WorldWideScience

Sample records for replaceable electronic equipment

  1. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  2. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  3. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  4. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  5. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  6. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  7. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  8. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  9. Simulation Gaming in Construction: ER, The Equipment Replacement Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Khaled

    2002-01-01

    The Equipment Replacement simulation game can be used to explain the different effects of various equipment buy/sell strategies on the economic performance of construction companies. The probabilistic aspect of demand in the construction market is incorporated. The game is implemented using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. (Author/SK)

  10. THE REPLACEMENT-RENEWAL OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENTS. THE MAPI FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meo Colombo Carlotta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the production has been found to be an economical means for satisfying human wants, this process requires a complex industrial organization together with a large investment in equipments, plants and productive systems. These productive systems are employed to alter the physical environment and create consumer goods. As a result, they are consumed or become obsolete, inadequate, or otherwise candidates for replacement. When replacement is being considered, two assets must be evaluated: the present asset, the defender and its potential replacement, the challenger. Since the success of an industrial organization depends upon profit, replacement should generally occur if an economic advantage will result. Whatever the reason leading to the consideration of replacement, the analysis and decisions must be based upon estimates of what will occur in the future. In this paper we present the Mapi algorithm as a procedure for evaluating investments or for analyzing replacement opportunities.

  11. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  12. Cooling Shelf For Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Herbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Heat-pipe action cools and maintains electronics at nearly constant temperature. System designed to control temperatures of spacecraft shelves or baseplates by combining honeycomb sandwich panel with reservoir of noncondensable gas and processing resulting device as variable-conductance heat pipe. Device provides flat surface for mounting heat-dissipating electronics that is effectively cooled and maintained at nearly constant temperature. Potentially useful in freeze drying, refrigeration, and air conditioning.

  13. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent studies, this paper examines whether an increased use of electronic stability control can replace studded tyres. A re-analysis of a study that evaluated the effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway is presented. It is found that if all cars have electronic stability control, the use of studded tyres can be reduced to about 15 percent before any increase in the number of accidents occurs. Even if studded tyres were eliminated entirely, any increase in the number of accidents is likely to be considerably smaller than it would have been if electronic stability control had never been invented.

  14. Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A. D.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    The application of thermal control techniques to the cooling of electronic components is examined from theoretical and practical points of view. The electronic-thermal-control (ETC) problem and the physical and conceptual restraints on its solution are characterized, with a focus on the goal of system reliability. The fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid mechanics are discussed, including steady-state and transient conduction, convection, radiation, phase-change processes, contact resistance, heat exchangers, air handling, and dimensional analysis. Mathematical models and empirical correlations are explored for such ETC techniques as direct air cooling, extended surfaces, cold plates, immersion cooling, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers. Specific ETC applications to inertial equipment, transistors, vacuum tubes, microwave equipment, microelectronics, and printed-circuit boards are considered.

  15. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used

  16. 47 CFR 15.118 - Cable ready consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. 15... Unintentional Radiators § 15.118 Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. (a) All consumer electronics TV... provisions of this section. Consumer electronics TV receiving equipment that includes features intended...

  17. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  18. Design and Implementation of Equipment Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Interactive electronic technical manuals (IETMs) can significantly improve the maintenance and logistics of modern weapon equipment. Main functiors and development strategies of IETMs are discussed. As an example, the IETM development of a certain equipment is demonstrated.

  19. Electronic business in the home medical equipment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, June; Graham, Michael J; Liu, Lai C

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at developing electronic business solutions to increase value for the home medical equipment industry. First, an electronic strategic value chain model was developed for the home medical equipment industry. Second, electronic business solutions were mapped from this model. Third, the top 20 dominant companies in the home medical equipment industry were investigated to see the current adoption patterns of these electronic business solutions. The solutions will be beneficial to decision-makers in the information technology adoptions in the home medical equipment industry to increase the business values.

  20. Choice of optimal replacement of equipment in the warehouse of the company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Silvia; Tomov, Kiril

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to find an optimal replacement of equipment in the warehouse of the company. Real data for the machines are used and are processed with appropriate software. The mathematical model is made for this problem as problem for the shortest path from graph theory. The solution is made by Bellman's principle.

  1. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or...

  2. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery.......Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery....

  3. Replacing Electron Transport Cofactors with Hydrogenases

    KAUST Repository

    Laamarti, Rkia

    2016-12-01

    Enzymes have found applications in a broad range of industrial production processes. While high catalytic activity, selectivity and mild reaction conditions are attractive advantages of the biocatalysts, particularly costs arising from required cofactors pose a sever limitation. While cofactor-recycling systems are available, their use implies constraints for process set-up and conditions, which are a particular problem e.g. for solid-gas-phase reactions. Several oxidoreductases are able to directly exchange electrons with electrodes. Hence, the co-immobilization of both, an electron-utilizing and an electron-generating oxidoreductase on conductive nanoparticles should facilitate the direct electron flow from an enzymatic oxidation to a reduction reaction circumventing redox-cofactors requirements. In such a set-up, hydrogenases could generate and provide electrons directly form gaseous hydrogen. This thesis describes the co-immobilization of the oxygen tolerant hydrogenases from C. eutropha or C. metallidurans and cytochrome P450BM3 as test system. Conductive material in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) serves as a suitable support. A combination of the hydrogenase and the catalytic domain of P450BM3 immobilized on carbon nanotubes were tested for the oxidation of lauric acid in the presence of hydrogen instead of an electron-transport cofactor. The GC-MS analysis reveals the conversion of 4% of lauric acid (LA) into three products, which correspond to the hydroxylated lauric acid in three different positions with a total turnover (TON) of 34. The product distribution is similar to that obtained when using the wildtype P450BM3 with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cofactor. Such electronic coupling couldn’t be achieved for the conversion of other substrates such as propane and cyclohexane, probably due to the high uncoupling rate within the heme-domain of cytochrome P450BM3 when unnatural substrates are introduced.

  4. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, C E; Kim, J B; Kim, Y K; Moon, B S

    2001-01-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and made it done effectively in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the alarming system of the unit211 in PIEF and the lamp control module(IND100) in RWTF using PLCs. And also, electronic circuit modules for MAFF system which is an instrument for airborne monitoring in radiation area have been designed and fabricated.

  5. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myeong Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have imposed the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 15 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new.

  6. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Eun; Moon, Byung Soo; Hong, Suk Boong; Kim, Jung Bok

    1999-12-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the data processing system of RMS, and also modified the cyclic box using PLC which is a facility for airborne monitoring in radiation area. (author)

  7. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Soo; Moon, Byung Soo; Hong, Suk Boong; Kim, Yong Keun; Kim, Jung Bok

    2000-12-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the data processing system of RMS, and modified the cyclic box and IND100 using PLCs which are a facility for airborne monitoring in radiation area and lamp control modules of radiation monitoring control panel respectively. And also, a gamma-ray densitometer for KNGR has been designed and fabricated.

  8. Modern Maintenance Strategy of Electronic Equipment in Complex Electromechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-fang; CHEN Gui-ming; YANG Bao-li; ZHANG Xue-tao; WANG Han-gong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the failure mechanism of electronic equipment was analysed. Aiming at the limitation of traditional maintenance modes, moderu maintenance strategy was put forward on the basis of reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) combined with condition-based maintenance (CBM)aud maintenance efficiency review (MER). A maintenance management information system was constructed for electronic equipment for the purpose of failure analysis, reliability evaluation, and maintenance decisions such as time, mode, and plan. The best maintenance time could be predicted with failure analysis and reliability evaluation, which was mainly influenced by environmental stress. Suitable maintenance modes should be determined fiom equipment importance, failure aftereffect, maintenance condition, and economical power so as to ensure equipment reliability and decrease the requirement of the maintenance source.

  9. Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hienonen, R.; Karjalainen, M.; Lankinen, R. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). ProTechno

    1997-12-31

    The project `Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment` studied the methodology to be followed in the verification of thermal design of electronic equipment. This project forms part of the `Cool Electronics` research programme funded by TEKES, the Finnish Technology Development Centre. This project was carried out jointly by VTT Automation, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Nokia Research Center and ABB Industry Oy VSD-Technology. The thermal design of electronic equipment has a significant impact on the cost, reliability, tolerance to different environments, selection of components and materials, and ergonomics of the product. This report describes the method for verification of thermal design. It assesses the goals set for thermal design, environmental requirements, technical implementation of the design, thermal simulation and modelling, and design qualification testing and the measurements needed. The verification method covers all packaging levels of electronic equipment from the system level to the electronic component level. The method described in this report can be used as part of the quality system of a corporation. The report includes information about the measurement and test methods needed in the verification process. Some measurement methods for the temperature, flow and pressure of air are described. (orig.) Published in Finnish VTT Julkaisuja 824. 22 refs.

  10. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device replacement infections and prevention: results from the REPLACE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Daniel Z; Gleva, Marye J; Warren, David K; Mela, Theofanie; Chung, Mina K; Gottipaty, Venkateshwar; Borge, Richard; Dan, Dan; Shinn, Timothy; Mitchell, Kevin; Holcomb, Richard G; Poole, Jeanne E

    2012-01-01

    Infection following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) replacement is a serious complication, and rates of infection have increased. Analysis of procedural and clinical data from device replacement procedures collected by the REPLACE Registry may provide insights into infection prevention strategies and outcomes. We prospectively evaluated procedural complications in patients undergoing CIED replacement over 6 months from 72 U.S. sites. Major and minor infections were predefined and adjudicated by an independent blinded clinical events committee. Data regarding infection prevention strategies and infectious outcomes were analyzed for their potential relationships. A total of 1,744 patients were included in REPLACE. All patients received preoperative intravenous antibiotics and 68.7% received postoperative systemic antibiotic therapy. CIED infection developed in 22 patients (1.3%), of which 14 cases were major (0.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4%-1.3%) and eight were minor (0.5%, 95% CI 0.2%-0.9%). Patients with infections were more likely to have had postoperative hematomas (five of 22 [22.7%] vs 17 of 1,722 [0.98%], P = 0.002). Participating sites experiencing infection rates >5% were more likely to use povidone-iodine for topical antisepsis, had lower implantation volume, and had patients with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.79 vs 2.32, 95% CI for difference 0.08-0.86, P = 0.019). In this multicenter prospective study with 6 months of follow-up, infections associated with CIED replacements were surprisingly infrequent, possibly due to the use of preoperative antibiotics. Patients with infections were more likely to have had a postoperative hematoma, and sites with higher infection rates had sicker patients and lower overall procedural volume. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2014-01-01

    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  12. Optimal replacement of residential air conditioning equipment to minimize energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and consumer cost in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kleine, Robert D. [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States); Keoleian, Gregory A., E-mail: gregak@umich.edu [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A life cycle optimization of the replacement of residential central air conditioners (CACs) was conducted in order to identify replacement schedules that minimized three separate objectives: life cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and consumer cost. The analysis was conducted for the time period of 1985-2025 for Ann Arbor, MI and San Antonio, TX. Using annual sales-weighted efficiencies of residential CAC equipment, the tradeoff between potential operational savings and the burdens of producing new, more efficient equipment was evaluated. The optimal replacement schedule for each objective was identified for each location and service scenario. In general, minimizing energy consumption required frequent replacement (4-12 replacements), minimizing GHG required fewer replacements (2-5 replacements), and minimizing cost required the fewest replacements (1-3 replacements) over the time horizon. Scenario analysis of different federal efficiency standards, regional standards, and Energy Star purchases were conducted to quantify each policy's impact. For example, a 16 SEER regional standard in Texas was shown to either reduce primary energy consumption 13%, GHGs emissions by 11%, or cost by 6-7% when performing optimal replacement of CACs from 2005 or before. The results also indicate that proper servicing should be a higher priority than optimal replacement to minimize environmental burdens. - Highlights: > Optimal replacement schedules for residential central air conditioners were found. > Minimizing energy required more frequent replacement than minimizing consumer cost. > Significant variation in optimal replacement was observed for Michigan and Texas. > Rebates for altering replacement patterns are not cost effective for GHG abatement. > Maintenance levels were significant in determining the energy and GHG impacts.

