightness temperature (TB) may provide biophysically realistic estimates of model states and parameters. The present ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides passive observations at 1.41 GHz at 25 km every 2-3 days, and the NASA/CNDAE Aquarius mission provides L-band AP observations at spatial resolution of 150 km with a repeat coverage of 7 days for global SM products. In 2014, the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission will provide AP observations at 1.26 and 1.41 GHz at the spatial resolutions of 3 and 30 km, respectively, with a repeat coverage of 2-3 days. The goal of this study is to understand the impacts of assimilation of asynchronous and synchronous AP observations on crop yield

  4. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2014-10-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of

  5. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  6. Assessing the risk of pesticide environmental impact in several Argentinian cropping systems with a fuzzy expert indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Sánchez, Daniel; Althaus, Rafael; Scotta, Roberto R; Bertolaccini, Isabel

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of transgenic soybean (Glycine max, L.) varieties resistant to glyphosate (GR soybeans) has rapidly expanded in Argentina, increasing pesticide use where only grasslands were previously cultivated. The authors compared an estimate of environmental risk for different crops and active ingredients using the IPEST index, which is based on a fuzzy-logic expert system. For IPEST calculations, four modules are defined, one reflecting the rate of application, the other three reflecting the risk for groundwater, surface water and air. The input variables are pesticide properties, site-specific conditions and characteristics of the pesticide application. The expert system calculates the value of modules according to the degree of membership of the input variables to the fuzzy subsets F (favourable) and U (unfavourable), and they can be aggregated following sets of decision rules. IPEST integrated values of >or= 7 reflect low environmental risk, and values of wheat showed IPEST values over 7 (low risk), while maize had the lowest IPEST values (high risk). Comparing active ingredients applied in annual and perennial crops, atrazine and acetochlor gave the highest risks of environmental contamination, and they are mainly used in maize. Groundwater was the most affected compartment. Fuzzy logic provided an easy tool combining different environmental components with pesticide properties to give a simple and accessible risk assessment. These findings provide information about active ingredients that should be replaced in order to protect water and air from pesticide contamination. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The impacts of data constraints on the predictive performance of a general process-based crop model (PeakN-crop v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldararu, Silvia; Purves, Drew W.; Smith, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    Improving international food security under a changing climate and increasing human population will be greatly aided by improving our ability to modify, understand and predict crop growth. What we predominantly have at our disposal are either process-based models of crop physiology or statistical analyses of yield datasets, both of which suffer from various sources of error. In this paper, we present a generic process-based crop model (PeakN-crop v1.0) which we parametrise using a Bayesian model-fitting algorithm to three different sources: data-space-based vegetation indices, eddy covariance productivity measurements and regional crop yields. We show that the model parametrised without data, based on prior knowledge of the parameters, can largely capture the observed behaviour but the data-constrained model greatly improves both the model fit and reduces prediction uncertainty. We investigate the extent to which each dataset contributes to the model performance and show that while all data improve on the prior model fit, the satellite-based data and crop yield estimates are particularly important for reducing model error and uncertainty. Despite these improvements, we conclude that there are still significant knowledge gaps, in terms of available data for model parametrisation, but our study can help indicate the necessary data collection to improve our predictions of crop yields and crop responses to environmental changes.

  8. The impact of mineral fertilization and atmospheric precipitation on yield of field crops on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field crop production, as the most important branch of plant production of the Republic of Serbia, in the period 2002-2011, was carried out on an average of over 2.7 million hectares, 82.7% of which took place on the individual farms/family holdings. Hence, the subject of research in this paper covers yields of major field crops realized on family farms in the region of Vojvodina in the period 1972-2011. The main objective of the research is to study the interdependence of utilization of mineral fertilizers and atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period and realized yields of major field crops on family farms in the observed period. The regression analysis was applied in order to verify dependencies and determine the form of dependence of achieved yields from examined variables. The results showed that the main limiting factors for obtaining high and stable yields of field crops is inadequate use of fertilizers and the lack of precipitation during the vegetation period.

  9. Impacts of Bt crops on non-target organisms and insecticide use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacterium capable of producing insecticidal proteins is ubiquitous in the environment, and the genes coding for these proteins are now becoming ubiquitous in major crop plants via recombinant DNA technology where they provide host plant resistance to major lepidopteran...

  10. Genetically modified crops and the “food crisis”: discourse and material impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.; Stone, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A surge of media reports and rhetorical claims depicted genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to the ‘global food crisis’ manifested in the sudden spike in world food prices during 2007–08. Broad claims were made about the potential of GM technologies to tackle the crisis, even though the us

  11. Tillage, cover-crop residue management, and irrigation incorporation impact on fomesafen runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Webster, Theodore M; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2011-07-27

    Intensive glyphosate use has contributed to the evolution and occurrence of glyphosate-resistant weeds that threaten production of many crops. Sustained use of this highly valued herbicide requires rotation and/or substitution of herbicides with different modes of action. Cotton growers have shown considerable interest in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor, fomesafen. Following registration for cotton in 2008, use has increased rapidly. Environmental fate data in major use areas are needed to appropriately evaluate risks. Field-based rainfall simulation was used to evaluate fomesafen runoff potential with and without irrigation incorporation in a conventional tillage system (CT) and when conservation tillage (CsT) was practiced with and without cover crop residue rolling. Without irrigation incorporation, relatively high runoff, about 5% of applied, was measured from the CT system, indicating that this compound may present a runoff risk. Runoff was reduced by >50% when the herbicide was irrigation incorporated after application or when used with a CsT system. Data indicate that these practices should be implemented whenever possible to reduce fomesafen runoff risk. Results also raised concerns about leaching and potential groundwater contamination and crop injury due to rapid washoff from cover crop residues in CsT systems. Further work is needed to address these concerns.

  12. Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Rhenen-Kersten, van C.H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Roessink, I.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the

  13. Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Rhenen-Kersten, van C.H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Roessink, I.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the fa

  14. Partial Rootzone Drying: Changing Alternation Frequency at Different Phenological Stages and Impact on Tomato Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Affi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current work was to assess the effect of different alternation frequency applied at different phenological stages on physiological parameters of a Partial rootzone drying (PRD irrigated tomato crop. Three treatments were applied. Besides the control irrigated at 100% of its water requirements, T3 and T4 are both treatments that received 50% of water requirements and that were irrigated by PRD strategy. Crop cycle was divided into three stages: S1 lasted from transplanting to 6th truss flowering, S2: the period separating the 6 th truss flowering and the 2 nd truss harvest, S3: lasted for the remaining crop cycle period beginning at 2nd truss harvest. While T4 was alternated every 10 days similarly, T3 was alternated every 14 days, 12 days and 10 days during S1, S2 and S3, respectively. T3 maximum daily shrinkage (MDS was 70% higher than T4 showing that the later is more efficient than the former. As far as stomatal conductance (Cs and leaf water potential (Ψl, results show that both PRD treatments were affected by stress without noticing any statistical differences in terms of those parameters. The control presented the highest Cs and Ψl levels during the whole crop cycle and the lowest water use efficiency (WUE.

  15. The Impact of Biofuel Policies on Crop Acreages in Germany and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, Koos; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Baller, Lieneke

    2017-01-01

    A major concern about biofuels is that increasing biofuel feedstock demand reduces availability of crops for food and feed leading to higher food prices. This paper investigates relations between biofuel policies and prices of rapeseed, the major feedstock used for biodiesel production in Europe,

  16. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  17. The impact of coronary artery disease on early outcome of aortic valve replacement in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Yaser Hariri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The operative risk of aortic valve replacement (AVR depends on several factors such as underlying coronary artery disease (CAD. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine postoperative complications and early outcome for elderly patients with CAD undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement and compare them with patients without CAD. Methods: Preoperative characteristics, postoperative in-hospital complications, 30-day mortality rate, and length of stay in hospital (LOS in 79 patients at least 65 years old that underwent isolated AVR (53 patients with CAD and 25 patients without CAD were studied and compared. Results: All studied in-hospital complications were similar between the two groups. No signi cant di erence in 30-day mortality rate between the two groups was found (CAD group 8.1%, non CAD group 10.0%, P=0.781, whereas the mean of ICU stay in patients with CAD was higher than other patients (75.9 versus 47.6 hours, P=0.006. Female gender, obesity, hypertension, prolonged ventilation, and postoperative heart block in patients with CAD and only obesity in other group were signi cant predictors of 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Early outcome of patients with and without CAD undergoing aortic valve replacement was similar.

  18. Understanding the impact of crop and food production on the water environment--using sugar as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Tim; Aldaya, Maite; Fawell, John; Franceschini, Helen; Ober, Eric; Schaub, Ruediger; Schulze-Aurich, Jochen

    2014-01-15

    The availability of fresh water and the quality of aquatic ecosystems are important global concerns, and agriculture plays a major role. Consumers and manufacturers are increasingly sensitive to sustainability issues related to processed food products and drinks. The present study examines the production of sugar from the growing cycle through to processing to the factory gate, and identifies the potential impacts on water scarcity and quality and the ways in which the impact of water use can be minimised. We have reviewed the production phases and processing steps, and how calculations of water use can be complicated, or in some cases how assessments can be relatively straightforward. Finally, we outline several ways that growers and sugar processors are improving the efficiency of water use and reducing environmental impact, and where further advances can be made. This provides a template for the assessment of other crops.

  19. Comparing climate change impacts on crops in Belgium based on CMIP3 and EU-ENSEMBLES multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytrecht, E.; Raes, D.; Willems, P.; Semenov, M.

    2012-04-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are sophisticated tools to study the future evolution of the climate. Yet, the coarse scale of GCMs of hundreds of kilometers raises questions about the suitability for agricultural impact assessments. These assessments are often made at field level and require consideration of interactions at sub-GCM grid scale (e.g., elevation-dependent climatic changes). Regional climate models (RCMs) were developed to provide climate projections at a spatial scale of 25-50 km for limited regions, e.g. Europe (Giorgi and Mearns, 1991). Climate projections from GCMs or RCMs are available as multi-model ensembles. These ensembles are based on large data sets of simulations produced by modelling groups worldwide, who performed a set of coordinated climate experiments in which climate models were run for a common set of experiments and various emissions scenarios (Knutti et al., 2010). The use of multi-model ensembles in climate change studies is an important step in quantifying uncertainty in impact predictions, which will underpin more informed decisions for adaptation and mitigation to changing climate (Semenov and Stratonovitch, 2010). The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of the spatial scale of climate projections on climate change impacts for cereals in Belgium. Climate scenarios were based on two multi-model ensembles, one comprising 15 GCMs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3; Meehl et al., 2007) with spatial resolution of 200-300 km, the other comprising 9 RCMs of the EU-ENSEMBLES project (van der Linden and Mitchell, 2009) with spatial resolution of 25 km. To be useful for agricultural impact assessments, the projections of GCMs and RCMs were downscaled to the field level. Long series (240 cropping seasons) of local-scale climate scenarios were generated by the LARS-WG weather generator (Semenov et al., 2010) via statistical inference. Crop growth and development were simulated with the AquaCrop

  20. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  1. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area

  2. Economic and ecological impacts of bioenergy crop production—a modeling approach applied in Southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schwarz-v. Raumer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers scenarios of cultivating energy crops in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg to identify potentials and limitations of a sustainable bioenergy production. Trade-offs are analyzed among income and production structure in agriculture, bioenergy crop production, greenhouse gas emissions, and the interests of soil, water and species habitat protection. An integrated modelling approach (IMA was implemented coupling ecological and economic models in a model chain. IMA combines the Economic Farm Emission Model (EFEM; key input: parameter sets on farm production activities, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC; key input: parameter sets on environmental cropping effects and GIS geo-processing models. EFEM is a supply model that maximizes total gross margins on farm level with simultaneous calculation of greenhouse gas emission from agriculture production. Calculations by EPIC result in estimates for soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching, Soil Organic Carbon and greenhouse gas emissions from soil. GIS routines provide land suitability analyses, scenario settings concerning nature conservation and habitat models for target species and help to enable spatial explicit results. The model chain is used to calculate scenarios representing different intensities of energy crop cultivation. To design scenarios which are detailed and in step to practice, comprehensive data research as well as fact and effect analyses were carried out. The scenarios indicate that, not in general but when considering specific farm types, energy crop share extremely increases if not restricted and leads to an increase in income. If so this leads to significant increase in soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. It has to be expected that an extension of nature conservation leads to an intensification of the remaining grassland and of the arable land, which were not part of nature conservation measures

  3. Evaluation of the hemodynamic impact of continuous renal replacement therapy in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Yoshioka, Chihiro; Minami, Koji; Okawa, Takumi; Fujisaki, Yuka; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    We performed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on clinically healthy dogs to evaluate the effects of CRRT on hemodynamics. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure of the dogs (n=6) were recorded during the procedure, which was performed under general anesthesia. Throughout the CRRT, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were stable. Central venous pressure increased after CRRT termination but returned to the basal level within 30 min. In this study, hemodynamic alterations, including hypotension, hypertension, and arrhythmias, were not observed during CRRT. These observations suggest that the CRRT protocol used in the present study can be safely applied to clinical cases with acute renal failure.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts on maize yield performance under dry conditions: do crop model simulate it right ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Louis; Delusca, Kénel; Boote, Ken; Lizaso, Jon; Manderscheid, Remy; Jochaim Weigel, Hans; Ruane, Alex C.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Jones, Jim; Ahuja, Laj; Anapalli, Saseendran; Basso, Bruno; Baron, Christian; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Biernath, Christian; Deryng, Delphine; Ewert, Frank; Gaiser, Thomas; Gayler, Sebastian; Heinlein, Florian; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Müller, Christoph; Nendel, Claas; Olioso, Albert; Priesack, Eckhart; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Ripoche, Dominique; Rötter, Reimund; Seidel, Sabine; Srivastava, Amit; Tao, Fulu; Timlin, Dennis; Twine, Tracy; Wang, Enli; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Shigan

    2017-04-01

    In most regions of the world, maize yields are at risk of be reduced due to rising temperatures and reduced water availability. Rising temperature tends to reduce the length of the growth cycle and the amount of intercepted solar energy. Water deficits reduce the leaf area expansion, photosynthesis and sometimes, with an even more pronounced impact, severely reduce the efficiency of kernel set. In maize, the major consequence of atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is the stomatal closure-induced reduction of leaf transpiration rate, which tends to mitigate those negative impacts. Indeed FACE studies report significant positive responses to CO2 of maize yields (and other C4 crops) under dry conditions only. Given the projections by climatologists (typically doubling of [CO2] by the end of this century) projected impacts must take that climate variable into account. However, several studies show a large incertitude in estimating the impact of increasing [CO2] on maize remains using the main crop models. The aim of this work was to compare the simulations of different models using input data from a FACE experiment conducted in Braunschweig during 2 years under limiting and non-limiting water conditions. Twenty modelling groups using different maize models were given the same instructions and input data. Following calibration of cultivar parameters under non-limiting water conditions and under ambient [CO2] treatments of both years, simulations were undertaken for the other treatments: High [ CO2 ] (550 ppm) 2007 and 2008 in both irrigation regimes, and DRY AMBIENT 2007 and 2008. Only under severe water deficits did models simulate an increase in yield for CO2 enrichment, which was associated with higher harvest index and, for those models which simulated it, higher grain number. However, the CO2 enhancement under water deficit simulated by the 20 models was 20 % at most and 10 % on average only, i.e. twice less than observed in that experiment. As in the experiment

  5. Environmental impact assessment of energy crops cultivation in the Mediterranean Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Boléo, Sara Maria Tranquada

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa Para a obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Energia e Bioenergia Energy crops offer ecological advantages over fossil fuels by contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and acidifying emissions. However, there could be ecological shortcomings related to the intensity of agricultural production. There is a risk of polluting water and air, losing soil quality, enhancing erosion and reducing...

