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Sample records for replaceable units lrus

  1. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D W

    2003-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the ∼4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles

  2. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  3. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi, E-mail: sqli@hust.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  4. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  5. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  6. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  7. Seeking optimal renal replacement therapy delivery in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Marinka; Brunet, Fabrice P

    2010-01-01

    Globally, critical care environments within health care organizations strive to provide optimal quality renal replacement therapy (RRT), an artificial replacement for lost kidney function. Examination of RRT delivery model literature and a case study review of the multidisciplinary-mixed RRT delivery model utilized within a closed medical surgical intensive care unit illustrates the organizational and clinical management of specialized resource and multidisciplinary roles. The successful utilization of a specific RRT delivery model is dependent upon resource availability.

  8. Primary separator replacement for Bruce Unit 8 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.; Mewdell, C.G.; Schneider, W.G.

    2000-01-01

    During a scheduled maintenance outage of Bruce Unit 8 in 1998, it was discovered that the majority of the original primary steam separators were damaged in two steam generators. The Bruce B steam generators are equipped with GXP type primary cyclone separators of B and W supply. There were localized perforations in the upper part of the separators and large areas of generalized wall thinning. The degradation was indicative of a flow related erosion corrosion mechanism. Although the unit- restart was justified, it was obvious that corrective actions would be necessary because of the number of separators affected and the extent of the degradation. Repair was not considered to be a practical option and it was decided to replace the separators, as required, in Unit 8 steam generators during an advanced scheduled outage. GXP separators were selected for replacement to minimize the impact on steam generator operating characteristics and analysis. The material of construction was upgraded from the original carbon steel to stainless steel to maximize the assurance of full life. The replacement of the separators was a first of a kind operation not only for Ontario Power Generation and B and W but also for all CANDU plants. The paper describes the degradations observed and the assessments, the operating experience, manufacture and installation of the replacement separators. During routine inspection in 1998, many of the primary steam separators in two of steam generators at Bruce Nuclear Division B Unit 8 were observed to have through wall perforations. This paper describes assessment of this condition. It also discusses the manufacture and testing of replacement primary steam separators and the development and execution of the replacement separator installation program. (author)

  9. Steam generator replacement in Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Bruce A Generating Station consists of four 900 MW class CANDU units. The reactor and Primary Heat Transport System for each Unit are housed within a reinforced concrete reactor vault. A large duct running below the reactor vaults accommodates the shared fuel handling system, and connects the four reactor vaults to the vacuum building. The reactor vaults, fuelling system duct and the vacuum building constitute the station vacuum containment system. Bruce A Unit 2 was shut down in 1995 and Bruce A Units 1, 3 and 4 were shutdown in 1997. Bruce A Units 3 and 4 were returned to service in late 2003 and are currently operating. Units 1 and 2 remain out of service. Bruce Power is currently undertaking a major rehabilitation of Bruce A Unit 1 and Units 2 that will extend the in-service life of these units by at least 25 years. Replacement of the Steam Generators (eight in each unit) is required; this work was awarded to SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (SLN). The existing steam drums (which house the steam separation and drying equipment) will be retained. Unit 2 is scheduled to be synchronized with the grid in 2009, followed by Unit 1 in 2009. Each Bruce A unit has two steam generating assemblies, one located above and to each end of the reactor. Each steam generating assembly consists of a horizontal cylindrical steam drum and four vertical Steam Generators. The vertical Steam Generators connect to individual nozzles that are located on the underside of the Steam Drum (SD). The steam drums are located in concrete shielding structures (steam drum enclosures). The lower sections of the Steam Generators penetrate the top of the reactor vaults: the containment pressure boundary is established by bellows assemblies that connect between the reactor vault roof slab and the Steam Generators. Each Steam Generators is supported from the bottom by a trapeze that is suspended from the reactor vault top structure. The Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) methodology developed by SLN for Unit 1

  10. Reactor Core Internals Replacement of Ikata Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Takagi, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the reactor core internals replacement project carried out at the Ikata Nuclear Power Station in Japan, which was the first of its kind among PWRs in the world. Failure of baffle former bolts was first reported in 1989 at Bugey 2 in France. Since then, similar incidents have been reported in Belgium and in the U.S., but not in Japan. However, the possibility of these bolts failing in Japanese plants cannot be denied in the future as operating hours increase. Ageing degradation mechanisms for the reactor core internals include irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of baffle former bolts and mechanical wear of control rod guide cards. Two different approaches can be taken to address these ageing issues: to inspect and repair whenever a problem is found; and to replace the entire core internals with those of a new design having advanced features to prevent ageing degradation problems. The choice of our company was the latter. This paper explains the reasons for the choice and summarizes the replacement project activities at Ikata Units 1 and 2 as well as the improvements incorporated in the new design. (author)

  11. Steam generator replacement in Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Bruce A Generating Station consists of four 900 MW class CANDU units. The reactor and Primary Heat Transport System for each Unit are housed within a reinforced concrete reactor vault. A large duct running below the reactor vaults accommodates the shared fuel handling system, and connects the four reactor vaults to the vacuum building. The reactor vaults, fuelling system duct and the vacuum building constitute the station vacuum containment system. Bruce A Unit 2 was shut down in 1995 and Bruce A Units 1, 3 and 4 were shutdown in 1997. Bruce A Units 3 and 4 were returned to service in late 2003 and are currently operating. Units 1 and 2 remain out of service. Bruce Power is currently undertaking a major rehabilitation of Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2 that will extend the in-service tile of these units by at least 25 years. Replacement of the Steam Generators (eight in each unit) is required; this work was awarded to SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (SLN). The existing steam drums (which house the steam separation and drying equipment) will be retained. Unit 2 is scheduled to be synchronized with the grid in 2009, followed by Unit 1 in 2009. Each Bruce A unit has two steam generating assemblies, one located above and to each end of the reactor. Each steam generating assembly consists of a horizontal cylindrical steam drum and four vertical Steam Generators. The vertical Steam Generators connect to individual nozzles that are located on the underside of the Steam Drum (SD). The steam drums are located in concrete shielding structures (steam drum enclosures). The lower sections of the Steam Generators penetrate the top of the reactor vaults: the containment pressure boundary is established by bellows assemblies that connect between the reactor vault roof slab and the Steam Generators. Each Steam Generators is supported from he bottom by a trapeze that is suspended from the reactor vault top structure. The Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) methodology developed by SLN for Unit 1

  12. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  13. Acceptance test for 900 MWe PWR unit replacement steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourguechon, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the first half of 1994, the Gravelines 1 steam generators will be replaced (SG replacement procedure). The new SG's differ from the former components notably by the alloy used for the tube bundle, in this case, the high chromium content Inconel 690. So, from this standpoint, they are to be considered as PWR 900 replacement SG first models and their thermal efficiency has consequently to be assessed. This will provide an opportunity of ensuring that the performance of the components delivered is in compliance with requirements and of making the necessary provisions if significant deviations are observed. The EFMT branch, which has been in charge of the instrumentation and acceptance of the different SG first models since the first PWR plants were commissioned, will be responsible for the acceptance tests and the ultimate validation of a performance assessment procedure applicable to the future replacement steam generators. The methods and tests proposed for SG expert appraisal are based on consideration of the importance of primary measurement quality for satisfactory SG assessment and of the new test facilities with which the 900 and 1 300 PWR plants are gradually being equipped. These facilities provide an on-site computer environment for tests compatible with the tools (PATTERN, etc.) used at EFMT and in other departments. This test is the first of this kind performed by EFMT and the test facility of a nuclear power plant. (author). 6 figs

  14. In-core monitor housing replacement at Fukushima Daiichi Unit No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The in-core monitor (ICM) housing replacement of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit No. 4 (1F4) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Japan. Since cracking of the inside surface of an ICM housing was found in this unit, the ICM housing was replaced with one made of low-carbon stainless steel (SS) to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. This project is the first application of the replacement procedure for the ICM housing and employs various advanced technologies. The outline of the ICM housing replacement project and applied technologies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  16. Radiation control in the core shroud replacement project of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Yasunori; Haraguchi, Kazuyuki; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Yamada, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    In Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2, the core shroud replacement was made following that of Unit no.3. This project involves replacement of wide-ranging equipment, with the project extending over a long period of time. This was expected to increase the dose equivalent of workers. Accordingly, various measures to lower the dose equivalent were planned and implemented. We outline radiation controls implemented during the project period. The shroud replacement project was a preventive maintenance project which consisted of replacing the core shroud and other internals with those less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Problems related to radiation control during the replacement project of Unit no.3 the year before last were summarized. We studied, planned, and implemented measures to be reflected in the project for Unit no.2. This was done to lower the dose equivalent as much as possible while paying due attention to safety and economy. For radiation control during the project for Unit no.2, experiments with Unit no.3 were fully exploited and any effective measures taken at that time were adopted in this project. Problems pointed out after that project with Unit no.3 resulted in new or improved measures being taken with Unit no.2. Measures taken over from the project with Unit no.3; a. Daily analysis of difference between expected and actual dose equivalents b. Dose reduction measures, chemical decontamination, temporary shield, flushing, etc.; New or improved measures; a. Dose reduction measures: Mechanical removal of radiation sources, strengthening of shield, etc.; b. Automatic remote control system; c. Use of new protective devices. With measures implemented as described above, the dose equivalent during shroud replacement of Unit no.2 was reduced by about 30% when compared with that (11.5 persons · Sv) in the case of Unit no.3. Implemented radiation controls will be checked and reviewed in future for reflection in projects with other units. (author)

  17. Telemedicine Can Replace the Neurologist on a Mobile Stroke Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Parker, Stephanie A; Jagolino, Amanda; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Bowry, Ritvij; Thomas, Abraham; Yu, Amy; Grotta, James C

    2017-02-01

    The BEST-MSU study (Benefits of Stroke Treatment Delivered Using a Mobile Stroke Unit) is a comparative effectiveness trial in patients randomized to mobile stroke unit or standard management. A substudy tested interrater agreement for tissue-type plasminogen activator eligibility between a telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist. On scene, both the telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist independently evaluated the patient, documenting their tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment decision, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and computed tomographic interpretation. Agreement was determined using Cohen κ statistic. Telemedicine-related technical failures that impeded remote assessment were recorded. Simultaneous and independent telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist assessment was attempted in 174 patients. In 4 patients (2%), the telemedicine vascular neurologist could not make a decision because of technical problems. The telemedicine vascular neurologist agreed with the onboard vascular neurologist on 88% of evaluations (κ=0.73). Remote telemedicine vascular neurologist assessment is reliable and accurate, supporting either telemedicine vascular neurologist or onboard vascular neurologist assessment on our mobile stroke unit. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02190500. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  19. Pressure tube replacement in Pickering NGS A units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, H.S.; Bennett, E.J.; Talbot, K.H.

    1986-10-01

    Being able to technically and economically replace the most radioactive components (excluding the nuclear fuel) in operating reactors will help to ensure the ongoing acceptance of nuclear power as a viable energy source for the future. Ontario Hydro is well along the path to meeting the above objective for its CANDU-PHW reactors. Following the failure of a Zircaloy-II pressure tube in unit 2 of Pickering NGS A in August, 1983, Ontario Hydro has embarked on a program to replace all Zircaloy-II pressure tubes in units 1 and 2 at Pickering. This program integrates the in-house research, design, construction, and operating skills of a large utility (Ontario Hydro) with the skills of a national nuclear organization (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and the private engineering sector of the Canadian nuclear industry. The paper describes the background to the pressure tube failure in Pickering unit 2 and to the efforts incurred in understanding the failure mechanism and how similar failures are not expected for the zirconium-niobium pressure tube material used in all other large CANDU-PHW units after units 1 and 2 of Pickering NGS A. The tooling developed for the pressure tube replacement program is described as well as the organization to undertake the program in an operating nuclear station. The retubing of units 1 and 2 at Pickering NGS A is nearing a successful completion and shows the benefits of being able to integrate the various skills required for this success. Pressure tube replacement in a CANDU-PHW reactor is equivalent to replacement of the reactor vessel in a LWR. The fact that this replacement can be done economically and with acceptable radiation dose to workers augurs well for the continued viability of the use of nuclear energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  20. Prevalence of Total Hip and Knee Replacement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Larson, Dirk R; Crowson, Cynthia S; Kremers, Walter K; Washington, Raynard E; Steiner, Claudia A; Jiranek, William A; Berry, Daniel J

    2015-09-02

    Descriptive epidemiology of total joint replacement procedures is limited to annual procedure volumes (incidence). The prevalence of the growing number of individuals living with a total hip or total knee replacement is currently unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the United States. Prevalence was estimated using the counting method by combining historical incidence data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases from 1969 to 2010 with general population census and mortality counts. We accounted for relative differences in mortality rates between those who have had total hip or knee replacement and the general population. The 2010 prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the total U.S. population was 0.83% and 1.52%, respectively. Prevalence was higher among women than among men and increased with age, reaching 5.26% for total hip replacement and 10.38% for total knee replacement at eighty years. These estimates corresponded to 2.5 million individuals (1.4 million women and 1.1 million men) with total hip replacement and 4.7 million individuals (3.0 million women and 1.7 million men) with total knee replacement in 2010. Secular trends indicated a substantial rise in prevalence over time and a shift to younger ages. Around 7 million Americans are living with a hip or knee replacement, and consequently, in most cases, are mobile, despite advanced arthritis. These numbers underscore the substantial public health impact of total hip and knee arthroplasties. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  1. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  2. Replacement of the moderator cell unit of JRR-3's cold neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Tomoya; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-10-01

    The moderator cell of the JRR-3's cold neutron source (CNS) facility, converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons by passing through liquid cold hydrogen. The cold neutrons are used for material and life science research such as the neutron scattering. The CNS has been operated since the start of JRR-3's in 1990. The moderator cell containing liquid hydrogen is made of stainless steel. The material irradiation lifetime is limited to 7 years due to irradiation brittleness. The first replacement was done by using a spare part made in France. This replacement work of 2006 was carried out by using the domestic moderator cell unit. The following technologies were developed for the moderator cell unit production. 1) Technical development of black treatment on moderator cell surface to increase radiation heat. 2) Development of bending technology of concentric triple tubes consisting from inside tube, Outside tube and Vacuum insulation tube. 3) Development of manufacturing technique of the moderator cell with complicated shapes. According to detail planed work procedures, replacement work was carried out. As results, the working days were reduced to 80% of old ones. The radiation dose was also reduced due to reduction of working days. It was verified by measurement of neutrons characteristics that the replaced moderator cell has the same performance as that of the old moderator cell. The domestic manufacturing of the moderator cell was succeeded. As results, the replacement cost was reduced by development of domestic production technology. (author)

  3. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  4. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Replacement of steam generators at arkansas nuclear one, unit-2 (ano-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Buford, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 steam generators, originally supplied by Combustion Engineering, began commercial operation in 1980 producing a gross electrical output of 958 MW. After several years of successful operation, the owner decided that the tube degradation rates of the original steam generators were too high for the plant to meet the performance requirements for the full 40-year license period. The contract to supply replacement steam generators (RSGs) was awarded to Westinghouse Electric Company in 1996. Installation of these RSGs took place in the last months of 2000. This paper compares the design features of the original and re-placement steam generators with emphasis on design and reliability enhancements achieved. (author)

  6. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  7. Safety measures for the main control board replacement project at Ikata units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Nozomu; Tada, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    When Units 1 and 2 of the Ikata Power Station underwent replacement of their main control boards, control cabinets, and associated equipment, it was necessary to remove all the control boards, cabinets, and cables from the control building including from the main control room. This meant the loss of operation and monitoring functions in the main control room and functions of control cabinets. To maintain the operation and monitoring functions required under plant shutdown conditions, temporary operation and monitoring equipment (i.e., temporary main control board) was installed in the temporary main control room. The advance preparations included a trial switching from the permanent to the temporary main control board to identify and address potential problems in advance. When the replacement work was underway, a work schedule sheet posted in the temporary and the permanent control rooms was used to prevent human errors caused by operators’ recognition errors. Monitoring and control signals were switched from the old boards to the temporary boards and from the temporary boards to the new boards at appropriate timings to ensure plant safety during the replacement operation. (author)

  8. Replacement of a cracked pressure tube in Bruce GS unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    In 1982 February, a primary heat transport system leak was detected in the annulus gas system by on-line instrumentation. The source of the leak was found to be a small axial crack in the pressure tube of fuel channel X-14. This fuel channel was removed and replaced by station maintenance staff, and the unit was returned to service five weeks after it had been shut down. The cracked pressure tube was sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for examination, and the crack was found to be very similar to those found in Pickering GS units 3 and 4 in 1974-75. It was caused by delayed hydride cracking during the period of high residual stress between the time of rolling and the pre-service stress relief

  9. C30 Support Plate for Replacing Function of Service Pool 1 at Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsoldos, F.

    2006-01-01

    Paks NPP had a serious event at Unit 2 in April 2003. This event was connected to Service Pool 1, there was a cleaning tank int he pool to clean the fuel assemblies from sediments. The sediment problem has occurred at three of our four units, the cause of this problem was the decontamination of the steam generators. We have not made any decontamination at Unit 4 only, and there is no any problem at Unit 4 at all. The plant tried out the mentioned cleaning method at Unit 2 first time, and the event happened at that time. Because of the event the function of Service Pool 1 was not available, the damaged fuel and the cleaning tank is in the pool at this moment. We got the permission from the authority body to operate again Unit 2. This operation, the planned campaign was a short one because of the limited possibility to set up a proper core from the fuel assemblies what were available. Because of the short campaign we had to prepare a proper solution to accomplish the refuelling at Unit 2. The main obstacle was the unavailable functionality of Service Pool 1 which used to carry in fresh fuel and carry out the spent fuel with usage of C30 casks (we have two C30 casks, as it shown in their names the casks can contain 30 fuel assemblies, fresh or spent fuel depending on the given activity have to be done). The plant started to find out what would be the proper solution to replace the function of Service Pool 1 and the C30 support plate was found out as the possible solution to this problem. This C30 support plate is ready to launch the C30 casks or containers with the fresh or spent fuel into the reactor. It means that this C30 support plate is adjusted to the reactor main surface and in this way it ready to serve replacing Service Pool 1. Of course the reactor is empty during the preparation phase of the refuelling. First we carry out the spent fuel from the spent fuel pool, after that the fresh fuel is carried in and just after these preparing activities can be started

  10. A study on the optimal replacement periods of digital control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Even a trip of a single nuclear power plant (NPP) causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this paper we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models of optimal replacement periods to the digital control computer's components of Wolsung NPP Unit 1 and calculated the optimal replacement periods analytically. We compared the periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit 1. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained and those used in the field show a little difference. (Author)

  11. Restart Testing Program for piping following steam generator replacement at North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Bayer, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to provide assurance that the effects of performing steam generator replacement (SGR) at North Anna unit 1 had no adverse impact on plant piping systems, a cold functional verification restart testing program was developed. This restart testing program was implemented in lieu of a hot functional testing program normally used during the initial startup of a nuclear plant. A review of North Anna plant-specific and generic U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for restart testing was performed to ensure that no mandatory hot functional testing was required. This was determined to be the case, and the development of a cold functional test program was initiated. The cold functional test had inherent advantages as compared to the hot functional testing, while still providing assurance of piping system adequacy. The advantages of the cold verification program included reducing risk to personnel from hot piping, increasing the accuracy of measurements with the improvement in work conditions, eliminating engineering activities during the heatup process, and being able to record measurements as construction work was completed allowing for rework or repair of components if required. To ensure the effectiveness of the cold verification program, a project procedure was generated to identify the personnel, equipment, and measurement requirements. An engineering calculation was issued to document the scope of the restart test program, and an additional calculation was developed to provide acceptance criteria for the critical commodity measurements

  12. Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin Kumar; Boulet, Sheree L; Mehta, Akanksha; Hotaling, James; Eisenberg, Michael L; Honig, Stanton C; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Ross, Lawrence S

    2017-04-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  14. 24 CFR 42.375 - One-for-one replacement of lower-income dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the conversion. (5) The units must be designed to remain lower-income dwelling units for at... result in the demolition of lower-income dwelling units or the conversion of lower-income dwelling units...-income dwelling units. 42.375 Section 42.375 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  15. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  16. Africanization in the United States: replacement of feral European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Patton, John C; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-08-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998-2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25-37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.