  13. Choice and maintenance of equipment for electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deryck J; Vonck, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The choice of equipment for an electron crystallography laboratory will ultimately be determined by the available budget; nevertheless, the ideal lab will have two electron microscopes: a dedicated 300 kV cryo-EM with a field emission gun and a smaller LaB(6) machine for screening. The high-end machine should be equipped with photographic film or a very large CCD or CMOS camera for 2D crystal data collection; the screening microscope needs a mid-size CCD for rapid evaluation of crystal samples. The microscope room installations should provide adequate space and a special environment that puts no restrictions on the collection of high-resolution data. Equipment for specimen preparation includes a carbon coater, glow discharge unit, light microscope, plunge freezer, and liquid nitrogen containers and storage dewars. When photographic film is to be used, additional requirements are a film desiccator, dark room, optical diffractometer, and a film scanner. Having the electron microscopes and ancillary equipment well maintained and always in optimum condition facilitates the production of high-quality data.

  14. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  15. Equipment for Dynamic Electron Contact Thermography of Skin Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloshenko, V.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The computer-assisted equipment complex for dynamic electron contact thermography of skin melanoma was developed. The cooling device on the basis of Peltier cell, matrix scanner with intellectual converters «temperature/digital code» and original customized software for visualizing temperature maps and their primary mathematical processing were created. Prospects in combined use of complex and dermatoscopy to improve the validity of skin melanoma early diagnostics are experimentally proved.

  16. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  17. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Electronics Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... consumer electronics equipment for most subscribers. At the same time, however, we recognize that some... Act), Congress recognized that compatibility problems between cable service and consumer...

  18. Low-Energy Electron Beam Direct Writing Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Takashi; Ando, Atsushi; Kotsugi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Hidetoshi; Sugihara, Kazuyoshi

    2007-09-01

    We proposed an electron beam direct writing (EBDW) system capable of high throughput and maskless operation based on a novel concept of using both low-energy electron beam (EB) and character projection (CP) system. We fabricated an EB optical column of low-energy EBDW equipment and obtained a resist pattern. We also investigated the beam blur and line width roughness (LWR) of lines and spaces (L/S) formed on a resist to change various EB current densities and convergence half angles. The obtained results show that a Coulomb interaction effect markedly affects the beam blur in our EB optical column. Thus, we reduce the number of sources caused by LWR and developed photoresists to obtain small LWR L/S patterns for achieving a high throughput.

  19. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we comprehensively map and estimate the flows of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and the corresponding waste (WEEE) in Denmark. The quantitative analysis is supplemented with a thorough diagnosis of the WEEE management system. Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is used...... time, and their corresponding revenues are evaluated. The results show that the amount of WEEE generated per year increased from 45 to 81 kilo tons (kt) between 1990 and 2015. The amount of EEE put on market (PoM), on the other hand, peaked to 101 kt in 2006 from 61 kt in 1991, but declined to 84 kt...... in 2015. In terms of the PoM quantity, the EEE market is found saturated, and can be expected to remain largely unchanged over the next decade. Consequently, there will not be any significant increase in WEEE quantities. Denmark has a well-established WEEE management system that has been performing...

  20. Random Vibration Analysis of the Electronic Equipment Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanping; LIU Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the vibration characteristic of system structure of electronic equipment cabinet within the particular vibration frequency, the finite element analysis software- ANSYS is used to simulate the tests of random vibrations of the cabinet system and obtain the isopleths graph of deformation and stress of the cabinet. It can confirm maximum of deformation and stress of the cabinet and position happened. Through more analysis of the frequency response curve, which can confirm harmful consequences random vibrations caused and weak link of the cabinet structure. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It shows that this research provides an efficient method for the anti-seismic design and the dynamic optimization design.

  1. 48 CFR 552.238-70 - Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. 552.238-70 Section 552.238-70... Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. As prescribed in 538.273(a)(1), insert the following clause: Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped...

  2. Electronic Health Records and Cloud based Generic Medical Equipment Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Siddharth; Gupta, Ramji; Rai, Astha; Cheema, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Now-a-days Health Care industry is well equipped with Medical Equipments to provide accurate and timely reports of investigation and examination results. Medical Equipments available in market are made for specific tests suited for a particular laboratory leading to a wide variety of devices. The result viewing experience on console of these devices is not only cumborsome for medical staff but inefficient. Therefore, Medical Equipment Interfaces act as backbone of any Hospital Management Info...

  3. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, N; Guignot, S; van Houwelingen, J A

    2013-03-01

    Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink-float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC-ABS, PS and rest product. The fractions were characterised by using the methodology described in this paper. The results show that the grade and liberation degree of the plastic products ABS, PC-ABS and PS are close to 100%. Sink-float separation and infrared plastic identification equipment confirms the high plastic quality. On the basis of these findings, a global

  4. Optimal replacement time estimation for machines and equipment based on cost function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šebo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a multidisciplinary issue of estimating the optimal replacement time for the machines. Considered categories of machines, for which the optimization method is usable, are of the metallurgical and engineering production. Different models of cost function are considered (both with one and two variables. Parameters of the models were calculated through the least squares method. Models testing show that all are good enough, so for estimation of optimal replacement time is sufficient to use simpler models. In addition to the testing of models we developed the method (tested on selected simple model which enable us in actual real time (with limited data set to indicate the optimal replacement time. The indicated time moment is close enough to the optimal replacement time t*.

  5. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  6. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive.

  7. 32 CFR 637.18 - Electronic equipment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to MP operations desk personnel. (2) The connection of voice-recording equipment or private-line... tariffs which permit direct electrical connection through telephone company recorder-connector...

  8. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  9. Electronic cigarettes: health impact, nicotine replacement therapy, regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the adverse effects of conventional cigarettes on human health have been thoroughly examined, in the last 15 years we have witnessed the birth of electronic cigarettes. There are many types of these devices available on the market. Studies are still underway to determine their negative impact on the human body. Electronic cigarettes comprise of power supply and a vaporising system. The user inhales the aerosol produced by heating up the liquid containing nicotine. In contrast with conventional cigarettes, the tobacco is not combusted, thus the compositions of the aerosol and cigarette smoke are considerably different. Out of 93 chemical substances present in the e-cigarette smoke, the aerosol contains only acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, formaldehyde and nicotine. More toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are not present. The amount of evidence suggesting electronic cigarettes’ harmful effects on the human body is constantly increasing. Some reports imply that the electronic cigarettes negatively influence pregnancy, human psyche, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. They might also be involved in oncogenesis. With electronic cigarettes constantly gaining popularity, the question about the adverse effects of passive smoking becomes increasingly more relevant. Although various methods of helping people cease smoking or delivering nicotine to their bodies without burning toxic substances are being explored, electronic cigarettes are not recommended in nicotine substitution therapy. Legal regulations regarding electronic cigarettes are still being worked on. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects electronic cigarettes have on the human’s health.

  10. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection.

  11. The influence of residents' behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements. The main focus is to better understand household residents' behaviour in regards to the proper methods of handling waste electrical and electronic equipment and possible storage of the obsolete equipment that brings disturbances with collection of the waste equipment. The study explores these issues depending on size of municipality and the household residents' knowledge about legal methods of post-consumer management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Poland, where the collection rate of that type of waste is about 40% of the total mass of waste electrical and electronic equipment appearing in the market.The research was informed by various sources of information, including non-government organisations, Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and Central Statistics Office in Poland, questionnaires, and interviews with the household residents. The questionnaires were distributed to daytime and vocational students from different universities and the customers of an electronic equipment superstore. The results show that a resident's behaviour in regards to the handling of obsolete waste electrical and electronic equipment can significantly reduce the collection rate, especially when the waste is discarded improperly - mixed with municipal waste or sold in scrapyards. It is possible to identify points that are necessary to be improved to achieve a higher collection rate.

  12. Electronic Equipment Proposal to Improve the Photovoltaic Systems Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mena, J. E.; Juárez Morán, L. A.; Díaz Reyes, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports a new technique proposal to improve the photovoltaic systems. It was made to design and implement an electronic system that will detect, capture, and transfer the maximum power of the photovoltaic (PV) panel to optimize the supplied power of a solar panel. The electronic system works on base technical proposal of electrical sweeping of electric characteristics using capacitive impedance. The maximum power is transformed and the solar panel energy is sent to an automotive battery. This electronic system reduces the energy lost originated when the solar radiation level decreases or the PV panel temperature is increased. This electronic system tracks, captures, and stores the PV module's maximum power into a capacitor. After, a higher voltage level step-up circuit was designed to increase the voltage of the PV module's maximum power and then its current can be sent to a battery. The experimental results show that the developed electronic system has 95% efficiency. The measurement was made to 50 W, the electronic system works rightly with solar radiation rate from 100 to 1,000 W m - 2 and the PV panel temperature rate changed from 1 to 75°C. The main advantage of this electronic system compared with conventional methods is the elimination of microprocessors, computers, and sophisticated numerical approximations, and it does not need any small electrical signals to track the maximum power. The proposed method is simple, fast, and it is also cheaper.

  13. Oxidative stress, melatonin level, and sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Helaly Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF, especially among electronic equipment repairers may induce oxidative stress and affect sleep quality. Aims: This study was carried out to (a investigate the effect of exposure to ELF-EMF on the malondialdehyde (MDA levels among electronic equipment repairers as an indicator of oxidative stress; and melatonin hormone levels; and (b to study the prevalence of sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMF. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 electronic equipment repairers at high risk of exposure to ELF-EMF, and a matched control group at lower risk of exposure to ELF-EMF. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about medical and occupational histories; and sleep sufficiency. The plasma melatonin and MDA levels of the study subjects were assessed. Results: The mean level of serum melatonin in the electronic equipment repairers was lower than that of the controls (P < 0.01. Moreover, serum MDA mean level of the electronic equipment repairers was higher than that of the controls (P < 0.01. Sleep insufficiency was more frequent among electronic equipment repairers (18.00% in comparison with the controls (8.70% (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The electronic equipment repairers, exposed to ELF-EMF, are at a risk of oxidative stress and sleep insufficiency, which could be explained by lower plasma melatonin levels and higher MDA levels. Health education about the hazards of ELF-EMF, shortening of exposure time per day, and taking antioxidant vitamins should be done to ameliorate the oxidative effect of EMF on those workers.

  14. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  15. 32 CFR 228.8 - Prohibition on photographic or electronic recording or transmitting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on photographic or electronic... Prohibition on photographic or electronic recording or transmitting equipment. No person entering or while on protected property shall bring or possess any kind of photographic, recording or transmitting...

  16. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  17. Missile Electronic Equipment Career Ladder, AFSC 411XOA (Formerly AFSC 316X2G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Plan of Instruction ........ ........ 31 Analysis of Equipment Used at the Technicai School....... 36 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY...two courses at Chanute AFB IL: Electronics Principles Course AQR31020-0O2, Blocks I through IX, followed by one of two separate airman basic resident...Blocks I through IV of Electronics Principles Course AQR31020- 002 before advancing to the ABR courses. Secondly, the former 316X2G ABR courses were

  18. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Tull

    2005-01-01

    .... This article focuses on one aspect of ERM, the integration of the module with the Web OPAC, and describes how the Ohio State University Libraries replaced a back-end database with ERM to support...

  19. Augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Pai, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    An F100 augmented turbofan engine equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system was evaluated. The engine was equipped with a specially modified augmentor to provide improved steady state and transient augmentor capability. The combination of the DEEC and the modified augmentor was evaluated in sea level and altitude facility tests and then in four different flight phases in an F-15 aircraft. The augmentor configuration, logic, and test results are presented.