  6. Impacts of Irrigation and Climate Change on Water Security: Using Stakeholder Engagement to Inform a Process-based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.; Flores, A. N.; Han, B.; Som Castellano, R.; Steimke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation is an essential component for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, accounting for a majority of global freshwater withdrawals used for human consumption. Since climate change affects both the spatiotemporal demand and availability of water in irrigated areas, agricultural productivity and water efficiency depend critically on how producers adapt and respond to climate change. It is necessary, therefore, to understand the coevolution and feedbacks between humans and agricultural systems. Integration of social and hydrologic processes can be achieved by active engagement with local stakeholders and applying their expertise to models of coupled human-environment systems. Here, we use a process based crop simulation model (EPIC) informed by stakeholder engagement to determine how both farm management and climate change influence regional agricultural water use and production in the Lower Boise River Basin (LBRB) of southwest Idaho. Specifically, we investigate how a shift from flood to sprinkler fed irrigation would impact a watershed's overall agricultural water use under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. The LBRB comprises about 3500 km2, of which 20% is dedicated to irrigated crops and another 40% to grass/pasture grazing land. Via interviews of stakeholders in the LBRB, we have determined that approximately 70% of irrigated lands in the region are flood irrigated. We model four common crops produced in the LBRB (alfalfa, corn, winter wheat, and sugarbeets) to investigate both hydrologic and agricultural impacts of irrigation and climatic drivers. Factors influencing farmers' decision to switch from flood to sprinkler irrigation include potential economic benefits, external financial incentives, and providing a buffer against future water shortages. These two irrigation practices are associated with significantly different surface water and energy budgets, and large-scale shifts in practice could substantially impact regional

  7. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Casadebaig

    Full Text Available A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background. The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90 was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years, management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels and CO2 (2 levels. The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total. The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model improvement.

  8. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement.

  9. Impact of Bioenergy Crops in a Carbon Dioxide Constrained World: An Application of the MiniCAM Energy-Agriculture and Land Use Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillingham, Kenneth; Smith, Steven J.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2007-10-01

    In the coming century, modern bioenergy crops have the potential to play a crucial role in the global energy mix, especially under policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as proposed by many in the international community. Previous studies have not fully addressed many of the dynamic interactions and effects of a policy-induced expansion of bioenergy crop production, particularly on crop yields and human food consumption. This study combines an updated agriculture and land use (AgLU) model with a well-developed energy-economic model to provide an analysis of the effects of bioenergy crops on energy, agricultural and land use systems. The results indicate that carbon mitigation policies can stimulate a large production of bioenergy crops, dependent on the severity of the policy. This production of bioenergy crops can lead to several impacts on the agriculture and land use system: decreases in forestland and unmanaged land, decreases in the average yield of food crops, increases in the prices of food crops, and decreases in the level of human consumption of calories.

  10. Cropping practices modulate the impact of glyphosate on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria in agroecosystems of the semiarid prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Hamel, Chantal; Fernandez, Myriam R

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence obtained from studies performed under controlled conditions suggests that glyphosate use can modify microbial community assemblages. However, few studies have examined the influence of glyphosate in agroecosystems. We examined 4 wheat-based production systems typical of the Canadian prairie over 2 years to answer the following question: Does preseeding of glyphosate impact soil rhizosphere microorganisms? If so, do cropping practices influence this impact? Glyphosate caused a shift in the species dominating the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in the rhizosphere, possibly through the modification of host plant physiology. Glyphosate stimulated rhizobacterial growth while having no influence on saprotrophic fungi, suggesting a greater abundance of glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in bacteria than in fungi. Glyphosate stimulated rhizosphere bacteria in pea but not in urea-fertilized durum wheat, which is consistent with inhibition of EPSPS tolerance to residual glyphosate through high ammonium levels. Mitigation of the effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere bacteria through tillage suggests a reduction in residual glyphosate activity through increased adsorption to soil binding sites upon soil mixing. The influence of glyphosate on Gram-negative bacteria was mitigated under drought conditions in 2007. Our experiment suggests that interactions between soil fertility, tillage, and cropping practices shape the influence of glyphosate use on rhizosphere microorganisms.

  11. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Hongwei; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Shen, Yanjun; Reedy, Robert C.; Long, Di; Liu, Changming

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ˜2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP-USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources.

  12. Hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve has no clinical impact 10 years after aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Dorup, Inge; Emmertsen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Size mismatch and impaired left ventricular function have been shown to determine the hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve early after aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to analyse St. Jude valve hemodynamic function and its clinical impact in the s......OBJECTIVES: Size mismatch and impaired left ventricular function have been shown to determine the hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve early after aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to analyse St. Jude valve hemodynamic function and its clinical impact...... in the survivors of a prospective series 10 years after AVR for aortic stenosis. DESIGN: Forty-three survivors aged 32-90 years from a prospective series attended a follow-up study with Doppler echo and radionuclide cardiography 10 years after AVR for aortic stenosis. Six patients with significant left sided valve......Hg. In a multilinear regression analysis GOA indexed for LVEDD, hypertension, and LVEF were independently related to peak gradient. CONCLUSION: High gradients of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve 10 years after AVR was primarily related to systemic hypertension and mismatch between valve and left ventricular...

  13. Petroleum Sludge as gypsum replacement in cement plants: Its Impact on Cement Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, Ali; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Khodja, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Due to high cost of cement manufacturing and the huge amount of resources exhaustion, companies are trying to incorporate alternative raw materials or by-products into cement production so as to produce alternative sustainable cement. Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that poses serious imparts on soil and groundwater. Given that this sludge contains a high percentage of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the main component of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), it may play the same gypsum role in strength development. In this research, a total replacement of gypsum (100%) has been substituted by petroleum sludge in cement production and has led to an increase of 28.8% in UCS values after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, the burning of this waste has emitted a considerable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) gas that needs to be carefully considered prior to use petroleum sludge within cement plants.

  14. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, pcortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency.

  15. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  16. Nation-wide assessment of climate change impacts on crops in the Philippines and Peru as part of multi-disciplinary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change has been recognized as one of the most devastating factors. In many developing countries, however, few studies have focused on nation-wide assessment of crop yield and crop suitability in the future, and hence there is a large pressure on science to provide policy makers with solid predictions for major crops in the countries in support of climate risk management policies and programmes. FAO has developed the tool MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change) where statistical climate downscaling is combined with crop yield projections under climate change scenarios. Three steps are required to get the results: 1. The historical meteorological data such as temperature and precipitation for about 30 years were collected, and future climates were statistically downscaled to the local scale, 2. The historical crop yield data were collected and regression functions were made to estimate the yield by using observed climatic data and water balance during the growing period for each crop, and 3. The yield changes in the future were estimated by using the future climate data, produced by the first step, as an input to the yield regression functions. The yield was first simulated at sub-national scale and aggregated to national scale, which is intended to provide national policies with adaptation options. The methodology considers future changes in characteristics of extreme weather events as the climate projections are on daily scale while crop simulations are on 10-daily scale. Yields were simulated with two greenhouse gas concentration pathways (RCPs) for three GCMs per crop to account for uncertainties in projections. The crop assessment constitutes a larger multi-disciplinary assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture and vulnerability of livelihoods in terms of food security (e.g. water resources, agriculture market, household-level food security from socio

  17. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, Van H.H.E.; Bikker, P.; Mollenhorst, H.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content i

  18. Impact of topography and soil factors on crop suitability in two Mediterranean areas (Egypt and Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmabod, S. K.; Jordán, A.; Anaya-Romero, M.; Ali, R. R.; Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Zavala, L. M.; de la Rosa, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this research is to study the influence of topography and soil factors on crop suitability two Mediterranean areas: Sevilla (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) images were processed using ENVI 4.7 software to extract elevation data, slope gradient and slope direction. North-south toposequences from both areas were extracted and studied using Arc-GIS 9.3 software. Soil characteristics along these toposequences were extracted from regional soil maps, as well as land surveying and laboratory analyses. The Almagra model (included in the agro-ecological system MicroLEIS DSS) was used to evaluate agricultural soil suitability using soil factors of useful depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, and degree of development of the profile. Changes of soil characteristics through the toposequences are discussed. The results of Almagra model indicate that the crop suitability main limiting factors are soil texture, drainage, soil salinity and sodium saturation percent and topography factors elevation, slope gradient, slope direction.

  19. Impact of paper mill wastewater on soil properties and crop yield through lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Ladwani, K; Ladwani, K; Deshbhratar, P B; Ramteke, D S

    2013-01-01

    Paper and pulp industries produce large quantities of wastewater which can have adverse effects on the receiving water systems. In the present study lysimeters were used and filled with different soils replicating natural soil horizons and provided with a leachate collection system. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in each lysimeter and the quality of wastewater before leaching were assessed. Treated wastewater was evaluated for crop irrigation, and was categorized according to the irrigation water class 'Increasing Problem to Severe Problem' with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity. Sandy loam soils showed 96% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal while clay loam soils removed 99% of COD, and the colour removal in both the cases was found to be 100%. Application of wastewater resulted in an increase of pH value, ranging from 6.2-7.6; the electrical conductivity (ECe) of saturated extracts was found to be 0.6-1.7 dS m(-1), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 7.8-11.1% in soils. Similarly, an increase in the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soils was observed when irrigated with wastewater. Wastewater irrigation showed increased grain and straw yield of jowar, wheat and moong. These results permit successful utilization of pulp and paper mill wastewater for crop production without damaging the soils.

  20. Soil nutrient loss due to tuber crop harvesting and its environmental impact in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Han-qing; LI Yong; ZHOU Na; Adrian Chappell; LI Xiao-yu; Jean Poesen

    2016-01-01

    Soil loss due to crop harvesting (SLCH) is a soil erosion process that signiifcantly contributes to soil degradation in crop-lands. However, little is known about soil nutrient losses caused by SLCH and its environmental impacts. In the North China Plain area, we measured the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen as wel as phosphorus due to SLCH and assessed their relationship with soil particle size composition, agronomic practices and soil moisture content. Our results show that the losses by harvesting potato of SOC, total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and total phosphorus (TP) were 1.7, 1.8, 1.8, 15.9 and 14.1 times compared by harvesting sweet potato, respectively. The variation of SOC, N and P loss by SLCH are mainly explained by the variation of plant density (PD) (17–50%), net mass of an individual tuber (Mcrop/p) (16–74%), soil clay content (34–70%) and water content (19–46%). Taking into account the current sewage treatment system and the ratio of the nutrients adhering to the tubers during transportation from the ifeld (NTRP/SP), the loss of TN and TP by harvesting of potato and sweet potato in the North China Plain area amounts to 3% N and 20% P loads in the water bodies of this region. The fate of the exported N and P in the sewage treatment system ultimately controls the contribution of N and P to the polution of lakes and rivers. Our results suggest that a large amount of SLCH-induced soil nutrient export during transportation from the ifeld is a potential polutant source for agricultural water for vast planting areas of tuber crops in China, and should not be overlooked.

  1. Early impact of aortic wrapping on patients undergoing aortic valve replacement with mild to moderate ascending aorta dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosnowski Andrzej

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of mild to moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta of less than 5 cm is controversial, particularly when concomitant surgical correction of aortic valve is required. We investigate the impact of a simple method of aorta reduction using Dacron graft wrapping during aortic valve replacement on the rest of the aorta. Methods We studied 14 patients who had ascending aorta dilatation of 4-5 cm before undergoing aortic wrapping during their aortic valve replacement and compared with their post-operative imaging within a month. Results The diameters of the ascending aorta wrapped with the Dacron graft were significantly reduced within 4 weeks after surgery from 44.7 ± 2.6 to 33.6 ± 3.9 mm (p Conclusions Reduction of ascending aortic dilatation by wrapping with a Dacron graft in this preliminary study is associated with favourable early reversed aortic remodelling. This supports the hypothesis that correction of mild-moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta with Dacron wrapping at the time of aortic valve surgery may prevent the progression of the dilatation, although the long-term study on a larger population is needed to confirm its benefits.

  2. Impact of body mass index on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vinícius Eduardo Araújo; Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; dos Reis, Tâmara Oliveira; Rabello, Renato Rocha; Rocha, Eduardo Augusto Victor; Couto, Célia Maria Ferreira; Couto, José Carlos Ferreira; Bento, Alduir

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze the impact of body mass index on outcomes of 101 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined valve/ coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in a private hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery from May 2009 to December 2012. All patients were followed up from the first day of admission until discharge or death. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The main outcome measure was the association between BMI and postoperative morbidities and mortality. Results Multivariate analysis identified obesity as an independent predictor of increased risk of surgical reintervention (odds ratio [OR] 13.6; 95%CI 1.1 - 162.9; P=0.046) and reduced risk of bleeding (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.69; P=0.025). Univariate analysis showed that obesity was associated with increased frequency of wound dehiscence (P=0.021). There was no association between BMI and other complications or mortality in univariate analysis. There was also no association between body mass index and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit or hospital stay. Conclusion Obese individuals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined surgery have a higher postoperative risk of surgical reintervention and lower chances of bleeding. PMID:26313724

  3. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigati

  4. [Assessment of the impact of the biological rodenticide Biorat in populations of rodents settled in several crops of the Republic of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafaña Martín, F; Silva Pupo, M; Ruiz Blanco, J; Sánchez Rojas, L G; Campos Muñoz, A

    1999-01-01

    The impact of biological rodenticide Biorat on populations of rodents settled in some crops was determined; these crops are highly infested with Sigmodon hispidus, a very common vector in various Central American countries. The trapping technique and the appraisal of damages allowed to calculate the index of infestation which ranged from 75 to 90 percent in three crops. Twenty for to 36 kg of BIORAT were applied to 6 ha planted with Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ipomoea batata (sweet potato) and Ananas comusus (pineapple). This action brought about that the rodent population in such crops reduced the potential damage and consequently, index of infestation was reduced by 94.6 to 98%; therefore, the residual population left amounted from 2 to 3.5%, meaning that damages were under the economic threshold. Generally speaking, the results were similar to those of other countries.

  5. Impact of the ahas transgene and of herbicides associated with the soybean crop on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosinei Aparecida; Babujia, Letícia Carlos; Silva, Adriana Pereira; de Fátima Guimarães, Maria; Arias, Carlos Arrabal; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-10-01

    Although Brazil has recently reached the position as the second largest producer of genetically modified soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], there are few reports on the effects of transgenic crops and the associated use of specific herbicides on soil microbial communities, both under the edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, and in other producer regions in the southern hemisphere. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of transgenic soybean containing the ahas gene conferring resistance to herbicides of the imidazolinone group, and of the herbicides associated with transgenic soybeans on the soil microbial community. Twenty field experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (summer of 2006/2007, short-season of 2007 and summer of 2007/2008), in nine municipalities located in six Brazilian states and in the Federal District. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized block design with four replicates and three treatments: (1) conventional (non-transgenic) soybean cultivar Conquista with conventional herbicides (bentazone + acifluorfen-sodium and other herbicides, depending on the level of infestation in each region); (2) near-isogenic transgenic Cultivance (CV127) containing the ahas gene, with conventional herbicides; (3) transgenic Cultivance with specific herbicide of the imidazolinone group (imazapyr). As the objective of the study was to verify impacts of the transgene and herbicides on the soil microbial community of the whole area and not only a punctual rhizospheric effects, samples were taken at the 0-10 cm layer prior to cropping and at R2 soybean growth stage, between plant rows. Quantitative (microbial biomass C and N, MB-C and MB-N) and qualitative (DGGE of the 16S rDNA region) parameters of soil microbial community were evaluated. No qualitative or quantitative differences were found that could be attributed to the transgene ahas. A comparison of Cultivance soybean with conventional and imidazolinone

  6. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  7. Simulating long-term impacts of cover crops and climate change on crop production and environmental outcomes in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is critical to evaluate conservation practices that protect soil and water resources from climate change in the Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-quarter of the world’s soybeans and one-third of the world’s maize. An over-winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation offers mul...