  17. Optimal replacement and inspection periods of safety and control boards in Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il

    1993-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, the safety and control systems are important for operating and maintaining safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Since the start of first commercial operation of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 1, the trips caused by instrument and control systems account for 28% of total trips of NPPs in Korea. Even a single trip of a nuclear power plant causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this work we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the digital control computer's (DCC) and the programmable digital comparator's (PDC) electronic circuit boards of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models which calculate optimal replacement periods for electronic circuit boards of digital control computer (DCC) and for those of the programmable digital comparator (PDC) in Wolsung NPP unit 1. And we analytically obtained the optimal replacement periods of electronic circuit boards by using these models. We compared these periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of DCC and those used in the field shown small difference : the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of PDC are shorter than those used in the field in general. The engineered safeguards of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 contains redundant systems of 2-out-of-3 logic which are not operating under normal conditions but they are called

  18. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  19. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  20. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Virchow Infections Linked to a Powdered Meal Replacement Product - United States, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino-Shirley, Kelly J; Tesfai, Adiam; Schwensohn, Colin A; Burnett, Cindy; Smith, Lori; Wagner, Jennifer M; Eikmeier, Dana; Smith, Kirk; Stone, Jolianne P; Updike, Dawn; Hines, Jonas; Shade, Lauren N; Tolar, Beth; Fu, Tong-Jen; Viazis, Stelios; Seelman, Sharon L; Blackshear, Kathryn; Wise, Matthew E; Neil, Karen P

    2018-03-07

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey. Firm inspections and product traceback and testing were performed. Thirty-five cases from 24 states were identified; 6 hospitalizations and no deaths were reported. Thirty-one (94%) of 33 ill people interviewed reported consuming a powdered supplement in the week before illness; of these, 30 (97%) reported consuming Product A, a raw organic powdered shake product consumed as a meal replacement. Laboratory testing isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Virchow from: leftover Product A collected from ill people's homes, organic moringa leaf powder (an ingredient in Product A), and finished product retained by the firm. Firm inspections at three facilities linked to Product A production did not reveal contamination at the facilities. Traceback identified that the contaminated moringa leaf powder was imported from South Africa. This investigation identified a novel outbreak vehicle and highlighted the potential risk with similar products not intended to be cooked by consumers before consuming. The company issued a voluntary recall of all implicated products. As this product has a long shelf-life, the recall likely prevented additional illnesses.

  1. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  2. Experience from replacement and check of thermocouples during reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, M.; Stanc, J.

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of thermocouples in the protection tube blocks was a key phase of the reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 with regard to the success, reliability and impact on safety of unit operation. The replacement consisted of reliable and safe withdrawal of 216 old thermocouples, their disposal and installation of new thermocouples into dry channels. In the material presented, this phase of reconstruction is described in details, with focus on the evaluation of replacement quality and check activities carried out at the new installed thermocouples. (Authors)

  3. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF MINIMIZATION ON TURNING RADIUS OF TRACTOR UNIT WITH REPLACEABLE SUPPORTING AND MANEUVERING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zeleniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth plowing with the help of reversible plows has replaced an enclosure method of soil treatment. The method may cause a formation of back ridges or open furrows. Due to this fact turnings of a tractor unit with a minimum radius required in order to ensure shuttle movements each time in the furrow of the preceding operating stroke have become a dominant type of turnings. Non-productive shift time is directly dependent on them and it is on the average 10–12 %, and it is up to 40 % in small contour areas with short run. Large non-productive time is connected with the desire to reduce headland width at field edges, and then a turning is made in several stages while using a complicated maneuvering. Therefore, an increase in efficiency of a plowing unit by means of minimization on its turning radius and execution of turning at one stage in the shortest possible time are considered as relevant objectives. In such a case it is necessary to take into account the fact that potential capabilities of universal tractors having established time-proved designs in respect of reduction of turning radius are practically at the end. So it is expedient to solve the matter at the expense of additional removable devices that ensure transformation of tractor wheel formula at the run end in order to reorient its position. Finally high quality plowing ensured by future-oriented reversible plows will be accompanied not only by output increase per shift, but also by decrease in headland width, their compaction and abrasion due to suspension systems and increase in productivity. The developed design having a novelty which proved by an invention patent and representing an additional supporting and maneuvering device significantly minimizes all the above-mentioned disadvantages and does not require any changes in tractor production design. Investigations have been carried on the following topic: “Minimization of turning radius for universal tractors by transformation

  5. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  6. Four-unit fixed dental prostheses replacing the maxillary incisors supported by two narrow-diameter implants - a five-year case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moráguez, Osvaldo; Vailati, Francesca; Grütter, Linda; Sailer, Irena; Belser, Urs C

    2017-07-01

    (1) To determine the survival rate of 10 four-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) replacing the four maxillary incisors, supported by 20 narrow-diameter implants (NDIs), (2) to assess the incidence of mechanical and biological complications, and (3) to evaluate bone level changes longitudinally after final FDP insertion. Ten patients (six women, four men), mean age 49.4 ± 12.6 years, were treated with a four-unit anterior maxillary FDP (six screw-retained; four cemented). Biological parameters, eventual technical complications, radiographic measurements, and study casts were assessed at 1 (baseline), 3, and 5 years after implant placement. A multilevel logistic regression test was performed on clinical parameters and bone level changes (significance level P four-unit FDP to replace the four missing maxillary incisors may be considered a predictable treatment modality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-Term Survival of Dialysis Patients with Bacterial Endocarditis Undergoing Valvular Replacement Surgery in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leither, Maxwell D.; Shroff, Gautam R.; Ding, Shu; Gilbertson, David T.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial endocarditis in dialysis patients is associated with high mortality rates. The literature is limited regarding long-term outcomes of valvular replacement surgery and choice of prosthesis in dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis. Methods and Results Dialysis patients hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis, 2004-2007, were studied retrospectively using data from the US Renal Data System. Long-term survival of patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with tissue or non-tissue valves was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valvular replacement surgery. During the study period, 11,156 dialysis patients were hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis and 1267 (11.4%) underwent valvular replacement surgery (tissue valve 44.3%, non-tissue valve 55.7%). In the valve replacement cohort, 60% were men, 50% white, 54% aged 45-64 years, and 36% diabetic. Estimated survival with tissue and non-tissue valves, respectively, at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 years was 59% and 60%, 48% and 50%, 35% and 37%, and 25% and 30% (log rank P = 0.42). Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (66% of identified organisms). Independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery included older age, diabetes as cause of end-stage renal disease, surgery during index hospitalization, staphylococcus as the causative organism, and dysrhythmias as a comorbid condition. Conclusions Valve replacement surgery is appropriate for well-selected dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis, but is associated with high mortality rates. Survival does not differ with tissue or non-tissue prosthesis. PMID:23785002

  8. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  9. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  10. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  11. Optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 with an optimized cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinil Mok; Poong Hyun Seong

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a model for determining the optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 is developed, which is to minimize economic loss caused by inadvertent trip and the system failure. This model uses cost benefit analysis method and the part for optimal inspection period considers the human error. The model is based on three factors as follows: (i) The cumulative failure distribution function of the safety system, (ii) The probability that the safety system does not operate due to failure of the system or human error when the safety system is needed at an emergency condition and (iii) The average probability that the reactor is tripped due to the failure of system components or human error. The model then is applied to evaluate the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1. The optimal replacement periods which are calculated with proposed model differ from those used in Wolsung NPP Unit 1 by about a few days or months, whereas the optimal inspection periods are in about the same range. (author)

  12. Africanization in the United States: Replacement of Feral European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African Hybrid Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in 50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European ho...

  13. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  14. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients.

  15. Surry Power Station secondary water chemistry improvement since steam generator replacement and the unit two feedwater pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    Surry Power Station has two Westinghouse-designed three-loop PWRs of 811 MWe design rating. The start of commercial operation was in July, 1972 in No.1 plant, and May, 1973 in No.2 plant. Both plants began the operation using controlled phosphate chemistry for the steam generators. In 1975, both plants were converted to all volatile treatment on the secondary side due to the tube wall thinning corrosion in the steam generators, which was associated with the phosphate sludge that was building up on the tube sheets and created acidic condition. Thereafter, condenser and air leakage and steam generator denting occurred, and after the operation of 8 years 2 month of No.1 plant and 5 years 9 months of No.2 plant, the steam generators were replaced. A major plant improvement program was designed and implemented from 1979 to 1980. The improvement in new steam generators, the modification for preventing corrosion, the addition of a steam generator blowdown recovery system, the reconstruction of condensers, the installation of full flow, deep bed condensate polishers, the addition of Dionex 8,000 on-line ion chromatograph, a long term maintenance agreement with Westinghouse and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  17. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  18. Conduction Abnormalities and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Repositionable LOTUS Device: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampat, Rajiv; Khawaja, M Zeeshan; Hilling-Smith, Roland; Byrne, Jonathan; MacCarthy, Philip; Blackman, Daniel J; Krishnamurthy, Arvindra; Gunarathne, Ashan; Kovac, Jan; Banning, Adrian; Kharbanda, Raj; Firoozi, Sami; Brecker, Stephen; Redwood, Simon; Bapat, Vinayak; Mullen, Michael; Aggarwal, Suneil; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S; Khogali, Saib; Dooley, Maureen; Cockburn, James; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David

    2017-06-26

    The authors report the incidence of pacemaker implantation up to hospital discharge and the factors influencing pacing rate following implantation of the LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) in the United Kingdom. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with a significant need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacing rates vary according to the device used. The REPRISE II (Repositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System) trial reported a pacing rate of 29% at 30 days after implantation of the LOTUS device. Data were collected retrospectively on 228 patients who had the LOTUS device implanted between March 2013 and February 2015 across 10 centers in the United Kingdom. Twenty-seven patients (12%) had pacemakers implanted pre-procedure and were excluded from the analysis. Patients were aged 81.2 ± 7.7 years; 50.7% were male. The mean pre-procedural QRS duration was 101.7 ± 20.4 ms. More than one-half of the cohort (n = 111, 55%) developed new left bundle branch block (LBBB) following the procedure. Permanent pacemakers were implanted in 64 patients (32%) with a median time to insertion of 3.0 ± 3.4 days. Chief indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 46, 72%), or LBBB with 1st degree AV block (n = 11, 17%). Amongst those who received a pacemaker following TAVR the pre-procedural electrocardiogram findings included: No conduction disturbance (n = 41, 64%); 1st degree AV block (n = 10, 16%); right bundle branch block (n = 6, 9%) and LBBB (n = 5, 8%). LBBB (but not permanent pacemaker) occurred more frequently in patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty before TAVR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; p = 0.03). Pre-procedural conduction abnormality (composite of 1st degree AV block, hemiblock, right bundle branch block, LBBB) was independently associated with the need for permanent pacemaker (OR: 2.54; p = 0.048). The absence of

  19. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  1. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  2. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury, Severe Kidney Injury, and the Need for Renal Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma I. Albeladi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent attempts were made to identify early indicators of acute kidney injury (AKI in order to accelerate treatment and hopefully improve outcomes. This study aims to assess the value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL as a predictor of AKI, severe AKI, and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT. Methods: We conducted a prospective study and included adults admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, between May 2012 and June 2013, who had at least 1 major risk factor for AKI. They were followed up throughout their hospital stay to identify which potential characteristics predicted any of the above 3 outcomes. We collected information on patients’ age and gender, the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, version II (APACHE II score, the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, and uNGAL. We compared ICU patients who presented with any of the 3 outcomes with others who did not. Results: We included 75 patients, and among those 21 developed AKI, 18 severe AKI, and 17 required RRT. Bivariate analysis revealed intergroup differences for almost all clinical variables (e.g., patients with AKI vs. patients without AKI; while multivariate analysis identified mean arterial pressure as the only predictor for AKI (p < 0.001 and the SOFA score (p = 0.04 as the only predictor for severe AKI. For RRT, day 1 maximum uNGAL was the stronger predictor (p < 0.001 when compared to admission diagnosis (p = 0.014. Day 1 and day 2 maximum uNGAL levels were good and excellent predictors for future RRT, but only fair to good predictors for AKI and severe AKI. Conclusions: Maximum urine levels of uNGAL measured over the first and second 24 h of an ICU admission were highly accurate predictors of the future need for RRT, however less accurate at detecting early and severe AKI.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  4. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  5. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  6. Acceptance test for 900 MWe PWR unit replacement steam generators; Essai de reception des generateurs de vapeur de remplacement des tranches REP 900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourguechon, B.

    1993-12-31

    During the first half of 1994, the Gravelines 1 steam generators will be replaced (SG replacement procedure). The new SG`s differ from the former components notably by the alloy used for the tube bundle, in this case, the high chromium content Inconel 690. So, from this standpoint, they are to be considered as PWR 900 replacement SG first models and their thermal efficiency has consequently to be assessed. This will provide an opportunity of ensuring that the performance of the components delivered is in compliance with requirements and of making the necessary provisions if significant deviations are observed. The EFMT branch, which has been in charge of the instrumentation and acceptance of the different SG first models since the first PWR plants were commissioned, will be responsible for the acceptance tests and the ultimate validation of a performance assessment procedure applicable to the future replacement steam generators. The methods and tests proposed for SG expert appraisal are based on consideration of the importance of primary measurement quality for satisfactory SG assessment and of the new test facilities with which the 900 and 1 300 PWR plants are gradually being equipped. These facilities provide an on-site computer environment for tests compatible with the tools (PATTERN, etc.) used at EFMT and in other departments. This test is the first of this kind performed by EFMT and the test facility of a nuclear power plant. (author). 6 figs.

  7. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Treating acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – the role of renal replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Toshio; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    Acid–base disorders are common in critically ill patients. Metabolic acid–base disorders are particularly common in patients who require acute renal replacement therapy. In these patients, metabolic acidosis is common and multifactorial in origin. Analysis of acid–base status using the Stewart–Figge methodology shows that these patients have greater acidemia despite the presence of hypoalbuminemic alkalosis. This acidemia is mostly secondary to hyperphosphatemia, hyperlactatemia, and the accu...

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  10. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  11. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  12. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  13. A Geothermal Energy Supported Gas-steam Cogeneration Unit as a Possible Replacement for the Old Part of a Municipal CHP Plant (TEKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more intensive utilization of local renewable energy sources is indisputable. Under the current economic circumstances their competitiveness in comparison with fossil fuels is rather low, if we do not take into account environmental considerations. Integrating geothermal sources into combined heat and power production in a municipal CHP plant would be an excellent solution to this problem. This concept could lead to an innovative type of power plant - a gas-steam cycle based, geothermal energy supported cogeneration unit.

  14. Age replacement models: A summary with new perspectives and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa N.; Magid Hamouda, Abdel; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Age replacement models are fundamental to maintenance theory. This paper summarizes our new perspectives and hods in age replacement models: First, we optimize the expected cost rate for a required availability level and vice versa. Second, an asymptotic model with simple calculation is proposed by using the cumulative hazard function skillfully. Third, we challenge the established theory such that preventive replacement should be non-random and only corrective replacement should be made for the unit with exponential failure. Fourth, three replacement policies with random working cycles are discussed, which are called overtime replacement, replacement first, and replacement last, respectively. Fifth, the policies of replacement first and last are formulated with general models. Sixth, age replacement is modified for the situation when the economical life cycle of the unit is a random variable with probability distribution. Finally, models of a parallel system with constant and random number of units are taken into considerations. The models of expected cost rates are obtained and optimal replacement times to minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically. Further studies and potential applications are also indicated at the end of discussions of the above models. - Highlights: • Optimization of cost rate for availability level is discussed and vice versa. • Asymptotic and random replacement models are discussed. • Overtime replacement, replacement first and replacement last are surveyed. • Replacement policy with random life cycle is given. • A parallel system with random number of units is modeled.

  15. Java Tool Framework for Automation of Hardware Commissioning and Maintenance Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J C; Fisher, J M; Gordon, J B; Lagin, L J; West, S L

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam laser system designed to study high energy density physics. Each beam line contains a variety of line replaceable units (LRUs) that contain optics, stepping motors, sensors and other devices to control and diagnose the laser. During commissioning and subsequent maintenance of the laser, LRUs undergo a qualification process using the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) to verify and calibrate the equipment. The commissioning processes are both repetitive and tedious when we use remote manual computer controls, making them ideal candidates for software automation. Maintenance and Commissioning Tool (MCT) software was developed to improve the efficiency of the qualification process. The tools are implemented in Java, leveraging ICCS services and CORBA to communicate with the control devices. The framework provides easy-to-use mechanisms for handling configuration data, task execution, task progress reporting, and generation of commissioning test reports. The tool framework design and application examples will be discussed

  16. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  17. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  18. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  19. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  20. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  1. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  2. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  3. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  4. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  5. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  6. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  7. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  8. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavareau, Julien; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur

  9. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: pelabeau@ulb.ac.be

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur.

  10. CANDU-PHW fuel channel replacement experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Kakaria, B.K.

    1982-09-01

    One of the main characteristics of the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor is the use of pressure tubes rather than one large pressure vessel to contain the fuel and coolant. This provides an inherent design capability to permit their replacement in an expeditious manner, without seriously affecting the high capacity factors of the reactor units. Of th eight Ontario Hydro commercial nuclear generating units, the lifetime performance places seven of them (including two that have had some of their fuel channels replaced), in the top ten positions in the world's large nuclear-electric unit performance ranking. Pressure tube cracks in the rolled joint region have resulted in 70 fuel channels being replaced in three reactor units, the latest being at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A', Unit 2 in February 1982. The rolled joint design and rolling procedures have been modified to eliminate this problem on CANDU units subsequent to Bruce 'A'. This paper describes the CANDU pressure tube performance history and expectations, and the tooling and procedures used to carry out the fuel channel replacement

  11. New one cycle criteria for optimizing preventive replacement policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, Maryam; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Szidarovszky, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Models are introduced and examined for the optimum scheduling of preventive replacements. The “replace first” and “replace last” models are known from the literature if the long term expected cost per unit time is minimized. We will first introduce the one cycle counterparts of these models when the expected costs per unit time in a single cycle is minimized. If the unit performs identical projects sequentially then the “replace next” model assumes that the preventive replacement is postponed until the ongoing project is finished. The termination time of this project is random which also depends on the scheduled time of the preventive replacement in contrary to the “replace first” and “replace last” models. The mathematical models are formulated and conditions are given for the existence of finite optima. Numerical examples and a simulation study illustrate the methodology and the numerical results show interesting comparisons of the different models. - Highlights: • The Single cycle age replacement model is extended incorporating repairable failures. • In order to avoid project interruption costs, three model variants are discussed. • Model variants are replace first, replace last and replace next. • In many cases analytic solutions are derived and illustrated by numerical examples. • The different model variants and their results are compared based on simulation studies.

  12. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  13. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  14. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  15. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  16. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  17. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  18. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  19. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  20. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  1. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  2. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  4. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  5. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  6. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  7. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  8. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  9. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  10. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  11. International examples of steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979-1980 a total of twelve nuclear power plants world-wide have had their steam generators replaced. The replacement of the Combustion steam generators in the Millstone-2 plant in the United States was completed very recently. Steam generator replacement activities are going on at present in four plants. In North Anna, the steam generators have been under replacement since January 1990. In Japan, preparations have been started for Genkai-1. Since January 1992, the two projects in Beznau-1, Switzerland, and Doel-3, Belgium, have bee planned and executed in parallel. Why steam generator replacement? There are a number of defect mechanisms which give rise to the need for early steam generator replacement. One of the main reasons is the use of Inconel-600 as material for the heating tubes. Steam generator heating tubes made of Inconel-600 have been known to exhibit their first defects due to stress corrosion cracking after less than one year of operation. (orig.) [de

  12. NIF Maintenance Plan March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Ensuring the reliability of the NIF, including its support systems and utilities, is essential to ensuring the availability of the NIF in its support of laser operations. This document identifies the policies and procedures necessary to perform and support the maintenance of the NIF’s systems. These systems are all encompassing and include the facility, beampath, Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), Safety Interlock System (SIS), and diagnostics and utilities that create the environments within the beampath consisting of vacuum, argon, or clean dry air.

  13. The use of adaptive equipment following total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, Jamie; Paul, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluates the need for adaptive equipment following total knee replacement. There are no recent studies to guide occupational therapists in the optimum time adaptive equipment is required following total knee replacement.\\ud \\ud Method: A non-experimental, concurrent mixed methods approach was used. The study population was patients attending for total knee replacement at a large general hospital. Outcome measures were the Oxford Knee Score, the United Kingdom Functio...