  20. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver-palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutter, E; Jungjohann, K; Bliznakov, S; Courty, A; Maisonhaute, E; Tenney, S; Sutter, P

    2014-01-01

    .... In situ observations by liquid-cell electron microscopy can provide insight into mechanisms, rates and possible modifications of galvanic replacement reactions in the native solution environment...

  1. Environmental Strategies for Electrical and Electronic Equipment Supply Chains: Which to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patroklos Georgiadis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment is one of the major world-wide waste streams triggering the emergence of environmental strategies. Environmental regulations, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC activities and design-for-environment (DfE practices are environmental friendly strategies being implemented by governments and industry. In this paper, we apply a System Dynamics model to a CLSC of electrical and electronic equipment in Greece. Extensive numerical investigation provides insights regarding the impact of different legislative measures, CLSC activities and DfE practices on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfills and economic sustainability.

  2. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  3. A primer for health care managers: data sanitization, equipment disposal, and electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Cathy M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, security regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act concerning data sanitization and the disposal of media containing stored electronic protected health information are discussed, and methods for effective sanitization and media disposal are presented. When disposing of electronic media, electronic waste-or e-waste-is produced. Electronic waste can harm human health and the environment. Responsible equipment disposal methods can minimize the impact of e-waste. Examples of how health care organizations can meet the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations while also behaving responsibly toward the environment are provided. Examples include the environmental stewardship activities of reduce, reuse, reeducate, recover, and recycle.

  4. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ont. L5K 1B2 (Canada); Goble, W. [Exida, 64 N. Main St., Sellersville, PA 18960 (United States); Kumar, V. [Carleton Univ., 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont. K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  5. Voltage surges induced in transformer secondaries with loads characterized by sensitive electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [GSI Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Taubate, SP (Brazil)], Email: gsi@gsiconsultoria.com.br; Dommel, Hermann Wilhelm [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], Email: hermannd@ece.ubc.ca

    2007-07-01

    The grounding of sensitive electronic equipment such as computers, programmable logic controllers (PLC), process control systems, and other electronic equipment is one of the most important considerations towards obtaining an efficient operation of such systems. Such equipment, which for the purposes of this work is called 'Sensitive Electronic Equipment - SEE' is very sensitive to faults and low intensity random voltages which have no effect upon the electrical power equipment and upon human beings. In this work, the grounding problem is evaluated, to guide the user on the proper installation of SEEs, so as to prevent them from being damaged. The following items will be discussed: voltages which SEEs are subject to during incidence of atmospheric surges in the distribution overhead lines to which they are connected; sustained voltage that the high voltage supply of SEEs must be able to withstand during line-to-ground faults that originate from atmospheric surges that reach the transmission lines which are connected to the electrical power self producers (or electrical power independent producers). (author)

  6. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  7. Influence of pulse electromagnetic fields on electronic equipment and systems in smart buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Paś

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the impact of electromagnetic fields’ impulses on technical infrastructure of electronic equipment and systems in intelligent buildings. The use of modern technical solutions in intelligent building management, i.e., human resources control and automation systems, efficient building space management, requires a large number of integrated electronic systems. Impulse interference, lightning or electricity as natural phenomena are among the most responsible for the occurrence of interference in buses, transmission lines systems, electrical installations, equipment and electronic systems used in intelligent buildings. To a large extent, it is associated with catastrophic damages that may occur in electronic devices or in completed systems such as intelligent building, e.g. ICT, security, etc. under the influence of induced voltages and interfering signals’ currents. Keywords: noise, static electricity, lightning

  8. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  9. A practical procedure to prevent electromagnetic interference with electronic medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Eisuke; Takano, Kyoko; Antoku, Yasuaki; Matsumura, Kouji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nose, Yoshiaki

    2002-02-01

    Problems involving electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment are well-documented. However, no systematic investigation of EMI has been done. We have systematically investigated the causes of EMI. The factors involved in EMI were determined as follows: 1) Electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside a hospital. 2) Residual magnetic-flux density at welding points in a building. 3) Electric-field intensity induced by conveyance systems with a linear motor. 4) The shielding capacity of hospital walls. 5) The shielding capacity of commercial shields against a wide range frequency radio waves. 6) The immunity of electronic medical equipment. 7) EMI by cellular telephone and personal handy-phone system handsets. From the results of our investigation, we developed a following practical procedure to prevent EMI. 1) Measurement of electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside the hospital and industrial systems in the hospital. 2) Measurement of residual magnetic-flux density at electric welding points of hospital buildings with steel frame structures. 3) Control of the electromagnetic environment by utilizing the shielding capacity of walls. 4) Measurement of the immunity of electronic medical equipment. And 5) Installation of electronic gate equipment at the building entrance to screen for handsets.

  10. Application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun in additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galchenko, N. K.; Kolesnikova, K. A.; Semenov, G. V.; Rau, A. G.; Raskoshniy, S. Y.; Bezzubko, A. V.; Dampilon, B. V.; Sorokova, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses the application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun for three-dimensional surface modification of metals and alloys. The effect of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of gas thermal coatings has been investigated.

  11. Trend of Control Technique of Power Electronic Equipments for Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Tatsuhito; Gibo, Naoki

    This paper aims to introduce recent topics about the control technique of power electronic equipments for power system. the control technique is explained from the view points of the power system control, the local system control and the converter control. The installation of STATCOM in Japan and UPFC in Korea are mentioned as the examples.

  12. First test of a CMS DT chamber equipped with full electronics in a muon beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    A CMS DT chamber of MB3 type, equipped with the final version of a minicrate (containing all on-chamber trigger and readout electronics), was tested in a muon beam for the first time. The beam was bunched in 25 ns spills, allowing an LHC-like response of the chamber trigger. This test confirmed the excellent performance of the trigger design.

  13. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  14. Metallographic examination of fire damages in electronic equipment; Metallographische Untersuchung von Brandschaeden in der Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Katja; Puls, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Siliziumtechnologie, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Defects in electronic components and defects caused by electronic components are a frequent cause of fire damage. 35 % of examined cases of fire damage are found to be caused by electrical equipment or by the handling of electricity. Fire damage caused by electronic elements and in electronic assemblies may have a multitude of causes. Minor damages occurring during the manufacture of electronic components and assemblies can lead to operational disruptions in electronic devices and to life-threatening situations. In order to reconstruct a fire damage, a complex failure analysis and comprehensive knowledge of the principle of operation of the devices is required. Metallographic target preparation serves to detect and describe faults. Some damage patterns taken from practice are presented and analyzed here.

  15. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the "boom" in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  16. High-resolution electron beam length measuring equipment; Kobunkaino denshisen sokucho sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaka, T.; Sasada, K.; Ezumi, M.; Maeda, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Regarding the manufacture of semiconductor devices, the 16-megabit DRAM mass production system has been established, 64-megabit DRAM mass production has begun, and research and assessment are under way for the mass production of 256-megabit to 1-gigabit DRAMs. For the handling of devices so advanced in their microstructural feature and integration, sophisticated evaluation technologies are indispensable for the high-resolution observation of product geometry and for the high-precision management of product dimensions. Hitachi, Ltd., aiming to satisfy such needs, has introduced commercially its S-8820 series electron beam length measuring equipment based on the scanning electron microscope technology. This time, the corporation has developed S-8840 electron beam length measuring equipment, which can deal with the next-generation manufacturing processes. This equipment incorporates into itself an innovative signal detecting function for observing the bottom of, for example, a contact hole whose aspect ratio is quite high. The S-8840 type, furthermore, can process wafers at a rate approximately 50% higher than the conventional equipment for enhanced cost/performance. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Electronic Brake-Force Distribution Control Methods of ABS-Equipped Vehicles During Cornering Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-ye; LIU Zhao-du; MA Yue-feng; QI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the dynamics of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking,the electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD) control methods of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking are proposed.According to the dynamics and the tire model under tire adhesion limit,the stability acceptance criteria of vehicles during cornering braking are proposed.According to the stability acceptance criteria and the ABS control,the EBD control methods of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking are implemented by adjusting the threshold values of tires slip independently.The vehicle states during cornering braking at two typical initial velocities of the vehicle are analyzed by the EBD control methods,whose results indicate the EBD control methods can improve the braking performances of the vehicle during cornering braking comparing with the ABS control.

  18. Postoperative analgesia for Enhanced recovery in Joint replacement: Audit of a new electronic prescribing order set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathan; Cullinger, Benjamin; Bacarese-Hamilton, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced recovery in joint replacement has been shown to reduce length of inpatient stay, reduce re-admission rates, and can improve early functional recovery. Postoperative analgesia is an important component of the group of interventions required to form a holistic enhanced recovery protocol. The introduction of electronic prescribing provides the opportunity to introduce some standardisation, where clinically appropriate, in the prescription of an evidence based postoperative analgesia protocol. Enhanced recovery following joint replacement has been used at this institution since 2011. An order set for the postoperative analgesia protocol was introduced to the in house electronic prescribing system in August 2014 (JAC Medicines Management; JAC Computer Services Ltd., Basildon, UK). An audit was performed to follow the effect of the new system on compliance with the postoperative analgesia guidelines. Improvements were seen following introduction of the electronic prescribing protocol in all criteria of the guideline with a demonstrated improvement in overall compliance from 0% to 35% in the first loop, with subsequent audit showing further improvement to 59% compliance. Use of an embedded order set within an electronic prescribing system has demonstrated improved compliance with an enhanced recovery protocol. This ensures that the correct evidence based protocol is available to guide the junior clinician at the point of care, when the medication is being prescribed.

  19. In situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Ag-Au galvanic replacement reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli A; Sutter, Peter W

    2017-01-19

    Galvanic replacement reactions are important as they transform nanoparticle templates into complex porous and hollow metal or alloy nanostructures with interesting properties for a variety of applications. Real-time liquid cell electron microscopy (LCEM) observations of the transformation of solid nanoparticles into hollow shell and cage bimetallic nanostructures are challenging because the high-energy electron beam strongly affects the galvanic process via species such as aqueous electrons and hydroxyl radicals generated through the radiolysis of water in the liquid cell. As a result the galvanic reactions are modified by the introduction of additional pathways that can decouple the oxidation of the nanoparticles from the reduction of the metal ion complexes in solution. Here we demonstrate that changing the pH of the solution provides an effective approach to alter the balance of radiolysis products. In situ observations of the transformation of Ag nanocubes in Au salt containing neutral and acidic aqueous solutions demonstrate that a lowering of the pH by addition of H2SO4 significantly lessens radical-induced modifications of redox reactions by avoiding the excessive reduction of metal-chloro complexes by aqueous electrons (eaq(-)) and making the process sufficiently slow to be observed. As a result, the different stages of galvanic replacement reactions on nanoparticles can be imaged in real-time by LCEM.

  20. 77 FR 75071 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay Fire Detection and Smoke Penetration AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features, specifically distributed electrical and electronic equipment bays in pressurized areas of...

  1. Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment Randolph L...functional realignment of maintenance responsibilities. The results indicate that this paradigm shift in software maintenance responsibilities is...of communications and electronics equipment, can CECOM continue to operate under a paradigm of two distinct depots for software and hardware

  2. Search for the optimal size of printed circuit boards for mechanical structures for electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a method, an algorithm and a program, designed to determine the optimal size of printed circuit boards (PCB of mechanical structures and different kinds of electronic equipment. The PCB filling factor is taken as an optimization criterion. The method allows one to quickly determine the dependence of the filling factor on the size of the PCB for various components.

  3. New electronic control equipment for doubly fed induction motors of high rating

    CERN Document Server

    Dirr, R; Schluter, W; Waldmann, H

    1972-01-01

    Modern data processing systems and power electronics have made it possible to replace the auxiliary machine used hitherto for controlling doubly fed induction machines by static electronic circuits. A brief outline of the mode of operation of the doubly fed induction machine is followed by a description of the automatic control system chosen and of the direct static frequency convertor used as the final control element in solving the special problem involved by way of example of the motor of the impulsing m.g. set for the new power supply of the CERN magnetics. (6 refs).