  8. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    . In three field trials with 5–45% infected seeds no significant improvements on yields were seen from seed treatments, indicating that the Danish threshold of 15% attacked seeds is a conservative threshold. In two field trials including seed lots with more than 90% infected seeds, fludioxonil improved......Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment study on environmental impact of oil production from micro-algae and terrestrial oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, S; Spinelli, D; Fierro, A; Dibenedetto, A; Aresta, M; Busi, E; Basosi, R

    2017-09-01

    In this study the LCA methodology is applied in order to satisfy two goals: i) to evaluate the hot spots in site-specific production chain of biodiesel from terrestrial and micro-algae feedstock; ii) to compare quantitatively, utilizing primary data, the impacts of the first generation in respect to the third generation bio-fuels. Results show that micro-algae are neither competitive yet with traditional oil crops nor with fossil fuel. The use of renewable technologies as photovoltaics and biogas self production might increase the competitiveness of micro-algae oil. Further investigations are however necessary to optimize their production chain and to increase the added value of co-products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated assessment of health, crop, and climate impacts of mitigating excess diesel NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Anenberg, S.; Miller, J.; Vicente, F.; Du, L.; Emberson, L.; Lacey, F.; Malley, C.; Minjares, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), impacting human health, crop yields, and climate worldwide. Diesel cars, trucks, and buses produce 70% of global land transportation emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), a key PM2.5 and ozone precursor. Despite progressive tightening of regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that real-world diesel NOx emissions in 11 markets representing 80% of global diesel vehicle sales are on average 24% higher than certification limits indicate. This excess NOx contributed an estimated 33,000 additional ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including 6% of all EU-28 ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths. Next-generation diesel NOx standards and in-use compliance (more stringent than Euro 6/VI standards) could avoid 358,000 (5%) of global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040 and up to 4% of ozone-related crop production loss regionally. Impacts of NOx-induced changes in aerosols, methane, and ozone on the global climate are found to present a small net positive radiative forcing (i.e., climate disbenefit), likely outweighed by the climate benefits of reductions to co-emitted black carbon aerosol. In some markets (Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico, and Russia), Euro 6/VI standards alone can achieve most (72-98%) of these health benefits. In India and the EU-28, reducing Euro 6 real-world NOx emissions through strengthened type-approval and in-use emissions testing programs (including market surveillance and expanded emissions test procedure boundaries) would achieve one-third of the health benefits from adopting next generation standards. Our results indicate that implementing stringent and technically feasible NOx emission regulations for diesel vehicles can substantially improve public health.

  11. Impact of growing costs on the profitability of crop production in Poland in the mid-term perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this paper was to demonstrate the impact of cultivation intensity on economic of selected activities of crop production in Poland. The projection of income of these activities in mid-term perspective, i.e. in 2016, has also been developed. Studies have shown that for cultivation technology of low intensity, as compared to high, the economic results of examined activities were more favourable. The profitability of production, expressed as a ratio of the value of production to economic costs, was higher by 10.0 to 52.7%. According to the projection results, in the highly intensive cultivation, high costs and dynamics of growth, stronger than growth of income, had a negative impact on the level of income. It is expected, even with an exceptionally high yield, income level will be lower than in the cultivation of low intensity. The results show that the use of technological progress can reduce a negative impact of chemicals on the environment while maintaining the high economic efficiency of production.

  12. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Maryann T.; Mullin, Chris A.; Frazier, Jim L.; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Leslie, Tim W.; Mussen, Eric C.; Drummond, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009–2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9–10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving...

  13. Improving ecophysiological simulation models to predict the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Process-based ecophysiological crop models are pivotal in assessing responses of crop productivity and designing strategies of adaptation to climate change. Most existing crop models generally over-estimate the effect of elevated atmospheric [CO2], despite decades of experimental resear

  14. Assessment of impacts of agricultural and climate change scenarios on watershed water quantity and quality, and crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke D.; Gassman, Philip W.; Schoof, Justin T.; Secchi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Modeling impacts of agricultural scenarios and climate change on surface water quantity and quality provides useful information for planning effective water, environmental and land use policies. Despite the significant impacts of agriculture on water quantity and quality, limited literature exists that describes the combined impacts of agricultural land use change and climate change on future bioenergy crop yields and watershed hydrology. In this study, the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model was used to model the combined impacts of five agricultural land use change scenarios and three downscaled climate pathways (representative concentration pathways, RCPs) that were created from an ensemble of eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). These scenarios were implemented in a well-calibrated SWAT model for the intensively farmed and tiled Raccoon River watershed (RRW) located in western Iowa. The scenarios were executed for the historical baseline, early century, mid-century and late century periods. The results indicate that historical and more corn intensive agricultural scenarios with higher CO2 emissions consistently result in more water in the streams and greater water quality problems, especially late in the 21st century. Planting more switchgrass, on the other hand, results in less water in the streams and water quality improvements relative to the baseline. For all given agricultural landscapes simulated, all flow, sediment and nutrient outputs increase from early-to-late century periods for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. We also find that corn and switchgrass yields are negatively impacted under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios in the mid- and late 21st century.

  15. The impact of anaemia and intravenous iron replacement therapy on outcomes in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Maurice; Klein, Andrew A; Richards, Toby

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia is common in patients with cardiac disease and also in those undergoing cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that preoperative anaemia is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality following surgery. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the impact of anaemia and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation on outcomes in cardiac surgery. Sixteen studies examined preoperative anaemia in detail. One study examined the role of preoperative IV iron administration and a further three, the effect of postoperative iron supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb) levels and the need for transfusion. Preoperative anaemia was associated with higher mortality, more postoperative blood transfusions, longer intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital stay and also a greater incidence of postoperative cardiovascular events. In the single study that examined preoperative IV iron in combination with erythropoietin treatment, there was decreased blood transfusion, shorter hospital stay and an increase in patient survival. However, this was a small retrospective cohort study, with the observation and treatment groups analysed over different time periods. Postoperative administration of IV iron therapy, either alone or in combination with erythropoietin, was not effective in raising Hb levels or reducing red cell concentrate transfusion. On the basis of currently available evidence, the effect of perioperative administration of IV iron to cardiac surgery patients, alone or in combination with erythropoietin, remains unproven. Well-designed and appropriately powered prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate perioperative iron supplementation in the context of cardiac surgery.

  16. Impact of Continuous Cropping on the Diurnal Range of Dew Point Temperature during the Foliar Expansion Period of Annual Crops on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat M. Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to increase our knowledge of the role of land use in changing the regional climate. This study asked, “Has the increase in continuous cropping over the past 50 years on the Canadian Prairies influenced the daily mean and range of morning dew point temperatures (Td during the foliar expansion period (from mid-June to mid-July of annual field crops?” We found that there has been a general increase in the decadal average of mean daily Td and in the range of morning Td from the 1960s to the 2000s. The increase in the observed range of Td between the daily minimum value, which typically occurs near sunrise, and the late morning peak was found to be related to the increase in annual crop acreage and consequent decrease in summerfallow area. The relationship was more significant in the subhumid climatic zone than in the semiarid climatic zone, and it was influenced by whether the region was experiencing either wet, normal, or dry conditions.

  17. Long-term impact of a precision agriculture system on grain crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is lacking on the long-term impacts of field-scale precision agriculture practices on grain production. Following more than a decade (1993-2003) of yield and soil mapping and water quality assessment, a multi-faceted, ‘precision agriculture system’ (PAS) was implemented from 2004 to 2014 on...

  18. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  19. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  20. Environmental impact assessment of dutch tomato crop production in a Venlo glasshouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Torrellas, M.; Montero, J.I.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental impact assessment of the current situation of Dutch tomato production in a Venlo greenhouse in a temperate climate was developed as part of the EUPHOROS project. The project aims to develop a more sustainable greenhouse system with a reduction of external inputs yet with high prod

  1. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses.

  2. Impact of seasonal forecast use on agricultural income in a system with varying crop costs and returns: an empirically-grounded simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Bazuin, J. T.; Nay, J.; Yeung, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    Access to seasonal climate forecasts can benefit farmers by allowing them to make more informed decisions about their farming practices. However, it is unclear whether farmers realize these benefits when crop choices available to farmers have different and variable costs and returns; multiple countries have programs that incentivize production of certain crops while other crops are subject to market fluctuations. We hypothesize that the benefits of forecasts on farmer livelihoods will be moderated by the combined impact of differing crop economics and changing climate. Drawing upon methods and insights from both physical and social sciences, we develop a model of farmer decision-making to evaluate this hypothesis. The model dynamics are explored using empirical data from Sri Lanka; primary sources include survey and interview information as well as game-based experiments conducted with farmers in the field. Our simulations show that a farmer using seasonal forecasts has more diversified crop selections, which drive increases in average agricultural income. Increases in income are particularly notable under a drier climate scenario, when a farmer using seasonal forecasts is more likely to plant onions, a crop with higher possible returns. Our results indicate that, when water resources are scarce (i.e. drier climate scenario), farmer incomes could become stratified, potentially compounding existing disparities in farmers’ financial and technical abilities to use forecasts to inform their crop selections. This analysis highlights that while programs that promote production of certain crops may ensure food security in the short-term, the long-term implications of these dynamics need careful evaluation.

  3. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: an important first step for assessing impact of future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prakash N; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., >30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with >10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of extreme heat and drought on crop yields in China: an assessment by using the DLEM-AG2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    China is not only one of the major agricultural production countries with the largest population in the world, but it is also the most susceptible to climate change and extreme events. Much concern has been raised about how extreme climate has affected crop yield, which is crucial for China's food supply security. However, the quantitative assessment of extreme heat and drought impacts on crop yield in China has rarely been investigated. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2), a highly integrated process-based ecosystem model with crop-specific simulation, here we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of extreme climatic heat and drought stress and their impacts on the yields of major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, and soybean) across China during 1981-2015, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that extreme heat and drought stress significantly reduced national cereal production and increased the yield gaps between potential yield and rain-fed yield. The drought stress was the primary factor to reduce crop yields in the semi-arid and arid regions, and extreme heat stress slightly aggravated the yield loss. The yield gap between potential yield and rain-fed yield was larger at locations with lower precipitation. Our results suggest that a large exploitable yield gap in response to extreme climatic heat-drought stress offers an opportunity to increase productivity in China by optimizing agronomic practices, such as irrigation, fertilizer use, sowing density, and sowing date.

  5. Dynamic Predictions of Crop Yield and Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa Due to Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Wittig, T.

    2012-12-01

    The highest damages from climate change are predicted to be in the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture is predicted to be especially vulnerable in this region because of its current state of high temperature and low precipitation and because it is usually rain-fed or relies on relatively basic technologies which therefore limit its ability to sustain in increased poor climatic conditions [1]. The goal of this research is to quantify the vulnerability of this ecosystem by projecting future changes in agriculture due to IPCC predicted climate change impacts on precipitation and temperature. This research will provide a better understanding of the relationship between precipitation and rain-fed agriculture in savannas. In order to quantify the effects of climate change on agriculture, the impacts of climate change are modeled through the use of a land surface vegetation dynamics model previously developed combined with a crop model [2,4]. In this project, it will be used to model yield for point cropland locations within sub-Saharan Africa between Kenya and Botswana with a range of annual rainfall. With this model, future projections are developed for what can be anticipated for the crop yield based on two precipitation climate change scenarios; (1) decreased depth and (2) decreased frequency as well as temperature change scenarios; (3) only temperature increased, (4) temperature increase dand decreased precipitation depth, and (5) temperature increased and decreased precipitation frequency. Therefore, this will allow conclusions to be drawn about how mean precipitation and a changing climate effect food security in sub-Saharan Africa. As an additional analysis, irrigation is added to the model as it is thought to be the solution to protect food security by maximizing on the potential of food production. In water-limited areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to consider water efficient irrigation techniques such as demand-based micro

  6. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Li, Nan; Zhao, Suyu; Tian, Jie; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB) activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP). The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH). It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP) had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China), where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.

  7. Impact of long-term cropping of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] on soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babujia, Letícia Carlos; Silva, Adriana Pereira; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Cantão, Mauricio Egidio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] occupies about 80 % of the global area cropped with this legume, the majority comprising the glyphosate-resistant trait (Roundup Ready(®), GR or RR). However, concerns about possible impacts of transgenic crops on soil microbial communities are often raised. We investigated soil chemical, physical and microbiological properties, and grain yields in long-term field trials involving conventional and nearly isogenic RR transgenic genotypes. The trials were performed at two locations in Brazil, with different edaphoclimatic conditions. Large differences in physical, chemical and classic microbiological parameters (microbial biomass of C and N, basal respiration), as well as in grain production were observed between the sites. Some phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria), classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Actinomycetales, Solibacteres) and orders (Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales), as well as some functional subsystems (clustering-based subsystems, carbohydrates, amino acids and protein metabolism) were, in general, abundant in all treatments. However, bioindicators related to superior soil fertility and physical properties at Londrina were identified, among them a higher ratio of Proteobacteria:Acidobacteria. Regarding the transgene, the metagenomics showed differences in microbial taxonomic and functional abundances, but lower in magnitude than differences observed between the sites. Besides the site-specific differences, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chlorophyta were higher in the transgenic treatment, as well as sequences related to protein metabolism, cell division and cycle. Although confirming effects of the transgenic trait on soil microbiome, no differences were recorded in grain yields, probably due to the buffering capacity associated with the high taxonomic and functional microbial diversity observed in all treatments.

  8. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  9. IMPACT OF TEHNICAL SPRAYING FACTORS ON LEAF AREA COVERAGE IN PERMANENT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Tadić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches are conducted in vineyard and apple orchard with two different types of mist blowers, axial (Hardi Zaturn and radial (Hardi Arrow. The influence of major technical spraying factors (type of nozzle, working speed and spray volume were observed on coverage of the treated area, average droplet diameter, number of droplets per cm2 and drift. The working speed of sprayer was set at 6 and 8 km/h, and spray volume on 250, 325 and 400 l/ha for apple orchard and 250, 300 and 350 l/ha for vineyard. Researchers used Lechler blue (TR 8003, yellow (TR 8002 and green (TR 80015 nozzles. The research was set as three - factorial field experiment with 18 treatments in 4 repetitions, for different type of sprayer and permanent crops. We used 60 water sensitive papers for that treatment, which were processed with digital image analysis and ImageJ software. In addition to the main features of the research, research showed leaf area index and density, speed and flow of air current, working pressure, orientation of the nozzles and weather conditions, which were monitored during the study. Before the research, mist blowers are tested according to the European standard 13790. By decreasing the ISO number of nozzles and by increasing the working speed and spray volume, we found increase of area coverage, number of droplets per cm2and drift, and decrease of average droplet diameter. Also, by comparing the results of research exploitation by axial and radial mist blower in the vineyards and apple orchards, better results are achieved with radial mist blower (Hardi Arrow in both cases. The best relationship of area coverage and liquid drift in vineyard were achieved with 64.22% area coverage and 17.11% of liquid drift (green nozzle, working speed of 6 km/h, spray volume of 350 l/ha, and working pressure of 10.99 bar. In apple orchard the best relationship of area coverage and liquid drift were achieved with 59.55% area coverage and 21.10% of liquid drift (green

  10. Residual phytotoxicity of parthenium: Impact on some winter crops, weeds and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Aslam, Farhena; Matloob, Amar; Hussain, Saddam; Tanveer, Asif; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim; Geng, Mingjian

    2015-12-01

    Phytotoxic effects of parthenium residues incorporation and parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil on emergence and seedling growth of winter crops (wheat and canola) and weed species (wild oat and canary grass) were examined in different pot studies. In first experiment, parthenium whole plant residues were incorporated at 6 and 8 g kg(-1) soil five days prior to sowing. Pots without residues incorporation were maintained as control. In a second study, parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil collected from different depths (15 and 22.5 cm) and collar regions (horizontal distance away from plant trunk, 15 and 22.5 cm), was used as growing medium. Parthenium-free soil was used as control. Parthenium residues amendment as well as its rhizospheric soil was detrimental for emergence and seedling growth of all test species. Incorporation of parthenium residues reduced the final emergence of canola, wild oat and canary grass by 11-20%, 20-29% and 20-27%, respectively; however wheat emergence was unaffected. Moreover, seedling biomass of wheat, canola, wild oat and canary grass was reduced in the range of 41-48%, 53-61%, 31-45% and 30-45% by parthenium residues incorporation. In second study, soil collected from a rhizospheric depth of 15 cm and collar distance of 15 cm reduced the emergence and seedling growth by 15% and 40%, respectively averaged across different test species. Parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil increased the soil phenolics, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrogen contents over control soils with the exception of pH that was declined. All test species manifested reduced chlorophyll and increased phenolic contents in response to parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil. The inhibition in emergence and seedling growth of all test species was associated with increase in phenolic contents. Parthenium residues incorporation at 8 g kg(-1) soil and upper parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil (15 cm

  11. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark, differing in soil and climate, and representative of the selected production systems. The CO2 effects were modelled using projected CO2 concentrations for the A1B emission scenario. Crop rotations were irrigated (sandy soil) and unirrigated (sandy loam soil), and all included systems...... rather than single crops for impact assessments. Potato and sugar beet in arable farming and grain maize in pig farming contributed most to the productivity increase in the future scenarios. The highest productivity was obtained in the arable system on the sandy loam soil, with an increase of 20...