  14. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  16. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Esophageal Replacement for Long-Gap Esophageal Atresia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humility to know when to consider a replacement procedure (3). To replace the esophagus of a baby is a major decision in many pediatric surgical units world over. Fortunately, the need for this procedure has decreased in the recent years due to the increase in the variety of techniques of lengthening the upper esophageal ...

  18. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medalia, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ...), part of a larger Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), replaces components. Modifying some components would require a nuclear test, but the United States has observed a test moratorium since 1992...

  19. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  20. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  1. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  2. Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Octogenarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Tasoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzes the long-term outcomes of mechanical aortic valve replacement in octogenarian patients. Material and Method: A retrospective review was performed on 23 octogenarian patients who underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement. Hospital mortality, postoperative intensive care unit stay, hospital stay and long-term results was examined. Estimates of the cumulative event mortality rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The mean age of all patients was 82.9±2.3 years and most were men (65.22%. The median ejection fraction was 45%. 73.91% of patients were in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Thirteen patients (56.52% in this study underwent combined procedure, the remaining 10 (43.48% patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement. The most common valve size was 23 mm. The mean intensive care unit stay was 1.76±1.14 days. The mean hospital stay was 9.33±5.06 days. No complications were observed in 56.52% patients during their hospital stay. The overall hospital mortality was 8.7%. Follow-up was completed for all 23 patients. Median follow-up time was 33 months (1-108 months. Actuarial survival among discharged from hospital was 59% at 5 years. Discussion: Mechanical aortic valve replacement is a safe procedure in octogenarian patients and can be performed safely even in combined procedure.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  5. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  6. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    existing bridge pipes that have failed and replace the failed structure with a new, prefabricated pedestrian bridge within the original bridge footprint...vehicles, nor designed for support of standard passenger vehicle loads. The bridge would be a single prefabricated unit consisting of a steel grate...placed on new concrete abutments built on the existing foundations on the creek banks, and put in place by a crane operating from the vehicle parking

  8. Nonparametric adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Coolen, F.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Age replacement of technical units has received much attention in the reliability literature over the last four decades. Mostly, the failure time distribution for the units is assumed to be known, and minimal costs per unit of time is used as optimality criterion, where renewal reward theory simplifies the mathematics involved but requires the assumption that the same process and replacement strategy continues over a very large ('infinite') period of time. Recently, there has been increasing attention to adaptive strategies for age replacement, taking into account the information from the process. Although renewal reward theory can still be used to provide an intuitively and mathematically attractive optimality criterion, it is more logical to use minimal costs per unit of time over a single cycle as optimality criterion for adaptive age replacement. In this paper, we first show that in the classical age replacement setting, with known failure time distribution with increasing hazard rate, the one-cycle criterion leads to earlier replacement than the renewal reward criterion. Thereafter, we present adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion within the nonparametric predictive inferential framework. We study the performance of this approach via simulations, which are also used for comparisons with the use of the renewal reward criterion within the same statistical framework

  9. A Bayesian perspective on age replacement with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Yeh, R.H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Juang, M.-G.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian approach is developed for determining an optimal age replacement policy with minimal repair. By incorporating minimal repair, planned replacement, and unplanned replacement, the mathematical formulas of the expected cost per unit time are obtained for two cases - the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that there exists a unique and finite optimal age for replacement under some reasonable conditions. When the failure density is Weibull with uncertain parameters, a Bayesian approach is established to formally express and update the uncertain parameters for determining an optimal age replacement policy. Further, various special cases are discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical example is given

  10. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  11. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  12. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  14. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  15. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J H [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  17. Efforts for optimization of BWR core internals replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, N.

    2000-01-01

    The core internal components replacement of a BWR was successfully completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 (1F3) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in 1998. The core shroud and the majority of the internal components made by type 304 stainless steel (SS) were replaced with the ones made of low carbon type 316L SS to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. Although this core internals replacement project was completed, several factors combined to result in a longer-than-expected period for the outage. It was partly because the removal work of the internal components was delayed. Learning a lesson from whole experience in this project, some methods were adopted for the next replacement project at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 2 (1F2) to shorten the outage and reduce the total radiation exposure. Those are new removal processes and new welding machine and so on. The core internals replacement work was ended at 1F2 in 1999, and both the period of outage and the total radiation exposure were the same degree as expected previous to starting of this project. This result shows that the methods adopted in this project are basically applicable for the core internals replacement work and the whole works about the BWR core internals replacement were optimized. The outline of the core internals replacement project and applied technologies at 1F3 and 1F2 are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  19. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  20. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  1. 30 CFR 872.29 - What are prior balance replacement funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are prior balance replacement funds? 872... § 872.29 What are prior balance replacement funds? “Prior balance replacement funds” are moneys we must... general funds of the United States Treasury that are otherwise unappropriated. Under section 411(h)(1) of...

  2. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  3. Maintenance or replacement of primary equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchu, J.

    1995-01-01

    The principal materials, such as the primary equipments of a PWR type steam generator, have a finite service life. Framatome, builder of steam generators and maintenance contractor of Electricite de France has developed a methodology for the maintenance or the replacement of primary equipments. The paper describes the methodology followed by Framatome to identify and localize the wear mode and to treat or repair the component. Four failure modes have been considered: crack propagation, rubbing/vibration wear, neutron irradiation and corrosion propagation under permanent stress. A kinetic modelling of wear propagation has been computerized and validated using mechanical tests on Inconel 600 mockups. These analyses have allow to determine the strategy of repair or replacement of vessel heads for each unit. The method is evaluated taking into account the risk assessment, cost, dosimetry, efficiency and time delay involved. (J.S.). 1 fig., 3 photos

  4. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  5. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The name...

  6. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  7. A comparison of minimally invasive and standard aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-10-01

    The study objective was to compare aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy with aortic valve replacement through a median sternotomy. With propensity score matching, we selected 211 patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and 211 patients after aortic valve replacement who underwent operation between January 2010 and December 2013. Perioperative outcomes were analyzed, and multivariable logistic regression analysis of risk factors of postoperative morbidity was performed. For propensity score-matched patients, hospital mortality was 1.0% in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group and 1.4% in the aortic valve replacement group (P = 1.000). Stroke occurred in 0.5% versus 1.4% (P = .615), myocardial infarction occurred in 1.4% versus 1.9% (P = 1.000), and new onset of atrial fibrillation occurred in 12.8% versus 24.2% (P = .003) of patients in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Postoperative drainage was 353.5 ± 248.6 mL versus 544.3 ± 324.5 mL (P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Mediastinitis occurred in 2.8% of patients after aortic valve replacement and in 0.0% of patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery (P = .040). Intensive care unit stay (1.3 ± 1.2 days vs 2.6 ± 2.6 days) and hospital stay (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs 8.7 ± 4.4 days) were statistically significantly shorter in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group. Aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in reduced postoperative morbidity (odds ratio, 0.4; P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in a reduced infection rate, diminished postoperative bleeding and blood

  8. Technical development and its application on steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Sadahiko; Hanzawa, Katsumi; Sato, Hajime; Kannoto, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two PWR nuclear power plants are now under commercial operation in Japan. Eight of these plants are scheduled to have their steam generators replaced by up-graded units as a social responsibility for improved reliability, economy and easier maintenance. To carry out steam generator replacement, main coolant pipe cutting and restoration techniques, remote controlled welding machines and other remote controlled equipment, templating techniques with which the new steam generator primary nozzles will fit the existing primary pipes correctly were developed. An adequate training program was carried out to establish these techniques and they were then applied in replacement work on site. The steam generators of the three plants were replaced completely in 1994. These newly developed techniques are to be applied in upcoming plants and replaced plants will be much reliable. (author)

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  10. Steam generator replacement at Doel 3 NPP (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danhier, B.

    1993-01-01

    The reasons are presented that led to the conclusion that the most cost-effective strategy for the Doel 3 unit was the immediate replacement of the SG. Discussed are the advantages and drawbacks of the replacement techniques, the so-called 2, 3 and 4 cuts methods. The advantages are emphasized of intensive use of computer aided engineering in this kind of backfitting. The methodology applied to combine a power uprating of 10% over the nominal power with the steam generator replacement is presented. (author) 1 fig

  11. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  12. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  13. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  14. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR) on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, ...

  15. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  17. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Steam generator replacement at Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Dodo, Takashi; Negishi, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    Eleven nuclear units are in operation at the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.. In seven of them, Mihama-1·2·3, Takahama-1·2, and Ohi-1·2, comparatively long duration for tube inspection and repair have been required during late annual outages. KEPCO decided to replace all steam generators in these 7 units with the latest model which was improved upon the past degradation experiences, as a result of comprehensive considerations including public confidence in nuclear power generation, maintenability, and economic efficiency. This report presents the design improvements in new steam generators, replacement techniques, and so on. (author)

  19. Replacement of sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a number of quality aspects related to replacement of important systems or components in a nuclear power station. Reference is given to the steam generator replacement and power uprating performed at Ringhals 2 in Sweden in 1989. Since quality is a wide concept there has been put special emphasis in this paper to the important aspects that traditionally are not connected to quality. (author) 1 fig

  20. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  1. Contribution to optimization of preventive replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legat, V.; Zaludova, A.H.; Cervenka, V.; Jurca, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the optimal interval for preventive maintenance/replacement using either an age-based or diagnostic-based renewal strategy. For the case of a finite-time horizon, for which the computations are complicated, a simple formula is proposed for modifying the commonly used inifinite-time solution so that it gives a good approximation to the exact finite-time solution. Examples demonstrate that the method is sufficiently accurate and simple in practice for typical engineering components with Weibull life distributions and for a reasonable range of the cost factor (ratio of unit corrective to unit preventive maintenance costs). This paper investigates the problem of the accuracy of the results compared to the exact, finite-time solution for a selected matrix of time-to failure Weibull shape parameters and cost factors commonly occurring in technical practice. Applications offer substantial benefits to both manufacturer and user of technical equipment

  2. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  3. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  4. Installation technology of reactor internals on shroud replacement work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Since the replacement of large welded reactor internals much as a core shroud did not have a precedent in the world, quite a few technologies had to be developed. Especially for the installation of new core shroud, jet pumps, core plate and top guide, the accurate weld and fit-up techniques for large structures was required to secure their integrity. The vessel shielding system was utilized to reduce general area dose rate such that all replacement work. For jet pump installation, automatic remote welding machines were used for high radiation area. As for the core shroud, shroud support weld prep machining tool with high accuracy, jacking system to support fit-up, new weld machine for small work space and low heat input weld joint were developed. Shroud replacement work in Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Unit 3 (1F-3) with application of these development techniques, was successfully accomplished. The technology is applied for 1F-2 replacement work also. (author)

  5. Optimization of costs for the DOEL 3 steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblois, C.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of steam generator replacement economics are discussed on the basis of the recent replacement carried out in the Doel 3 unit. The choice between repair of replacement policies, as well as the selection of the intervention date were based on a comparison of costs in which various possible scenarios were examined. The contractual approach for the different works to be performed was also an important point, as well as the project organization in which CAD played an important role. This organization allowed to optimize the outage duration and to realize numerous interventions in the reactor building in parallel with the replacement itself. A last aspect of the optimization of costs is the possibility to uprate the plant power. In the case of Doel 3, the plant restarted with a nominal power increased by 10%, of which 5,7% were possible by the increase of the SG heat transfer area. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  7. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data captured by the different variables entered into the Joint Register covering the pre-op, intra-op and post-op period of all total hip and knee replacement surgery done at the ZIOH from 1998 to 2010 was entered into a spreadsheet after verification with individual patient medical records. This was then imported ...

  8. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  9. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  10. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  11. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  12. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  13. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  14. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm 2 ) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  15. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  16. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1995-01-01

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  17. Replacement Capability Options for the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    IIB Pamphlet . Retrieved April 29, 2012, from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA): http://www.jaxa.jp/pr/ brochure /pdf/01/rocket05.pdf JAXA...n.d.). HTV: H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI". Retrieved August 24, 2012, from JAXA: http://www.jaxa.jp/pr/ brochure /pdf/01/rocket03.pdf JAXA...n.d.). Dream Chaser. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Sierra Nevada Corporation: http://sncspace.com/uploads/ brochures /Dream_Chaser.pdf

  18. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  19. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  20. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  1. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  2. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  3. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  4. Procurement of replacement pressure vessels for MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.A. Jr.; Edwards, C.B. Jr.; McKibben, J.C.; Schoone, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) located in Columbia, Missouri, is the highest powered, highest steady-state flux university research reactor in the United States. The reactor is a 10-MW pressurized loop, in-pool-type, light-water-moderated, beryllium-reflected, flux trap reactor. MURR has a compact core (0.033 m 3 ) composed of eight fuel elements of the materials test reactor type arranged as an annular right circular cylinder between the inner and outer aluminum pressure vessels. Conservative engineering judgment resulted in the decision in 1988 to purchase new inner and outer pressure vessels. This paper details the difficulties encountered in procuring replacements for aluminum pressure vessels built to standards that are no longer applicable in attempting to meet nuclear standards that are not applicable to nonferrous material

  5. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  6. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti, and cobalt-chrome (CoCr. These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  7. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  8. Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User's guide. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Willing, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option

  9. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  10. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  11. Optimal replacement policy of products with repair-cost threshold after the extended warranty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Shang; Zhiqiang Cai

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the product sold under a warranty is usually maintained by the manufacturer during the warranty period. After the expiry of the warranty, however, the consumer confronts a problem about how to maintain the reliability of the product. This paper proposes, from the consumer's perspective, a replace-ment policy after the extended warranty, under the assumption that the product is sold under the renewable free replacement warranty (RFRW) policy in which the replacement is dependent on the repair-cost threshold. The proposed replacement policy is the replacement after the extended warranty is performed by the consumer based on the repair-cost threshold or preventive replacement (PR) age, which are decision variables. The expected cost rate model is derived from the consumer's perspective. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution that minimizes the expected cost rate per unit time are offered. Finally, a numeri-cal example is presented to exemplify the proposed model.

  12. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  13. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  14. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  15. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  16. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry

  17. TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH BELOW-KNEE AMPUTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Matthew D; Willey, Michael; Shurr, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is reserved for patients with severe and disabling arthritis that is non-responsive to conservative measures. Based on existing data, total knee replacement is a safe and cost-effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving physical function in patients who do not respond to conservative therapy. Despite the large variation in health status of patients and types of prosthesis implanted, total knee replacement has proven to be a relatively low risk and successful operation. Each year in the United States surgeons perform approximately 300,000 TKR.1 Likewise, lower extremity amputation is commonly performed in the United States with an annual incidence of 110,000 per year.2 Nearly 70% of all lower extremity amputations are performed as the result of chronic vascular disease, followed by trauma (22%), congenital etiology and tumor (4% each).3 Approximately 50% of all lower extremity amputations are performed secondary to complications from Diabetes Mellitus. Norvell et al. demonstrated that patients who have previously undergone transtibial amputation and ambulate with a prosthesis are more likely to develop degenerative joint disease in the con-tralateral extremity than the ipsilateral extremity.4 Further, radiographic changes consistent with osteoporosis have been demonstrated in up to 88% of limbs that have undergone transtibial amputation.8 To our knowledge, there have been only three reported cases of total knee replacement in patients with ipsilateral transtibial amputation.5,7 The purpose of the present study is to review the existing data on total knee replacement in patients who have undergone transtibial amputation. Further we present a patient with a transtibial amputation who underwent contralateral total knee replacement. PMID:21045987

  18. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  20. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  1. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down ...

  2. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  3. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  4. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  5. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  6. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  7. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  8. Gate replacement at the Upper Lake Falls development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.T.; Locke, A.E.; Brown, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Nova Scotia Power's integrated approach to dam safety was discussed. One of the two intake gates at Unit 1 of the Upper Falls Power Plant on the Mersey River was replaced in 1997 as part of the Utility's upgrading program. In the event of governor failure or turbine runaway, the new roller gate will allow operators to close the original sliding gate first under a more-or-less balanced head condition, and then to close the new roller gate under a full-flow condition. The planning, design and construction of the new roller gate is described. One of the two head gates of Unit 2 at the same station will be replaced in a similar fashion in the fall of 1998. 4 refs., 7 figs

  9. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  10. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  11. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  12. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  13. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  14. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  15. Steam generator replacement at Bruce A: approach, results, and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkiewicz, W.; Savage, B.; Smith, J.

    2008-01-01

    Steam Generator Replacement is now complete in Bruce A Units 1 and 2. In each reactor, eight steam generators were replaced; these were the first CANDU steam generator replacements performed anywhere in the world. The plans for replacement were developed in 2004 and 2005, and were summarized in an earlier paper for the CNS Conference held in November, 2006. The present paper briefly summarizes the methodologies and special processes used such as metrology, cutting and welding and heavy lifting. The paper provides an update since the earlier report and focuses on the project achievements to date, such as: - A combination of engineered methodology, laser metrology and precise remote machining led to accurate first time fit-ups of each new replacement steam generator and steam drums - Lessons learned in the first unit led to schedule improvements in the second unit - Dose received was lowest recorded for any steam generator replacement project. The experience gained and lessons learned from Units 1 and 2 will be valuable in planning and executing future replacement steam generator projects. A video was presented

  16. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors

  17. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  18. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  19. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  20. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  1. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  2. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  3. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  4. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S; Elsing, B [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  5. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  6. Optimization of steam generator replacement with virtual reality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have to be carefully examined and maintained up to the point of replacing major components during the overhaul period for continued operation. Most understandably the cost of maintenance and upgrading will tend to increase with the NPP power. There is thus an escalating need for developing an optimized process management method to reduce the cost involved. Albeit the steam generators (SGs) may not directly affect the expected lifespan of NPP, thousands of tubes with diameter on the order of 3 cm in the SG operating at 320degC and 16 MPa may well tend to be called Achilles' heel of the pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For instance, the SGs of Kori Nuclear Unit 1 (KNU 1) were replaced in October 1998 after 20 years of service on account of aging and potential threat to operational safety. In the same year the SG tubes of Ulchin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 were ruptured to result in leakage of the primary coolant to the secondary side. As a result their SGs are planned to be replaced in a few years. There is, however, a limit to improving the replacement process by trial and error in practice on account of the size of NPP with the ensuing complexity in process management. This paper proposes an optimization method for the SG replacement process based on the KNU 1 experience in 1998. The whole process was simulated accounting for interactions of each part in virtual reality utilizing the computer aided design solution CATIA, and the digital process management solution DELMIA. (author)

  7. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  8. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  9. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  10. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  11. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  12. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2006-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases

  13. A Petri net-based modelling of replacement strategies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterised by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. Though this issue is commonly encountered in practice, it has received little consideration in the literature. Previous exploratory works have treated the problem of replacing old-technology items by new ones, for identical components facing a unique new generation of items. This paper aims to define, in a realistic way, possible replacement policies when several types of challenger units are available and when the performances of these newly available units improve with time. Since no fully generic model can exist in maintenance optimisation, a modular modelling of the problem, allowing easy adaptations to features corresponding to specific applications is highly desirable. This work therefore proposes a modular Petri net model for this problem, underlying a Monte Carlo (MC) estimation of the costs incurred by the different possible replacement strategies under consideration.