  4. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields in a Hospital for Safe Use of Electronic Medical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Hosokawa, Ren; Fujisaki, Tetsushi; Yoshino, Ryoji; Hirose, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Establishment of electromagnetic compatibility is important in use of electronic medical equipment in hospitals. To evaluate the electromagnetic environment, the electric field intensity induced by electromagnetic radiation in broadcasting spectra coming from outside the hospital was measured in a new hospital building before any patients visited the hospital and 6 months after the opening of the hospital. Various incoming radio waves were detected on the upper floors, with no significant difference in measured levels before and after opening of the hospital. There were no cellphone terminal signals before the hospital opened, but these signals were strongly detected at 6 months thereafter. Cellphone base stations signals were strongly detected on the upper floors, but there were no signals at most locations in the basement and in the center of the building on the lower floors. A maximum electrical intensity of 0.28 V/m from cellphone base stations (2.1 GHz) was detected at the south end of the 2nd floor before the hospital opened. This value is lower than the EMC marginal value for general electronic medical equipment specified in IEC 60601-1-2 (3 V/m). Therefore, electromagnetic interference with electronic medical equipment is unlikely in this situation. However, cellphone terminal signals were frequently detected in non-base station signal areas. This is a concern, and understanding signal strength from cellphone base stations at a hospital is important for promotion of greater safety.

  5. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  6. Radiation levels at CERN's injectors and their impact on electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)649218; Brugger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices operating in hostile radiation environments, such as those found close to high-energy particle accelerators, can suffer from different types of radiation induced failures. At CERN, the mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain can give rise to both stochastic and cumulative effects causing radiation induced failures of exposed electronics and materials, thus directly impacting components and system lifetimes, as well as maintenance requirements. With its original focus on the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project has been successfully implementing mitigation actions in order to avoid accelerator downtime due to radiation induced failures on active electronics. In a next step, the emphasis is put on CERN's injector chain, collecting the respective available information about radiation levels, the definition of additional monitoring requirements and a critical analysis of present and future equipment installations. T...

  7. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  8. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MONITORIZE SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN HONEYBEE COLONY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic hive is the result of the scientific researches carried out between2003-2006 by a research project funded by MEdC through the National ProgramRELANSIN, being accomplished by Institute for Beekeeping Research andDevelopment –Bucharest in cooperation with the Polytechnics University fromBucharest –The Center for Electronic Technology and Interconnection Techniquesand the Radio Consult CompanyTo achieve the great complexity of the electronic model adapted to the hive –the“smart” hive, it was necessary to establish the all electronic details which to makepossible to monitorize some very important information from the bee colony andits environment with the help of the honeybees and which to eliminate the errorsthat may occur in the information collection process.Thus, the project aimed to conceive the electronic system in order to collectinformation from inside the hive and from environment too, to storage andtransmit it to a data basis by GSM network in order to be analyzed and processedby users.By this complex electronic system, composed by electronic equipment and thehoney bee colony, which is dynamic and strong related with natural evolution ofvegetation correlated with the climate factors, is possible to identify instantaneousor periodically a large palette of aggression factors as well naturals (acids rains,extreme temperatures, calamities as anthropic factors –accidental chemical orbiologic pollution. The obtained data, electronically quantified and taken out intothe data basis, could offer accurate information about the moisturized areas atdifferent time intervals.

  9. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  10. CURRENT STATE OF AUTOMOTIVE LIGHTING EQUIPMENT WITH NON-REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCES ON BASIS OF LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sernov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the current state of automotive lighting equipment. Different designs of automotive lighting devices, their merits and demerits are described in the paper. The paper includes a substantiation of expediency of developing light-emitting diode lighting and proposes recommendations about optimization of their design.

  11. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

  12. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicare program; replacement of reasonable charge methodology by fee schedules for parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-28

    This final rule implements fee schedules for payment of parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) items and services furnished under the prosthetic device benefit, defined in section 1861(s)(8) of the Social Security Act. The authority for establishing these fee schedules is provided by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which amended the Social Security Act at section 1842(s). Section 1842(s) of the Social Security Act specifies that statewide or other area wide fee schedules may be implemented for the following items and services still subject to the reasonable charge payment methodology: medical supplies; home dialysis supplies and equipment; therapeutic shoes; parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies; electromyogram devices; salivation devices; blood products; and transfusion medicine. This final rule describes changes made to the proposed fee schedule payment methodology for these items and services and provides that the fee schedules for PEN items and services are effective for all covered items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2002. Fee schedules will not be implemented for electromyogram devices and salivation devices at this time since these items are not covered by Medicare. In addition, fee schedules will not be implemented for medical supplies, home dialysis supplies and equipment, therapeutic shoes, blood products, and transfusion medicine at this time since the data required to establish these fee schedules are inadequate.

  14. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  15. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  16. A Decoupling Control Strategy for Multilayer Register System in Printed Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Register accuracy is an important index to evaluate the quality of electronic products printed by gravure printed electronic equipment. However, the complex relationships of multilayer register system make the problem of decoupling control difficult to be solved, which has limited the improvement of register accuracy for the gravure printed electronic equipment. Therefore, this paper presents an integrated decoupling control strategy based on feedforward control and active disturbance rejection control (ADRC to solve the strong coupling, strong interference, and time-delay problems of multilayer register system. First of all, a coupling and nonlinear model is established according to the multilayer register working principle in gravure printing, and then a linear model of the register system is derived based on the perturbation method. Secondly, according to the linear model, a decoupling control strategy is designed based on feedforward control and ADRC for the multilayer register system. Finally, the results of computer simulation show that the proposed control methodology can realize a decoupling control and has good control performance for multilayer register system.

  17. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations.

  18. Similarity of Heat Transfer on Heat Source Elements in the Entrance Region in Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Z. Jiang; Sui Lin

    2001-01-01

    A similarity equation for heat transfer on heat source elements situated in the entrance region in electronic equipment is developed based on the experimental data obtained by Sparrow et al.[4]. The characteristic of the similarity equation is that the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient at the entrance region to that at the fully developed region is independent of the Reynolds number. It depends only on the row number of the elements situated in the entrance region. An example of the usefulness of the similarity equation is presented that determines the heat transfer on heat source elements in a power unit that contains only a small number of the heat source elements.

  19. Discussion on maintenance technology of medical equipment electronic equipment%医疗器械电子设备的维修技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄扬; 蒋延丰

    2016-01-01

    随着我国社会主义现代化建设的不断发展,我国的医疗卫生水平得到了极大的提升。作为医院日常工作中极为重要的组成部分,医疗器械电子设备的维修与管理直接影响着临床工作的顺利开展,其在医院的诊断与治疗过程中发挥着不可替代的作用,引起了医学界的高度重视。本文将着重对医疗器械电子设备普遍存在的问题进行深入分析,并提出相应的维修技术策略,为医院的医疗器械电子设备的维修提供一个参考与借鉴。%With thecontinuous development of China's socialist modernization construction,China's medical and health level has been greatly improved.The daily work of the hospital as a very important part, maintenance and management of medical equipment electronic equipment directly affects the smooth development of clinical work,the in the process of diagnosis and treatment of hospital plays a irreplaceable role,caused the great attention of the medical profession.This article will focus on the medical equipment,electronic equipment,the general problems of the in-depth analysis,and put forward the corresponding technical strategies for the maintenance of medical equipment for the hospital to provide a reference for the maintenance of electronic equipment.

  20. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  1. Can electronic zoom replace magnification in mammography? A comparative Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M; Delis, H; Pascoal, A; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G

    2010-07-01

    Magnification, which is considered to be a relatively high "dose cost" mammographic technique, is a complementary examination performed on women exhibiting breast complaints or abnormalities. Particular attention is given to the imaging procedure as the primary aim is to confirm the existence of suspected abnormalities, despite the additional dose. The introduction of post-processing capabilities and the widespread use of digital mammography promoted some controversy in the last decades on whether electronic zoom performed on the derived initial screening mammogram can effectively replace this technique. This study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to derive simulated screening mammograms produced under several exposure conditions, aiming to electronically magnify and compare them to the corresponding magnification mammograms. Comparison was based on quantitative measurements of image quality, namely contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Results demonstrated that CNR was higher for geometric magnification compared to the case of electronic zooming. The percentage difference was higher for lesions of smaller radius and achieved 29% for 0.10 mm details. Although spatial resolution is maintained high in the zoomed images, when investigating microcalcifications of 0.05 mm radius or less, only with geometric magnification can they be visualised.

  2. Compensation of Reactive Power from Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1996-01-01

    that the supply line must deliver the reactive current with ensuing losses, the strong variation also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and reduce the losses and voltage...... fluctuations in the line. In the paper a description is being given of a 100 kvar power electronic reactive power compensator built by SILCON Ltd and Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with ELSAM and Nordkraft. The compensator was tested connected to three wind turbines in a windmill farm......Wind turbines with induction generators consume reactive power. Apart from the no load consumption, which is nearing constant and is being compensated for using capacitors, the consumption of reactive power varies almost proportional with the power production, which can vary immensely. Except...

  3. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  4. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  5. Flex Power Grid Lab, an electronic equipment test laboratory for emerging MV applications, including grid inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Erik C.W. de [Flex Power Grid Lab, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vaessen, Peter T.M. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The success of a sustainable energy supply in a free energy market depends on proper management of the energy flows. For control and management, power electronics are indispensable. The knowledge about electromagnetic power technology and the development of components are about to undergo explosive growth. Due to the emergence of decentralised energy sources and the liberalisation of the energy market, the control and management of electrical flows is gaining in importance. Hierarchically controlled one-way traffic continues to decline in favour of (autonomous) networks supplied by large and small generating stations that provide varying electric currents in all directions within a power grid. The complexity of constantly balancing supply and demand is therefore increasing while the assets are simultaneously being utilised to their limits. Information and communication technology has given power technology a strong impulse. Power electronic technology allows network managers and operators to better guide the energy flow. It therefore also contributes to a more rapid transition to a durable energy supply. For example, the application of power electronics in network-integrated decentralised generators such as micro-CHP, wind turbines and solar cells increases the ability to intervene on an extremely local level in an intelligent manner. This increased application and penetration of grid connected power electronics also inevitably increases the demand for research, knowledge and testing of the behaviour of the equipment when integrated into the grid. (orig.)

  6. Equipment. Out of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, C

    2000-08-17

    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipment used in cancer treatment is obsolete. Current accounting systems act as a disincentive to replacing old equipment.