  12. Impact of SPDC-Bomu Manifold Oil Pipe Explosion Fire on Crop Yield and Farm Income in Gokana LGA, Rivers State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Weli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation of the oil-rich Gokana Local government area has been wanton and continuous with dire health, social and economic consequences for its peoples, for over three decades. The study was based on the result of environmental impact studies conducted on the SPDC-Bomu manifold oil pipe explosion of 12th April, 2009 and its impact on agricultural production in K-dere, Deken, Kpor and Biara communities. Using a sample of 400 crop farmers drawn randomly from the 4 communities, the negative impact of hydrocarbon fire on crop production was accentuated. Hydrocarbon fire caused acid rain that reduced crop yield, land productivity and greatly depressed farm income as a 10 percentage increase in hydrocarbon fire reduced crop yield by 13% while farm income plummeted by 25.5%. In order to halt the continual degradation of the Niger Delta environment, the authors recommend enactment and enforcement of stringent environmental laws to protect the area as well as the implementation of policies to reduce the crushing level of poverty and guarantee a better livelihood for the people.

  13. Impacts of terracing on soil erosion control and crop yield in two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebuka, Jules; Ryken, Nick; Uwimanzi, Aline; Nkundwakazi, Olive; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion remains a serious limiting factor to the agricultural production in Rwanda. Terracing has been widely adopted in many parts of the country in the past years, but its effectiveness is not yet known. Besides the standard radical (bench) terraces promoted by the government, also progressive terraces (with living hedges) become adopted mainly by the farmers. The aim of this study was to measure short-term (two consecutive rainy seasons 2016A and 2016B) run-off and soil losses for existing radical (RT) and progressive (PT) terraces versus non-protected (NP) fields using erosion plots installed in two agro-ecological zones, i.e. Buberuka highlands (site Tangata) and Eastern plateau (site Murehe) and determine their impacts on soil fertility and crop production. The erosion plot experiment started with a topsoil fertility assessment and during the experiment, maize was grown as farmer's cropping preference in the area. Runoff data were captured after each rainfall event and the collected water samples were dried to determine soil loss. Both erosion control measures reduced soil losses in Tangata, with effectiveness indices ranging from 43 to 100% when compared to the NP plots. RT showed the highest effectiveness, especially in season A. In Murehe, RT minimized runoff and soil losses in both seasons. Yet, the PT were largely inefficient, leading to soil losses exceeding those on the NP plots (ineffectiveness index of -78% and -65% in season A and B, respectively). Though topsoil fertility assessment in the erosion plots showed that the soil quality parameters were significantly higher in RT and NP plots compared to the PT plots on both sites, maize grain yield was not correlated with the physical effectiveness of the erosion control measures. Finally, the effectiveness of soil erosion control measures as well as their positive impacts on soil fertility and production differ not only by terracing type but also by agro-ecological zone and the management or

  14. A methodological approach for deriving regional crop rotations as basis for the assessment of the impact of agricultural strategies using soil erosion as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Fürst, Christine; Thiel, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties in crop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way. In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques. Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony.

  15. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  16. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  17. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control.

  18. Impacts of silver nanoparticles on bacterial species B. subtilis and E. coli and the major crop plant Z. mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Michael A.

    This thesis examines the impacts of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (c-AgNPs) on two species of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli), the major crop plant Zea mays, and the beneficial plant-microbe relationship between Z. mays and B. subtilis. AgNPs are an increasing component of antimicrobial consumer, industrial, and military products. This has led to widespread scientific concern for the ecological safety outside their intended use. An overview of their history, use, and toxicity was used to inform the design of experiments and resulting data. Growth inhibition and sub-lethal toxic effects were used to assess the effects of c-AgNP exposure to bacteria. Similar analytical methods were used to quantify the response of Z. mays to c-AgNP exposure. Results showed that exposure to c-AgNP significantly reduced the growth of bacterial populations and alters their growth kinetics. Z. mays experienced significant sub-lethal effects due to exposure, including reduced root length and biomass, and hyper-accumulated Ag in root tissues. Beneficial interactions between B. subtilis and Z. mays were reduced as both species suffered sub-lethal effects of exposure to c-AgNPs.

  19. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy.

  20. Impact of climate change on wheat productivity in mixed cropping system of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq, Farhad Zulfiqar, Irsa Sarwar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The climate change has important and measurable effects in Pakistan. The objective of this paper was to measure these effects on wheat productivity in mixed zone of Punjab province. A time series data from 1980-81 to 2008-09 was used to achieve the desired objective. The impact of climate change on wheat productivity was analyzed along with some economic incentives. The results of the analysis have shown that one degree centigrade increase in mean minimum temperature at sowing stage will increase wheat productivity by 146.57 kg ha-1. At vegetation stage the increase in mean maximum temperature will reduce productivity, although non significant, by speeding up vegetative growth and reducing grain development period. At maturity stage, the productivity gain will be 136.63 kg ha-1 as result of one degree centigrade increase in mean maximum temperature. The adequate amount of rainfall increases wheat productivity by 275.77 kg ha-1. The productivity response to economic variables was relatively flat and constant, 94.43 kg ha-1. It was thus concluded that the climate change is the major determinant of wheat productivity at each stage of wheat growth.

  1. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  2. The Impact of Insects on Second-Year Cone Crops in Red Pine Seed-Production Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Mattson

    1968-01-01

    Second-year cone crops in red pine seed-production areas have been severely damaged by five species of insects. Control of the two most destructive pests could increase present seed yields in most areas by at least 50 percent. Some seed-production areas may not produce harvestable seed crops until cone-insect populations are suppressed.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsala Shrestha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies, plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies, and weeds (88 studies compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59% to 86%. Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50% to 94% and amendment types (53% to 98%, except when amendments applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m-2. The ASD effect ranged from 15% to 56% for nematode suppression and 32% to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30% compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants

  4. Crop Production Risk in the Pampas: A Bayesian Weather Generator for Climate Change and Land Use Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Podesta, G. P.; Bert, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a space-time stochastic weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature, developed within a Bayesian hierarchical framework (hereafter BayGEN). This framework offers a unique advantage: it provides robust estimation of uncertainty that is typically under-represented in traditional weather generators. Realistic estimates of uncertainty are of utmost importance for studying climate variability and change, impacts on land use, and crop production. BayGEN is applied to a network of weather stations in the Salado basin of the Argentine Pampas, a region that saw immense agricultural expansion towards climatically marginal (i.e., semi-arid) regions, in part due to significant trends in annual precipitation from 1970-2000. Since the turn of the century, observed conditions suggest a decrease in precipitation, which begs the question: "Are the existing agricultural production systems viable in a drier future?" The use of process based (i.e., hydrologic, crop simulation) models in conjunction with BayGEN will allow for complete analysis of the system's response to an ensemble of plausible future scenarios. Precipitation occurrence at each site is modeled at the first level of hierarchy using probit regression with covariates for seasonality, where the latent process is Gaussian -- positivity in the latent process implies occurrence. The precipitation amounts are modeled using a transformed gamma regression (i.e., gamma generalized linear model), similarly with seasonality covariates. Minimum and maximum temperatures are conditional on precipitation occurrence and are decomposed into two processes: (i) climate -- linear regressions on seasonality covariates, and (ii) weather -- realizations from mean-zero Gaussian random fields. The use of seasonality covariates allows the generation of daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal forecasts or projected multi-annual trends, an increasingly important practice for risk assessment in climatically marginal

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  6. Impact of climate change on olive crop flowering at southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; de la Rosa, Raúl; León, Lorenzo; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Belaj, Angjelina; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Andalusia region (Southern Spain) is the largest olive oil producer in the world with 40% of the total production (1.1millions tons; FAOSTAT, 2013). Predicting flowering dates of olive under future climate conditions has a critical importance as flowering is a critical stage for olive as heat and water stresses during this period have a significant impact on final olive oil yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the olive flowering dates under future climate conditions. Climate data for the future period was obtained from the ENSEMBLES European Project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) with a bias correction in temperature and precipitation with regard with the SPAIN02 dataset (Herrera et al., 2012) (ENS-SP). Flowering of ten different olive cultivars were evaluated under current and forced (greenhouse) climate conditions, applying the bias in temperatures comparing the current period (1981-2010) with the future period (2071-2100) to the current conditions in Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). These observations allowed obtaining a flowering approach which was applied to the whole Andalusia region. The results showed an average advance in flowering dates about 16 days at the end of the 21st century. With these results different areas within Andalusia region were classified based on the vulnerability caused by the lack of chilling hours accumulation (coastal areas) or by high temperatures during flowering (north and northeast regions). This study has been supported by the project RTA2014-00030-00-00 funded by INIA and FEDER 2014-2020 "Programa Operativo de Crecimiento Inteligente" and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. FAOSTAT (2013) Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QD/E. Accessed 07 January 2016 Herrera S, Gutiérrez JM, Ancell R, Pons MR, Frías MD, Fernández J. 2012. Development and analysis of a 50-year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02

  7. Impacts of Fertilization Alternatives and Crop Straw Incorporation on N2O Emissions from a Spring Maize Field in Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; WANG Li-gang; LI Hu; QIU Jian-jun; LIU Hui-ying

    2014-01-01

    combination with the slow-release fertilizer type or nitriifcation inhibitor could effectively mitigate N2O emissions from the tested ifeld. The incorporation of crop residue didn’t show positive effect on mitigating N2O emissions from the tested cropping system. The ifeld study can provide useful information for the on-going debate on alternative N fertilization strategies and crop straw management in China. However, further studies would be needed to explore the long-term impacts of the alternative management practices on a wide range of environmental services.

  8. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  9. Impact of hormone replacement therapy on cardiac metabolic indicators in men with high cardiovascular risk and hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with androgens on cardiac metabolic indicators in men with high cardiovascular risk (CVR and androgen deficiency state. An open-label randomized clinical trial enrolled 52 men aged 30–64 years with high CVR and detected androgen-deficiency state. The men were randomized into 2 groups: a control group (CG (n = 26 continued to receive the pre-trial therapy; during the previous therapy, a study group (SG (n = 26 had daily applications of transdermal gel with testosterone (AndroGel in a daily dose of 50 mg of testosterone in 5 g of the gel. The trial lasted 180 days. The changes in the indicators under study were traced 90 days after treatment initiation at an intermediate visit and 180 days after the initiation of treatment – at the end of its treatment.At the end of the trial, HRT in men with androgen deficiency and high CVR led to normalization of testosterone levels in all the SG patients and to improvement in erectile function by 12 %. Androgen therapy caused a statistically significant reduction in blood pressure by 10 %; no changes were virtually observed in the CG. HRT promoted a slight, but significant weight loss (by an average of 2.8 kg and waist circumference (by an average of 1.7 cm. The therapy performed also lowered the concentration of total cholesterol by an average of 11 % and that of triglycerides by 22 %. During the therapy, there was a significant decrease in fasting insulin and glucose levels. Overall, the course therapy with transdermal gel in combination with testosterone resulted in a reduction in the expected total CVR by 30 %. Thus, HRT using testosterone preparations in men with hypogonadism and high CVR led to normalization of testosterone levels and major cardiac metabolic indicators and to improvement in erectile function.

  10. Impact of hormone replacement therapy on cardiac metabolic indicators in men with high cardiovascular risk and hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with androgens on cardiac metabolic indicators in men with high cardiovascular risk (CVR and androgen deficiency state. An open-label randomized clinical trial enrolled 52 men aged 30–64 years with high CVR and detected androgen-deficiency state. The men were randomized into 2 groups: a control group (CG (n = 26 continued to receive the pre-trial therapy; during the previous therapy, a study group (SG (n = 26 had daily applications of transdermal gel with testosterone (AndroGel in a daily dose of 50 mg of testosterone in 5 g of the gel. The trial lasted 180 days. The changes in the indicators under study were traced 90 days after treatment initiation at an intermediate visit and 180 days after the initiation of treatment – at the end of its treatment.At the end of the trial, HRT in men with androgen deficiency and high CVR led to normalization of testosterone levels in all the SG patients and to improvement in erectile function by 12 %. Androgen therapy caused a statistically significant reduction in blood pressure by 10 %; no changes were virtually observed in the CG. HRT promoted a slight, but significant weight loss (by an average of 2.8 kg and waist circumference (by an average of 1.7 cm. The therapy performed also lowered the concentration of total cholesterol by an average of 11 % and that of triglycerides by 22 %. During the therapy, there was a significant decrease in fasting insulin and glucose levels. Overall, the course therapy with transdermal gel in combination with testosterone resulted in a reduction in the expected total CVR by 30 %. Thus, HRT using testosterone preparations in men with hypogonadism and high CVR led to normalization of testosterone levels and major cardiac metabolic indicators and to improvement in erectile function.

  11. Potential impacts of CF3I on ozone as a replacement for CF3Br in aircraft applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Youn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodotrifluoromethane (CF3I has been considered to be a candidate replacement for bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, which is used in aircraft for fuel inerting and for fire fighting. In this study, the chemical effects of aircraft-released CF3I on atmospheric ozone were examined with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport (UIUC 2-D CRT model. Using an earlier estimate of the aircraft emission profile for tank inerting in military aircraft, the resulting equivalent Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for CF3I were in the range of 0.07 to 0.25. As a sensitivity study, we also analyzed CF3I emissions associated with fuel inerting if it were to occur at lower altitudes using an alternative estimate. The model calculations of resulting effects on ozone for this case gave ODPs≤0.05. Furthermore, through interactions with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, we analyzed the potential effects on ozone resulting from using CF3I in fire fighting connected with engine nacelle and auxiliary power unit applications. The scenarios evaluated using the NIST estimate suggested that the ODPs obtained by assuming aircraft flights occurring in several different latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are extremely low. According to the model calculation, the altitude where CF3I is released from aircraft is a dominant factor in its ozone depletion effects. On the assumption that the CF3I emission profile is representative of actual release characteristics, aircraft-released CF3I has much lower impacts on the ozone layer and can be a qualified substitute of CF3Br in engine nacelles.

  12. Potential impacts of CF3I on ozone as a replacement for CF3Br in aircraft applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodotrifluoromethane (CF3I has been considered to be a candidate replacement for bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, which is used in aircraft for fuel inerting and for fire fighting. In this study, the chemical effects of aircraft-released CF3I on atmospheric ozone were examined with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport (UIUC 2-D CRT model. Using an earlier estimate of the aircraft emission profile for tank inerting in military aircraft, the resulting equivalent Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for CF3I were in the range of 0.07 to 0.25. As a sensitivity study, we also analyzed CF3I emissions associated with fuel inerting if it were to occur at lower altitudes using an alternative estimate. The model calculations of resulting effects on ozone for this case gave ODPs≤0.05. Furthermore, through interactions with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, we analyzed the potential effects on ozone resulting from using CF3I in fire fighting connected with engine nacelle and auxiliary power unit applications. The scenarios evaluated using the NIST estimate suggested that the ODPs obtained by assuming aircraft flights occurring in several different latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are extremely low. According to the model calculation, the altitude where CF3I is released from aircraft is a dominant factor in its ozone depletion effects. On the assumption that the CF3I emission profile is representative of actual release characteristics, aircraft-released CF3I has much lower impacts than CF3Br.

  13. Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies in India during four decades and its impact on crop responses and nutritional health of human and animals

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Singh; Narwal, R P; G, Bhupal Raj; Patel, K P; Sadana, U S

    2009-01-01

    Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies phase wise during four decades (1968-2008) was studied in soils of India, their impact of crop production and changes in micronutrient concentration in seeds and fodders, thereby influences on animal and human health. Results of 269,000 soil sample analysis revealed that mean deficiency of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum was found in 49, 12, 3, 5, 33 and 13% samples, respectively. Throughout country, zinc deficiency is increasin...

  14. Comparison of SPI and SPEI applicability for drought impact assessment on crop production in the Danubian Lowland and the East Slovakian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudová, L.; Labuda, M.; Takáč, J.

    2016-07-01

    Drought belongs among the main impact factors considering crop yields. Therefore, this paper is focused on the assessment of drought occurrence and intensity as well as on its impact on crop yields on the Danubian and the East Slovakian lowlands with the spatial resolution at district level. Yield data were the main limitation of the study, which resulted in the limited length of the assessed period (1996-2013). The standardized yields of ten crops (winter wheat, spring wheat, winter barley, spring barley, rye, maize, potatoes, oilseed rape, sunflower, and sugar beet) were correlated with monthly, 2-, and 3-monthly standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI). For this purpose, the common significance level of alpha = 0.05 was used. The temporal evolution of both indices and drought occurrence during the period 1961-2013 were assessed for each district. Most crops show a higher correlation with the SPEI than with the SPI in contrast to potatoes, which reached a higher significant correlation using the SPI. The correlation also increases with increasing number of months within a time step. The highest correlation can be seen between maize and the 3-monthly SPEI in August representing summer precipitation and potential evapotranspiration conditions. Furthermore, a very high correlation was recorded considering sugar beet, which is influenced mainly by summer precipitation, because the correlation coefficient between the sugar beet and the 3-monthly SPI is as high as using the 3-monthly SPEI. Crop yields in the East Slovakian Lowland do not seem to be influenced by wet/dry periods identified using the SPI and the SPEI as their correlation with both indices is quite low and insignificant.