  14. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits

  15. Enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Elad; Deroma, Laura; Bembi, Bruno; Deegan, Patrick; Hollak, Carla; Weinreb, Neal J; Cox, Timothy M

    2015-03-27

    untreated individuals with type 1 Gaucher disease. Two studies investigated maintenance enzyme replacement therapy in people with stable type 1 Gaucher disease previously treated for at least two years. One study compared substrate reduction therapy, enzyme replacement therapy and a combination thereof as maintenance therapy in people with type 1 Gaucher disease previously treated with enzyme replacement therapy. One study examined substrate reduction therapy in people with chronic neuronopathic (type 3) Gaucher disease who continued to receive enzyme replacement therapy.Treatment-naïve participants had similar increases in haemoglobin when comparing those receiving imiglucerase or alglucerase at 60 units/kg, imiglucerase or velaglucerase alfa at 60 U/kg, taliglucerase alfa at 30 units/kg or 60 units/kg, and velaglucerase alfa at 45 units/g or 60 units/kg. For platelet count response in participants with intact spleens, a benefit for imiglucerase over velaglucerase alfa at 60 units/kg was observed, mean difference -79.87 (95% confidence interval -137.57 to -22.17). There were no other significant differences in platelet count response when comparing different doses of velaglucerase alfa and of taliglucerase alfa, and when comparing imiglucerase to alglucerase. Spleen and liver volume reductions were not significantly different in any enzyme replacement therapy product or dose comparison study. Although a dose effect on serum biomarkers was not seen after nine months, a significantly greater reduction with higher dose was reported after 12 months in the velaglucerase study, mean difference 16.70 (95% confidence intervaI 1.51 to 31.89). In the two enzyme replacement therapy maintenance studies comparing infusions every two weeks and every four weeks, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and spleen and liver volumes over a 6 to 12 month period when participants were treated with the same cumulative dose.A total of 25 serious

  16. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  17. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  18. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  19. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  20. Replacing Fortran Namelists with JSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining a log of input parameters for a climate model is very important to understanding potential causes for answer changes during the development stages. Additionally, since modern Fortran is now interoperable with C, a more modern approach to software infrastructure to include code written in C is necessary. Merging these two separate facets of climate modeling requires a quality control for monitoring changes to input parameters and model defaults that can work with both Fortran and C. JSON will soon replace namelists as the preferred key/value pair input in the GFDL model. By adding a JSON parser written in C into the model, the input can be used by all functions and subroutines in the model, errors can be handled by the model instead of by the internal namelist parser, and the values can be output into a single file that is easily parsable by readily available tools. Input JSON files can handle all of the functionality of a namelist while being portable between C and Fortran. Fortran wrappers using unlimited polymorphism are crucial to allow for simple and compact code which avoids the need for many subroutines contained in an interface. Errors can be handled with more detail by providing information about location of syntax errors or typos. The output JSON provides a ground truth for values that the model actually uses by providing not only the values loaded through the input JSON, but also any default values that were not included. This kind of quality control on model input is crucial for maintaining reproducibility and understanding any answer changes resulting from changes in the input.

  1. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.

    1976-10-01

    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  2. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 57.19122 Section 57.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  3. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  4. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 56.19122 Section 56.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  5. An abstract machine for module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Krl, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement from the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection.

  6. Temelin NPP - IandC replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalenka, I.

    1997-01-01

    The original instrumentation and control system of the Temelin nuclear power plant is being upgraded and replaced by a modern Westinghouse-supplied system which meets the requirements imposed on current nuclear power plant designs. The history and purpose of the IandC system replacement is given, and the design of the new system is described in some detail. (A.K.)

  7. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  8. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.14 Soil replacement. (a) Soil...

  9. A useful framework for optimal replacement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Dekker, Rommert

    1997-01-01

    In this note we present a general framework for optimization of replacement times. It covers a number of models, including various age and block replacement models, and allows a uniform analysis for all these models. A relation to the marginal cost concept is described

  10. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing...

  11. Cost Analysis Of Replacement And Bearing Trailer Maintenance In Sugar Group Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mastur, Mastur; Masyhuri, Masyhuri; Waluyati, Lestari Rahayu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study are to understand (i) the costs and periods optimal of grease used for the replacement and maintenance bearing trailer in Sugar Group Companies (SGC), and (ii) the effect of a period and frequency of grease, lifetime bearing, frequency of replacement bearing in a year, unit trailer, brand bearing, and location of plant. The basic method used is descriptive and analytical. The location determined were in Workshop Division PT. ILP, PT. SIL, and PT. GPM. The analytical ...

  12. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  13. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  14. Pipe replacement in a water supply network: coordinated versus uncoordinated replacement and budget effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Operators of underground water supply networks are challenged with pipe replacement
    decisions, because pipes are subject to increased failure rates as they age and financial resources
    are often limited.We study the optimal replacement time and optimal number of pipe replacements
    such

  15. Nuclear power - replacement of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The CANDU pressure tube reactor is an effective electricity generator. While most units have been built in Canada, units are successfully operated in Argentina and Korea as well as India and Pakistan, which have early versions of the same concept. Units are also under construction in Korea and Romania. The main constructional components of a CANDU core are the calandria vessel, the fuel channels and the reactivity control mechanisms. The fuel channel, in particular the pressure tubes, see an environment comprising high flux, high temperature water at high pressures, which induces changes in the properties and dimensions of the channel components. From the first, fuel channels were designed to be replaced because of the difficulty in predicting the behaviour of zirconium alloys in such service over a long period of time. In fact some phenomena, that were not known at the time of the earliest designs, have led to unacceptable changes in the properties of the channels and these early reactors have had to be retubed at half their intended life. These deficiencies have been corrected in the latest designs and fuel channels in reactors that have commenced operation over the last 10 years, are predicted to reach the intended 30 years life before replacement is necessary. The changing of fuel channels, the details and experience of which are explained, has been shown to be an effective way of refurbishing the CANDU reactor, extending its lifetime a further 25-30 years. (author)

  16. Replacement of a vessel head, an operation which today gets easily into its stride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.; Chaumont, J.C.; Lambiotte, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, one year after the detection of a leak in a vessel head of the Electricite de France (EDF) Bugey 4 reactor, the head was replaced by the Framatome-Jeumont Industrie Group. Today, this group, which has developed new methods and new tools to optimize the cost, the time-delay and the dosimetry of this kind of intervention, has performed 11 additional replacements, two of which on 1300 MWe power units. This paper describes step by step the successive operations required for a complete vessel head replacement, including the testing of safety systems before starting up the reactor. (J.S.). 7 photos

  17. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  18. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  19. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  20. Refrigerator retirement and replacement programs : lessons learned and application to an Ontario wide program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The best practices in refrigerator retirement programs in North America were identified in an effort to develop a concept for an Ontario-wide provincial refrigerator retirement program. The report focused on describing refrigerator retirement programs, namely those programs that focused on getting rid of old secondary refrigerators. The report excluded refrigerator replacement programs, which encourage householders to retire their refrigerators early and replace them with an energy star refrigerator. However, it was noted that in several regions, both replacement and retirement programs are offered at the same time. The report provided background information on energy use by refrigerators as well as refrigerator retirement and replacement programs. Types of refrigerator retirement and replacement programs and the environmental benefits of these programs were also described. The report also addressed the potential energy impact of an Ontario-wide refrigerator retirement program as well as consumer incentive and bounties initiatives to encourage households to retire units. Other topics covered in the report included the design of typical refrigerator retirement and replacement programs; collection and recycling of retired refrigerators; reported costs of refrigerator retirement and replacement programs; as well as marketing and advertising. The role of retailers and manufacturers and reported lessons learned from refrigerator retirement and replacement were also presented. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 6 appendices.

  1. How to replace a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1996-01-01

    A potential life extending procedure for a nuclear reactor after, say, 40 years of service life, might in some circumstances be the replacement of the reactor pressure vessel. Neutron induced degradation of the vessel might make replacement by one of a different material composition desirable, for example. Although the replacement of heavy components, such as steam generators, has been possible for many years, the pressure vessel presents a much more demanding task if only because it is highly irradiated. Some preliminary feasibility studies by Siemens are reported for the two removal strategies that might be considered. These are removal of the entire pressure vessel in one piece and dismantling it into sections. (UK)

  2. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  3. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  4. Language Profile in Congenital Hypothyroid Children Receiving Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hend; Abdel Hady, Aisha Fawzy; Abdel Hamid, Asmaa; Mahmoud, Heba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate receptive and expressive language skills in children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early hormonal replacement treatment before the age of 3 months and to identify any subtle areas of weaknesses in their language development to check the necessity for future language intervention. The study was conducted on 30 hypothyroid children receiving hormonal replacement. They were subdivided into group I (5-8 years 11 months; 12 cases) and group II (9-12 years 11 months; 18 cases). All patients were subjected to a protocol of assessment applied in the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) and evaluation of language skills by the REAL scale. The younger group reached average Arabic language scores, while the older group showed moderate language delay. Early replacement therapy supports language development in young children. However, longitudinal and follow-up studies are required to identify difficulties presenting at older ages that may affect children in the academic settings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A trivariate optimal replacement policy for a deteriorating system based on cumulative damage and inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Nan; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we study a trivariate replacement model for a deteriorating system consisting of two units. Failures of unit 1 can be classified into two types. Type I failure (minor failure) is fixed by a minimal repair and type II failure (catastrophic failure) is removed by a replacement. Both types of failures can only be detected through inspection. Each type I failure of unit 1 will result in a random amount of damage to unit 2 and the damages are cumulative. The probability of type I failure or type II failure is assumed to depend on the number of failures since the last replacement. We formulate a replacement policy based on the number of type I failure, the occurrence of the first type II failure, and the amount of accumulative damages. Hence the system is replaced either preventively or correctively at any of the following four conditions depend on whichever occurs first; preventively (a) at the Nth type I failure; or (b) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a pre-specified level Z (but less than the failure level l); and, correctively (c) at the first type II failure; or (d) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a failure level l, where Z and l represent the thresholds of total damage level for unit 2 to preventive and corrective replacements, respectively. Although a type I failure can be fixed by a minimal repair, but the operating period is stochastically decreasing and repair time is stochastically increasing as time goes on. The minimal total expected long-run net cost per unit time of the system is derived and a computational algorithm for determining the optimal policy is developed. A real-world application from electric power industry is provided. Several past studied are shown to be special cases of our model. Finally, a numerical example is presented. - Highlights: • A trivariate replacement policy for a deteriorating system with two units is proposed. • A real-world application from the electric power industry is provided. • The

  6. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, PandIDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System

  7. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  8. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  9. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Logistic Vehicle System Replacement Cost Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinson, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) was originally fielded from 1985-1989. Most of the LVS fleet will reach end-of-service life in 2005, therefore the goal of the Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR...

  11. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Machine replacement, Network Externalities and Investment Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ruiz

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model where agents decide on the timing of replacement of ageing machines. The optimal replacement policy for an agent is influenced by other agents' decisions because the productivity of a particular vintage displays network externalities that set in with a lag. In equilibrium, agents follow innovation cycles with a frequency that is lower than optimal, so there is too much delay. One extreme case is the possibility of inefficient collapse: for some parameters there is ...

  13. Equipment Replacement Decision Making: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei (David); Gemar, Mason D.; Machemehl, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of equipment managers is to replace the right equipment at the right time and at the lowest overall cost. In this paper, the opportunities and challenges associated with equipment replacement optimization (ERO) are discussed in detail. First, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art and state-of-the practice literature for the ERO problem is conducted. Second, a dynamic programming (DP) based optimization solution methodology is presented to solve the ERO problem. T...

  14. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  15. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  16. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  17. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  18. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  20. Structural considerations in steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, S.R.; Gazda, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion of the tubes and tube-support structures inside pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has led many utilities to consider a replacement of the generators. Such a project is a major undertaking for a utility and must be well planned to ensure an efficient and cost-effective effort. This paper discusses various structural aspects of replacement options, such as total or partial generator replacement, along with their associated pipe cuts; major structural aspects associated with removal paths through the equipment hatch or through an opening in the containment wall, along with the related removal processes; onsite movement and storage of the generators; and the advantages and disadvantages of the removal alternatives. This paper addresses the major structural considerations associated with a steam generator replacement project. Other important considerations (e.g., licensing, radiological concerns, electrical requirements, facilities for management and onsite administrative activities, storage and fabrication activities, and offsite transportation) are not discussed in this paper, but should be carefully considered when undertaking a replacement project

  1. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842–1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century.

  2. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhibao; Novitzky, Dimitri; Collins, Joseph F; Cooper, David Kc

    2015-01-01

    The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy) is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA), are statistically conservative. Hsu's multiple comparisons with the best (MCB) - adapted from the Dunnett's multiple comparisons with control (MCC) - has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation.

  3. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies; Installations nucleaires: technologies de reparation et de remplacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  4. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care ... taking walks in the hallways with help. After knee replacement, some surgeons recommend using a continuous passive ...

  5. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  6. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  7. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  8. Optimal timing for intravascular administration set replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Amanda J; Cooke, Marie L; Gillies, Donna; Marsh, Nicole M; Daud, Azlina; McGrail, Matthew R; O'Riordan, Elizabeth; Rickard, Claire M

    2013-09-15

    The tubing (administration set) attached to both venous and arterial catheters may contribute to bacteraemia and other infections. The rate of infection may be increased or decreased by routine replacement of administration sets. This review was originally published in 2005 and was updated in 2012. The objective of this review was to identify any relationship between the frequency with which administration sets are replaced and rates of microbial colonization, infection and death. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. The original search was performed in February 2004. We also contacted researchers in the field. We applied no language restriction. We included all randomized or controlled clinical trials on the frequency of venous or arterial catheter administration set replacement in hospitalized participants. Two review authors assessed all potentially relevant studies. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors by discussion with a third review author. We collected data for seven outcomes: catheter-related infection; infusate-related infection; infusate microbial colonization; catheter microbial colonization; all-cause bloodstream infection; mortality; and cost. We pooled results from studies that compared different frequencies of administration set replacement, for instance, we pooled studies that compared replacement ≥ every 96 hours versus every 72 hours with studies that compared replacement ≥ every 48 hours versus every 24 hours. We identified 26 studies for this updated review, 10 of which we excluded; six did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and four did not report usable data. We extracted data from the remaining 18 references (16 studies) with 5001 participants: study designs included neonate and adult

  9. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  10. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  11. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu

    2000-01-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  12. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  13. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  14. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  15. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-02-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or

  16. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Outcomes in nonagenarians after heart valve replacement operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Maria-Benedicta; Taylor, Kenneth M

    2003-03-01

    Changes in the age profile of the United Kingdom population and improvements in preoperative and postoperative care have resulted in increasing numbers of very elderly patients undergoing heart valve replacement (HVR) operations. Although HVR operations in nonagenarians are relatively uncommon, the demand for cardiac operations in this age group may increase over time. Outcomes after HVR operations in nonagenarians have not been well described yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine outcomes in terms of early mortality and long-term survival in 35 nonagenarians after HVR operation. Data from the United Kingdom Heart Valve Registry were analyzed and nonagenarian patients were identified. Additional analyzed data include gender, valve position, valve type, valve size, operative priority, follow-up time, and date and cause of death. Kaplan-Meier actuarial curves were calculated to determine accurate 30-day mortality and long-term survival. On average five HVR operations are performed annually in the United Kingdom in nonagenarians with equal numbers of males and females. Aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve was the most common operation and 86% were elective admissions. Fourteen patients died within the review period; mean time to death was 402 days. Overall 30-day mortality was 17%, which was higher for males compared with females; females also displayed better long-term survival. HVR operations in nonagenarians carry a significantly higher risk of early mortality and reduced long-term survival. Despite increases in the age profile of the population, elective HVR operation with patients aged 90 years or older is likely to remain an infrequent surgical procedure reserved for very carefully selected patients.

  18. Radiological evaluation of failed total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Aldrovandi, S.; Pompei, G.

    1988-01-01

    The retrospective study of 50 operated cases of cemented total hip replacement and a review of the literature enabled the authors to define the radiological features of the above-mentioned condition. These features include one or more of the following signs: calcar reabsorption, lacunar erosions, modified relatioships between the prosthesis components, sepsis and loosening, periarticular calcifications dislocation and fracture of prosthesis components. Careful evaluation of these radiological features is extremely important for both an early diagnosis of failed total hip replacement and the choice of an adequate surgical treatment

  19. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication...

  20. Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.

  1. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  2. Re-Placing the Arts in Elementary School Curricula: An Interdisciplinary, Collaborative Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Allen; Riley, Jorge-Ayn

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative action research project aimed at deliberately "re-placing" art in the elementary curriculum through targeted planning, implementation, and assessment of an art integrated unit in an urban 4th grade classroom. Findings and implications should be relevant to elementary teachers, administrators, art specialists,…

  3. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    1999-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  4. Rapid replacement/construction of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Bridges are a key element of the transportation system because they control system capacity and are normally built at : the highest cost to the system. Once a bridge reaches its useful design service life, it needs to be replaced or : reconstructed i...

  5. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Bossi, Annalisa; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2000-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  6. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  7. Strategic Capital Budgeting : Asset Replacement Under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Kort, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a firm's decision to replace an existing production technology with a new, more cost-efficient one.Kulatilaka and Perotti [1998, Management Science] nd that, in a two-period model, increased product market uncertainty could encourage the firm to invest strategically in the new

  8. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  9. of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRl) on the outcome of ... oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of ... The use of SRT added to the total cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD.

  10. vein thrombosis in elective hip replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus forum was convened to evaluate the economic considerations associated with prophylaxis against thrombo-embolic disease in patients undergoing hip replacement therapy in South Africa. This forum consists of orthopaedic surgeons, vascular surgeons and a statistician. Methods. The forum was instructed to ...

  11. 5/8'' baffle bolt replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinaud, T.; Grypczynski, D.

    1999-01-01

    Both Framatome Nuclear Services in France and its U.S. arm, FT1, are now equipped with baffle bolt inspection and replacement packages. These packages allow them to tackle baffle bold degradation on both two- and three-loop nuclear power plants. Framatome and FT1 together are world leaders in addressing reactor vessel internal bolting concerns

  12. Optimal strategies for a replacement model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    We examine a replacement system with discrete-time Markovian deterioration and finite state space $\\{0,\\ldots,N\\}$. State 0 stands for a new system, and the higher the state the worse the system; a system in state $N$ is considered to be in a {\\it bad state}. We impose the condition that the

  13. Who Will Replace Those Vanishing Execs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    Many top-level managers are retiring early. Programs to prepare their replacements have been scaled back. Many companies are offering phased retirement plans, redesigning jobs, and paying for spouses to go along on business trips to keep their managers a little longer. (JOW)

  14. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  15. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  16. Heart valve replacements with regenerative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, P.E.; Fioretta, E.S.; Frese, L.; Pasqualini, F.S.; Hoerstrup, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe valvular dysfunctions (e.g., stenosis and insufficiency) is increasing, leading to over 300,000 valves implanted worldwide yearly. Clinically used heart valve replacements lack the capacity to grow, inherently requiring repetitive and high-risk surgical interventions during

  17. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who prep for surgery and follow through with physical therapy afterward can further boost their odds of a good outcome. If you’re considering joint replacement surgery, here’s what the experts with the American Geriatrics Society’s Foundation for Health in Aging (FHA) suggest: Ask ...

  18. Continuous vasopressin replacement in diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, C; Butt, W

    1990-01-01

    Five children who developed diabetes insipidus as a manifestation of severe brain injury received continuous intravenous treatment with a solution containing both aqueous vasopressin and appropriate crystalloid replacement. Polyuria, hypernatraemia, and decreased urine osmolalities were safely corrected in all patients within eight to 28 hours.

  19. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  20. Telerehabilitation Feasibility in Total Joint Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite documented benefits, many Total Joint Replacement (TJR patients find it difficult to access rehabilitation following discharge from hospital. One solution to improve access for TJR patients is telerehabilitation. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of introducing a telerehabilitation program for TJR patients.   TJR patients at QEII Jubilee Hospital were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their access, feelings towards and preferences in using technology. Seventy-five patients were recruited. Most patients had computer access (72% and internet (69% at home. Sixty-five percent of participants were willing to participate in telerehabilitation. A significant difference was found between older and younger patients. Watching videos on an electronic device was the preferred method for a technology-based home exercise program and phone call the preferred method of communication.  Results indicate telerehabilitation in the TJR population is feasible from the perspective of access to, feelings toward, and preferences for technology. Keywords: Hip replacement, Knee replacement, Telerehabilitation, Telemedicine, Total joint replacement

  1. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  2. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  4. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  5. New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer. The new IBM unit is documented in table top views alone (S91-26867, S91-26868), with the onboard equipment it supports including the flight deck CRT screen and keypad (S91-26866), and next to the two earlier versions it replaces (S91-26869).

  6. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  7. A Centrifugal Contactor Design to Facilitate Remote Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling and radioactive waste treatment plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for solvent extraction based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. This work continues the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughputs needed for future nuclear fuel recycling and radioactive waste treatment plants. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and is being evaluated for use in highly radioactive environments. This prototype assembly employs three standard CINC V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R contactor in the three stage assembly was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. Initial evaluation indicates a viable new design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment. Replacement of a single stage via remote manipulators and tools is estimated to take about 30 minutes, perhaps fast enough to support a contactor change without loss of process equilibrium. The design presented in this work is scalable to commercial ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute.