  7. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  8. Brominated flame retardants in waste electrical and electronic equipment: substance flows in a recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Huber, Yvonne; Stengele, Markus; Zennegg, Markus

    2005-11-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic additives mainly used in electrical and electronic appliances and in construction materials. The properties of some BFRs are typical for persistent organic pollutants, and certain BFRs, in particular some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), are suspected to cause adverse health effects. Global consumption of the most demanded BFRs, i.e., penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and HBCD, has doubled in the 1990s. Only limited and rather uncertain data are available regarding the occurrence of BFRs in consumer goods and waste fractions as well as regarding emissions during use and disposal. The knowledge of anthropogenic substance flows and stocks is essential for early recognition of environmental impacts and effective chemicals management. In this paper, actual levels of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, TBBPA, and HBCD in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as a major carrier of BFRs are presented. These BFRs have been determined in products of a modern Swiss recycling plant applying gas chromatography/electron capture detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A substance flow analysis (SFA) technique has been used to characterize the flows of target substances in the recycling process from the bulk WEEE input into the output products. Average concentrations in small size WEEE, representing the relevant electric and electronic appliances in WEEE, sampled in 2003 amounted to 34 mg/kg for pentaBDE, 530 mg/kg for octaBDE, 510 mg/kg for decaBDE, 1420 mg/kg for TBBPA (as an additive), 17 mg/kg for HBCD, 5500 mg/kg for bromine, and 1700 mg/kg for antimony. In comparison to data that have been calculated by SFA for Switzerland from literature for the 1990s, these measured concentrations in small size WEEE were 7 times higher for pentaBDE, unexpectedly about 50% lower for decaBDE, and agreed fairly well for TBBPA (as an additive) and

  9. Thermal control of electronic equipment by heat pipes; Controle thermique de composants electroniques par caloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Schneider, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Sartre, V.; Chaker Zaghdoudi, M.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Upresa CNRS

    1998-05-01

    In the frame of the BRITE-EURAM european programme (KHIEPCOOL project), a literature survey on the main beat pipe and micro heat pipe technologies developed for thermal control of electronic equipment has been carried out. The conventional heat pipes are cylindrical, flat or bellow tubes, using wicks or axial grooves as capillary structures. In the field of micro heat pipes, the component interconnection substrate. The best performances were achieved with Plesch`s axially grooved flat miniature heat pipe, which is able to transfer a heat flux of about 60 W.cm{sup -2}. Theoretical models have shown that the performance of micro heat pipe arrays increase with increasing tube diameter, decreasing tube length and increasing heat pipe density. The heat pipe technologies are classified and compared according to their geometry and location in the system. A list of about 150 references, classified according to their subjects, is presented. (authors) 160 refs.

  10. Study of Degradation Processes in Dielectric Materials Used in Electronic Control Equipment Operated in ``Kozloduy'' NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Nayden; Popov, Angel

    2007-04-01

    The electronic equipment for control of different systems of Units 5 and 6 is studied for presence of degradation processes occurring in result of continuous usage in conditions of controlled radiation background in compliance with ``Kozloduy'' NPP safety codes. Systems, operated in a continuous mode in the course of about 10 years were chosen - separate units containing different dielectric materials (varnish coating, circuit board bases, cable insulations, electro protective elements, etc.) were extrapolated. Series of test samples were prepared which were connected with flat or coaxial condensers and their characteristic parameters were measured: tgδ, ɛ, low voltage conductivity and leak currents at voltages that exceed the working ones several times. When comparing the obtained data with the reference ones, a conclusion is made about the effectiveness of electric ageing during operation in the course of time.

  11. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  12. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  13. RoHS directive: restriction of the use of lead in electronic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, restricts the use of lead in the manufacture of electronic equipment. This has many consequences for the manufacture of printed circuit boards and assemblies, from their design and repair to the purchase of components. If you have any questions on this subject, we invite you to attend a training session which will be held at CERN from 1.30 to 5.30 p.m. on 21st June. All the details, including the course contents and instructions on how to register for it, can be found here. Please note that the session will be held in French.

  14. RoHS directive: restriction of the use of lead in electronic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, restricts the use of lead in the manufacture of electronic equipment. This has many consequences for the manufacture of printed circuit boards and assemblies, from their design and repair to the purchase of components. If you have any questions on this subject, we invite you to attend a training session which will be held at CERN from 1.30 to 5.30 to p.m. on 21st June. All the details, including the course contents and instructions on how to register for it, can be found here Please note that the session will be held in French.

  15. Comparative analysis of methods for testing software of radio-electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Mirskikh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the concepts of quality and reliability of software products that are part of the radio-electronic equipment is making. Basis testing methods of software products that are used in the design of hardware and software systems, to ensure quality and reliability are given. We consider testing in accordance with the methodology of the "black box" and "white box" methods of integration testing from the bottom up and top down, as well as various modifications of these methods. Efficient criteria that allow you to select the method of testing programs based on their structure and organizational and financial factors that affect the quality of the implementation of the design process are leaded.

  16. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  17. Electronics equipments recycling; El reciclado de los equipos electricos y electronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irasarri Arregui, L. M.

    2001-07-01

    The 13th of june of 2000, the European Commission made public the Proposal for a Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE Directive) that has like aim the management of the WEEE that is generated in the homes, the industry, the professionals or the institutions. From 1992 they have been making experiences of collection and processing of WEEE that, in some countries, have been materialized in legislative pieces into effect: Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Holland etc. The WEEE Directive has four actors: the Manufacturers, the Administration, the Consumer and the Recycler. This article comments the experiences of one of these actors, the recycle, and summarizes in 12 points his preoccupations with respect to the Proposal for a WEEE Directive. (Author) 17 refs.

  18. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  19. Nicotine replacement therapy, tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes in pharmacies in St. Louis, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Jin, Linda; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Schootman, Mario

    2015-01-01

    To compare availability of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in pharmacies in St. Louis, MO. Cross-sectional study, on-site store audits of 322 pharmacies. St. Louis, MO. 242 eligible community pharmacies located in the study area. Pharmacies were visited by trained research assistants who conducted a 5- to 10-minute store audit using a paper-based data collection tool. Availability, accessibility, and pricing of NRT as a function of neighborhood poverty rate and proportion of black residents as well as availability of tobacco products and e-cigarettes. NRT availability decreased as neighborhood poverty rate increased (P = 0.02). Availability without pharmacy personnel assistance also decreased with increasing poverty rate (r = -0.19; 95% CI = -0.06, -0.31) and higher percentage of black residents (r = -0.18; 95% CI = -0.06, -0.31). Prices were lower in neighborhoods with higher poverty rates (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage of black residents (P = 0.03). E-cigarettes were available in 43% of pharmacies, and their availability and price did not differ by poverty rate or percentage of black residents. Low access to NRT might perpetuate smoking disparities in disadvantaged and racially diverse neighborhoods. Study data support policies to ensure equal NRT access to reduce disparities.

  20. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver-palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E.; Jungjohann, K.; Bliznakov, S.; Courty, A.; Maisonhaute, E.; Tenney, S.; Sutter, P.

    2014-09-01

    Galvanic replacement reactions provide an elegant way of transforming solid nanoparticles into complex hollow morphologies. Conventionally, galvanic replacement is studied by stopping the reaction at different stages and characterizing the products ex situ. In situ observations by liquid-cell electron microscopy can provide insight into mechanisms, rates and possible modifications of galvanic replacement reactions in the native solution environment. Here we use liquid-cell electron microscopy to investigate galvanic replacement reactions between silver nanoparticle templates and aqueous palladium salt solutions. Our in situ observations follow the transformation of the silver nanoparticles into hollow silver-palladium nanostructures. While the silver-palladium nanocages have morphologies similar to those obtained in ex situ control experiments the reaction rates are much higher, indicating that the electron beam strongly affects the galvanic-type process in the liquid-cell. By using scavengers added to the aqueous solution we identify the role of radicals generated via radiolysis by high-energy electrons in modifying galvanic reactions.

  1. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  2. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  3. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  4. To remove or to replace traditional electronic games? A crossover randomised controlled trial on the impact of removing or replacing home access to electronic games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of (1) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (2) their replacement with active input electronic games, on daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years. Design Crossover randomised controlled trial, over 6 months. Setting Family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia from 2007 to 2010. Participants 10-year-old to 12-year-old children were recruited through school and community media. From 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, 8 withdrew and 10 had insufficient primary outcome measures, leaving 56 children (29 female) for analysis. Intervention A counterbalanced randomised order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: no home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games and home access to active input electronic games. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accelerometer assessed moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included sedentary time and diary assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results Daily MVPA across the whole week was not significantly different between conditions. However, compared with home access to traditional electronic games, removal of all electronic games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (mean 3.8 min/day, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1) and a decrease in sedentary time (4.7 min/day, 0.0 to 9.5) in the after-school period. Similarly, replacing traditional games with active input games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (3.2 min/day, 0.9 to 5.5) and a decrease in sedentary time (6.2 min/day, 1.4 to 11.4) in the after-school period. Diary reports supported an increase in physical activity and a decrease in screen-based sedentary behaviours with both interventions. Conclusions Removal of sedentary electronic games from the child's home and replacing these with active electronic games both resulted in small, objectively measured improvements in

  5. Environmental Policy Coordination in ASEAN: The Case of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ibitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous environmental challenges in the ASEAN region, the rapid growth of volumes of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste has increasingly drawn international attention. Economies face huge demands for electrical and electronic products, while governments are confronted with difficulties dealing with mounting volumes of e-waste. Furthermore, lucrative transnational shipment of discarded electric and electronic devices calls for a regional response to the issue. While ASEAN has failed to come up with a common policy response, certain member states have pushed ahead with their own legislation in an attempt to address this urgent issue. This study sets out to identify the determining factors which have disabled ASEAN in terms of agreeing on a common policy response in the case of dealing with e-waste. Based on the assumption that states act according to expected gains, the study applies a game theoretical approach to analyse the developments. ----- Die Bewältigung der rasant anwachsenden Menge an Elektroschrott zählt zu den großen umweltpolitischen Herausforderungen der ASEAN-Staaten. Während sich die Volkswirtschaften einer immer größer werdenden Nachfrage nach elektrischen und elektronischen Geräten gegenübergestellt sehen, vermögen es die meisten Länder nicht adäquate Entsorgungswege für Altgeräte aufzubauen. Zusätzlich zur inländischen Produktion gilt es auch mit oftmals als Gebrauchtprodukt getarntem, importiertem Elektroschrott umzugehen. Eine dringend notwendige regionale Koordinierung wurde von ASEAN noch nicht in Angriff genommen. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, warum auf Ebene von ASEAN keine Lösungsansätze zu dieser Problematik zu erwarten sind. Zur Analyse der Entwicklungen bedient sich die Arbeit eines spieltheoretischen Ansatzes.

  6. Developing conjugated polymers with high electron affinity by replacing a C-C unit with a B←N unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chuandong; Ding, Zicheng; Zhang, Zijian; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-03-16

    The key parameters of conjugated polymers are lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels. Few approaches can simultaneously lower LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers to a large extent (>0.5 eV). Disclosed herein is a novel strategy to decrease both LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers by about 0.6 eV through replacement of a C-C unit by a B←N unit. The replacement makes the resulting polymer transform from an electron donor into an electron acceptor, and is proven by fluorescence quenching experiments and the photovoltaic response. This work not only provides an effective approach to tune the LUMO/HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers, but also uses organic boron chemistry as a new toolbox to develop conjugated polymers with high electron affinity for polymer optoelectronic devices.

  7. Proceedings of the Electronic Test Equipment Division’s Annual Program Review of ’Electronic Test Equipment Industry Response to Emerging Defense Requirements’ Held in Arlington, VA on 10-11 May 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    J j ELECTRONIC TEST EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY RESPONSE TO EMERGING DEFENSE REQUIREMENTS TECHNICAL LIBRARY held at the Hyatt Arlington Hotel ...Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Mangement KEYNOTE ADDRESS 13 LtG. Donald M. Babers, Deputy Commanding General for Material

  8. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management in Botswana: Prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Li'ao, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The management of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) is a major challenge in developing and transition countries. The paper investigates recent strategies to manage this waste stream in an environmentally sound way. Obsolete electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. Many countries and regions in the world are undertaking extensive scientific research to plan and develop effective collection and treatment systems for end-of-life EEE. In developing countries such as Botswana, effective strategies that cover all stages throughout the lifecycle of products, particularly at the end-of-life, still lag behind. Infrastructure, pre-processing, and end-processing facilities and innovative technologies for end-of-life management of e-waste are noticeably absent due to lack of investment and high costs of its management. The objective of the paper is to present the e-waste situation in Botswana, highlighting (a) measures taken in the form of legislative and policy regulations; (b) existing practices to manage e-waste; and (c) effective solutions for e-waste management in emerging economies. Studies from other countries on e-waste management issues provided insights on the "best" technical and logistical pre-processing and end-processing strategies to treat hazardous waste. The paper also highlights key societal factors that affect successful implementation of cost-effective collection and value recovery of end-of-life EEE. These include unavailability of national "e-waste policy," absence of formal take-back system, absence of financing and subsidies, inadequate source separation programmes, absence of technical and logistical integration of pre-processing and end-processing facilities, and limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. Effective strategies such as an "integrated approach" (mixed options), access to technologies, establishment of pre-processing and

  9. Design guidelines for use of adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. [for electronic equipment in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the assembly of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will insure that hybrid microcircuits assembled with them will meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of electronic equipment for space applications. This study was directed to the identification of the properties of electrically insulative adhesives that potentially could cause problems in such an application, and to the development of evaluation tests to quantify these properties and thus form the basis for establishing suitable guidelines and, ultimately, specifications. Bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity were selected for detailed attention since they are considered to be especially critical. Introductory discussion includes enumeration and brief comments on the properties of adhesives considered to be important for the proposed application, a general review of polymeric types of adhesives, and identification of the major types of adhesives commercially available and specifically designed for microelectronic use. The specific tests developed to evaluate bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity are discussed in detail, and comparative results obtained for selected adhesives representative of the major types are given.