  15. Comparison of SPI and SPEI applicability for drought impact assessment on crop production in the Danubian Lowland and the East Slovakian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudová, L.; Labuda, M.; Takáč, J.

    2017-04-01

    Drought belongs among the main impact factors considering crop yields. Therefore, this paper is focused on the assessment of drought occurrence and intensity as well as on its impact on crop yields on the Danubian and the East Slovakian lowlands with the spatial resolution at district level. Yield data were the main limitation of the study, which resulted in the limited length of the assessed period (1996-2013). The standardized yields of ten crops (winter wheat, spring wheat, winter barley, spring barley, rye, maize, potatoes, oilseed rape, sunflower, and sugar beet) were correlated with monthly, 2-, and 3-monthly standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI). For this purpose, the common significance level of alpha = 0.05 was used. The temporal evolution of both indices and drought occurrence during the period 1961-2013 were assessed for each district. Most crops show a higher correlation with the SPEI than with the SPI in contrast to potatoes, which reached a higher significant correlation using the SPI. The correlation also increases with increasing number of months within a time step. The highest correlation can be seen between maize and the 3-monthly SPEI in August representing summer precipitation and potential evapotranspiration conditions. Furthermore, a very high correlation was recorded considering sugar beet, which is influenced mainly by summer precipitation, because the correlation coefficient between the sugar beet and the 3-monthly SPI is as high as using the 3-monthly SPEI. Crop yields in the East Slovakian Lowland do not seem to be influenced by wet/dry periods identified using the SPI and the SPEI as their correlation with both indices is quite low and insignificant.

  16. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Madalinska; M. van Beurden; E.M.A. Bleiker; H.B. Valdimarsdottir; J. Hollenstein; L.F. Massuger; K.N. Gaarenstroom; M.J.E. Mourits; R.H.M. Verheijen; E.B.L. van Dorst; H. van der Putten; K. van der Velden; H. Boonstra; N.K. Aaronson

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined t

  17. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madalinska, J.B.; Beurden, M. van; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Valdimarsdottir, H.B.; Hollenstein, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Mourits, M.J.E.; Verheijen, R.H.; Dorst, E.B.L. van; Putten, H. van der; Velden, K. van der; Boonstra, H.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined

  18. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madalinska, J.B.; Beurden, M. van; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Valdimarsdottir, H.B.; Hollenstein, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Mourits, M.J.E.; Verheijen, R.H.; Dorst, E.B.L. van; Putten, H. van der; Velden, K. van der; Boonstra, H.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined

  19. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality.

  20. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: An important first step for assessing impact of future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prakash N., E-mail: p.dixit@cgiar.org; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., > 30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with > 10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. - Highlights: • LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters. • LARS-WG can serve

  1. Investigating Impacts of Alternative Crop Market Scenarios on Land Use Change with an Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed an agent-based model (ABM to simulate farmers’ decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. Farm profit maximization constrained by farmers’ profit expectations for land committed to biofuel crop production was used as the decision rule. Empirical parameters characterizing farmers’ profit expectations were derived from an agricultural landowners and operators survey and integrated in the ABM. The integration of crop production cost models and the survey information in the ABM is critical to producing simulations that can provide realistic insights into agricultural land use planning and policy making. Model simulations were run with historical market prices and alternative market scenarios for corn price, soybean to corn price ratio, switchgrass price, and switchgrass to corn stover ratio. The results of the comparison between simulated cropland percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields. The simulation results for alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed in eastern Iowa show that farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form of perennial grasses or corn stover as a more risky enterprise than their current crop production systems, likely because of market and production risks and lock in effects. As a result farmers do not follow a simple farm-profit maximization rule.

  2. Impact of gestational diabetes and lactational insulin replacement on structure and secretory function of offspring rat ventral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sérgio A A; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C; Martins, Amanda E; Camargo, Ana C L; Leonelli, Carina; Delella, Flávia K; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Justulin, Luis A

    2014-09-15

    Clinical and experimental studies have shown that exposure to adverse conditions during the critical stages of embryonic, fetal or neonatal development lead to a significantly increased risk of later disease. Diabetes during pregnancy has been linked to increased risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Here, we investigated whether mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed or not by maternal insulin replacement affects the ventral prostate (VP) structure and function in male offspring at puberty and adulthood. Pregnant rats were divided into the following 3 groups: control (CT); streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (D); and D plus insulin replacement during lactation (GDI). The male offspring from different groups were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 60 and 120. Biometrical parameters, hormonal levels and prostates were evaluated. Mild-GDM promoted reduction in the glandular parenchyma and increased collagen deposition. Insulin replacement during lactation restored the VP morphology. Most importantly, mild-GDM decreased the androgen-induced secretory function as determined by prostatein expression, and insulin replacement reversed this effect. Our results demonstrated that mild GDM impairs VP parenchyma maturation, which is associated with an increase in the fibromuscular stroma compartment. Functionally, the reduction in the VP parenchyma decreases the glandular secretory activity as demonstrated by low expression of prostatein, a potent immunosuppressor factor that protects sperm from immunologic damage into the feminine reproductive tract. This change could lead to impairment of reproductive function in male offspring from diabetic mothers. Maternal insulin replacement during the weaning period apparently restores the prostate function in male offspring.

  3. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  4. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  5. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    by extreme climate events and climatic change. Therefore, a set of expert survey has been done to identify current and project future climate limitations to crop production and explore appropriate adaptation measures in NFR. Droughts have been the largest limitation for maize (Zea mays L.) in NSL and SSL...... film for soil cover. With the projected climate change and increasing risk of climatic extremes, additional adaptation measures will become relevant for sustaining and improving productivity of crops in NFR to ensure food security in China......., and for soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in SSL. Chilling damage has been the largest limitation for rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in XA, SJ and CB. Projected climate change is expected to be beneficial for expanding the crop growing season, and to provide more suitable conditions for sowing and harvest. Autumn...

  6. Integrated remote sensing imagery and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling approach for impact evaluation of flood on crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huili; Liang, Zhongyao; Liu, Yong; Liang, Qiuhua; Xie, Shuguang

    2017-10-01

    The projected frequent occurrences of extreme flood events will cause significant losses to crops and will threaten food security. To reduce the potential risk and provide support for agricultural flood management, prevention, and mitigation, it is important to account for flood damage to crop production and to understand the relationship between flood characteristics and crop losses. A quantitative and effective evaluation tool is therefore essential to explore what and how flood characteristics will affect the associated crop loss, based on accurately understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of flood evolution and crop growth. Current evaluation methods are generally integrally or qualitatively based on statistic data or ex-post survey with less diagnosis into the process and dynamics of historical flood events. Therefore, a quantitative and spatial evaluation framework is presented in this study that integrates remote sensing imagery and hydraulic model simulation to facilitate the identification of historical flood characteristics that influence crop losses. Remote sensing imagery can capture the spatial variation of crop yields and yield losses from floods on a grid scale over large areas; however, it is incapable of providing spatial information regarding flood progress. Two-dimensional hydraulic model can simulate the dynamics of surface runoff and accomplish spatial and temporal quantification of flood characteristics on a grid scale over watersheds, i.e., flow velocity and flood duration. The methodological framework developed herein includes the following: (a) Vegetation indices for the critical period of crop growth from mid-high temporal and spatial remote sensing imagery in association with agricultural statistics data were used to develop empirical models to monitor the crop yield and evaluate yield losses from flood; (b) The two-dimensional hydraulic model coupled with the SCS-CN hydrologic model was employed to simulate the flood evolution process

  7. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy on survival in adults with Pompe disease: Results from a prospective international observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Güngör (Deniz); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); I. Plug (Iris); R.B. D'Agostino (Ralph); M.L.C. Hagemans (Marloes); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a rare metabolic myopathy for which disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. ERT has shown efficacy concerning muscle strength and pulmonary function in adult patients. However, no data on the effect of ERT on the survi

  8. The lasting impact of adolescence on left-right identification : Cohort replacement and intracohort change in associations with issue attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the ideological correlates of left-right identification in the Netherlands changed between 1980 and 2008, and whether these changes were driven by cohort replacement. Analyses on repeated cross-sectional data revealed an increasing association with immigration and a decreasin

  9. To remove or to replace traditional electronic games? A crossover randomised controlled trial on the impact of removing or replacing home access to electronic games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of (1) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (2) their replacement with active input electronic games, on daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years. Design Crossover randomised controlled trial, over 6 months. Setting Family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia from 2007 to 2010. Participants 10-year-old to 12-year-old children were recruited through school and community media. From 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, 8 withdrew and 10 had insufficient primary outcome measures, leaving 56 children (29 female) for analysis. Intervention A counterbalanced randomised order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: no home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games and home access to active input electronic games. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accelerometer assessed moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included sedentary time and diary assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results Daily MVPA across the whole week was not significantly different between conditions. However, compared with home access to traditional electronic games, removal of all electronic games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (mean 3.8 min/day, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1) and a decrease in sedentary time (4.7 min/day, 0.0 to 9.5) in the after-school period. Similarly, replacing traditional games with active input games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (3.2 min/day, 0.9 to 5.5) and a decrease in sedentary time (6.2 min/day, 1.4 to 11.4) in the after-school period. Diary reports supported an increase in physical activity and a decrease in screen-based sedentary behaviours with both interventions. Conclusions Removal of sedentary electronic games from the child's home and replacing these with active electronic games both resulted in small, objectively measured improvements in

  10. Errors and uncertainties introduced by a regional climate model in climate impact assessments: example of crop yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarohetra, Johanna; Pohl, Benjamin; Sultan, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The challenge of estimating the potential impacts of climate change has led to an increasing use of dynamical downscaling to produce fine spatial-scale climate projections for impact assessments. In this work, we analyze if and to what extent the bias in the simulated crop yield can be reduced by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis) rainfall and radiation data. Then, we evaluate the uncertainties resulting from both the choice of the physical parameterizations of the WRF model and its internal variability. Impact assessments were performed at two sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and by using two crop models to simulate Niger pearl millet and Benin maize yields. We find that the use of the WRF model to downscale ERA-Interim climate data generally reduces the bias in the simulated crop yield, yet this reduction in bias strongly depends on the choices in the model setup. Among the physical parameterizations considered, we show that the choice of the land surface model (LSM) is of primary importance. When there is no coupling with a LSM, or when the LSM is too simplistic, the simulated precipitation and then the simulated yield are null, or respectively very low; therefore, coupling with a LSM is necessary. The convective scheme is the second most influential scheme for yield simulation, followed by the shortwave radiation scheme. The uncertainties related to the internal variability of the WRF model are also significant and reach up to 30% of the simulated yields. These results suggest that regional models need to be used more carefully in order to improve the reliability of impact assessments.

  11. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  12. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  13. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  14. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  15. Impacts of Climate Warming on Crop Diseases and Pests in China%气候变暖对中国农作物病虫害的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍治国; 李茂松; 王丽; 温泉沛; 肖晶晶; 黄大鹏; 王春艳

    2012-01-01

    基于已有研究成果,检测农作物病虫害发生危害时空变化对气候变暖时空变化响应的已有观测事实及其变化规律性,汇总气候变暖对农作物病虫害未来发生趋势的已有预估结果,提出其影响的最新认知,并对今后的发展方向进行了展望.气候变暖可使大部病虫害发育历期缩短、危害期延长,害虫种群增长力增加、繁殖世代数可比常年增加1个代次,发生界限北移、海拔界限高度增加,危害地理范围扩大,危害程度呈明显加重趋势.但也使一些对高温敏感的病虫害呈减弱趋势,致使小麦条锈病、蚜虫等病虫由低海拔地区向高海拔地区迁移危害.未来气候变暖将使中国大部农作物病虫害发生呈扩大、加重趋势.气侯变暖对农作物病虫害的影响诊断、发生与灾变的影响预估、风险评估及适应对策将是未来需要重点解决的关键问题.%Based on the previous research, the existing facts of the temporal-spatial variation of crop diseases and pests in response to the climate wanning in crop growing season, the regularities and the development tendency of crop diseases and pests were systematically analyzed and summarized Then updated the understandings of impacts of climate wanning on crop diseases and pests are put forward and future research trends were suggested. For most crop diseases and pests, climate warming in crop growing season could shorten the development duration, lengthen the damage period, accelerate the development of population growth, increase one more breeding generation than normal, make the occurrence boundary move northward, elevate the limit of altitude, expand the geographic range and significantly aggravate the severity. By contrast, climate warming in growing season diminished the quantity of some high temperature sensitive pests and pathogens, resulting in the migration of wheat stripe rust and aphid from low-altitude areas to high-altitude areas

  16. Integrated crop protection and environment exposure to pesticides: methods to reduce use and impact of pesticides in arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of Integrated Farming Systems for arable farming are being developed in the Netherlands based on a coherent methodology elaborated in an European Union concerted action. The role of crop protection in Integrated systems is, additional to all other methods, to efficiently control the

  17. A Critical Assessment of Methods for Analysis of Social Welfare Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Demont, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of existing literature on economic and environmental costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops focusing on methodological issues arising from this literature. Particular attention is given to the production function framework commonly used to quantify costs and ben

  18. CROPS Clever Robots for Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS project robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit
    and fruit vegetables. The robots are being designed to harvest crops, such as greenhouse vegetables, apples,
    grapes and for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target sp

  19. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  20. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most

  1. Favorable Impacts of Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement Therapy on Atherogenic Risks in Japanese Children with GH Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Fujieda, Kenji; Chihara, Kazuo; Seino, Yoshiki; Irie, Minoru; Takano, Kazue

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) affects body composition and atherogenic risk factors. Severe hyperlipidemia may develop in GH-deficient adults as a consequence of continuous GH deficiency. We investigated changes in lipid profiles in 158 Japanese children (103 boys and 55 girls) with GH deficiency who had been enrolled in the Pfizer International Growth Database Japan during 3 yr of GH replacement therapy to evaluate whether GH treatment has beneficial effects on atherogenic risk factors. Total choleste...

  2. The impact of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing characteristics and consumer acceptance of restructured cooked hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J

    2014-03-01

    Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists. All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health Check(TM) Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of organic and conventional crop management on diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria and total bacteria are subsidiary to temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caroline H; Leifert, Carlo; Cummings, Stephen P; Cooper, Julia M

    2012-01-01

    A three year field study (2007-2009) of the diversity and numbers of the total and metabolically active free-living diazotophic bacteria and total bacterial communities in organic and conventionally managed agricultural soil was conducted using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study, in northeast England. Fertility management appeared to have little impact on both diazotrophic and total bacterial communities. However, copy numbers of the nifH gene did appear to be negatively impacted by conventional crop protection measures across all years suggesting diazotrophs may be particularly sensitive to pesticides. Impacts of crop management were greatly overshadowed by the influence of temporal effects with diazotrophic communities changing on a year by year basis and from season to season. Quantitative analyses using qPCR of each community indicated that metabolically active diazotrophs were highest in year 1 but the population significantly declined in year 2 before recovering somewhat in the final year. The total bacterial population in contrast increased significantly each year. It appeared that the dominant drivers of qualitative and quantitative changes in both communities were annual and seasonal effects. Moreover, regression analyses showed activity of both communities was significantly affected by soil temperature and climatic conditions.

  4. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  5. 转基因耐草甘膦作物的环境安全性%Environmental impacts of glyphosate-tolerant crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香菊; 崔海兰

    2011-01-01

    FAO estimates of food production losses due to weeds are approximately USD 95 billion per year. Weed control is one of the fanner's biggest challenges in crop production. To control weeds, farmers hope to use broad-spectrum herbicides, which kill nearly all kinds of plants. The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant crops transforms the way many growers manage weeds, because glyphosate makes weed control easier and more effective, increases profit, requires less tillage, and does not restrict crop rotations. The rapid adoption of glyphosate-tolerant crops gives rise to the public concerns on their environmental impact. This paper presents the results of literature review on past studies mostly on the environmental effects through introduction of glyphosate tolerant crops, which will provide information for safety assessment and management of glyphosate-tolerant crops in China.%世界每年因草害造成的作物产量损失达950亿美元,为了简便有效地防除多种杂草,农民希望喷施杀草谱广的除草剂.转基因耐除草剂作物的种植为农民提供了更多的除草剂选择,在扩大杀草谱、提高除草效果、增加作物安全性、改善环境、简化栽培等方面起到了积极作用.转基因耐除草剂作物的大面积种植也引起了全球对其环境安全问题的广泛关注.本文以耐草甘膦作物为例,对国内外环境安全的相关研究结果进行归纳和总结,以期为我国耐草甘膦转基因作物的环境安全评价及耐草甘膦作物的管理提供参考.