  8. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  9. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Turbine steam path replacement at the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, K.D.; Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Hosbein, P.; Termuehlen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years, replacement of old vintage steam turbine flow path components has been well established as a valid approach to improve thermal performance of aged turbines. In nuclear power plants, performance improvement is generally achieved only by design improvements since performance deterioration of old units is minor or nonexistent. With fossil units operating over decades loss in performance is an additional factor which can be taken into account. Such loss of performance can be caused by deposits, solid particle erosion, loss of shaft and inter-stage seal strips, etc. Improvement of performance is typically guaranteed as output increases for operation at full load. This value can be evaluated as a direct gain in unit capacity without fuel or steam supply increase. Since fuel intake does not change, the relative improvement of the net plant heat rate or efficiency is equal to the relative increase in output. The heat rate improvement is achieved not only at full load but for the entire load range. Such heat rate improvement not only moves a plant up on the load dispatch list increasing its capacity factor, but also extensive fuel savings can pay off for the investment cost of new steam path components. Another important factor is that quite often older turbine designs show a deterioration of their reliability and need costly repairs. With new flow path components an aged steam turbine starts a new useful life

  11. 49 CFR 541.6 - Requirements for replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for replacement parts. 541.6 Section....6 Requirements for replacement parts. (a) Each replacement part for a part specified in § 541.5(a) must have the registered trademark of the manufacturer of the replacement part, or some other unique...

  12. 30 CFR 800.30 - Replacement of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement of bonds. 800.30 Section 800.30... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.30 Replacement... replacement performance bonds. Replacement of a performance bond pursuant to this section shall not constitute...

  13. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section... § 361.8 Claim for replacement. Claim for replacement shall be made in writing to the Secretary, to the..., Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328. The claim, accompanied by a recommendation regarding the manner of replacement...

  14. 7 CFR 3015.167 - Replacement of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of equipment. 3015.167 Section 3015.167..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Property § 3015.167 Replacement of equipment. (a) If needed, equipment may be exchanged for replacement equipment. Replacement of equipment may be...

  15. Design concept of a pump stage with replaceable hydraulic components and prediction of its performance curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugova, S O; Knyazeva, E G; Tverdokhleb, I B; Kochevsky, A N

    2010-01-01

    In many cases, centrifugal pump units are expected to deliver the required performance under varying operating conditions. In particular, the pumps for oil extraction and transportation should deliver a constant head, although their capacity often changes during the life cycle. In order to keep the efficiency at a high level and not to replace a whole pump, the authors suggest to replace in such cases only hydraulic components of the pump (impellers and stationary sections of diffuser channels) that are to be installed in the same casing. The paper describes an approach for designing of radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels to be used as replaceable. It allows for delivering a required head and providing a high efficiency in a wide range of capacities. The components intended for smaller capacities are featured with narrower flow passages. However, the dimensions of replaceable components are the same. The paper describes also a numerical simulation of fluid flow in a pump stage with two sets of replaceable radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels. The CFD software used in this research is ANSYS CFX 11. Good correspondence of results is observed. Difference in flow pattern at various capacities and its influence on the performance curves delivered with replaceable components is demonstrated. Basing on the obtained results, the analysis of energy losses is presented.

  16. Life extension and replacement management for RAPS type steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, R.C.; Rastogi, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generating equipment in first four units of Indian PHWRs Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) 1-2 and Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) 1-2 are hairpin type and comprise of eight boiler assemblies. Each assembly consists of identical, single pass, inverted and vertical hairpin heat exchangers (10 for RAPS and 11 for MAPS) containing 195 monel-400 U tubes of 12.7 mm dia x 1.242 mm thick. The hot heavy water flows through these tubes and imparts heat to feed, light demineralized water entering the shell at the bottom of preheat leg. The heat is generated on the outer surface of the tubes. Details of studies carried out for life extension and replacement management for RAPS type steam generators are given. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  17. Replacement of steam generators at Dampierre 1 France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacot, J.; Chorain, M.; Collot, Y.; Dorimini, G.

    1991-01-01

    1990 was the year of the first steam generator replacement operation on EdF's facilities. The site chosen was Dampierre 1 (900 MW PWR unit with 3 primary coolant loops). The project was a thorough success characterized by: (1) A work schedule which was entirely met and even improved on: 70 work days from the end of fuel unloading authorizing start of work in the reactor building up to the end of refitting in readiness for the primary circuit hydraulic tests, i.e. a gain of one week compared with the forecast work schedule, (2) A final dosimetry less than 230 man-rem for a target of 450 man-rem, (3) Safety: no serious accidents during the 300,000 hours worked. It also provided practical proof of French industry's capacity to undertake an SGR operation. (author)

  18. Estimating the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Folagbade Olusoga Peter ORIOLA; George MOSES; Jacob Oyeniyi AFOLAYAN; John Engbonye SANI

    2017-01-01

    For economic, environmental and practical reasons, it is desirable to replace the constituents of concrete with wastes and cheaper alternative materials. However, it is best when such replacements are done at optimum replacement levels. In view of this, a laboratory investigative test was carried out to evaluate the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement by Coconut Shell and by Waste Rubber Tyre. The coarse aggregate replacement was done at recommended optimum proportion...

  19. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; Pantophlet, A. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Hendriks, W. H.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy

  20. A complex method of equipment replacement planning. An advanced plan for the replacement of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    This complex method of equipment replacement planning is a methodology; it is a means to an end, a process that focuses on equipment most in need of replacement, rather than the end itself. It uses data available from the maintenance management database, and attempts to quantify those subjective items important [figure: see text] in making equipment replacement decisions. Like the simple method of the last issue, it is a starting point--albeit an advanced starting point--which the user can modify to fit their particular organization, but the complex method leaves room for expansion. It is based on sound logic, documented facts, and is fully defensible during the decision-making process and will serve your organization well as provide a structure for your equipment replacement planning decisions.

  1. Reliability tests for reactor internals replacement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, K.; Uchiyama, J.; Ohtsubo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for replacing reactor internals, which was directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for the aging degradation. The project has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995, and it follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the whole test plans and the test results for the BWR reactor internals replacement methods; core shroud, ICM housing, and CRD Housing and stub tube. The test results have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  2. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

  3. Optimal glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øksnes, Marianne; Ross, Richard; Løvås, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid deficiency) comprises a group of rare diseases, including primary adrenal insufficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Lifesaving glucocorticoid therapy was introduced over 60 years ago, but since then a number of advances in treatment have taken place. Specifically, little is known about short- and long-term treatment effects, and morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, systematic cohort and registry studies have described reduced health-related quality of life, an unfavourable metabolic profile and increased mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency, which may relate to unphysiological glucocorticoid replacement. This has led to the development of new modes of replacement that aim to mimic normal glucocorticoid physiology. Here, evidence for the inadequacy of conventional glucocorticoid therapy and recent developments in treatment are reviewed, with an emphasis on primary adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site.

  5. Anesthetic implication of tricuspid valve replacement in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facing a patient with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP, there is narrow safety margin which circumscribe all the therapeutic actions including choice of drugs. This would become even more complicated when it comes to a stressful and drug-dependent process like a cardiopulmonary bypass. According to author′s researches, no specific AIP case of tricuspid valve (TV replacement is reported recently. Furthermore, fast-track anesthesia was safely used in this 37-year-old male known the case of AIP, who was a candidate for TV replacement and removing the port catheter. The patient was extubated subsequently, only 3 h after entering the Intensive Care Unit.

  6. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  7. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  8. Changing trends in total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Goudie, Ewan; Robinson, Cal; Walmsley, Phil; Brenkel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  This study evaluates a possible change in the demographics and surgical practice observed in a large cohort of patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). Patients and methods:  We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data on two groups of consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR. Group one consisted of patients who underwent surgery between 1994 and 1998. Group two consisted of patients who had surgery between 2009 and 2012. Results:  The me...

  9. Reactor console replacement at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement reactor console was installed in 1977 at the W.S.U. 1 MW TRIGA-fueled reactor as the final step in an instrumentation upgrade program. The program was begun circa 1972 with the design, construction and installation of various systems and equipment. Major instruments were installed in the existing console and tested in the course of reactor operation. The culmination of the program was the installation of a cubicle designed and constructed to house the updated instrumentation. (author)

  10. Aortic valve replacement during acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Chi, S; Gonzalez-Lavin, L

    1978-07-01

    Emergency aortic valve replacement was performed during an attack of acute rheumatic fever in a 12-year-old black boy. He had an uneventful recovery and has remained asymptomatic 27 months after operation. In the light of this experience and that of others, one might conclude that the decision to operate on these patients should be based on the severity of the haemodynamic derangement rather than on the state of activity in the rheumatic process.

  11. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  12. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C 4 F 10 and C 4 F 8 , were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C 4 F 10 mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C 4 F 10 weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd

  13. Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is a rare X-linked disease caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase that leads to the accumulation of abnormal glycolipid. Untreated patients develop potentially lethal complications by age 30 to 50 years. Enzyme replacement therapy is the current standard of therapy for Fabry disease. Two formulations of recombinant human α-galactosidase A (agalsidase are available in most markets: agalsidase-α and agalsidase-β, allowing a choice of therapy. However, the US Food and Drug Administration rejected the application for commercialization of agalsidase-α. The main difference between the 2 enzymes is the dose. The label dose for agalsidase-α is 0.2 mg/kg/2 weeks, while the dose for agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks. Recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent effect of enzyme replacement therapy and agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks, which has been shown to reduce the occurrence of hard end points (severe renal and cardiac events, stroke, and death. In addition, patients with Fabry disease who have developed tissue injury should receive coadjuvant tissue protective therapy, together with enzyme replacement therapy, to limit nonspecific progression of the tissue injury. It is likely that in the near future, additional oral drugs become available to treat Fabry disease, such as chaperones or substrate reduction therapy.

  14. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  15. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David E; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the US, we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization and other measures). The benefit per resident child from improved lifetime earnings alone is $21,195 in pre-1940 housing and $8685 in 1940-59 housing (in 2005 dollars). Annual energy savings are $130-486 per housing unit, with or without young resident children, with an associated increase in housing market value of $5900-14,300 per housing unit, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Net benefits are $4490-5,629 for each housing unit built before 1940, and $491-1629 for each unit built from 1940-1959, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Lead-safe window replacement in all pre-1960 US housing would yield net benefits of at least $67 billion, which does not include many other benefits. These other benefits, which are shown in this paper, include avoided Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other medical costs of childhood lead exposure, avoided special education, and reduced crime and juvenile delinquency in later life. In addition, such a window replacement effort would reduce peak demand for electricity, carbon emissions from power plants, and associated long-term costs of climate change.

  16. Replacement of the control and instrumentation system with the microprocessor based systems in Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.

    1998-01-01

    In Ohi Units 3 and 4, Ikata Unit 3, and Genkai Units 3 and 4, the latest of PWR plants now under operation in Japan, the reactor control system and turbine control system employ the microprocessor base digital control systems with a view to improving reliability, operability and maintainability. In the next stage plants, another application of such digital system is also planned for the instrumentation rack for the reactor protection system for further improvement. On the other hand, in Mihama Unit 1, the first of domestic PWR plants, and later plants except for the latest 5 plants, analog control systems are employed for the instrumentation racks. For the analog control systems of these plants, FOXBORO H-Line instruments, equivalent domestic box type instruments or WH7300 Series card type instruments were initially employed, and later replaced with domestic card type control systems after 10-15 year operation. However, 8-12 years have passed since these replacements, so the 15th year generally quoted as an interval for replacing C and I systems is near at hand. This is the time to consider next replacement. This replacement will be based on the latest digital technology. However, it is not practical way for the existing plants to apply the same integrated digital C and I system configuration for the next stage plants, because it requires the drastic change of the C and I system configuration and significant cost-up. Therefore, we must investigate the optimum digital C and I system configuration for the existing system. (author)

  17. Soil Overconsolidation Changes Caused by Dynamic Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr, Kanty; Sławomir, Kwiecień; Jerzy, Sękowski

    2017-10-01

    In the dynamic replacement method (DR) the soil is improved by initially dropping a large weight (typically 8-20 t) pounder from a significant height up to 25 m. The created crater is filled with a stronger material (gravel, rubble, stone aggregate, debris), and the pounder is dropped once or multiple times again. The construction of dynamic replacement pillars influences the parameters of the adjacent soil. It results from the energy generated by dropping a pounder into the soil. In the current practice, these changes are not taken into the account during the design. This paper focuses on the changes of overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and in situ coefficient of lateral earth pressure (K) values estimated base on cone penetration test (CPTU) and Dilatometric test (DMT) performed at a test site. A single column was constructed and the ground around the column was examined using CPTU and DMT, performed at different distances from the column centre (2, 3, 4 and 6 m) and at different time intervals (during construction and 1, 8, 30 days later). The column was constructed in so-called transition soils (between cohesive and non-cohesive). While interpreting the results of the research, the authors addressed the matter of choosing the procedure of OCR and K indication for transition soils (in this case described as silts and/or sandy silts). Overconsolidation changes may differ depending on the chosen analysis procedure (for cohesive or non-cohesive soils). On the basis of the analysis presented in the paper and the observation of soil (acknowledged as cohesive according to macroscopic observations) during column excavation, it was decided that for more detailed analyses methods dedicated to cohesive soils should be applied. Generally, it can be stated that although the changes were complex, DR pillar formation process resulted in the increase of these parameters. The average increases of OCR and K values were 25% and 10% respectively. The post installation values are not

  18. Extended replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yutaka; Okada, Kenji; Oka, Takanori; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Omura, Atsushi; Kano, Hiroya; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We present our experience of total aortic arch replacement. Twenty-nine patients (21 males and 8 females; mean age 63.3 ± 13.3 years) with extended thoracic aortic aneurysms underwent graft replacement. The pathology of the diseased aorta was non-dissecting aneurysm in 11 patients, including one aortitis and aortic dissection in 18 patients (acute type A: one, chronic type A: 11, chronic type B: six). Five patients had Marfan syndrome. In their previous operation, two patients had undergone the Bentall procedure, three had endovascular stenting, one had aortic root replacement with valve sparing and 12 had hemi-arch replacement for acute type A dissection. Approaches to the aneurysm were as follows: posterolateral thoracotomy with rib-cross incision in 16, posterolateral thoracotomy extended to the retroperitoneal abdominal aorta in seven, mid-sternotomy and left pleurotomy in three, anterolateral thoracotomy with partial lower sternotomy in two and clam-shell incision in one patient. Extension of aortic replacement was performed from the aortic root to the descending aorta in 4, from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta in 17 and from the ascending to the abdominal aorta in eight patients. Arterial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of the femoral artery in 15 patients, ascending aorta and femoral artery in seven, descending or abdominal aorta in five and ascending aorta in two. Venous drainage site was the femoral vein in 10, pulmonary artery in eight, right atrium in five, femoral artery with right atrium/pulmonary artery in four and pulmonary artery with right atrium in two patients. The operative mortality, 30-day mortality and hospital mortality was one (cardiac arrest due to aneurysm rupture), one (rupture of infected aneurysm) and one (brain contusion), respectively. Late mortality occurred in three patients due to pneumonia, ruptured residual aneurysm and intracranial bleeding. Actuarial survival at 5 years after the operations was 80.6

  19. New Firm Performance and the Replacement of Founder-CEOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the causes and consequences of the replacement of founder-CEOs in a sample of 4,172 Danish start-ups. We propose that founder-CEO replacement is driven in part by mismatches between business quality and founder ability. Our framework suggests that replacements are more likely among...... the worst- and best-performing firms, with low (high)-ability founders replaced by manager with higher (lower) ability. Replacement is not unambiguously associated with better subsequent performance. Firms that replaced the founder were much more likely to fail, but the surviving firms among them grew...

  20. Optimal replacement policy for safety-related multi-component multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Chen Tao; Yang Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates replacement scheduling for non-repairable safety-related systems (SRS) with multiple components and states. The aim is to determine the cost-minimizing time for replacing SRS while meeting the required safety. Traditionally, such scheduling decisions are made without considering the interaction between the SRS and the production system under protection, the interaction being essential to formulate the expected cost to be minimized. In this paper, the SRS is represented by a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov model, and its state distribution is evaluated with the aid of the universal generating function. Moreover, a structure function of SRS with recursive property is developed to evaluate the state distribution efficiently. These methods form the basis to derive an explicit expression of the expected system cost per unit time, and to determine the optimal time to replace the SRS. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  1. Limited versus full sternotomy for aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Bilal H; Jones, Sion G; Malaisrie, S C; Chung, Darryl A; Williams, Richard Jnn

    2017-04-10

    -sternotomy (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.33, 95% CI -0.85 to 0.20; participants = 197; studies = 3; I 2 = 70%; very low quality), but there was a small increase in postoperative pulmonary function tests with minimally invasive limited sternotomy (MD 1.98 % predicted FEV1, 95% CI 0.62 to 3.33; participants = 257; studies = 4; I 2 = 28%; low quality). There was a small reduction in length of intensive care unit stays as a result of the minimally invasive upper hemi-sternotomy (MD -0.57 days, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.20; participants = 297; studies = 5; low quality). Postoperative atrial fibrillation was not reduced with minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through limited compared to full sternotomy (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.07 to 4.89; participants = 240; studies = 3; moderate quality), neither were postoperative ventilation times (MD -1.12 hours, 95% CI -3.43 to 1.19; participants = 297; studies = 5; low quality). None of the included studies reported cost analyses. The evidence in this review was assessed as generally low to moderate quality. The study sample sizes were small and underpowered to demonstrate differences in outcomes with low event rates. Clinical heterogeneity both between and within studies is a relatively fixed feature of surgical trials, and this also contributed to the need for caution in interpreting results.Considering these limitations, there was uncertainty of the effect on mortality or extracorporeal support times with upper hemi-sternotomy for aortic valve replacement compared to full median sternotomy. The evidence to support a reduction in total hospital length of stay or intensive care stay was low in quality. There was also uncertainty of any difference in the rates of other, secondary outcome measures or adverse events with minimally invasive limited sternotomy approaches to aortic valve replacement.There appears to be uncertainty between minimally invasive aortic valve replacement via upper hemi-sternotomy and conventional aortic valve replacement via a

  2. Unique method of tooth replacement in durophagous placodont marine reptiles, with new data on the dentition of Chinese taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Li, Chun; Rieppel, Olivier; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Muscio, Giuseppe; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2014-05-01

    The placodonts of the Triassic period (~252-201 mya) represent one of the earliest and most extreme specialisations to a durophagous diet of any known reptile group. Exceptionally enlarged crushing tooth plates on the maxilla, dentary and palatine cooperated to form functional crushing areas in the buccal cavity. However, the extreme size of these teeth, combined with the unusual way they occluded, constrained how replacement occurred. Using an extensive micro-computed tomographic dataset of 11 specimens that span all geographic regions and placodont morphotypes, tooth replacement patterns were investigated. In addition, the previously undescribed dental morphologies and formulae of Chinese taxa are described for the first time and incorporated into the analysis. Placodonts have a unique tooth replacement pattern and results follow a phylogenetic trend. The plesiomorphic Placodus species show many replacement teeth at various stages of growth, with little or no discernible pattern. On the other hand, the more derived cyamodontoids tend to have fewer replacement teeth growing at any one time, replacing teeth unilaterally and/or in functional units, thus maintaining at least one functional crushing area at all times. The highly derived placochelyids have fewer teeth and, as a result, only have one or two replacement teeth in the upper jaw. This supports previous suggestions that these taxa had an alternative diet to other placodonts. Importantly, all specimens show at least one replacement tooth growing at the most posterior palatine tooth plates, indicating increased wear at this point and thus the most efficient functional crushing area. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  3. Role of telehealth in renal replacement therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkina, Anna; Tuot, Delphine S

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is rising in the United States, which bears high financial and public health burden. The most common modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the United States is in-center hemodialysis. Many patients report lack of comprehensive and timely education about their treatment options, which may preclude them from participating in home-based dialysis therapies and kidney transplantation evaluation. While RRT education has traditionally been provided in-person, the rise of telehealth has afforded new opportunities to improve upon the status quo. For example, technology-augmented RRT education has recently been implemented into telehealth nephrology clinics, informational websites and mobile applications maintained by professional organizations, patient-driven forums on social media, and multimodality programs. The benefits of technology in RRT education are increased access for geographically isolated and/or medically frail patients, versatility of content delivery, information repetition to enhance knowledge retention, and interpersonal connection for educational content and emotional support. Challenges center around privacy and accuracy of information sharing, in addition to differential access to technology due to age and socioeconomic status. A review of available scholarly and social media resources suggests that technology-aided delivery of education about treatment options for end-stage renal disease provides an important alternative and/or supplemental resource for patients and families. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lower limb joint replacement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nicholas D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There is limited literature regarding the peri-operative and surgical management of patients with rheumatoid disease undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. This review article summarises factors involved in the peri-operative management of major lower limb arthroplasty surgery for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We performed a search of the medical literature, using the PubMed search engine (http://www.pubmed.gov. We used the following terms: ‘rheumatoid’ ‘replacement’ ‘arthroplasty’ and ‘outcome’. Findings The patient should be optimised pre-operatively using a multidisciplinary approach. The continued use of methotrexate does not increase infection risk, and aids recovery. Biologic agents should be stopped pre-operatively due the increased infection rate. Patients should be made aware of the increased risk of infection and periprosthetic fracture rates associated with their disease. The surgical sequence is commonly hip, knee and then ankle. Cemented total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR have superior survival rates over uncemented components. The evidence is not clear regarding a cruciate sacrificing versus retaining in TKR, but a cruciate sacrificing component limits the risk early instability and potential revision. Patella resurfacing as part of a TKR is associated with improved outcomes. The results of total ankle replacement remain inferior to THR and TKR. RA patients achieve equivalent pain relief, but their rehabilitation is slower and their functional outcome is not as good. However, the key to managing these complicated patients is to work as part of a multidisciplinary team to optimise their outcome.