  10. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  13. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Ragazzi, Marco [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Istrate, Irina Aura [Department of Energy Production and Use, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Rada, Elena Cristina [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  14. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  15. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  16. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  18. A new valve-regulated lead/acid automotive battery for use in original equipment and supply to the replacement market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouache, S.; Douady, J. P.; Fossati, G.; Pascon, C.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries have been available since the beginning of the 1970s for stationary applications. Nevertheless, the development and the commercialization of VRLA starter batteries have been very slow and mainlyrestricted to certain niche markets. This is due to the difficulty in designing products that comply with the technical specificationsrequired by the operating conditions of modern cars, and that have both a high level of reliability and a cost in accordance with the needs ofthe automotive market. The STR (sealed technology with gas recombination) battery has been developed in order to place on the automotiveoriginal equipment and replacement markets a battery with the benefits of the VRLA technology, namely: absolutely no maintenance; cleanand safe; good open-circuit storage; good cycling ability; performance comparable with that of flooded batteries (i.e., cranking powerand reserve capacity, charge acceptance, rechargeability, and life). Due to the technical choices made for the components and forthe manufacturing process, the STR battery is today manufactured on a production line very similar to that for a flooded battery, with agood level of productivity and the same reliability as the best flooded batteries. For all these reasons, the STR battery is producedat a cost that is acceptable for automotive applications.

  19. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  1. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view.

  2. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  3. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Muddasar, E-mail: muddasar77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip [Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  4. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  5. A follow-up study of electromagnetic interference of cellular phones on electronic medical equipment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Hin Tat; Kam, Chak Wah; Yau, Hon Hung

    2002-09-01

    Considering the growing use of cellular phones and the fast appearance of new phone models, the electromagnetic interference of currently popular cellular phones on electronic medical equipment was tested. Three Personal Communication System cellular phones were put at different distances from multiple electronic medical devices, the interference effect was observed and the electromagnetic field strength measured with a spectrum analyser. Only two small pieces of equipment, the CO2 airway adapter and the haemoglucostix meter were affected and then only when the phone was in very close proximity. Compared to the results of our study in 1997 testing Global System for Mobile Communication phones, the Personal Communication System phones generated less electromagnetic interference. However a much larger scaled study and an accurate international electromagnetic interference standard are recommended before any change in the current restrictive hospital policy on mobile phone usage could be recommended.

  6. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  7. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on electronic and non-electronic equipment of Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Ogawa; T, Nishitani; M, Isobe; M, Sato; M, Yokota; H, Hayashi; T, Kobuchi; T, Nishimura

    2017-02-01

    In a deuterium operation on the Large Helical Device, the measurement and control equipment placed in the torus hall must survive under an environment of radiation. To study the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the equipment, an irradiation experiment is performed at the Cobalt-60 irradiation facility of Nagoya University. Transient and permanent effects on a personal computer, media converters, programmable logic controllers, isolation amplifiers, a web camera, optical flow meters, and water sealing gaskets are experimentally surveyed. Transient noise appears on the web camera. Offset of the signal increases with an increase of the integrated dose on the programmable logic controller. The DeviceNet module on the programmable logic controller is broken at the integrated dose of 72 Gy, which is the expected range of the integrated dose of the torus hall. The other equipment can survive under the gamma-ray field in the torus hall.

  8. Electronics Principles Avionics Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Career Ladder AFSCS 326X0A, B, C, D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-27

    This report summarizes the results of the administration of the Electronics Principles survey to airmen assigned to the Avionics Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) specialties, including 326XOA, Manually Operated Avionics AGE; 326XOB, Automatic Avionics AGE; 326XOC, F/RF-4 Peculiar AGE, and 326XOD, A-7D Avionics AGE. The report gives a detailed listing of the technical tasks and knowledge needed to

  9. Advancing the Frontier of Extended Producer Responsibility: The management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in non-OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Manomaivibool, Panate

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a salient issue in non-OECD countries. With a growing awareness about serious damages to the environment and human health from a lack of safe treatment and recycling of WEEE, there has been a search for policy responses in several of these countries. This research finds that extended producer responsibility (EPR), a policy principle that underpins WEEE programmes in many OECD countries, can help solve the WEEE problem in non-OECD cou...

  10. Multifunctional TEM-specimen holder equipped with a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro; Murakami, Yasukazu; Yamazaki, Kazuya; Ikeda, Yuuta; Fukuda, Tomohisa

    2013-08-01

    The charging effect due to electron irradiation in an electron microscope has been studied so far with incident electrons. Here we report on a new specimen holder to control the charging effect by using electrons emitted from an irradiation port in the holder while maintaining a constant intensity of the incident electron beam. Details of the charging effect, such as electric field variation, are expected to be investigated by electron holography. The new specimen holder was developed by modifying a double-probe piezodriving specimen holder to introduce an electron irradiation port in one of its two arms. As a result, the new modified specimen holder consists of a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port, both of which can be controlled in three dimensions, using piezoelectric elements and micrometers. We demonstrate that variations in the charging effect for epoxy resin and surface contamination can be observed by electron holography.

  11. Identification and Quantification of Several Contaminated Compounds in Replacement Liquids of Electronic Cigarettes by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that are refilled with replacement liquids, which normally contain propylene glycol, nicotine and the desired flavor blend. Many consumers suspect that hazardous substances are present in addition to nicotine content. In this study, eight contaminated compounds in 105 replacement liquids from 11 types of E-cigarettes sold in the Republic of Korea were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Diethyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected in concentration ranges of 0.01-1745.20 mg/L (47.6% detection frequency) and 0.06-81.89 mg/L (79.1% detection frequency) in the replacement liquids. Triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol and pentaethylene glycol were quantified in concentration ranges of 0.1-19.3 mg/L (10.5% detection frequency), 0.1-30.1 mg/L (12.4% detection frequency) and 0.1-24.9 mg/L (6.7% detection frequency) in the same samples. cis-3-Hexene-1-ol, methyl cinnamate and dodecane were quantified in concentration ranges of 0.03-3267.46 mg/L (70.5% detection frequency), 4.41-637.54 mg/L (6.7% detection frequency) and 0.01-639.96 mg/L (47.6% detection frequency) in the samples.

  12. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Hacker of International Waste Electron Equipment & Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and WEEE Recycling%国际WEEE"黑客"与WEEE再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬华

    2001-01-01

    @@ WEEE是国际上废弃电子设备和电动产品英文名称:WASTE ELECTRON EQUIPMENT&ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT的简称.随着信息时代的到来,电脑、手机、电视等含有剧毒材料、制造复杂、难以处置的废弃垃圾正在成为人类生存环境的潜在危害.一些发达国家为了躲避昂贵的废物销毁费用和回避国内严格的公众监督,找到一条"绝好"的途径,即把这些废弃电器垃圾倾销往第三世界国家.中国时值电脑、手机一类电器普及初期,市场需求量极大,而相对廉价的二手货亦具有价格竞争优势.加之国内一些不法之徒总在伺机寻找制造假冒伪劣产品的条件,这些都为WEEE"黑客"入侵创造了市场.

  14. Outline of irradiation service equipment and properties of its electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagehira, K.; Shakudo, T. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Current ethylene oxide sterilization becomes a subject of discussion on the safety for workers' health. On the other hand, demands for sterilization of disposable health care products and food packaging materials are increasing. On this situation, it is progressing to switch to radiation sterilization witch is easy to adapt to requirements of ISO validation, in particular to electron beam sterilization using electron accelerator, which is safer and easier to control. Our company started electron beam treatment service such as pasteurization, disinfestation, and improvement of polymers as well as sterilization, with introducing a high energy and high power electron accelerator. In this paper, basics of e-beam sterilization, outline of the irradiation service plant and the electron accelerator, and the properties of its electron beam are described. (author)

  15. Solid state microwave modules designed for millimiter wave electronic equipment and systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karushkin N. F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents scientific, technological and production potential of Research Institute «Orion» in the field of creation of wide range of high performance active and passive solid-state microwave devices, modules and components as well as multifunctional devices on their basis. These products taken as a whole form a component base for promising equipment and systems working in the frequency range from 1.0 to 200 GHz.

  16. Safety Design of Military Electronic Equipment%军用电子设备安全性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生建友

    2013-01-01

    Safety is attracting more and more attention as an important part of quality characteristics for weapons and equipment. Due to the more complex composition structure,the higher automatic level and the intercepted probability of electromagnetic wave produced in operation,the possibility of safety accidents occurrence on mili-tary electronic equipment is becoming higher and higher. This paper introduces the safety concept and empha-sizes the functions of safety.According to the requirements of GJB and the practice experience of military elec-tronic equipment,it analyzes the qualitative and quantitative requirements for safety design,proposes the main contents,finally discusses the concrete measures of safety design for personnel,equipment and electromagnetic information for military electronic equipment in detail. The methods presented herein can be useful for those who are engaged in designing,managing and maintaining in this field.%  安全性作为武器装备质量特性中的一项重要内容越来越受到人们的重视。由于组成结构越来越复杂、自动化程度越来越高以及工作时产生的电磁波可能被截获等原因,军用电子设备发生安全事故的可能性越来越大。介绍了安全性的定义,强调了安全性的作用。结合国军标要求和军用电子设备的使用实际,分析了设备安全性设计的定性、定量要求,提出了安全性设计的主要内容,详细讨论了军用电子设备人员、设备的安全性设计和电磁信息安全设计的具体措施,可供该领域从事设计、管理和维修的人员借鉴。

  17. Electronic circuits and systems: A compilation. [including integrated circuits, logic circuits, varactor diode circuits, low pass filters, and optical equipment circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Technological information is presented electronic circuits and systems which have potential utility outside the aerospace community. Topics discussed include circuit components such as filters, converters, and integrators, circuits designed for use with specific equipment or systems, and circuits designed primarily for use with optical equipment or displays.

  18. 电子设备的接地和接地设计%Ground and Ground Design for Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小东

    2001-01-01

    从电子设备的安全性和可靠性出发,论述了接地的重要性,并从接地类型、地线作用、接地设计等几方面介绍了有关接地技术的理论及应用。%This essay from electronic equipment of safe and reliability Start, Expound ground of significant, And from ground trpy. ground Line action. Design for ground etc. Servile aspects to introduce have Ground technique of basic knowledge. Basic theory and basic put to use.

  19. Investigation of a nozzle instability on an F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Zeller, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    An instability in the nozzle of the F100 engine, equipped with a digital electronic engine control (DEEC), was observed during a flight evaluation on an F-15 aircraft. The instability occurred in the upper left hand corner (ULMC) of the flight envelope during augmentation. The instability was not predicted by stability analysis, closed-loop simulations of the the engine, or altitude testing of the engine. The instability caused stalls and augmentor blowouts. The nozzle instability and the altitude testing are described. Linear analysis and nonlinear digital simulation test results are presented. Software modifications on further flight test are discussed.