  6. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution between two abundant rainfalls during the growing season led to a significant change in yield (0.5 t ha-1 on average). Our results highlight the importance of using fine

  7. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  8. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  9. CROP FARMIERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, their success in addressing the credit needs of food crop farmers remains a ..... will to carry such policies through in the match .... farmer, his mental capacity to cope with the daily .... had stated that farm level credit when properly.

  10. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  12. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomatsu S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shunji Tomatsu,1,2 Kazuki Sawamoto,1 Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz,3 Tsutomu Shimada,1 Michael B Bober,1 Yasutsugu Chinen,4 Hiromasa Yabe,5 Adriana M Montaño,6 Roberto Giugliani,7 Francyne Kubaski,1,8 Eriko Yasuda,1 Alexander Rodríguez-López,3 Angela J Espejo-Mojica,3 Oscar F Sánchez,9 Robert W Mason,1 Luis A Barrera,3 William G Mackenzie,1 Tadao Orii2 1Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan; 3Institute for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, School of Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 5Department of Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan; 6Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 7Medical Genetics Service/HCPA and Department of Genetics/UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 8Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 9School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone

  13. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Spencer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR. Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  14. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  15. Impact of aspirin use in the incidence of thromboembolic events after bioprosthesis replacement in patients with rheumatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues Durães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is still much debate regarding the kind of antithrombotic therapy in the immediate postoperative period of bioprosthesis replacement (first three months. Thus, the authors consider relevant to determine the contemporary incidence of thromboembolic events in rheumatic patients early after implantation of aortic and mitral bioprosthesis replacement (first 90 days in the post-operative period and perform a comparison between isolated Aspirin uses versus no-antiplatelet therapy, in this same context. METHODS: Between the period of January 2010 to July 2012, all consecutive rheumatic patients, with basal sinus rhythm, who performed mitral and aortic valve replacement with bioprosthesis (pericardial bovine, were included in this prospective cohort study, 184 patients in total. The primary endpoint evaluated were the rate of embolic events. RESULTS: In the first 30 days, there were three cerebral ischemic events among patients treated in Aspirin group (5.2% compared with two events in patients without Aspirin therapy (1.7%, HR = 3.18; 95% CI 0.5 to 19.6; P=0.33. Between 31 and 90 days postoperatively, no patient had a primary outcome. The embolism-free survival, bleeding events and the overall survival were not statistically significant between the aspirin and no-antiplatelet groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of rheumatic patients, we found a low and very rare incidence rate of embolic events during the first 90 days postoperative period in mitral and isolated aortic position, respectively. The use of aspirin did not significantly reduce the rate of thromboembolism.

  16. Impact of food processing on the safety assessment for proteins introduced into biotechnology-derived soybean and corn crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B G; Jez, J M

    2011-04-01

    The food safety assessment of new agricultural crop varieties developed through biotechnology includes evaluation of the proteins introduced to impart desired traits. Safety assessments can include dietary risk assessments similar to those performed for chemicals intentionally, or inadvertently added to foods. For chemicals, it is assumed they are not degraded during processing of the crop into food fractions. For introduced proteins, the situation can be different. Proteins are highly dependent on physical forces in their environment to maintain appropriate three-dimensional structure that supports functional activity. Food crops such as corn and soy are not consumed raw but are extensively processed into various food fractions. During processing, proteins in corn and soy are subjected to harsh environmental conditions that drastically change the physical forces leading to denaturation and loss of protein function. These conditions include thermal processing, changes in pH, reducing agents, mechanical shearing etc. Studies have shown that processing of introduced proteins such as enzymes that impart herbicide tolerance or proteins that control insect pests leads to a complete loss of functional activity. Thus, dietary exposure to functionally active proteins in processed food products can be negligible and below levels of any safety concerns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina. Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/g of soil. The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H. The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices.

  18. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of climatic shifts on the production and processing of native and traditional crops in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alder eKeleman Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data was collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed-methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes a the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia; and b the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp., oca (Oxalis tuberosa, tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis, papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus, and charkay (llama or sheep jerky. Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Further, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. While these findings are drawn from a single case-study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, indigenous food systems. Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture, and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  19. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleman Saxena, Alder; Cadima Fuentes, Ximena; Gonzales Herbas, Rhimer; Humphries, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  20. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  1. Impact of ingredient replacers on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of reduced salt and fat black puddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellendorf, Susann; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-two black puddings possessing different fat (10%, 5%) and sodium (0.6%, 0.4%) levels were used as base formulations for 11 different salt and fat replacers. Compositional, physicochemical and sensory analyses were conducted. Black pudding samples with 5% fat and 0.6% sodium containing potassium chloride (KCl), potassium chloride and glycine mixture (KClG), and seaweed, respectively, and 10% fat and 0.4% sodium containing carrageen were rated higher (Psodium containing KClG were rated positively (Psodium containing pectin and a combination of potassium citrate, potassium phosphate and potassium chloride (KCPCl), as well as samples containing 10% fat and 0.4% sodium with waxy maize starch (WMS) were liked (PFood Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) recommends a sodium target level of 0.6% and an even lower sodium level (0.4%) was achieved.

  2. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  3. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-01

    To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Multivariate time-series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Population of Scotland. Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = -£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = -£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately within 1 month of broadcast and was sustained for at least 6 months. © 2017 The

  4. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Design Multivariate time–series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Setting and participants Population of Scotland. Measurements Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Findings Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = –£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = –£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Conclusions Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately

  5. Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schiller, A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable feedstock resources. The Department of Energy is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soil conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row crops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different biomass crops for selected wildlife species is also under study. To date, these studies have shown that in comparison with row crops biomass plantings of both grass and tree crops increased biodiversity of birds; however, the habitat value of tree plantations is not equivalent to natural forests. The effects on native wildlife of establishing multiple plantations across a landscape are being studied. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing biomass feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the probable effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.

  6. Conservation agriculture impact for soil conservation in maize–wheat cropping system in the Indian sub-Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is considered as a suitable technique for soil erosion control, productivity enhancement, and improved economic benefits. To investigate these issues, an experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions using grass vegetation strip (VS with minimum tillage, organic amendments and weed mulch during June 2007–October 2011 at Dehradun, Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayan region. Results showed that the mean wheat equivalent yield was ~47% higher in the plots under with CA compared with conventional agriculture in a maize–wheat crop rotation. Mean runoff coefficients and soil loss with CA plots were ~45% less and ~54% less than conventional agriculture plots. On average, after the harvest of maize, soil moisture conservation up to 90 cm soil depth for wheat crop was 108% higher under CA than conventional agriculture plots. The net return from the plots with CA was 85% higher, and when expressed net return per tonne of soil loss, it was four and half times higher than conventional practice. Results demonstrate that the suitable CA practice (a grass strip of Palmarosa with applied organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and poultry manure along with weed mulching under conservation tillage enhances system productivity, reduces runoff, soil loss and conserve soil moisture.

  7. Assessing the Economic Impact of Inversion Tillage, Cover Crops, and Herbicide Regimes in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Infested Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Duzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. producers in Alabama are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers increasingly rely on integrated weed management strategies that raise production costs. This analysis evaluated how tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regime affected net returns above variable treatment costs (net returns for cotton production in Alabama from 2009 to 2011 under pressure from Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.. Annual net returns were compared for two tillage treatments (inversion and noninversion tillage, three cover crops (crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.], cereal rye [Secale cereal L.], and winter fallow, and three herbicide regimes (PRE, POST, and PRE+POST. Results indicate that under heavy Palmer amaranth population densities one year of inversion tillage followed by two years of noninversion tillage, along with a POST or PRE+POST herbicide application had the highest net returns in the first year; however, the economic benefit of inversion tillage, across all herbicide treatments, was nonexistent in 2010 and 2011. Cotton producers with Palmer amaranth infestations would likely benefit from cultural controls, in conjunction with herbicide applications, as part of their weed management system to increase net returns.

  8. Abundance and diversity of soybean-nodulating rhizobia in black soil are impacted by land use and crop management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Han, Xiao Zeng; Ji, Zhao Jun; Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Xie, Zhi Hong; Chen, Wen Feng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of land use and crop management on soybean rhizobial communities, 280 nodule isolates were trapped from 7 fields with different land use and culture histories. Besides the known Bradyrhizobium japonicum, three novel genospecies were isolated from these fields. Grassland (GL) maintained a higher diversity of soybean bradyrhizobia than the other cultivation systems. Two genospecies (Bradyrhizobium spp. I and III) were distributed widely in all treatments, while Bradyrhizobium sp. II was found only in GL treatment. Cultivation with soybeans increased the rhizobial abundance and diversity, except for the soybean monoculture (S-S) treatment. In monoculture systems, soybeans favored Bradyrhizobium sp. I, while maize and wheat favored Bradyrhizobium sp. III. Fertilization decreased the rhizobial diversity indexes but did not change the species composition. The organic carbon (OC) and available phosphorus (AP) contents and pH were the main soil parameters positively correlated with the distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. I and II and Bradyrhizobium japonicum and negatively correlated with Bradyrhizobium sp. III. These results revealed that different land uses and crop management could not only alter the diversity and abundance of soybean rhizobia, but also change interactions between rhizobia and legume or nonlegume plants, which offered novel information about the biogeography of rhizobia.

  9. Long-term impact of farm management and crops on soil microorganisms assessed by combined DGGE and PLFA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eStagnari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, long-term organic and conventional managements were compared at the experimental field of Monsampolo del Tronto (Marche region, Italy with the aim of investigating soil chemical fertility and microbial community structure. A polyphasic approach, combining soil fertility indicators with microbiological analyses (plate counts, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] and phospholipid fatty acid analysis [PLFA] was applied. Organic matter, N as well as some important macro and micronutrients (K, P, Mg, Mn, Cu and Zn for crop growth, were more available under organic management. Bacterial counts were higher in organic management. A significant influence of management system and management x crop interaction was observed for total mesophilic bacteria, nitrogen fixing bacteria and actinobacteria. Interestingly, cultivable fungi were not detected in all analyzed samples. PLFA biomass was higher in the organic and Gram positive bacteria dominated the microbial community in both systems. Even if fungal biomass was higher in organic management, fungal PCR-DGGE fingerprinting revealed that the two systems were very similar in terms of fungal species suggesting that 10 years were not enough to establish a new dynamic equilibrium among ecosystem components. A better knowledge of soil biota and in particular of fungal community structure will be useful for the development of sustainable management strategies.

  10. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  11. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  12. Impact of magnetic resonance urography on preoperative diagnostic workup in children affected by hydronephrosis: should IVU be replaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, A; Nadalin, S; Schirg, E; Petersen, C; Kardorff, R; Galanski, M; Fuchs, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in preoperative diagnostic workup of children with hydronephrosis in a prospective clinical study with comparison of MRU, standard diagnostic investigations, and intraoperative findings. Thirty-one children with hydronephrosis secondary to different causes underwent ultrasound scan (US), intravenous urography (IVU), micturation cysto-urethrography (MCU), isotope nephrography (ING) and MRU. For MRU the authors performed sagittal and coronal halve-Fourier SSFSE scans in a 1.5 Tesla MR system. T1- and T2-weighted sequences were used in axial orientation to improve morphologic information. In 24 patients, preoperative data were compared with intraoperative findings. Comparison of the different imaging modalities proved MRU to be able to provide more detailed information about the correct localization of stenoses along the urinary tract and the morphology of renal parenchyma. MRU showed the highest concordance of all imaging modalities with intraoperative findings. As a reliable investigation, MRU has the potentials to replace IVU in preoperative diagnostic workup of hydronephrosis in childhood. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative impact of AAV and enzyme replacement therapy on respiratory and cardiac function in adult Pompe mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin J Falk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for degradation of lysosomal glycogen (acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory muscle weakness are primary features of this disorder. To attenuate the progressive and rapid accumulation of glycogen resulting in cardiorespiratory dysfunction, adult Gaa−/− mice were administered a single systemic injection of rAAV2/9-DES-hGAA (AAV9-DES or bimonthly injections of recombinant human GAA (enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Assessment of cardiac function and morphology was measured 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatment while whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic contractile function was evaluated at 3 months post-treatment in all groups. Gaa−/− animals receiving either AAV9-DES or ERT demonstrated a significant improvement in cardiac function and diaphragmatic contractile function as compared to control animals. AAV9-DES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in cardiac dimension (end diastolic left ventricular mass/gram wet weight; EDMc at 3 months postinjection. Neither AAV nor ERT therapy altered minute ventilation during quiet breathing (eupnea. However, breathing frequency and expiratory time were significantly improved in AAV9-DES animals. These results indicate systemic delivery of either strategy improves cardiac function but AAV9-DES alone improves respiratory parameters at 3 months post-treatment in a murine model of Pompe disease.

  14. Long-Term Impact of Soil Management on Microbial Biomass C, N and P in Rice-Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 12-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods and fertilization systems on microbial biomass C, N and P of a gray fluvo-aguic soil in rice-based cropping system. Five fertilization treatments were designed under conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT) system: no fertilizer (CK); chemical fertilizer only (CF); combining chemical fertilizer with pig manure (PM); combining chemical fertilizer with crop straw (CS) and fallow (F). The results showed that biomass C, N and P were enriched in the surface layer of no-tilled soil, whereas they distributed relatively evenly in the tilled soil, which might result from enrichment of crop residue, organic manure and mineral fertilizer, and surficial development of root systems under NT. Under the cultivation system, NT had slightly greater biomass C, N and P at 0~5 cm depth, significantly less biomass C, N and P at 5~15 cm depth, less microbial biomass C, N and equivalent biomass P at 15~30 cm depth as compared to CT, indicating that tillage was beneficial for the multiplication of organisms in the plowed layer of soil. Under the fallow system, biomass C, N and P in the surface layer were significantly greater for NT than CT while their differences between the two tillage methods were negligible in the deeper layers. In the surface layer, biomass C, N and P in the soils amended with organic manure combined with mineral fertilizers were significantly greater than those of the treatments only with mineral fertilizers and the control. Soils without fertilizer had the least biomass nutrient contents among the five fertilization treatments. Obviously, the long-term application of organic manure could maintain the higher activity of microorganisms in soils. The amounts of biomass C, N and P in the fallowed soils varied with the tillage methods; they were much greater under NT than under CT, especially in the surface layer, suggesting that the frequent plowing could decrease

  15. The impact of nitrogen source and crop rotation on nitrogen mass balances in the Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesh, J; Drinkwater, L E

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) leaching to surface waters from grain farms in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB), USA, is the primary cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Regional-scale N mass balances indicate that a small, intensively cropped area of the upper MRB contributes disproportionately to nitrate loading. These aggregate balances miss small-scale variability, especially that caused by differences in farm management. We constructed N mass balances for a gradient of farm types, from corn-soybean monocultures to diversified grain farms that rely on biological N fixation (BNF) as a primary N source, to compare the relative efficiency of diverse farming systems in the MRB. Five-year N balances were calculated for a most and least productive field on each farm using data collected from interviews with 95 grain farmers in Iowa, Ohio, Minnesota, and Wisconsin; from legume biomass and corn grain samples collected from a subset of farms; and published values from the literature. Nitrogen balances ranged from high average annual surpluses (149 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) to large deficits (80 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), and differed based on N source and crop rotation. Fields with > 50% of total N additions from legume N sources and fields with complex crop rotations that included both annual and perennial species were approximately in balance (3.7 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 5.7 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1), respectively) compared to fertilizer-based practices in corn-soybean rotations with average annual surpluses near 35 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Surplus N was also inversely related to the proportion of total N inputs from BNF for medium (80-160 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) to high (> 160 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) N rates. Diversified farmers were more likely to adjust their management practices in response to environmental variability compared to fertilizer-based farmers. Taken together, results from this study suggest that significantly reducing surplus N in agroecosystems will require reducing N

  16. Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: Insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ramachandran; Praveen, Dhanya; R, Jaganathan; D, RajaLakshmi; K, Palanivelu

    2017-01-01

    India's dependence on a climate sensitive sector like agriculture makes it highly vulnerable to its impacts. However, agriculture is highly heterogeneous across the country owing to regional disparities in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. It is essential to know and quantify the possible impacts of changes in climate on crop yield for successful agricultural management and planning at a local scale. The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM-ES) was employed to generate regional climate projections for the study area using the Regional Climate Model (RCM) RegCM4.4. The dynamics in potential impacts at the sub-district level were evaluated using the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCPs). The aim of this study was to simulate the crop yield under a plausible change in climate for the coastal areas of South India through the end of this century. The crop simulation model, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) 4.5, was used to understand the plausible impacts on the major crop yields of rice, groundnuts, and sugarcane under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. The findings reveal that under the RCP 4.5 scenario there will be decreases in the major C3 and C4 crop yields in the study area. This would affect not only the local food security, but the livelihood security as well. This necessitates timely planning to achieve sustainable crop productivity and livelihood security. On the other hand, this situation warrants appropriate adaptations and policy intervention at the sub-district level for achieving sustainable crop productivity in the future.