  5. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables

  6. Aorto-right atrial fistula after ascending aortic replacement or aortic value replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Aihua; Dai Ruping; Jiang Shiliang; Lu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT features of aorto-right atrial fistula after aortic valve replacement (AVR) or ascending aortic replacement. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with aortic-right atrial fistula underwent CT after operation. The CT features were retrospectively analyzed. Fistula was measured according to maximum width of the shunt. Results: Aorto-right atrial fistula was detected in 87 patients after aortic valve replacement or ascending aortic replacement by CT scan. Among them, 25 patients were diagnosed as mild aorto-right atrial fistula, 47 patients as moderate, and 15 patients as severe. Thirty-seven patients underwent follow-up CT.Among them, 10 patients with mild to moderate aorto-right atrial fistula were considered to have complete regression, 8 patients with mild aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have incomplete regression, 14 patients with mild to moderate aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have stable condition, and 5 patients with moderate aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have progression at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: CT is a useful tool for defining aorto-right atrial fistula after AVR or ascending aortic replacement and for evaluating it in follow-up. (authors)

  7. Machine Replacement, Technology Adoption and Convergence.

    OpenAIRE

    Boucekkine, Raouf; Martinez, Blanca

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce adoption costs in a canonical vintage capital model. Adoption costs take the form of a direct loss in production during a fixed period of time. We explicitly characterize the optimal machine replacement policy as a function of the adoption period. Using an explicit numerical method, we study the dynamics of the model. In particular, we find that while an increase in the adoption costs lowers the long run level of output, it also rises the magnitude of short run flu...

  8. Replacing OSE with Real Time capable Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Simon; Rutgersson, Olof

    2009-01-01

    For many years OSE has been a common used operating system, with real time extensions enhancements, in embed-ded systems. But in the last decades, Linux has grown and became a competitor to common operating systems and, in recent years, even as an operating system with real time extensions. With this in mind, ÅF was interested in replacing the quite expensive OSE with some distribution of the open source based Linux on a PowerPC MPC8360. Therefore, our purpose with thesis is to implement Linu...

  9. The replacement of technically obsolete equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, Ph.; Patouillaud, M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper covers the analysis of procedures for replacement of technically obsolete but still operational equipments in use in a nuclear power plant. The Three Mile Island accident showed that operators in the control room reqire additional information at their disposal. In 1986 CGEE Alsthom received two orders for improvements to control systems, for the South African nuclear power plant Koeberg and the Dutch nuclear power plant Borssele. The new systems will provide support to normal operation and offer additional help in accident situations. 4 figs

  10. To learn more about BHT replacement

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following the article 'An improved financial tool to replace BHT' which appeared in Bulletin No 41/2002, dates of 4 general presentations were published. Please note that the time of the first presentation has changed from 16.00 hrs to 14.00 hrs. The dates/times are now as follows: Wednesday 16 October 14.00 hrs* IT Auditorium (English) *note change of time. Friday 18 October 16.00 hrs, SL Auditorium (French) Monday 21 October 10.00 hrs, LHC Auditorium (French) Wednesday 23 October 10.00 hrs, Council Chamber (English)

  11. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  12. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  13. Replacement of the ISIS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannix, R.P.; Barton, C.J.; Brownless, D.M.; Kerr, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    In operation since 1985, ISIS is the world's most powerful pulsed spallation neutron source. The decision has been taken to replace the existing ISIS control system, which has been in use for over ten years. The problems of such a project, given the legacy of processor specific hardware and software are discussed, a long with the problems associated with incorporating existing interface hardware into any new system. Present progress using commercial workstation based control software is presented with, an assessment of the benefits and pitfalls of such an approach. (author)

  14. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning; S�ndergaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may...... be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully...

  15. Steam generator replacement project in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerjak, J.; Holz, R.; Haus, J.; Gloaguen, C.

    1999-01-01

    NE Krsko has awarded the contract for the Steam Generator Replacement Project, which is one of the modernization projects in Krsko, to the Consortium of Siemens / Framatome in February 1998. This paper deals with the various aspects of the project: scope planning, engineering, preparation of modification packages for licensing, management, major techniques used, etc., showing also the status of the activities for the project which are scheduled to be performed in April through June 2000. The project is being performed on a turnkey basis, that means the Consortium is performing all engineering, preparation of the modification packages and site activities; NE Krsko is dealing with the licensing of the project.(author)

  16. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  17. Maintenance and repair tools of the 900 MW PWR units in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blary, F.; Castaing, C.; Hassig, J.

    1985-01-01

    EDF and FRAMATOME have developed special tools and, repair and maintenance procedures to decrease the unavailability of the PWR units and the dosimetry of the personnel of maintenance. This report presents the solution adopted to face the problem of replacement of the internal upper structure pins of 21 units: 1) study and realisation of important industrial means; 2) development of a strategy: the pin replacement is separated from the guide tube replacement by the creation of a pin replacement shop, and, as often as it is possible, the ''AQUARIUM'' method allows to replace the guide-tubes with the aid of a mobile pool called AQUARIUM outside the critical way of shutdown [fr

  18. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84 as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34 have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  19. An improved financial tool to replace BHT

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In November, the BHT tool used to control financial data will be replaced by an improved and more powerful system, called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. The team in charge of CET. From left to right, sitting, Martyn Rankin, David McGlashan, standing, Per Gunnar Jonsson, James Purvis and Mikael Angberg. After 10 years of BHT at CERN, in order to face the challenges of the LHC era, and following the recommendations of the External Review Committee, the BHT application will be replaced by an improved and more powerful expenditure tracking tool called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. For those who are not familiar with it, the BHT, Budget Holders Toolkit, is a utility that provides a way to view CERN financial data. It is available for users who have access to at least one budget code. The new CET represents a tool that not only allows powerful analysis of the past, but also assists in forecasting the future. CET will offer significantly more functionality than BHT, including extended contract analysis, ...

  20. LS1 Report: Replacing an antique

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    At the PS Booster, the old beam dump and the shielding blocks surrounding it have been removed (see here). Installation of the new beam dump is now under way (see video).   The new PSB beam dump during its installation. At the PS, replacement of the old cooling and ventilation system, which dated back to 1957, is progressing well. The dismantling phase has just been completed and the tunnel is being prepared to receive a brand new ventilation system offering more efficient aeration of radioactive areas. At the same time, testing of the newly installed access system is under way. At the SPS, all the equipment of the Long Straight Section 1 (LSS1) has been removed to make way for the campaign to replace the irradiated cables, which started this week. In the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) campaign is still progressing at a good clip, especially at Point 1, where the teams are two and a half months ahead of schedule. The Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation (SMACC) proje...

  1. BABAR IFR Replacement R and D

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, M

    2003-01-01

    The Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of the BaBar detector will soon need to be replaced by a more robust muon detection system. Scintillator bars with embedded Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers and Limited Streamer Tubes are two replacement technology options. The scintillator bars are tested for attenuation length; and causes for the large width of the Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) signal are analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. Cooling techniques for Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are investigated. The fairly high attenuation length coupled with the narrow PMT signal make the scintillator a viable option for a muon detecting system. Continuing work will focus on increasing timing resolution using an APD to read the signal from the WLS fibers, and investigating the lifetime of the APD. The ability to read a signal from the LST on external copper strips is tested and signals are found to be clearly distinguishable from noise. The voltage is compared to count rate to find that the optimal operating voltage for the LS...

  2. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  3. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevale......Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI...... and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...

  4. Meniscus tear surgery and meniscus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Javier; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective the menisci are easily injured and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to analyze the current state of meniscal surgery aimed at preserving morphology and conserving the biomechanics of the knee to prevent joint degeneration. Methodology a search of the electronic medical literature database Medline was conducted, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. The search was not limited by language. Candidate articles were identified by searching for those that included the keywords meniscus, surgery, suture, implant, allograft. The limits were included for clinical research and clinical trials. Basic research was not included. The studies selected were evaluated and classified in three different categories: basic science, reconstruction (suture and meniscectomy) and implants (scaffolds and allograft). Results the consequences of meniscectomy performed at a young age can lead to a joint cartilage degeneration twenty years later. There are few surgical options for the repair of meniscal injuries in order both to preserve the meniscus and to ensure the long term survival of the knee joint, meniscectomy, repair, suturing the tear, or reconstruction, when a meniscal allograft or synthetic substitute is used to replace the meniscus, but the biomechanical properties of the native meniscus are not reproduced entirely by the scaffolds that exist today. Conclusion therapies that successfully repair or replace the meniscus are therefore likely to prevent or delay osteoarthritis progression. PMID:27331034

  5. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  6. THE AGGREGATE IMPLICATIONS OF MACHINE REPLACEMENT: THEORY AND EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    John Haltiwanger; Russell Cooper

    1992-01-01

    The authors study an economy in which producers incur resource costs to replace depreciated machines. The process of costly replacement and depreciation creates endogenous fluctuations in productivity, employment, and output of a single producer. The authors explore the spillover effects of machine replacement on other sectors of the economy and provide conditions for synchronized machine replacement by multiple independent producers. The implications of their model are generally consistent w...

  7. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  8. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  9. Improved estimates of coordinate error for molecular replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeffner, Robert D.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    A function for estimating the effective root-mean-square deviation in coordinates between two proteins has been developed that depends on both the sequence identity and the size of the protein and is optimized for use with molecular replacement in Phaser. A top peak translation-function Z-score of over 8 is found to be a reliable metric of when molecular replacement has succeeded. The estimate of the root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) in coordinates between the model and the target is an essential parameter for calibrating likelihood functions for molecular replacement (MR). Good estimates of the r.m.s.d. lead to good estimates of the variance term in the likelihood functions, which increases signal to noise and hence success rates in the MR search. Phaser has hitherto used an estimate of the r.m.s.d. that only depends on the sequence identity between the model and target and which was not optimized for the MR likelihood functions. Variance-refinement functionality was added to Phaser to enable determination of the effective r.m.s.d. that optimized the log-likelihood gain (LLG) for a correct MR solution. Variance refinement was subsequently performed on a database of over 21 000 MR problems that sampled a range of sequence identities, protein sizes and protein fold classes. Success was monitored using the translation-function Z-score (TFZ), where a TFZ of 8 or over for the top peak was found to be a reliable indicator that MR had succeeded for these cases with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Good estimates of the r.m.s.d. are correlated with the sequence identity and the protein size. A new estimate of the r.m.s.d. that uses these two parameters in a function optimized to fit the mean of the refined variance is implemented in Phaser and improves MR outcomes. Perturbing the initial estimate of the r.m.s.d. from the mean of the distribution in steps of standard deviations of the distribution further increases MR success rates

  10. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to be...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1438 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 75.1438 Section 75.1438 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked, deformed, or excessively worn. ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 57.19028 Section 57.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 56.19028 Section 56.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Wire Ropes § 56.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked...

  14. 45 CFR 201.70 - Treatment of replacement checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of replacement checks. 201.70 Section... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.70 Treatment of replacement checks. (a... (FFP) for replacement checks under titles I, VI-A, X, XIV, XVI (AABD) except under the circumstances...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1438 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 77.1438 Section 77.1438 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1438 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or replaced by hand in an energized...

  17. Hip Resurfacing: An Alternative to Conventional Hip Replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is hip resurfacing a good alternative to hip replacement? Answers from Mark Spangehl, M.D. Hip resurfacing has lost favor with many surgeons ... women with poor bone quality. Unlike traditional hip replacement, hip resurfacing doesn't completely replace the "ball" ...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material. (a) Identification. A pacemaker repair or replacement material is an...

  19. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Special Items 908.7112 Materials handling equipment replacement standards. Materials handling equipment shall be purchased for replacement purposes in accordance with the standards in FPMR 41 CFR 101-25.405...

  20. 7 CFR 550.39 - Equipment replacement insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment replacement insurance. 550.39 Section 550.39... Agreements Equipment/property Standards § 550.39 Equipment replacement insurance. If required by the terms and conditions of the award, the Cooperator shall provide adequate insurance coverage for replacement...

  1. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  2. Replacement Models Revisited | Alabi | Journal of Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective is to review the annual total cost and the cumulative annual total cost average hitherto used as replacement methods. The study showed some disparity in the optimal age of single replacement as used by some authors. Hence, an arithmetic mean method of finding the optimal single- replacement- age of an ...

  3. A single - item replacement decision model for repairable spare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present an analytical method for determining spare parts replacement over an infinite planning horizon. (The objective is to minimize the total system cost). We develop an exact and simple method for determining the time for equipment replacement or making decision about when to replace equipments, ...

  4. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles being...

  5. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement.

  6. Sub-Circuit Selection and Replacement Algorithms Modeled as Term Rewriting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-16

    of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCO/ENG/09-02 Sub-circuit Selection and Replacement Algorithms Modeled as Term Rewriting Systems... unicorns and random programs”. Communications and Computer Networks, 24–30. 2005. 87 Vita Eric D. Simonaire graduated from Granite Baptist Church School in...Service to attend the Air Force Institute of Technol- ogy in 2007. Upon graduation, he will serve the federal government in an Information Assurance

  7. Design and performance of BWC replacement steam generators for PWR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarner, R.; Steinmoeller, F.; Millman, J.; Schneider, W. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, Babcock and Wilcox Canada (BWC) has provided a number of PWR Replacement Steam Generators (RSGS) to replace units that had experienced extensive Alloy 600 tube degradation. BWC RSG units are in operation at Northeast Utilities' Millstone Unit 2, Rochester Gas and Electric's Ginna Station, Duke Energy's Catawba Unit 1, McGuire Unit 1 and 2, Florida Power and Light's St. Lucie Unit 1 and Commonwealth Edison's Byron 1 Station. Extensive start-up performance characteristics have been obtained for Millstone 2, Ginna, McGuire 1, and Catawba 1 RSGS. The Millstone 2, Ginna and Catawba 1 RSGs have also undergone extensive inspections following their first cycle of operation. The design and start-up performance characteristics of these RSGs are presented. The BWC Replacement Steam generators were designed to fit the existing envelope of pressure boundary dimensions to ensure licensability and integration into the Nuclear Steam Supply System. The RSGs were provided with a tube bundle of Alloy 690TT tubing, sized to match or exceed the original steam generator (OSG) thermal performance including provision for the reduced thermal conductivity of Alloy 690 relative to Alloy 600. The RSG tube bundle configurations provide a higher circulation design relative to the OSG, and feature corrosion resistant lattice grid and U-bend tube supports which provide effective anti-vibration support. The tube bundle supports accommodate relatively unobstructed flow and allow unrestrained structural interactions during thermal transients. Efficient steam separators assure low moisture carryover as well as high circulation. Performance measurements obtained during start-up verify that the BWC RSGs meet or exceed the specified thermal and moisture carryover performance requirements. RSG water level stability results at nor-mal operation and during plant transients have been excellent. Visual and ECT inspections have confirmed minimal deposition and 100

  8. Design and performance of BWC replacement steam generators for PWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarner, R.; Steinmoeller, F.; Millman, J.; Schneider, W.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, Babcock and Wilcox Canada (BWC) has provided a number of PWR Replacement Steam Generators (RSGS) to replace units that had experienced extensive Alloy 600 tube degradation. BWC RSG units are in operation at Northeast Utilities' Millstone Unit 2, Rochester Gas and Electric's Ginna Station, Duke Energy's Catawba Unit 1, McGuire Unit 1 and 2, Florida Power and Light's St. Lucie Unit 1 and Commonwealth Edison's Byron 1 Station. Extensive start-up performance characteristics have been obtained for Millstone 2, Ginna, McGuire 1, and Catawba 1 RSGS. The Millstone 2, Ginna and Catawba 1 RSGs have also undergone extensive inspections following their first cycle of operation. The design and start-up performance characteristics of these RSGs are presented. The BWC Replacement Steam generators were designed to fit the existing envelope of pressure boundary dimensions to ensure licensability and integration into the Nuclear Steam Supply System. The RSGs were provided with a tube bundle of Alloy 690TT tubing, sized to match or exceed the original steam generator (OSG) thermal performance including provision for the reduced thermal conductivity of Alloy 690 relative to Alloy 600. The RSG tube bundle configurations provide a higher circulation design relative to the OSG, and feature corrosion resistant lattice grid and U-bend tube supports which provide effective anti-vibration support. The tube bundle supports accommodate relatively unobstructed flow and allow unrestrained structural interactions during thermal transients. Efficient steam separators assure low moisture carryover as well as high circulation. Performance measurements obtained during start-up verify that the BWC RSGs meet or exceed the specified thermal and moisture carryover performance requirements. RSG water level stability results at nor-mal operation and during plant transients have been excellent. Visual and ECT inspections have confirmed minimal deposition and 100% tube integrity following

  9. Optimal timing for intravenous administration set replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D; O'Riordan, L; Wallen, M; Morrison, A; Rankin, K; Nagy, S

    2005-10-19

    Administration of intravenous therapy is a common occurrence within the hospital setting. Routine replacement of administration sets has been advocated to reduce intravenous infusion contamination. If decreasing the frequency of changing intravenous administration sets does not increase infection rates, a change in practice could result in considerable cost savings. The objective of this review was to identify the optimal interval for the routine replacement of intravenous administration sets when infusate or parenteral nutrition (lipid and non-lipid) solutions are administered to people in hospital via central or peripheral venous catheters. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE: all from inception to February 2004; reference lists of identified trials, and bibliographies of published reviews. We also contacted researchers in the field. We did not have a language restriction. We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials addressing the frequency of replacing intravenous administration sets when parenteral nutrition (lipid and non-lipid containing solutions) or infusions (excluding blood) were administered to people in hospital via a central or peripheral catheter. Two authors assessed all potentially relevant studies. We resolved disagreements between the two authors by discussion with a third author. We collected data for the outcomes; infusate contamination; infusate-related bloodstream infection; catheter contamination; catheter-related bloodstream infection; all-cause bloodstream infection and all-cause mortality. We identified 23 references for review. We excluded eight of these studies; five because they did not fit the inclusion criteria and three because of inadequate data. We extracted data from the remaining 15 references (13 studies) with 4783 participants. We conclude that there is no evidence that changing intravenous administration sets more often than every 96 hours

  10. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  11. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  12. Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatobá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the final body weight, weekly weight gain, yield, apparent feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and feed intake of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed four diets containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC as a replacement for fishmeal, reared in a super-intensive biofloc system. Diets consisted of replacing 209 g kg-1 fishmeal at 0, 33, 66, and 100% SPC. Shrimp were raised in a biofloc system using twelve experimental units stocked with 250 shrimp m-3 under constant aeration (O2>5mg L-1 and temperature (29±0.5 °C. No significant differences among treatments were observed based on water quality parameters. Shrimp fed diets with 0 and 33% substitution exhibited the highest weekly growth (1.88 and 1.79 g per week and final weights (15.2 and 14.7 g compared with shrimp fed the 66 and 100% replacement. A lower feed intake was observed for shrimp fed the 33% SPC diet (3.18 kg per experimental unit compared with 0% replacement (3.62 kg. Shrimp fed the 33% replacement achieved a similar performance and lower feed intake than animals fed diet without replacement.