  20. Jerarquización del Reemplazo de Equipos Productivos de Acuerdo a su Nivel de Cumplimiento de los Objetivos de la Empresa Hierarchical Structure of the Replacement of Productive Equipment according to the Fulfillment of the Company's Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F Espinosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la implementación computacional de un modelo de ayuda para el administrador del mantenimiento industrial, quien debe decidir sobre la jerarquización del reemplazo de equipos productivos. El sistema considera el nivel de cumplimiento de los requisitos de los nuevos productos que la empresa desea producir para satisfacer la evolución de estos en el mercado. El modelo jerarquiza el orden del reemplazo del equipo basado en su criticidad, grado de adaptabilidad a la evolución del producto y el costo de un equipo nuevo. Todos los antecedentes que son ingresados en las planillas de cálculo reflejan la apreciación que el equipo de mantenimiento tiene sobre su entorno. Los resultados son analizados y presentados gráficamente.In this paper the computational implementation of a model for the administrator of industrial maintenance, the person who must decide about the priority in which the productive equipments in a company should be replaced. The system takes into account the level of importance in the evolution of new products that the company wants to produce and to satisfy the ones already in the market. The program gives priority to the replacement of equipment based on its impact on productivity, the level of adaptability with the evolution of the product and the replacement cost of the new equipment. All of the data introduced on the spreadsheet reflect the appreciation that of the piece of equipment has on its surrounding. The results are analyzed and graphically presented.

  1. Performance of a resistive plate chamber equipped with a new prototype of amplified front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. At forward rapidity a muon spectrometer detects muons from low mass mesons, quarkonia, open heavy-flavor hadrons as well as weak bosons. A muon selection based on transverse momentum is made by a trigger system composed of 72 resistive plate chambers (RPCs). For the LHC Run 1 and the ongoing Run 2 the RPCs have been equipped with a non-amplified FEE called ADULT. However, in view of an increase in luminosity expected for Run 3 (2021-2023) the possibility to use an amplified FEE has been explored in order to improve the counting rate limitation and to prevent the aging of the detector, by reducing the charge per hit. A prototype of this new electronics (FEERIC) has been developed and tested first with cosmic rays before equipping one RPC in the ALICE cavern with it. In this talk the most important performance indicators - efficiency, dark current, dark rate, cluster size and total charge - of an RPC equipped with this new FEE will be r...

  2. An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: trends and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is continuously increasing worldwide and, consequently, so is the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) it generates at its end-of-life. In parallel to this growth, legislation related to this issue has been passed in different countries with the aim of improving the management of WEEE. In order to raise awareness about the situation in which the generation, composition, management or final treatment of this kind of waste currently finds itself, an extensive number of articles have been published around the world. The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc.

  3. O2-dependent large electron flow functioned as an electron sink, replacing the steady-state electron flux in photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, but not in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryosuke; Shimakawa, Ginga; Shaku, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Satoko; Akimoto, Seiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Amako, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Toshio; Tamoi, Masahiro; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether alternative electron flow (AEF) can replace the photosynthetic electron flow in cyanobacteria, we used an open O2-electrode system to monitor O2-exchange over a long period. In air-grown Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S. 6803(WT)), the quantum yield of PSII, Y(II), held even after photosynthesis was suppressed by CO2 shortage. The S. 6803 mutant, deficient in flavodiiron (FLV) proteins 1 and 3, showed the same phenotype as S. 6803(WT). In contrast, Y(II) decreased in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 (S. 7942). These results suggest that AEF functioned as the Y(II) in S. 6803 and replaced the photosynthetic electron flux. In contrast, the activity of AEF in S. 7942 was lower. The affinity of AEF for O2 in S. 6803 did not correspond to those of FLVs in bacteria or terminal oxidases in respiration. AEF might be driven by photorespiration.

  4. The Coincidence Tracker: Electronic Equipment for a Time-of-Flight Wind-Speed Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Christian

    1982-01-01

    The electronic part of a laser-beam measuring system for wind velocity is described. Pulses of light scattered from aerosols are treated, first in a pair of adaptive filters, then in a tracker that calculates the wind velocity on-line while applying some knowledge about the velocity to be expected...

  5. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...

  6. Performance of multi-step avalanche chambers equipped with two-dimensional electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlén, L.; El Chenawi, K.; Enosawa, K; Garpman, S; Gustafsson, H.A.; Kurata, M; Löhner, H.; Martin, M; Miake, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Naef, H; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nystrand, J; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I.; Perrin, E; Rosselet, L; Rubio, JM; Sato, S; Soderstrom, K; Solomey, N; Stenlund, E; Svensson, T; Voros, S; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y

    1998-01-01

    We have developed large area multi-step avalanche chambers with electronic readout for tracking in a very high multiplicity environment in the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. The operational characteristics of the detection system is reported. The reconstruction efficiency of the chambers varies wi

  7. Investigation on end-of-life electric and electronic equipment recycling and disposal system in China: legislation, education and dissemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese obsolete electric and electronic equipments (EEE) recycling and disposal system on the point of view of legislation, education and dissemination were discussed, because of the highly increasing volume of electric and electronic products and that of its obsoletes today in China. The legislations and responsibilities of go vernment, industry and consumer were discussed based on the balance of benefit and responsibility depending on the realization of their benefits in the whole life cycle of products and its status in the whole value chain. Not only the legislation and establishment of the so called "compulsory discarding system" will be a possible and effective solution to the difficulty of the obsolete collection and recycling for obsolete electric and electronic reclaiming industry, but also the education and dissemination. Education and dissemination were discussed as an important role which will emphasize the adjusting of policy and law on the development of electric and electronic industry production and its reclaiming. The education of stockholders' environmental responsibility and the advocating of responsibility sharing should be implement for industry and consumer. Chinese EEE industry should emphasize the control of natural source, and should implement the environmental benign design in their production, such as design for dismantling, no dismantling, thermal treatment and green design. The perspectives for the way to advocate a harmonic society for Chinese people were described.

  8. Preparatory procedure and equipment for the European x-ray free electron laser cavity implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reschke, D.; Bandelmann, R.; Buettner, T.; Escherich, K.; Goessel, A.; v.d.Horst, B.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; Kreps, G.; Krupka, N.; Lilje, L.; /DESY /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    The European x-ray free electron laser is under construction at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The electron beam energy of up to 17.5 GeV will be achieved by using superconducting accelerator technology. Final prototyping, industrialization, and new infrastructure are the actual challenges with respect to the accelerating cavities. This paper describes the preparation strategy optimized for the cavity preparation procedure in industry. For the industrial fabrication and preparation, several new hardware components have been already developed at DESY. The design and construction of a semiautomated rf-measurement machine for dumbbells and end groups are described. In a collaboration among FNAL, KEK, and DESY, an automatic cavity tuning machine has been designed and four machines are under construction. The functionality of these machines with special attention to safety aspects is described in this paper. A new high pressure rinsing system has been developed and is operational.

  9. Cold Regions Logistic Supportability Testing of Electronic, Avionic and Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    A18 887 COLD REGIONS LOGISTIC SUPPORTABILITY TESTING OF / AS ELECTRONIC AVIONIC AMD CO..IUI ANY T EST AND EVALUATION COMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND...optimum durability and service life of materiel. (b) To eliminate field maintenance problems encountered in earlier design items. (c) For ease of...heat sensitive). 5.2.2 Analysis. Assess the impact of each supply support anomaly un- covered in relation to the test item. Include comments as to the

  10. Research on kinematics simulation for replacing radioactive-source robot of gamma-knife equipment for breast cancer%乳腺癌伽玛刀换源机器人运动学仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗学刚; 邓建春

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-knife for breast cancer is a new developed radioactive treatment equipment, starting with the practice that using of robot to replace radioactive梥ources of the Gamma梜nife equipment for breast cancer,according to the structure characteristics of the robot, then the D-H link-pole coordinate system and robot kinematics equations are established,and robot kinematics and the inverse kinematics problems are analyzed.By using of MATLAB the inverse kinematics is solved,and the working process of using robot to replace radioactive -source is analyzed.Meanwhile the robot motion trajectory is planned as well,and the kinematics process of replacing radioactive-sources with robot is simulated in COSMOSMo-tion, the kinematics curves of robot are analyzed, which provides technical support for studying the truth of replacing radioactive-source.%乳腺癌伽玛刀是一种新研制的治疗乳腺癌的放射性治疗设备,针对利用工业机器人更换乳腺癌伽玛刀放射源的实际要求,根据机器人的结构特点,建立机器人D-H连杆坐标系和机器人运动学方程,并对机器人运动学正问题和逆问题进行分析,利用MATLAB编程求解机器人运动学逆解,分析了机器人更换乳腺癌伽玛刀放射源的工作过程,规划了机器人换源运动轨迹,在COSMOSMotion中仿真机器人换源的运动过程,分析了机器人关节的运动曲线,为研究真实的换源情况提供技术支持.

  11. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, H. D.; Mitchell, M. A.; McMillian, J. H.; Farner, B. R.; Harper, S. A.; Peralta, S. F.; Lowrey, N. M.; Ross, H. R.; Juarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have used hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone-depleting substance, to safety clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems and associated test facilities. In 2012 through 2014, test laboratories at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center-White Sands Test Facility collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify an environmentally preferred replacement for HCFC-225. Candidate solvents were selected, a test plan was developed, and the products were tested for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Honewell Soltice (TradeMark) Performance Fluid (trans-1-chloro-3,3, 3-trifluoropropene) was selected to replace HCFC-225 at NASA's MSFC and SSC rocket propulsion test facilities.

  12. Precise convective cooling simulation of electronic equipment under various g-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Johannes; Stuempel, Dieter; Rath, Michael

    1991-12-01

    Using the thermohydraulic code 'THEBES' a three dimensional flow analysis of a Spacelab rack under forced convection and a combined convective, conductive and radiative analysis of a closed electronic box under various g conditions are presented. The capabilities and features of THEBES are described. The motivation to extend the thermal analysis cycle for better treatment of fluid flow and solid to air heat transfer is discussed. It is proposed to include THEBES in a thermal analysis toolsat and present a concept for integration of THEBES with ESABASE.

  13. Disinfection of municipal sewage sludges in installation equipped with electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Kosmal, W.; Kalisz, L.; Kaźmierczuk, M.

    1995-09-01

    Growing awareness of environment pollution hazards causes more and more stringent waste disposal regulations in many countries which stimulate searching for new methods of waste disposal, the best of which is recycling them after suitable treatment. Sludges from municipal sewage treatment plants contain organic and inorganic components valuable as soil fertilizer, so if disinfected they can be beneficially recycled in agriculture instead of being burdensome waste. Investigations performed in many countries showed that irradiation with a suitable dose of gamma or electron beam radiation makes sewage sludges sanitary safe and usable as soil fertilizer immediately after treatment. This paper describes some results of investigations performed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Environmental Protection in Warsaw on the influence of 10 MeV electron beam on bacteria, parasites and parasite eggs present in sewage sludges from different municipal sewage treatment plants in Poland. Basic design parameters of the industrial installation elaborated on the basis of those experiments are presented, too.

  14. Electronic Handbook of Communication Equipment Failure Recovery%通信装备故障排除电子手册

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弛; 黄孝文; 尹德超

    2015-01-01

    针对当前部队通信装备排故的现状,设计了一种基于.NET 的通信装备故障排除电子手册.系统使用.NET环境、Access数据库以及ADO.NET核心组件,实现了用户管理、故障信息管理以及数据维护等功能.首先分析了系统的总体架构和系统功能,其次对系统关键技术进行了详细阐述,最后结合日常应用说明了系统的可行性.%Aimed at the current situation of army’s communication equipment failure recovery, a new kind of electronic handbook of communication equipment failure recovery based on .NET is designed. The system uses .NET surroundings and Access data base and the core components of ADO.NET to realize the functions of user management and fault information management and data maintenance and so on. This paper firstly analyses the system’s overall framework and system function. Then, it elaborates the system’s key technology. Finally, it proves the validity of the system through general use.