  17. Impact of organic and mineral inputs onto soil biological and metabolic activities under a long-term rice-wheat cropping system in sub-tropical Indian Inceptisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Nirmalendu; Datta, Ashim; Mitran, Tarik; Mandal, Biswapati; Mani, P K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of organic and mineral inputs has an overriding impact on soil biological and metabolic activities and crop management. Farm yard manure (FYM), paddy straw (PS) and green manure (GM, Sesbania sesban L.) were used for 24- years old rice (Oyza sativa L.) -wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in sub-tropical India to predict whether the screened soil biological and metabolic activities are correlated with system yield. The integrated approaches viz., NPK + FYM, NPK + PS and NPK + GM significantly increased both rice and wheat yield together by 67.5, 44.4 and 55.4%, respectively over control. However, for a few exceptions both soil microbial activity and metabolic activity were remarkably enhanced under integrated treatment NPK + FYM followed by NPK + PS, and NPK + GM, respectively. Among the studied attributes fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase activity (β-glu) and microbial biomass C (C(mic)) were screened through principal component (PCA) and discriminate analysis (DA) that explained nearly 89% of total variations of the entire data set. Among the four identified attributes, only β-glu assay value could predict system yield (R2 = 0.65). Further, estimation of β-glu activity in soil can predict other soil biological properties (R2 = 0.96).

  18. Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

  19. Impacts of Soil Additives on Crop Yield and C-Sequestration in Post Mine Substrates of Lusatia, Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.RODIONOV; S.NII-ANNANG; O.BENS; M.TRIMBORN; S.SCHILLEM; B.U.SCHNEIDER; T.RAAB; R.F.H(U)TTL

    2012-01-01

    Opencast lignite mining in the Lusatia region of Germany has resulted in large scale landscape disturbances,which require suitable recultivation techniques in order to promote plant growth and establishment in the remaining nutrient-poor substrates with low water-holding capacity.Thus,the effects of two commercial soil additives (CSA),a hydrophilic polymer mixed with volcanic rock flour and bentonite (a-CSA),and digester solids from biogas plants enriched with humic acids and bentonite (b-CSA),on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage,plant yields and root biomass were assessed after cultivating perennial crops (Dactylis glomerata L.) in monoculture and Helianthus annuus L.-Brassica napus L.in crop rotation systems.The CSA were incorporated into the top 20 cm soil depth using a rotary spader.The results indicated that a-CSA led to a significant increase in plant yield during the first year,and improved root biomass in the following year.As a result,SOC stocks increased,especially in the 0-10 cm soil layer.No significant sequestration of additional SOC was observed on b-CSA-amended plots at the end of both years.Bulk density values decreased in all treatments under the monoculture system.It can be concluded that application of a-CSA enhanced soil water availability for plant uptake and consequently promoted plant growth and organic carbon sequestration.The relative enrichment of organic matter without effects on water-holding capacities of b-CSA treatments suggested that it was not suitable for rapid land reclamation.

  20. Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on Weed Density, Yield and Quality of Cotton in Wheat Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Niamatullah Khan; Muhammad Umar Khan; Aziz ur Rehman; Said Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Conservation tillage may improve yield of cotton in addition to improvement in soil quality if practiced for longer period. However, the practice may not be productive in short-term particularly when severe weeds are infesting the crops such as Cynodon dactylon, Conyza canadensis, Tribulus terrestris, and Cyperus rotundus, etc. Recent studies indicate that conventional tillage (CT) is more productive than zero tillage (ZT)/reduced tillage (RT). Performance of cotton under three tillage systems, viz., ZT, RT and CT;and five herbicides, i.e., haloxyfop-R-methyl 10.8 EC (108 g a.i. ha-1), lactofen 24 EC (168 g a.i. ha-1), haloxyfop 10.8 EC+lactofen 24 EC, hand weeding, and weedy check were evaluated during 2010-2011 at Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan, to explore the best management option for effective weed control, enhanced yield and quality of cotton grown after wheat. The results revealed that hand weeding and Haloxyfop as post emergence alone or in combination with Lactofen reduced weed density to the minimum irrespective of the tillage systems. Excessive rainfall and cooler temperature limited cotton growth and yield in 2010. The adverse weather conditions had more adverse effect on boll weight under ZT and RT than CT. Haloxyfop+lactofen produced higher seed cotton yield in RT than ZT, however, it could not exceed CT. Broad-spectrum herbicides × CT produced the highest number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. Fiber quality and net returns were also the highest in broad-spectrum herbicides × CT. In conclusion, broad-spectrum herbicides under CT were more productive in wheat based cropping system on silty clay soil of D.I.Khan.

  1. Group-based crop change planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Arsanjani, Jamal J.; Tayyebi, Amir H.;

    2016-01-01

    as a result of crop change in an agricultural landscape: (1) conflicts among multiple ecosystem services i.e., internal conflicts and (2) conflicts among multiple stakeholders i.e., external conflicts. While a spatial decision support system (SDSS) can provide answers concerning multifaceted problems...... erosion, greenhouse gas emission, surface water, and biodiversity, to develop two crop change scenarios by replacing perennial energy crops with annual energy crops and vice versa. We then used an online SDSS, SmartScape™, and applied it to Dane county, Wisconsin, U.S. to (1) run the two aforementioned...

  2. Rush for cash crops and forest protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Mertz, Ole

    2016-01-01

    forest cover and prepares for REDD+ (reducing deforestation and forest degradation). This paper explores how the recent boom in cash crops is impacting land use and livelihoods of local communities, as well as affecting forest conservation in Hua Meuang District of Huaphan Province in northeastern Laos...... and have achieved an increase in both income and household assets. Maize has replaced upland rice cultivation as well as primary and secondary forests. Although the government policies aim to spare land for forest conservation by intensifying agriculture, the result is rapid agricultural expansion...... and no spared forest. Moreover, the traditional land-sharing landscapes with forest, fallows, and fields are being transformed, creating landscapes that are increasingly dominated by agriculture. This may still be in line with economic development policies, but it is at odds with forest conservation policies...

  3. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin e-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, Vitas

    2014-04-22

    Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant

  4. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin E-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jäger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development

  5. Impact of pharmacist antimicrobial dosing adjustments in septic patients on continuous renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Ma, Kui-Fen; Zheng, Xia; Lu, Xiao-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Correct dosing of antimicrobial drugs in septic patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is complex. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dosing adjustments performed by pharmacists on the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, ICU cost, and antimicrobial adverse drug events (ADEs). A single-center, 2-phase (pre-/post-intervention) study was performed in an ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Septic patients receiving CRRT in the post-intervention phase received a specialized antimicrobial dosing service from critical care pharmacists, whereas patients in the pre-intervention phase received routine medical care without involving pharmacists. The 2 phases were compared to evaluate the outcomes of pharmacist interventions. Pharmacists made 183 antimicrobial dosing adjustment recommendations for septic patients receiving CRRT. Changes in CRRT-related variables (116, 63.4%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, and β-lactams (101, 55.2%) were the antimicrobials most commonly associated with dosing errors. Dosing adjustments were related to a reduced length of ICU stay from 10.7 ± 11.1 days to 7.7 ± 8.3 days (p = 0.037) in the intervention group, and to cost savings of $3525 (13,463 ± 12,045 vs. 9938 ± 8811, p = 0.038) per septic patient receiving CRRT in the ICU. Suspected antimicrobial adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly fewer than in the pre-intervention group (19 events vs. 8 events, p = 0.048). The involvement of pharmacists in antimicrobial dosing adjustments in septic patients receiving CRRT is associated with a reduced length of ICU stay, lower ICU costs, and fewer ADEs. Hospitals may consider employing clinical pharmacists in ICUs.

  6. Impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch on 30-day outcomes in young and middle-aged patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Vaquero Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM on early outcomes in young and middle-aged patients undergoing conventional aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis remains unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of some degree of PPM and its influence on early mortality and morbidity. Methods We analyzed our single center experience in all patients 2/m2. The influence of PPM on early mortality and postoperative complications was studied using propensity score analysis. Follow up at 30 postoperative days was 100% complete. Results Of 199 patients studied, 61 (30,7% had some degree of PPM. PPM was associated with an increased postoperative mortality (OR = 8,71; 95% CI = 1,67–45,29; p = 0,04 and major postoperative complications (OR = 2,96; CI = 1,03–8,55; p = 0,044. However, no association between PPM and prolonged hospital or ICU stay was demonstrated. Conclusions Moderate PPM is a common finding in young and middle-aged patients undergoing surgery for aortic valve replacement due to severe stenosis. In addition, its influence on early outcomes may be relevant.

  7. Comment on 'improving ecophysiological simulation models to predict the impact of elevated CO(2) concentration on crop productivity' by X. Yin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B A

    2013-08-01

    The recent publication by Yin (2013; Annals of Botany 112: 465-475) referred to in the title above provides an excellent review of modelling approaches to predict the impact of elevated CO2 on crop productivity, as well as on the controversy regarding whether yield responses observed in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are indeed lower than those from chamber-based experiments. However, the wheat experiments in the example of fig. 1 in Yin's paper had a flaw as the control plots lacked blowers that were in the FACE plots, which warmed the FACE plots at night and hastened plant development. This Viewpoint seeks to highlight this fact, and to comment on the relative merits of FACE and enclosure experiments.

  8. 降水变化对中国农作物病虫害的影响%Impacts of Precipitation Variations on Crop Diseases and Pests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍治国; 李茂松; 王丽; 肖晶晶; 黄大鹏; 王春艳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the previous research, the existing observations of the impacts of precipitation variations on crop diseases and pests and the regularities were systematically analyzed by detecting the facts of the temporal-spatial variation of crop diseases and pests in response to the precipitation variations, and the updated understanding of the precipitation variations on crop diseases and pests were put forward. Additionally, directions for future research were suggested. Existing facts indicated that, for a certain area in a certain period, less rainfall, high temperature and drought accelerated the breeding speed and population growth of some pests. More rainfall and rainy days could be good for the distinct aggravation of some diseases, the sharp increase in immigration of pests and the aggravation of damage caused by crop diseases and pests. Rainstorms and floods could lead to the sudden increase of some diseases and significantly aggravated damage. The rainstorms could lead to sudden increases in immigration of some adults, dramatic decreases of larvae in fields. Intensive rainfall could increase the mortality of some pests in fields sharply and reduce the population density distinctly. In the high temperature and drought years, there might be outbreak of some crop diseases and pests, locusts could breed one more generation than normal. In the continuous rainy years, the occurrence boundary of some crop diseases and pests could move northward. The year with longer Meiyu period and more Meiyu rainfall was advantageous to the immigrations of rice planthoppers and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee in Jianghuai region and one more generation of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee would occur in the year with the earlier immigration. The year with stronger western Pacific subtropical high was helpful for the earlier occurrence of first immigration of pests, increasing the quantity, expanding the range and aggravating the damage. The typhoon rainstorms could contribute to

  9. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  10. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    econometric model of Ethiopia is used to identify the best estimation .... functions) and two import demand functions (capital goods import and raw material ..... related to the rate of inflation which in turn is related to a mark-up pricing system ... bearing assets to the non-bank private sector, DCp is domestic credit to the private.

  11. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to examine the determinants of income diversification in rural Ethiopia. .... activities that have low or negative correlation of incomes. ... Krishnan (1996) analyzed the different income portfolios of households using survey.

  12. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vulnerability, government policy and agriculture, and economic governance ... time (point controllability) and to influence its trajectory over time (path controllability). ..... The appropriate use of monetary and fiscal policy for internal and external.

  13. Impact of lipid-induced degradation on the mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Hideyuki; Niimi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Gamma or electron beam irradiation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints for sterilization and/or crosslinking purposes generates free radicals in the material, which causes long-term oxidative degradation of UHMWPE. Recently, another mechanism for the degradation of UHMWPE by the absorption of lipids during in vivo clinical use was proposed. However, knowledge on lipid-induced degradation is quite limited, compared with that on radical-induced degradation. In this study, lipid-induced degradation was simulated using squalene absorption and subsequent accelerated aging, and its impact on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE was evaluated. The simulated lipid-induced degradation caused an increased elastic modulus and decreased elongation with maximum degradation at the surfaces. These results imply that degradation of UHMWPE may occur during in vivo long-term use, even if free radicals are completely eliminated. Therefore, further investigation is required to clarify the impact of lipid-induced degradation on clinical outcomes, such as the wear and fatigue characteristics of UHMWPE components.

  14. Impact of Aortic Valve Replacement on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Bakkali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement on left ventricular function and remodeling among patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: In this retrospective bicentric study extended over a 15-year period, 61 consecutive patients underwent isolated AVR for severe AS associated to reduced LV function. The mean age was 58.21 ± 12.50 years and 83.60 % were men. 70.50% of patients were in class III or IV NYHA. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 32.9 ± 5.6.The mean LVEDD and LVESD were respectively 63.6 ± 9.2 and 50.2 ± 8.8 mm. The mean calculated logistic EuroScore was 12.2 ±4.5. Results: The hospital mortality was 11.5%. Morbidity was marked mainly by low output syndrome in 40.8% of cases. After a median follow-up of 38 months we have recorded 3 deaths. Almost all survivors were in class I and II of NYHA. The mean LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters decreased significantly at late postoperative stage. The mean LV ejection fraction increased significantly from 32.9 ± 5.6 to 38.2 ± 9.3 and to 50.3 ± 9.6 in early and late postoperative stages, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that increased early postoperative LVEF (β= 0.44, 95% CI [0.14; 0.75], p=0.006 and low mean transprosthesis gradient (β=-0.72, 95% CI [-1.42; -0.02], p= 0.04 were the independent predictors of left ventricular systolic function recovery. Conclusion: Patients with aortic valve stenosis and impaired LV systolic function benefited from AVR as regard improvement of LV function parameters and regression of the LV diameters .This improvement depends mainly on early postoperative LVEF and mean transprosthesis gradient.