  13. Replacing textbook problems with lab experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    End-of-the-chapter textbook problems are often the bread and butter of any traditional physics classroom. However, research strongly suggests that students be given the opportunity to apply their knowledge in multiple contexts as well as be provided with opportunities to do the process of science through laboratory experiences. Little correlation has been shown linking the number of textbook problems solved with conceptual understanding of topics in mechanics. Furthermore, textbook problems as the primary source of practice for students robs them of the joy and productive struggle of learning how to think like an experimental physicist. Methods such as Modeling Instruction tackle this problem head-on by starting each instructional unit with an inquiry-based lab aimed at establishing the important concepts and equations for the unit, and this article will discuss ideas and experiences for how to carry that philosophy throughout a unit.

  14. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  15. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  16. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent...... osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  17. Saildrone fleet could help replace aging buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In April, two semiautonomous drones, developed by Saildrone, a marine tech startup based in Alameda, California, in close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Washington, D.C., are set to return from an 8-month tour of the Pacific Ocean. This the first scientific test for the drones, which are powered only by the wind and sun, in the Pacific Ocean. The voyage is an important step in showing that such drones, carrying 15 different sensors, could help replace an aging and expensive array of buoys that are the main way scientists sniff out signs of climate-disrupting El Niño events. If successful, scientists envision fleets of similar drones spreading across the ocean, inviting thoughts of what it could be like to do oceanography without a ship.

  18. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  19. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  20. Femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W; Westerbeek, Robin E

    2018-06-01

    Clinical outcomes in patellofemoral joint replacement may be related to femoral component rotation. Assessment of rotational alignment is however difficult as patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis often have trochlear dysplasia. The use of the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation has been suggested. The purpose of our study was to evaluate this technique with regard to femoral component rotation, and to correlate rotation with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty-one knees in 39 patients had patellofemoral joint replacement using the Zimmer Gender-Solutions patellofemoral prosthesis. Intraoperatively, we determined femoral component rotational alignment using an extramedullary rod aimed at the inferior tip of the medial malleolus. Postoperatively, we measured the angle between the femoral component and the anatomical transepicondylar axis using CT. The amount of rotation was correlated with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty knees in 38 patients were available for one-year follow-up. Mean femoral component rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis was 1.4° external rotation (range, -3.8 to 5.7°). We found no statistically significant correlation between femoral component rotation and change from baseline KOOS subscales at one-year follow-up. Our findings show that when using the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation, the femoral component of the patellofemoral prosthesis was oriented in external rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis in 80% of knees. Our study did not show a relation between the amount of external rotation and clinical outcomes. Level III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  2. Primary heat transport pump mechanical seal replacement strategy for Pickering B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacinsi, V.

    1995-01-01

    Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is a CANDU PHWR eight unit station located on Lake Ontario. The station is divided into Pickering A (Units 1 to 4) and Pickering B (Units 5 to 8). Pickering B is the focus of this paper. Each unit is rated at 540 MWe. The Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system, which is used to cool the fuel, is divided into four quadrants. Each quadrant has four vertical Byron Jackson PHT main circulation pumps. Three pumps in each quadrant are required for normal operation, leaving one pump in each quadrant as a spare. Each Pickering PHT pump has a Byron Jackson Type SU two stage mechanical seal. The typical pressure breakdown across the seal is 8.7-4.5-1.0 MPa. Certain features of seal operation and the PHT system which influence seal replacement are discussed below. (author)

  3. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  4. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  5. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  6. New steam generators slated for nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of Duke Power's plans to replace steam generators at its McGuire and Catawba nuclear units. A letter of intent to purchase (from Babcock and Wilcox) the 12 Westinghouse steam generators has been signed, but no constructor has been selected at this time. This action is brought about by the failures of more than 3000 tubes in these units

  7. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  8. RECAP, Replacement Energy Cost for Short-Term Reactor Plant Shut-Down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Daun, C.J.; Jusko, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RECAP (Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package) determines the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or de-ratings of one or more nuclear reactors. Replacement energy cost refers to the change in generating-system production cost that results from shutting down a reactor. The cost calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1988-1991 for all 117 nuclear electricity-generating units in the U.S. RECAP is menu-driven, allowing the user to define specific case studies in terms of parameters such as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or de-rating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through use of a present-worth calculation option. 2 - Method of solution: The user selects a set of units for analysis, defines a shutdown (or de-rating) period, and specifies any planned maintenance outages, delays in unit start-ups, or changes in default capacity factors. The program then determines which seasonal cost numbers to apply, estimates total and daily costs, and makes the appropriate adjustments for multiple outages if they are encountered. The change in production cost is determined from the difference between the total variable costs (variable fuel cost, variable operation and maintenance cost, and purchased energy cost) when the reactor is available for generation and when it is not. Changes in reference-year dollars are based on gross national product (GNP) price deflators or on optional use inputs. Once RECAP has completed the initial cost estimates for a case study (or series of case studies), present-worth analysis can be conducted using different reference-year dollars and discount rates, as specified by the user. The program uses

  9. Prototype unit for the air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work it has the objective of to design and to manufacture an unit that took advantage of the filters of national production in appropriate form, and to offer a wide protection to the maintenance personnel that carries out the replacement, besides to be able to be installed in any position and to facilitate the adsorber installation

  10. Status of the beryllium replacement project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimayuga, I. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Corcoran, E. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, T. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Harmsen, J. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Lu, E. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Onderwater, T.; Palleck, S. [General Electric- Hitachi, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, beryllium (Be) is used as the filler metal for brazing appendages on the sheaths of CANDU® fuel elements. Because of its toxicity, occupational exposure limits for Be are being reduced to very low levels, resulting in significant challenges to CANDU® fuel fabricators. The CANDU® Owners Group (COG) initiated a test program to identify a filler material to replace Be and confirm that the brazed joints meet the established technical requirements for CANDU® fuel. Together with eliminating health risks associated with the use of Be, the industry needs to be assured that continuation of fuel supply remains unaffected and that fuel fabrication processes continue to comply with health and safety standards. A literature survey of studies on brazing and joining of Zircaloy identified potential filler materials that can meet or exceed existing design requirements of the brazed joint, including the required mechanical, microstructural, corrosion resistance, and irradiation properties equivalent to those obtained with Be as braze material. Candidate materials were evaluated against several criteria, including manufacturability, melting point, wettability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, effect on neutron economy, potential activation products, and interaction with fuel channels and other related disciplines. This exercise resulted in a list of promising candidate materials that were recommended for the first phase of testing. These materials include stainless steel (304 or 316), Al-Si, Ni-P, and Zr-Mn alloys. To allow a CANDU® utility have sufficient confidence in considering implementation of a different braze filler material, a Be Replacement Test Program, involving out-reactor and in-reactor tests, is being undertaken as a collaborative endeavour by the Canadian nuclear industry. The out-reactor tests consist of: a constructability assessment to determine the material’s suitability with current fuel manufacturing methods; evaluation of

  11. AN OXIDANT TO REPLACE NITROBENZENE IN LIGNIN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Masingale

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Four metal organic frameworks (MOFs are being evaluated as possible catalysts for alkaline lignin oxidation. One aspect of the screening process is the oxidation of in-situ hardwood lignin by a high mole ratio of Cu, Fe, or Cu + Fe contained in the MOFs. The MOF’s were prepared in a microwave-assisted synthesis. One of the MOFs, a benzenetricar-boxylic acid complex of Cu (II and Fe (III, converted the phenylpropane (C9 units in in-situ poplar lignin to approximately 50% monomers. The ratio of syringyl (S to guiacyl (G monomers was similar to the S:G ratio obtained from nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO. The S:G ratio from NBO was then compared to that from MOF oxidation (MOFO for two other poplars. The S:G ratios for the three poplars by MOFO were 1.20, 1.51 and 1.67, respectively while the corresponding NBO values were 1.25, 1.45 and 1.68. These initial results indicate that MOFO could be developed into a credible replacement for NBO, because it affords a higher yield of monomers when a large MOF dose is used. Some preliminary results are also presented for MOF acting as a catalyst (100 ppm Cu (II plus 81 ppm Fe (III in NaOH for oxygenation of the hardwoods. The products from O2 + MOF are identical to MOF only, but the ratios amongst them are different.

  12. Timing of renal replacement therapy and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagshaw, Sean M.; Uchino, Shigehiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.; French, Craig; Mulder, John; Pinder, Mary; Roberts, Brigit; Botha, John; Mudholkar, Pradeen; Holt, Andrew; Hunt, Tamara; Honoré, Patrick Maurice; Clerbaux, Gaetan; Schetz, Miet Maria; Wilmer, Alexander; Yu, Luis; Macedo, Ettiene V.; Laranja, Sandra Maria; Rodrigues, Cassio José; Suassuna, José Hermógenes Rocco; Ruzany, Frederico; Campos, Bruno; Leblanc, Martine; Senécal, Lynne; Gibney, R. T. Noel; Johnston, Curtis; Brindley, Peter; Tan, Ian K. S.; Chen, Hui De; Wan, Li; Rokyta, Richard; Krouzecky, Ales; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; Detlef, Kindgen-Milles; Mueller, Eckhard; Tsiora, Vicky; Sombolos, Kostas; Mustafa, Iqbal; Suranadi, Iwayan; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Nakhoul, Farid; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Zamperetti, Nereo; Pappalardo, Federico; Marino, Giovanni; Calabrese, Prospero; Monaco, Francesco; Liverani, Chiara; Clementi, Stefano; Coltrinari, Rosanna; Marini, Benedetto; Fuke, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Hirasaw, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Oudemans-van Straaten, Helena Maria; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie J. M.; Bugge, Jan Frederik; Riddervold, Fridtjov; Nilsen, Paul Age; Julsrud, Joar; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Marcelino, Paulo; Serra, Isabel Maria; Yaroustovsky, Mike; Grigoriyanc, Rachik; Lee, Kang Hoe; Loo, Shi; Singh, Kulgit; Barrachina, Ferran; Llorens, Julio; Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Toral-Vazquez, Darío; Wizelius, Ivar; Hermansson, Dan; Gaspert, Tomislav; Maggiorini, Marco; Davenport, Andrew; Lombardi, Raúl; Llopart, Teresita; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Kellum, John; Murray, Patrick; Trevino, Sharon; Benjamin, Ernest; Hufanda, Jerry; Paganini, Emil; Warnock, David; Guirguis, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in severe acute kidney injury and clinical outcomes. This was a prospective multicenter observational study conducted at 54 intensive care units (ICUs) in 23 countries enrolling 1238 patients.

  13. MMIC Replacement for Gunn Diode Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David

    2011-01-01

    An all-solid-state replacement for high-frequency Gunn diode oscillators (GDOs) has been proposed for use in NASA s millimeter- and submillimeter-wave sensing instruments. Highly developed microwave oscillators are used to achieve a low-noise and highly stable reference signal in the 10-40-GHz band. Compact amplifiers and high-power frequency multipliers extend the signal to the 100-500-GHz band with minimal added phase noise and output power sufficient for NASA missions. This technology can achieve improved output power and frequency agility, while maintaining phase noise and stability comparable to other GDOs. Additional developments of the technology include: a frequency quadrupler to 145 GHz with 18 percent efficiency and 15 percent fixed tuned bandwidth; frequency doublers featuring 124, 240, and 480 GHz; an integrated 874-GHz subharmonic mixer with a mixer noise temperature of 3,000 K DSB (double sideband) and mixer conversion loss of 11.8 dB DSB; a high-efficiency frequency tripler design with peak output power of 23 mW and 14 mW, and efficiency of 16 and 13 percent, respectively; millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers to the 30-40 GHz band with high DC power efficiency; and an 874-GHz radiometer suitable for airborne observation with state-of-the-art sensitivity at room temperature and less than 5 W of total power consumption.

  14. Hormone replacement therapy in cancer survivors: Utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioli, Roberto; Luvero, Daniela; Armento, Grazia; Capriglione, Stella; Plotti, Francesco; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Lopez, Salvatore; Montera, Roberto; Gatti, Alessandra; Serra, Giovan Battista; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Terranova, Corrado

    2018-04-01

    As growing of old women population, menopausal women will also increase: an accurate estimation of postmenopausal population is an essential information for health care providers considering that with aging, the incidence of all cancers is expected to increase. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven to be highly effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, dyspareunia, sexual disorders, and insomnia and in preventing osteoporosis. According to preclinical data, estrogen and progesterone are supposed to be involved in the induction and progression of breast and endometrial cancers. Similarly, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the pathogenesis seems to be at least partly hormonally influenced. Is HRT in gynecological cancer survivors possible? The literature data are controversial. Many clinicians remain reluctant to prescribe HRT for these patients due to the fear of relapse and the risk to develop coronary heart disease or breast cancer. Before the decision to use HRT an accurate counselling should be mandatory in order to individualizing on the basis of potential risks and benefits, including a close follow-up. Nevertheless, we do believe that with strong informed consent doctors may individually consider to prescribe some course of HRT in order to minimize menopausal symptoms and disease related to hormonal reduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  16. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  17. Process optimized minimally invasive total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gebel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a new concept of using the the minimally invasive direct anterior approach (DAA in total hip replacement (THR in combination with the leg positioner (Rotex- Table and a modified retractor system (Condor. We evaluated retrospectively the first 100 primary THR operated with the new concept between 2009 and 2010, regarding operation data, radiological and clinical outcome (HOOS. All surgeries were perfomed in a standardized operation technique including navigation. The average age of the patients was 68 years (37 to 92 years, with a mean BMI of 26.5 (17 to 43. The mean time of surgery was 80 min. (55 to 130 min. The blood loss showed an average of 511.5 mL (200 to 1000 mL. No intra-operative complications occurred. The postoperative complication rate was 6%. The HOOS increased from 43 points pre-operatively to 90 (max 100 points 3 months after surgery. The radiological analysis showed an average cup inclination of 43° and a leg length discrepancy in a range of +/- 5 mm in 99%. The presented technique led to excellent clinic results, showed low complication rates and allowed correct implant positions although manpower was saved.

  18. Replacement strategy for obsolete plant computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The plant computers of the first generation of larger nuclear power plants are reaching the end of their useful life time with respect to the hardware. The software would be no reason for a system exchange but new tasks for the supervisory computer system, availability questions of maintenance personnel and spare parts and the demand for improved operating procedures for the computer users have stimulated the considerations on how to exchange a computer system in a nuclear power plant without extending plant outage times due to exchange works. In the Federal Republic of Germany the planning phase of such backfitting projects is well under way, some projects are about to be implemented. The base for these backfitting projects is a modular supervisory computer concept which has been designated for the new line of KWU PWR's. The main characteristic of this computer system is the splitting of the system into a data acquisition level and a data processing level. This principle allows an extension of the processing level or even repeated replacements of the processing computers. With the existing computer system still in operation the new system can be installed in a step-by-step procedure. As soon as the first of the redundant process computers of the data processing level is in operation and the data link to the data acquisition computers is established the old computer system can be taken out of service. Then the back-up processing computer can be commissioned to complete the new system. (author)

  19. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  20. MRI after patellofemoral replacement: The preserved compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyse, Thomas J.; Figiel, Jens; Hähnlein, Ulrike; Timmesfeld, Nina; Lakemeier, Stefan; Schofer, Markus D.; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of magnet resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of preserved anatomic structures of the knee after patellofemoral replacement (PFR). It was hypothesized that evaluation of cartilage, ligaments, meniscus and tendons would result in high inter-observer reliability after PFR. Material and methods: MRI, tailored to reduce metallic artefacts of the knee, after PFR was performed in seven patients. Two independent investigators evaluated cartilage, menisci, collateral and cruciate ligaments, the quadriceps and patellar tendons and the presence of joint effusion. The reviewers used a five-point scale to give a degree of confidence to their evaluation of each parameter. Inter-observer reliability was determined by calculation of Cohen's Kappas. Results: Artefact provoked by the implants was not observed. For all assessed structures, there was excellent inter-observer reliability, with high Cohen's Kappas. There were also high levels of inter-observer agreement and observer confidence in the evaluation of cartilage, meniscus, tendons, ligaments and joint effusion. Conclusion: Tailored MRI allows reproducible analysis of the preserved knee joint structures after PFR. It might prove helpful in assessment of painful knee joints after PFR

  1. MRI after patellofemoral replacement: The preserved compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyse, Thomas J., E-mail: heyse@med.uni-marburg.de [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Figiel, Jens [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Hähnlein, Ulrike [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Timmesfeld, Nina [Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Marburg (Germany); Lakemeier, Stefan; Schofer, Markus D.; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of magnet resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of preserved anatomic structures of the knee after patellofemoral replacement (PFR). It was hypothesized that evaluation of cartilage, ligaments, meniscus and tendons would result in high inter-observer reliability after PFR. Material and methods: MRI, tailored to reduce metallic artefacts of the knee, after PFR was performed in seven patients. Two independent investigators evaluated cartilage, menisci, collateral and cruciate ligaments, the quadriceps and patellar tendons and the presence of joint effusion. The reviewers used a five-point scale to give a degree of confidence to their evaluation of each parameter. Inter-observer reliability was determined by calculation of Cohen's Kappas. Results: Artefact provoked by the implants was not observed. For all assessed structures, there was excellent inter-observer reliability, with high Cohen's Kappas. There were also high levels of inter-observer agreement and observer confidence in the evaluation of cartilage, meniscus, tendons, ligaments and joint effusion. Conclusion: Tailored MRI allows reproducible analysis of the preserved knee joint structures after PFR. It might prove helpful in assessment of painful knee joints after PFR.

  2. Licensing of ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.W.; Garea, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general description of the licensing of the 20 MW Pool-type Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) currently being built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at their Lucas Heights site. The following aspects will be addressed: 1) The influence of ARPANSA's (the Australian regulator) Regulatory Assessment Principles and Design Criteria on the design of the RRR. 2) The Site Licence Application, including the EIS and the supporting siting documentation. 3) The Construction Licence Application, including the PSAR and associated documentation. 4) The review process, including the IAEA Peer Review and the Public Submissions as well as ARPANSA's own review. 5) The interface between ANSTO, INVAP and ARPANSA in relation to the ongoing compliance with ARPANS Regulation 51 and 54. 6) The future Operating Licence Application, including the draft FSAR and associated documentation. These aspects are all addressed from the point of view of the licensee ANSTO and the RRR Project. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and how the licensing and regulatory regime within Australia influenced the design of the RRR. In particular, the safety design features that have been incorporated as a result of the specific requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator will be briefly described. The paper will close with a description of how the RRR meets, and in many aspects exceeds the requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator. (author)

  3. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  4. Mechanical versus bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stuart J; Çelik, Mevlüt; Kappetein, A Pieter

    2017-07-21

    Mechanical valves used for aortic valve replacement (AVR) continue to be associated with bleeding risks because of anticoagulation therapy, while bioprosthetic valves are at risk of structural valve deterioration requiring reoperation. This risk/benefit ratio of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves has led American and European guidelines on valvular heart disease to be consistent in recommending the use of mechanical prostheses in patients younger than 60 years of age. Despite these recommendations, the use of bioprosthetic valves has significantly increased over the last decades in all age groups. A systematic review of manuscripts applying propensity-matching or multivariable analysis to compare the usage of mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves found either similar outcomes between the two types of valves or favourable outcomes with mechanical prostheses, particularly in younger patients. The risk/benefit ratio and choice of valves will be impacted by developments in valve designs, anticoagulation therapy, reducing the required international normalized ratio, and transcatheter and minimally invasive procedures. However, there is currently no evidence to support lowering the age threshold for implanting a bioprosthesis. Physicians in the Heart Team and patients should be cautious in pursuing more bioprosthetic valve use until its benefit is clearly proven in middle-aged patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [SECOT consensus on painful knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J; Macule, F; Bello, S; Chana, F; Forriol, F

    2013-01-01

    The opinions of 21 experts in knee surgery were evaluated in this study, using a DELPHI questionnaire method in two successive rounds, on 64 controversial scenarios that covered both the diagnosis and possible treatment of painful knee replacements. The level of consensus was significantly unanimous in 42 items and of the design in 5, with no agreement in 17 of the questions presented. light of the published scientific evidence, the surgeons who took part showed to have a notable level of information on the most effective diagnostic tests, although, it should be pointed out that there was a lack of confidence in the possibility of ruling out an infection when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein were within normal values, which have been demonstrated in the literature to have a high negative predictive value As regards the treatments to employ in the different situations, the responses of the expert panel were mainly in agreement with the data in the literature. The conclusions of this consensus may help other surgeons when they are faced with a painful knee prosthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Which technologies to replace gamma radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani-Demange, M.L.; Chauveau, D.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma radiography with iridium source is largely used in the industrial sector for the control of welds, tubes and pressure vessels as well as for monitoring corrosion. Hazards due to the handling of ionizing radiation sources (Ir 192 ) and constraints due to a more and more demanding regulations call for alternative methods. The French 'Institut de soudure' has led a 4-year long study (Alter-X project) and has identified 3 alternative methods for the iridium gamma radiography: -) the TOFD (Time Of Flight Diffraction) which is based on the analysis of the diffraction of ultrasound waves on the edges of defects; -) phased array ultrasound which is based on a series of elementary sensors that can be handled in an individual manner by specific electronics, the sweeping is no more manual but electronic and enables the operator to localize and size defects deep under the surface; -) digit radiography that is a common radiography in which the film is replaced by a re-usable phosphorus screen that is more sensitive and can be easily digitalized and has no need for a chemical treatment to be read. Digit radiography used with Se 75 (another gamma emitter) gives comparable or even better results than with Ir 192 but with a dose rate cut by half at least. (A.C.)

  7. Step by step replacement of aging electronic equipment: a way to maintain high capacity factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: replacement concept, aging, replacement, strategy and the Swedish situation. The replacement of important central systems started already 1986 in Oskarshamn 1

  8. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. The methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and is expected to continue operation for at least and additional 25 years. Aging evaluations are in progress to address additional replacements that may be needed during this period

  9. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. Methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and will continue operation for perhaps another 20 years. Aging evaluations are in program to address additional replacements that may be needed during this extended time period. 3 figs

  10. THE REPLACEMENT-RENEWAL OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENTS. THE MAPI FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meo Colombo Carlotta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the production has been found to be an economical means for satisfying human wants, this process requires a complex industrial organization together with a large investment in equipments, plants and productive systems. These productive systems are employed to alter the physical environment and create consumer goods. As a result, they are consumed or become obsolete, inadequate, or otherwise candidates for replacement. When replacement is being considered, two assets must be evaluated: the present asset, the defender and its potential replacement, the challenger. Since the success of an industrial organization depends upon profit, replacement should generally occur if an economic advantage will result. Whatever the reason leading to the consideration of replacement, the analysis and decisions must be based upon estimates of what will occur in the future. In this paper we present the Mapi algorithm as a procedure for evaluating investments or for analyzing replacement opportunities.

  11. Replacement of the Advanced Test Reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Klingler, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The control room for the Advanced Test Reactor has been replaced to provide modern equipment utilizing current standards and meeting the current human factors requirements. The control room was designed in the early 1960 era and had not been significantly upgraded since the initial installation. The replacement did not change any of the safety circuits or equipment but did result in replacement of some of the recorders that display information from the safety systems. The replacement was completed in concert with the replacement of the control room simulator which provided important feedback on the design. The design successfully incorporates computer-based systems into the display of the plant variables. This improved design provides the operator with more information in a more usable form than was provided by the original design. The replacement was successfully completed within the scheduled time thereby minimizing the down time for the reactor. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Replacement of the Advanced Test Reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Klingler, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The control room for the Advanced Test Reactor has been replaced to provide modern equipment utilizing current standards and meeting the current human factors requirements. The control room was designed in the early 1960 era and had not been significantly upgraded since the initial installation. The replacement did not change any of the safety circuits or equipment but did result in replacement of some of the recorders that display information from the safety systems. The replacement was completed in concert with the replacement of the control room simulator which provided important feedback on the design. The design successfully incorporates computer-based systems into the display of the plant variables. This improved design provides the operator with more information in a more usable form than was provided by the original design. The replacement was successfully completed within the scheduled time thereby minimizing the down time for the reactor

  13. Principles of human joint replacement design and clinical application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case hist...

  14. Principles of Human Joint Replacement Design and Clinical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2012-01-01

    Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement. They have written this book for the users and designers of joint replacements. It is an attempt to convey to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their thirty five year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter de...

  15. [Survival in acute renal failure with conventional therapy or continuous replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-Velázquez, Martín; Sánchez-Montoya, Felipe; Alvirde-Gutiérrez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To know the survival rate in patients with RIFLE I and II stages on acute renal failure, treated with supportive care or continuous renal replacement therapy with PRISMA machine, at an intensive care unit. There were included patients of both sexes, aged 16 to 69 years, with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages and score of scale APACHE II lower than 36 points. The sample studied was divided in two groups: a group was treated with supportive care, and the other group received continuous renal replacement therapy via PRISMA machine. We compared mortality between both groups and the association with the RIFLE stages with Pearson's chi-squared test. The average score of the scale APACHE I was 14 points, and the probability of death was 15 %. The patients with acute renal failure RIFLE I were 54.5 % and RIFLE II 45.5 %, with mortality of 30.4 % and 38.8 %, respectively. Patients in RIFLE I stage who received supportive care and continuous replacement therapy had non-statistical differences in mortality (p = 0.356). The mortality in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE II stage treated with continuous replacement therapy was higher (p = 0.000). Because of its accessibility and lower mortality, supportive care should be the initial procedure in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages.

  16. A model for calculating the optimal replacement interval of computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Minoru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1981-08-01

    A mathematical model for calculating the optimal replacement interval of computer systems is described. This model is made to estimate the best economical interval of computer replacement when computing demand, cost and performance of computer, etc. are known. The computing demand is assumed to monotonously increase every year. Four kinds of models are described. In the model 1, a computer system is represented by only a central processing unit (CPU) and all the computing demand is to be processed on the present computer until the next replacement. On the other hand in the model 2, the excessive demand is admitted and may be transferred to other computing center and processed costly there. In the model 3, the computer system is represented by a CPU, memories (MEM) and input/output devices (I/O) and it must process all the demand. Model 4 is same as model 3, but the excessive demand is admitted to be processed in other center. (1) Computing demand at the JAERI, (2) conformity of Grosch's law for the recent computers, (3) replacement cost of computer systems, etc. are also described. (author)

  17. Ingledow 500 kV substation : using mixed technology switchgear solutions for replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, C.; Glaubitz, P. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany); Messinger, T. [British Columbia Transmission Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The reliability of the 500 kV equipment at the Ingledow substation operated by BC Hydro Transmission System is of critical importance due to the energy interchange with the Bonneville Power Authority in the United States and the major role of the substation in serving the energy needs of British Columbia's densely populated Lower Mainland. Presently, the 500 kV switchyard includes 10 airblast circuit breakers and the associated current transformers which are all approaching their end of service-life. In response to environmental and safety concerns, the British Columbia Transmission Corporation adopted a policy whereby new oil-filled transformers are no longer acceptable, and the replacement of existing oil-filled transformers must be oil-free. The result is that the current transformers must be either bushing-type or sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) type. The replacement strategies for the substation equipment consider economical, environmental and seismic issues. They have just as strong an influence on the decision process as the technical, operational and reliability aspects for the particular case or switchgear replacement in the transmission system. The Ingledow case demonstrates the advantages of using mixed technology switchgear, with its compact design flowing from gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for replacement of equipment in an outdoor switchyard. The advantages of the MTS in this case offer the possibility of future reconfiguration to improve the system reliability within the existing switchyard space. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  19. Mitochondrial replacement techniques: egg donation, genealogy and eugenics

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Gonz?lez, C?sar

    2016-01-01

    Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study o...

  20. An abstract machine model of dynamic module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Kırlı, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement for the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection. We show how the operation of module replacement could be applied to other garbage-collected languages such as Java.

  1. The cost function for the preventive - maintenance replacement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Jose Perez

    1994-01-01

    Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...

  2. Discrete-continuous analysis of optimal equipment replacement

    OpenAIRE

    YATSENKO, Yuri; HRITONENKO, Natali

    2008-01-01

    In Operations Research, the equipment replacement process is usually modeled in discrete time. The optimal replacement strategies are found from discrete (or integer) programming problems, well known for their analytic and computational complexity. An alternative approach is represented by continuous-time vintage capital models that explicitly involve the equipment lifetime and are described by nonlinear integral equations. Then the optimal replacement is determined via the opt...

  3. The household decision making process in replacement of durable goods

    OpenAIRE

    Marell Molander, Agneta

    1998-01-01

    As durables are essential in many households, the level of ownership is high and, due to the high degree of penetration, a vast proportion of the current sales are replacement purchases. Even though a lot of research attention has been paid to decision making and decision processes many models are oriented towards non-durable goods and although a majority of purchases of many durable goods are replacements, few studies seem to make a distinction between a replacement purchase decision and a d...

  4. An approach to solve replacement problems under intuitionistic fuzzy nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaganesan, M.; Ganesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    Due to impreciseness to solve the day to day problems the researchers use fuzzy sets in their discussions of the replacement problems. The aim of this paper is to solve the replacement theory problems with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. An effective methodology based on fuzziness index and location index is proposed to determine the optimal solution of the replacement problem. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed method.

  5. Mitochondrial replacement techniques: egg donation, genealogy and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-03-01

    Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry. Finally, I examine the claim that mitochondrial replacement techniques are not transferring mitochondrial DNA but nuclear DNA, and that this should be prohibited on ethical grounds.

  6. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  7. Volume of Requests for Internet Medicare Replacement Cards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides monthly volumes at the national level from federal fiscal year 2008 onwards for Internet Medicare Replacement Card. The dataset includes only...

  8. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  9. Citrate Anticoagulation during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Davide; Panicali, Laura; Facchini, Maria Grazia; Mancini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade. Citrate may thus be used in a regional anticoagulation (RCA), limited to the extracorporeal circuit of CRRT, to avoid systemic anticoagulation. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the advantage of RCA over heparin in terms of incidence of bleeding during CRRT. Moreover, an increase in filter lifespan is documented, with a secondary advantage in reaching the prescribed dialysis dose. In our experience, we could confirm this positive effect. In fact, with a progressive increase in the proportion of CRRT with citrate as RCA, we obtained a reduction in the number of filters used for every 72 h of treatment (from 2.4 in 2011 to 1.3 in 2015), and most importantly, a reduction in the difference between the prescribed and delivered dialysis doses (from 22 to 7%). Citrate has an intense effect on the acid-base balance as well, if fully metabolized through the Krebs cycle, due to the production of bicarbonate. Even more severely ill patients, such as those with liver dysfunction, may be treated with RCA without severe complications, because modern machines for CRRT are equipped with simple systems that are able to manage the citrate infusion and control the calcium levels, with minimal risks of metabolic derangements. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Why Lumbar Artificial Disk Replacements (LADRs) Fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettine, Kenneth; Ryu, Robert; Techy, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. To determine why artificial disk replacements (ADRs) fail by examining results of 91 patients in FDA studies performed at a single investigational device exemption (IDE) site with minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients following lumbar ADR generally achieve their 24-month follow-up results at 3 months postoperatively. Every patient undergoing ADR at 1 IDE site by 2 surgeons was evaluated for clinical success. Failure was defined as <50% improvement in ODI and VAS or any additional surgery at index or adjacent spine motion segment. Three ADRs were evaluated: Maverick, 25 patients; Charité, 31 patients; and Kineflex, 35 patients. All procedures were 1-level operations performed at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Demographics and inclusion/exclusion criteria were similar and will be discussed. Overall clinical failure occurred in 26% (24 of 91 patients) at 2-year follow-up. Clinical failure occurred in: 28% (Maverick) (7 of 25 patients), 39% (Charité) (12 of 31 patients), and 14% (Kineflex) (5 of 35 patients). Causes of failure included facet pathology, 50% of failure patients (12 of 24). Implant complications occurred in 5% of total patients and 21% of failure patients (5 of 24). Only 5 patients went from a success to failure after 3 months. Only 1 patient went from a failure to success after a facet rhizotomy 1 year after ADR. Seventy-four percent of patients after ADR met strict clinical success after 2-year follow-up. The clinical success versus failure rate did not change from their 3-month follow-up in 85 of the 91 patients (93%). Overall clinical success may be improved most by patient selection and implant type.

  11. Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Kim, Seoung Hyup

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death

  12. Enzyme replacement therapy for murine hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, José Luis; Narisawa, Sonoko; Lemire, Isabelle; Loisel, Thomas P; Boileau, Guy; Leonard, Pierre; Gramatikova, Svetlana; Terkeltaub, Robert; Camacho, Nancy Pleshko; McKee, Marc D; Crine, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P

    2008-06-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism that features rickets or osteomalacia caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Consequently, natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Babies with the infantile form of HPP often die with severe rickets and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures. There is no established medical treatment. Human TNALP was bioengineered with the C terminus extended by the Fc region of human IgG for one-step purification and a deca-aspartate sequence (D10) for targeting to mineralizing tissue (sALP-FcD10). TNALP-null mice (Akp2-/-), an excellent model for infantile HPP, were treated from birth using sALP-FcD10. Short-term and long-term efficacy studies consisted of once daily subcutaneous injections of 1, 2, or 8.2 mg/kg sALP-FcD10 for 15, 19, and 15 or 52 days, respectively. We assessed survival and growth rates, circulating levels of sALP-FcD10 activity, calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal, as well as skeletal and dental manifestations using radiography, microCT, and histomorphometry. Akp2-/- mice receiving high-dose sALP-FcD10 grew normally and appeared well without skeletal or dental disease or epilepsy. Plasma calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal concentrations remained in their normal ranges. We found no evidence of significant skeletal or dental disease. Enzyme replacement using a bone-targeted, recombinant form of human TNALP prevents infantile HPP in Akp2-/- mice.

  13. Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Murine Hypophosphatasia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, José Luis; Narisawa, Sonoko; Lemire, Isabelle; Loisel, Thomas P; Boileau, Guy; Leonard, Pierre; Gramatikova, Svetlana; Terkeltaub, Robert; Camacho, Nancy Pleshko; McKee, Marc D; Crine, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism that features rickets or osteomalacia caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Consequently, natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5`-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Babies with the infantile form of HPP often die with severe rickets and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures. There is no established medical treatment. Materials and Methods Human TNALP was bioengineered with the C terminus extended by the Fc region of human IgG for one-step purification and a deca-aspartate sequence (D10) for targeting to mineralizing tissue (sALP-FcD10). TNALP-null mice (Akp2−/−), an excellent model for infantile HPP, were treated from birth using sALP-FcD10. Short-term and long-term efficacy studies consisted of once daily subcutaneous injections of 1, 2, or 8.2 mg/kg sALP-FcD10 for 15, 19, and 15 or 52 days, respectively. We assessed survival and growth rates, circulating levels of sALP-FcD10 activity, calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal, as well as skeletal and dental manifestations using radiography, μCT, and histomorphometry. Results Akp2−/− mice receiving high-dose sALP-FcD10 grew normally and appeared well without skeletal or dental disease or epilepsy. Plasma calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal concentrations remained in their normal ranges. We found no evidence of significant skeletal or dental disease. Conclusions Enzyme replacement using a bone-targeted, recombinant form of human TNALP prevents infantile HPP in Akp2−/− mice. PMID:18086009

  14. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  15. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production inventory and include programmed extra units to cover replacement during the fabrication process... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Forms Preparation 1845.7101-3 Unit acquisition cost. (a... production costs (for assets produced or constructed). (5) Engineering, architectural, and other outside...

  16. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  17. Floppy disc units for data collection from neutron beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.W.

    1976-02-01

    The replacement of paper tape output facilities on neutron beam equipment on DIDO and PLUTO reactors by floppy discs will improve reliability and provide a more manageable data storage medium. The cost of floppy disc drives is about the same as a tape punch and printer and less than other devices such as a magnetic tape. Suitable floppy disc controllers are not at present available and a unit was designed as a directly pluggable replacement for paper tape punches. This design was taken as the basis in the development of a prototype unit for use in neutron beam equipment. The circuit operation for this prototype unit is described. (author)

  18. Usage of Bone Replacement Grafts in Periodontics and Oral Implantology and Their Current Levels of Clinical Evidence - A Systematic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Daliah; Natto, Zuhair; Elangovan, Satheesh; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the levels of clinical evidence for bone replacement grafts available in the United States for periodontics and oral implantology purposes. A search was performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for articles relating to the use of bone replacement grafts in implant and/or periodontics by two independent reviewers. Articles unrelated to the topic, not involving patients, not including abstracts, or in languages other than English were excluded. Selected articles were graded according to "levels of evidence" based on guidelines originally introduced by Wright et al. (2003). There was limited published peer-reviewed clinical literature available regarding US commercially available bone replacement grafts in periodontics and oral implantology. Of 144 bone replacement grafts available in the United States according to Avila-Ortiz et al. (2013), only 52 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of materials used were allografts (26 of 93 available in the United States), followed by alloplasts (15 of 30) and xenografts (11 of 21). Dental providers should be aware of the limited evidence that qualified for a strong rating supporting the clinical efficacy of these materials for periodontics and oral implantology purposes using the inclusion criteria selected in this study.

  19. Practical Issues in Vitamin D Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Practical clinical guidance for vitamin D assessment and management relies on a strong evidence base, but unfortunately there are many deficiencies in our current knowledge. For the general population the Institute of Medicine recommendations are likely to provide adequate vitamin D levels without harms. Thus, most adults should ingest 600-800 IU (international units) in diet and supplements with up to 4,000 IU daily likely to be safe. In certain populations, such as those with osteoporosis or after bariatric surgery, it is important to know the levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but general screening has not been shown to improve health. One expert group has recommended a "reasonable" level of 30 ng/mL in those individuals for whom testing is required. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or...

  1. 49 CFR 224.109 - Inspection, repair, and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, repair, and replacement. 224.109 Section 224.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.109 Inspection, repair, and replacement. (a...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 57.4203 Section 57.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  3. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL... Rentals § 1.26-5 Replacement of medals. (a) A medal, or a bar, emblem, or insignia in lieu thereof, that...

  4. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  5. On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...

  6. Continuous renal replacement therapy for critically ill infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jepsen, Søren Bruun; Toft, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important treatment in critically ill children with acute kidney injury (AKI). Over the past decade, CRRT has been the preferred method of renal replacement therapy. We compared children with CRRT-treated adults with AKI in terms of return of kidney...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 56.4203 Section 56.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  8. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  9. Hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of cranial meningioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting.......We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting....

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.14 - Replacement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Replacement services. 51-6.14 Section 51-6.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.14 Replacement services. If a service is on the Procurement List to meet the needs of a...

  11. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  12. Application of capital replacement models with finite planning horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarf, P.A.; Christer, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Capital replacement models with finite planning horizons can be used to model replacement policies in complex operational contexts. They may also be used to investigate the cost consequences of technological change. This paper reviews the application of these models in various such contexts. We also

  13. Opportunity-based age replacement: exponentially distributed times between opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); M.C. Dijkstra (Matthijs)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis article gives a full analysis of a component-replacement model in which preventive replacements are only possible at maintenance opportunities. These oppertunities arise according to a Poisson process, independently of failures of the component. Conditions for the existence of a

  14. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  15. Performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the level of replacement of fine aggregate with waste glass that will result in optimal compressive strength. A total of 36 cubes were cast. 6 cubes without waste glass (control) and 30 cubes containing waste glass as partial replacement for fine aggregates at 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 50%.

  16. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  17. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.......To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule....

  18. Remaining lifetime modelling for replacement of power transformer populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.; Wetzer, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    The age of the majority of power transformers applied in the western electricity network varies between 25 and 50 years. Depending on the load history and time of operation, replacement on short term is imminent. A technically sound policy concerning the replacement of these assets must be based on

  19. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.

    The investigations described in this thesis were

  20. Opportunity-based block replacement: the single component case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); E. Smeitink

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a block replacement model in which a component can be replaced preventively at maintenance opportunities only. Maintenance opportunities occur randomly and are modelled through a renewal process. In the first, theoretical part of the paper we derive an