  15. The impact of age and severity of comorbid illness on outcomes after isolated aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo MJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Russo,1,2 Alexander Iribarne,3 Emily Chen,2 Ashwin Karanam,2 Chris Pettit,2 Fabio Barili,4 Atman P Shah,5 Craig R Saunders1,2 1Barnabas Health Hospital, Newark/Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Barnabas Health Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, S Croce Hospital, Cuneo, Italy; 5University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Objectives: This study examines outcomes in a national sample of patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR for aortic stenosis, with particular focus on advanced-age patients and those with extreme severity of comorbid illness (SOI. Methods: Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and included all patients undergoing AVRs performed from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. Patients with major concomitant cardiac procedures, as well as those aged <20 years, and those with infective endocarditis or aortic insufficiency without aortic stenosis, were excluded from analysis. The analysis included 13,497 patients. Patients were stratified by age and further stratified by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group SOI into mild/moderate, major, and extreme subgroups. Results: Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.96% (n=399; in-hospital mortality for the ≥80-year-old group (n=139, 4.78% was significantly higher than the 20- to 49-year-old (n=9, 0.84%, P<0.001 or 50- to 79-year-old (n=251, 2.64%, P<0.001 groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the extreme SOI group (n=296, 15.33% than in the minor/moderate (n=22, 0.35%, P<0.001 and major SOI groups (n=81, 1.51%, P<0.001. Median in-hospital costs in the mild/moderate, major, and extreme SOI strata were $29,202.08, $36,035.13, and $57,572.92, respectively. Conclusion: In the minor, moderate, and major SOI groups, in-hospital mortality and costs are low regardless of age; these groups represent >85% of patients undergoing isolated AVR for aortic

  16. Impacto da terapia hormonal sobre o peso corpóreo Impact of hormone replacement therapy on body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Palmira Martins Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito da terapêutica hormonal (TH no peso de mulheres na peri-menopausa, assim como o efeito de diferentes regimes terapêuticos no referido parâmetro. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo de 139 mulheres, com menopausa há menos de 2 anos, acompanhadas na consulta de climatério do nosso departamento. Obtiveram-se dois grupos: mulheres a quem se iniciou TH (n=89 e outro, grupo controle, sem terapia hormonal (n=50. Em cada grupo, foi avaliada a modificação ponderal no intervalo de 1 ano após a primeira consulta. Nas submetidas a TH, avaliou-se esse mesmo parâmetro em função de diferentes regimes terapêuticos preconizados: estrogênio isolado vs estroprogestagênio e dose standard vs baixa dosagem. A análise estatística foi realizada com recurso ao programa SPSS®, adotando-se como nível de significância valores pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HT on the weight on perimenopausal women as well as the effect of different treatment regimens on this parameter. METHODS: a retrospective study of 139 women with menopause for less than 2 years, who were monitored with periodical visits in our department. We compared two groups: women who started HT (n=89 with women who had no hormonal treatment (n=50 and in the two groups, we evaluated the changes in body weight over a 1-year period. In the first group, we assessed the same parameter as a function of different treatment regimens: estrogen alone versus estrogen combined with progestin and standard dose versus low dose. The SPSS® program was used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: the groups were similar with respect to demographic and baseline characteristics; weight gain was higher in the untreated group (434 vs 76 g, but the difference observed was not significant (p = 0.406; among HT users, those taking estrogen alone had an increased weight gain compared to women taking estrogen with progestin

  17. The Impact of Macro-and Micronutrients on Predicting Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittrawee Kritmetapak

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who receive renal replacement therapy (RRT have very high mortality rate. During RRT, there are markedly loss of macro- and micronutrients which may cause malnutrition and result in impaired renal recovery and patient survival. We aimed to examine the predictive role of macro- and micronutrients on survival and renal outcomes in critically ill patients undergoing continuous RRT (CRRT. This prospective observational study enrolled critically ill patients requiring CRRT at Intensive Care Unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from November 2012 until November 2013. The serum, urine, and effluent fluid were serially collected on the first three days to calculate protein metabolism including dietary protein intake (DPI, nitrogen balance, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR. Serum zinc, selenium, and copper were measured for micronutrients analysis on the first three days of CRRT. Survivor was defined as being alive on day 28 after initiation of CRRT.Dialysis status on day 28 was also determined. Of the 70 critically ill patients requiring CRRT, 27 patients (37.5% survived on day 28. The DPI and serum albumin of survivors were significantly higher than non-survivors (0.8± 0.2 vs 0.5 ±0.3g/kg/day, p = 0.001, and 3.2±0.5 vs 2.9±0.5 g/dL, p = 0.03, respectively while other markers were comparable. The DPI alone predicted patient survival with area under the curve (AUC of 0.69. A combined clinical model predicted survival with AUC of 0.78. When adjusted for differences in albumin level, clinical severity score (APACHEII and SOFA score, and serum creatinine at initiation of CRRT, DPI still independently predicted survival (odds ratio 4.62, p = 0.009. The serum levels of micronutrients in both groups were comparable and unaltered following CRRT. Regarding renal outcome, patients in the dialysis independent group had higher serum albumin levels than the dialysis dependent group, p = 0

  18. Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gergely

    2012-10-01

    Spatial analyses of cropland productivity levels and land use data from 2000 and 2006 were performed to assess the loss of cropland resources for biomass production of the European Union due to land take. Productivity loss in administrative regions was calculated on the basis of the extent and quality of agricultural land resources converted to artificial surfaces. Data show that while all EU member states experience constant decrease of their production capacity, there are also considerable differences among countries and regions. Based on the analysis of 24 member states, the EU lost 0.27% of its cropland and 0.26% of its crop productive potential in the period between 2000 and 2006 due to land take. The loss of agricultural land during the study period was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1.57% of its crop production potential within six years. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus (0.84%), Ireland (0.77%) and Spain (0.49%) as well. In metropolitan areas of Barcelona, Berlin, Bratislava, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Milan, and Vienna infrastructural investment occurred on the higher quality cropland while Budapest, Paris, and Warsaw spread their urban growth to areas of less productive cropland. Denmark had to face the largest loss of its food production capacity for each citizen, exceeding the equivalent of 4 kg capita(-1)year(-1) of wheat, followed by Ireland with more than the equivalent of 3 kg wheat and Spain, Netherlands, Hungary, Cyprus and France all above 2 kg loss per capita, annually. The EU lost an amount of cropland production potential equal to approximately 700,000t of wheat grain, annually, in the study period. Results highlight the following general trends: (i) land conversion from different land cover types to artificial surfaces follows the historic trends in Europe with continuing consumption of more productive areas from its land resources; (ii) the conversion rate of croplands to artificial surfaces is growing with

  19. Serum testosterone, testosterone replacement therapy and all-cause mortality in men with type 2 diabetes: retrospective consideration of the impact of PDE5 inhibitors and statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, G; Heald, A H; Sinclair, A; Jones, P W; Strange, R C; Ramachandran, S

    2016-03-01

    Low testosterone levels occur in over 40% of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and have been associated with increased mortality. Testosterone replacement together with statins and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) are widely used in men with T2DM. To determine the impact of testosterone and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on mortality and assess the independence of this effect by adjusting statistical models for statin and PDE5I use. We studied 857 men with T2DM screened from five primary care practices during April 2007-April 2009. Of the 857 men, 175/637 men with serum total testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/l or free testosterone (FT) ≤ 0.25 nmol/l received TU for a mean of 3.8 ± 1.2 (SD) years. PDE5I and statins were prescribed to 175/857 and 662/857 men respectively. All-cause mortality was the primary end-point. Cox regression models were used to compare survival in the three testosterone level/treatment groups, the analysis adjusted for age, statin and PDE5I use, BMI, blood pressure and lipids. Compared with the Low T/untreated group, mortality in the Normal T/untreated (HR: 0.62, CI: 0.41-0.94) or Low T/treated (HR: 0.38, CI: 0.16-0.90) groups was significantly reduced. PDE5I use was significantly associated with reduced mortality (HR: 0.21, CI: 0.066-0.68). After repeating the Cox regression in the 682 men not given a PDE5I, mortality in the Normal T/untreated and Low T/treated groups was significantly lower than that in the reference Low T/untreated group. Mortality in the PDE5I/treated was significantly reduced compared with the PDE5I/untreated group (OR: 0.06, CI: 0.009-0.47). Testosterone replacement therapy is independently associated with reduced mortality in men with T2DM. PDE5I use, included as a confounding factor, was associated with decreased mortality in all patients and, those not on TRT, suggesting independence of effect. The impact of PDE5I treatment on mortality (both HR and OR < 0.25) needs confirmation by independent studies

  20. Herbaceous energy crops: planning for a renewed commitment. [Hay, silage, rapeseed, sugar and starch crops, hydrocarbon crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.J.; Cushman, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1984, the US Department of Energy's Biomass Energy Technology Division (BETD) began a new program of research on the production of herbaceous crops for energy. In addition to the new Herbaceous Energy Crops (HEC) Program, ongoing BETD programs involve woody and aquatic energy crops. The goal of the HEC Program is to provide the technology base that will allow industry to develop commercially viable species and systems in order to produce herbaceous biomass for fuels and energy feedstocks. The program will concentrate on crop types that can contribute the most to energy supplies while minimizing the impact of producing energy from crops on food production and the environment. Research in the HEC Program will focus on crops suitable for marginal croplands and on winter crops that can be grown between plantings of conventional crops. 1 table.

  1. MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1

  2. The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part I: Concentrations of elements in crops and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Alex; Widianarko, Budi; Dewi, Inge C; De Boer, Jan L M; Seinen, Willem; van Leeuwen, Kees

    2005-09-01

    In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia) irrigation water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake resulting in a low pH and high levels of various elements. As a first step towards a risk assessment, locally produced food items (rice, maize, cassava leaf, cassava root, peanuts) were collected and concentrations of As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn were compared to samples from a reference area and with literature values. Further, concentrations in rice were compared to total soil concentrations in paddy fields. Compared to the reference area, food items produced in the contaminated area had increased levels of Cd, Co, Ni and Mn in particular, while levels of Mo were lower. In contrast, total soil concentrations of Cd and Mn in particular have decreased whereas especially Mo was increased. In combination with the observed soil acidification, it is likely that the bioavailable concentration of most elements in the contaminated soil is higher (except for Mo) due to an increased weathering rate and/or input via the contaminated irrigation water. In terms of human health, concentrations in foods were generally within normal literature values. However, it was observed that essential elements (in particular Fe) known for their inhibitory effects on e.g. Cd and Mn toxicity did not accumulate in crops whereas Cd and Mn did.

  3. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  4. Soil total carbon and crop yield affected by crop rotation and cultural practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacked crop rotation and improved cultural practice have been used to control pests, but their impact on soil organic C (SOC) and crop yield are lacking. We evaluated the effects of stacked vs. alternate-year rotations and cultural practices on SOC at the 0- to 125-cm depth and annualized crop yiel...

  5. Impacts of Tillage, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use on Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Populations in Double-Cropped Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S

    2017-01-04

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), also known as the kudzu bug, is a soybean pest in the United States, and it can cause up to a 60% yield reduction if not controlled. Insecticides are commonly used to manage this pest in commercial soybean fields. However, other soybean production practices may also affect kudzu bug populations. This study investigated the effect of soil tillage, maturity group selection, and insecticide use on kudzu bug densities in soybean. During 2012 and 2013, at two locations each year in North Carolina, four varieties of soybean maturity groups were planted in June into conventionally tilled plots and into plots with cereal crop residue under reduced tillage conditions (mimicking double-crop production). Plots were further split as insecticide-protected and untreated. Four times more kudzu bugs were found in conventionally tilled than reduced till plots throughout the growing season. Selection of the maturity group influenced the attractiveness of the kudzu bug to oviposit on soybean. A 56% reduction of kudzu bug densities was achieved through insecticide treatment, with an ∼6% increase in yield. Information on how production practices, including soil tillage, affect kudzu bug populations in soybean may help growers select practices to minimize kudzu bug injury and protect yield.ResumenMegacopta cribraria (F.), conocido como el bicho del kudzu, es una plaga de la soja en los Estados Unidos que puede reducir el rendimiento hasta un 60% si no es controlado oportunamente con insecticidas en campos comerciales de soja. Sin embargo, otras prácticas de producción en la soja pueden afectar las poblaciones del bicho del kudzu. El presente estudio investigó el efecto de la labranza del campo, la selección del grupo de madurez en soja, y el uso de insecticidas en la densidad del bicho del kudzu. Durante el 2012 y el 2013, cuatro diferentes grupos de madurez de soja fueron plantados en Junio bajo el sistema tradicional de labranza y con labranza reducida

  6. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov E Burlakova

    Full Text Available Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  7. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: Interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd D.; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  8. Impact of litter Salmonella strain on the recovered Salmonella strains from broiler crop and ceca following feed withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal, 2 pens of 5-wk-old broilers (n=10/pen) in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo (nalidixic acid resistant) or Salmonella Heidelberg (streptomycin resistant) by oral gavage. Three ...

  9. Impact of within-field variability in soil hydraulic properties on transpiration fluxes and crop yields: A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupet, F.; Dam, van J.C.; Vanclooster, M.

    2004-01-01

    By means of numerical modeling we investigate the impact of within-field variability in the soil hydraulic properties on actual transpiration and dry matter yield for three different climate scenarios. We first show that the sensitivity of the simulated actual transpiration and dry matter yield to s

  10. Impact of Compost Application during 5 Years on Crop Production, Soil Microbial Activity, Carbon Fraction, and Humification Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jindo, K.; Chocano, C.; Melgares de Aguilar, J.; González, D.; Hernandez, T.; García, C.

    2016-01-01

    Compost amendment is considered as a practical tool to increase the soil organic matter (SOM), which contributes to agricultural sustainability. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the impacts of organic soil management over 5 years on orchard prune production (Prunus salicina), mic

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (psystem. Measurements of soil organic carbon contents before and three years after introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other

  12. Impacts of land-use and climate changes on ecosystem productivity and carbon cycle in the cropping-grazing transitional zone in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhiqiang; LIU Jiyuan; CAO Mingkui; LI Kerang; TAO Bo

    2005-01-01

    The impact of land-use/land-cover and climate changes on ecosystem productivity and carbon cycle is one of the most important issues in global change studies. In the past 20 years, the climate and land-use in China have changed significantly and have had important ecological consequences, especially in ecologically sensitive regions, e.g. the cropping-grazing transition zone (CGTZ). Here we present a study that used a process-based ecosystem model and data of land-use changes based on remote sensing and of climate change at high spatial and temporal resolution to estimate the impacts of land-use and climate changes on net primary productivity (NPP), vegetation carbon storage, soil heterotrophic respiration (HR), carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in the CGTZ of China. The results show that the warming and decreases in precipitation in CGTZ reduced NPP by 3.4%, increased HR by 4.3%, and reduced annual mean total NEP by 33.7Tg from the 1980s to the 1990s. Although carbon storage in vegetation and soil was increasing because the mean NPP for the period was higher than HR, the decreasing NEP indicate that climate change reduced the carbon uptake rate. However, land-use changes in this zone caused increases in NPP by 3.8%, vegetation carbon storage by 2.4%, and annual total NEP by 0.59Tg. The land-use changes enhanced ecosystem carbon uptake, but not enough to offset the negative effect of the climate change. The climate change had greater impacts than the land-use change for the whole CGTZ zone, but had smaller impacts than the land-use change in the regions where it occurred.

  13. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  14. Knowing your enemies: Integrating molecular and ecological methods to assess the impact of arthropod predators on crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The importance of natural enemies as the foundation of integrated pest management (IPM) is widely accepted, but few studies conduct the manipulative field experiments necessary to directly quantify their impact on pest populations in this context. This is particularly true for predators. Studying arthropod predator-prey interactions is inherently difficult: prey items are often completely consumed, individual predator-prey interactions are ephemeral (rendering their detection difficult) and the typically fluid or soft-bodied meals cannot be easily identified visually within predator guts. Serological techniques have long been used in arthropod predator gut-contents analysis, and current enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are highly specific and sensitive. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for gut-contents analysis have developed rapidly and they now dominate the diagnostic methods used for gut-contents analysis in field-based research. This work has identified trophic linkages within food webs, determined predator diet breadth and preference, demonstrated the importance of cannibalism and intraguild predation within and between certain taxa, and confirmed the benefits (predator persistence) and potential disadvantages (reduced feeding on pest species) of the availability of alternative nonpest prey. Despite considerable efforts to calibrate gut-contents assays, these methods remain qualitative. Available techniques for predator gut-contents analysis can provide rapid, accurate, cost-effective identification of predation events. As such, they perfectly compliment the ecological methods developed to directly assess predator impacts on prey populations but which are imperfect at identifying the key predators. These diagnostic methods for gut-contents analysis are underexploited in agricultural research and they are almost never applied in unison with the critical field experiments to measure predator impact. This paper stresses the need for a

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

    2012-12-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ˜1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 μg gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ˜1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

  16. Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of factors organizing crop genetic diversity in situ increases the efficiency of diversity analyses and conservation strategies, and requires collaboration between social and biological disciplines. Four areas of anthropology may contribute to our understanding of the impact of social factors on crop diversity: ethnobotany, cultural, cognitive and social anthropology. So far, most collaborative studies have been based on ethnobotanical methods, focusing on farmers’ individual motivations and actions, and overlooking the effects of farmer’s social organization per se. After reviewing common shortcomings in studies on sorghum and maize, this article analyzes how social anthropology, through the analysis of intermarriage, residence and seed inheritance practices, can contribute to studies on crop genetic diversity in situ. Crop varieties are thus considered social objects and socially based sampling strategies can be developed. Such an approach is justified because seed exchange is built upon trust and as such seed systems are embedded in a pre-existing social structure and centripetally oriented as a function of farmers’ social identity. The strong analogy between farmers’ cultural differentiation and crop genetic differentiation, both submitted to the same vertical transmission processes, allows proposing a common methodological framework for social anthropology and crop population genetics, where the classical interaction between genetic and environmental factors, G × E, is replaced by a thre