  15. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  16. Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Aguirre, Miguel; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Canals, Antonio; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R

    2013-12-15

    This study shows the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) investigation. Several emission spectra were obtained for 7 different mobiles from 4 different manufacturers. Using the emission spectra of the black components it was possible to see some differences among the manufacturers and some emission lines from organic elements and molecules (N, O, CN and C2) led to the highest contribution for this differentiation. Some polymeric internal parts in contact with the inner pieces of the mobiles and covered with a special paint presented a strong emission signal for Cr. The white pieces presented mainly Al, Ba and Ti in their composition. Finally, this study developed a procedure for LIBS emission spectra using chemometric strategies and suitable information can be obtained for identification of manufacturer and counterfeit products. In addition, the results obtained can improve the classification for establishing recycling strategies of e-waste.

  17. The design of the automated control system for warehouse equipment under radio-electronic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Chemidov, I. V.; Kazantsev, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, the aspects of design, development and implementation of the automated control system for warehousing under the manufacturing process of the radio-electronic enterprise JSC «Radiosvyaz» are discussed. The architecture of the automated control system for warehousing proposed in the paper consists of a server which is connected to the physically separated information networks: the network with a database server, which stores information about the orders for picking, and the network with the automated storage and retrieval system. This principle allows implementing the requirements for differentiation of access, ensuring the information safety and security requirements. Also, the efficiency of the developed automated solutions in terms of optimizing the warehouse’s logistic characteristics is researched.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  1. 舰船电子设备可靠性理论研究%The theoretical research of reliability design for electronic equipment for ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李燕

    2014-01-01

    This is the theoretical research of reliability design for electronic equipment for ships. In this paper, through the study of the theory of reliability analysis of ship electronic equipment, study the characteristics of reliability parameters, formulate the reliability allocation and expected scheme and improve ship the inherent reliability of electronic equipment in the development and production stage, so as to reduce ship electronic equipment failure rate, reduce the maintenance support resources, reduce the maintenance cost and prolong the service life of the equipment.%本文是对舰船电子设备可靠性设计的理论研究。本文通过对舰船电子设备进行可靠性理论分析,研究其可靠性参数特点,制定可靠性分配与预计方案,提高舰船电子设备在研制生产阶段的固有可靠性,从而达到降低舰船电子设备故障率、减少维修保障资源、降低维修费用和延长设备使用寿命的目的。

  2. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  3. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  4. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  5. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  6. Identification of brominated flames retardants used in plastics from end of life electric-electronic equipment; Identificacion de retardadores a la llama bromados en plasticos de equipos electricos y electronicos al final de su vida util

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Laboa, G.; Pinedo, C.

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is the qualitative and semi-quantitative identification of the most common brominated flame retardants used in some relevant plastics from End of life Electric-Electronic Equipment, in order to obtain a reliable recycled materials regarding the tendencies of the Draft WEEE (Wastes from Electric and Electronic Equipment) and the Draft RoHS (Restriction of certain hazardous substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directives. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  8. Electronic Equipment Reliability Data,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-02

    z u C1 CO OIL 0) - .. 01 -0 <~ 0 =-C 1 0 . 0 0 79 Is~ W 11~ a44 00 k - 0I 3 ~ 0 K ’ 0 It 11 - L- td It wI u II mI II x - C IIv mII it It c, c, g Dit...u o o - -10A 2 a 1 . I 2 a2 -0 C L0 c- mU 42 w-t 0 0)’.5-L w 4 CL Li CL- &U ’U - (A -A 0 -. I Li tD *CZ EI IA LiI MI 3 L) X m II -. OX x 41 41 𔄃~ II...n0. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1.-4- 0. 0- In I 1- 0 0 0 4’ 0 - n I 1 ~ Kl c (A 4 l𔃺C 1 LU C n 0KK t 0c C LLUCm m 1 - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ 1 - - U 0 .> I U- 1 - 0 0 V>0

  9. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  10. Effect of metal cation replacement on the electronic structure of metalorganic halide perovskites: Replacement of lead with alkaline-earth metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Meysam; Jacobsson, T. Jesper; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Organic and inorganic lead halogen perovskites, and in particular, C H3N H3Pb I3 , have during the last years emerged as a class of highly efficient solar cell materials. Herein we introduce metalorganic halogen perovskite materials for energy-relevant applications based on alkaline-earth metals. Based on the classical notion of Goldschmidt's rules and quantum mechanical considerations, the three alkaline-earth metals, Ca, Sr, and Ba, are shown to be able to exchange lead in the perovskite structure. The three alkaline-earth perovskites, C H3N H3Ca I3,C H3N H3Sr I3 , and C H3N H3Ba I3 , as well as the reference compound, C H3N H3Pb I3 , are in this paper investigated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict these compounds to exist as stable perovskite materials, and their electronic properties are explored. A detailed analysis of the projected molecular orbital density of states and electronic band structure from DFT calculations were used for interpretation of the band-gap variations in these materials and for estimation of the effective masses of the electrons and holes. Neglecting spin-orbit effects, the band gap of MACa I3,MASr I3 , and MABa I3 were estimated to be 2.95, 3.6, and 3.3 eV, respectively, showing the relative change expected for metal cation exchange. The shifts in the conduction band (CB) edges for the alkaline-earth perovskites were quantified using scalar relativistic DFT calculations and tight-binding analysis, and were compared to the situation in the more extensively studied lead halide perovskite, C H3N H3Pb I3 , where the change in the work function of the metal is the single most important factor in tuning the CB edge and band gap. The results show that alkaline-earth-based organometallic perovskites will not work as an efficient light absorber in photovoltaic applications but instead could be applicable as charge-selective contact materials. The rather high CB edge and the wide band gap together with the large

  11. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  12. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  13. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  14. An efficient and fast analytical procedure for the bromine determination in waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Cannio, M; Mafredini, T; Pozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used, in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy, for a fast determination of bromine concentration and then of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) compounds in waste electrical and electronic equipments. Different samples from different recycling industries were characterized to evaluate the sorting performances of treatment companies. This investigation must be considered of prime research interest since the impact of BFRs on the environment and their potential risk on human health is an actual concern. Indeed, the new European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS 2011/65/EU) demands that plastics with BFRs concentration above 0.1%, being potential health hazards, are identified and eliminated from the recycling process. Our results show the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with XRF analysis, as effective tools for the rapid detection of BFRs in plastic materials. In particular, the use of these two techniques in combination can be considered as a promising method suitable for quality control applications in the recycling industry.

  15. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-07-06

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  16. Influence of Use of Electronic Equipment to Taekwondo%电子护具的使用对跆拳道运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强; 王健; 张淑敏

    2012-01-01

    Taekwondo enters into our country for about 10 years, electronic equipment enters into China for more short time. Therefore, the use of electronic equipment greatly influences the taekwondo. The article analyzes the influence of the use of electronic equipment to the taekwondo, and the coping methods, which is helpful for the use of electronic equipment.%跆拳道运动进入我国不过短短十几年的时间,电子护具进入我国的时间更加短暂,为此,大力加强电子护具对跆拳道运动的影响具有非常重要的意义.文章通过电子护具的使用对跆拳道运动的影响、使用电子护具比赛条件下我国跆拳道运动的应对办法等内容的研究,为我国跆拳道运动在使用电子护具上提供了参考.

  17. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  18. Study on Combined Strategy of Free-replace & Pro-rata Warranty for New Photoelectric Equipments%新型光电装备免费及按比例组合保修策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹效; 贾云献; 李欣玥; 胡鹏; 张玮

    2016-01-01

    Though the analysis of new photoelectric equipments failure regularity and the demand of warranty,it is put forward the concept about the combined strategy of the free-replace&pro-rata warranty on the basis of the free warranty strategy in the guarantee period of the equipment. The cost-availability functions and models is founded by the analysis of the combined warranty strategy. Futhermore,the models and functions are used for the warranty of an actual new photoelectric equipment for the proposition of the best strategy and proved the practical applicability,feasibility of the combined strategy.%通过对新型光电装备故障规律和实际保修的需求分析,在原有规定保证期内免费保修策略基础上进行优化,提出免费及按比例保修组合策略概念,建立该策略对应的费用模型及可用度模型,得到费效比函数。同时通过对某新型光电装备保证期内维修保障工作应用组合保修策略开展实例建模,得到最优策略并分析证明提出该组合策略的实用性和可行性。

  19. 面向机电设备评估的重置成本法及应用研究%Replacement Cost Approach and Its Application in Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀艺; 陶传彪; 齐芙蓉

    2015-01-01

    Replacement cost approach is widely applied in evaluation practices because of the limita-tions of markets and the inseparability of equipment value creation.But significant division in choo-sing fundamental formulas and determining the depreciation and comprehensive depreciation rate still exists while the method is applied to obtaining assessment value.Based on the basic formulas and def-inition of replacement cost approach,We established a set of factors around physical depreciation, functional depreciation and economic devaluation while considering the physical depreciation and mor-al wear of the equipment,and a scientific and rational method for equipment valuation was developed then.The method is found to be practicable,especially when the evaluation object’s magnitude of value is low.%由于市场的局限性和设备创造价值的不可分割性,重置成本法在机电设备评估实践中得到了广泛应用。但在应用该方法获取评估值时,对于基本公式的选择以及三大贬值或综合成新率的确定目前存在很大分歧。基于重置成本法的基本公式和定义,综合考虑了机器设备的有形损耗和无形磨损,以实体性贬值、功能性贬值和经济性贬值为基础建立了因素集,并建立了科学合理的计算设备价值的方法,对评估价值量较小且单一的机械设备的价格具有一定的实际意义和参考价值。

  20. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  1. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis.

  2. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  3. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  4. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, P A; Hischier, R; Eugster, M

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular.

  5. 电子设备机箱电磁屏蔽分析和设计%Electronic Equipment Chassis Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭阳

    2012-01-01

    On the analysis of the electronic equipment working environment,and on the basis of the electronic equipment of external clear main interference source,and shielding effectiveness analysis.For improving Electronic Equipments' resist-disturbance capability,contraposing outside interference source,advance shielding filtering and ground and otherwise resist-disturbance design method,to insure Electronic Equipments can be working up to snuff in the condition of complex execrable war field EME.%在分析了电子设备工作环境的基础上,明确了电子设备外部的主要干扰源,并进行了屏蔽效能分析。为提高电子设备抗干扰性能,针对外部干扰源提出了屏蔽、滤波和接地等抗干扰设计方案,确保电子设备能在复杂恶劣的环境下正常工作。

  6. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  7. Replacing paper data collection forms with electronic data entry in the field: findings from a study of community-acquired bloodstream infections in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thriemer Kamala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entering data on case report forms and subsequently digitizing them in electronic media is the traditional way to maintain a record keeping system in field studies. Direct data entry using an electronic device avoids this two-step process. It is gaining in popularity and has replaced the paper-based data entry system in many studies. We report our experiences with paper- and PDA-based data collection during a fever surveillance study in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods Data were collected on a 14-page case report paper form in the first period of the study. The case report paper forms were then replaced with handheld computers (personal digital assistants or PDAs. The PDAs were used for screening and clinical data collection, including a rapid assessment of patient eligibility, real time errors, and inconsistency checking. Results A comparison of paper-based data collection with PDA data collection showed that direct data entry via PDA was faster and 25% cheaper. Data was more accurate (7% versus 1% erroneous data and omission did not occur with electronic data collection. Delayed data turnaround times and late error detections in the paper-based system which made error corrections difficult were avoided using electronic data collection. Conclusions Electronic data collection offers direct data entry at the initial point of contact. It has numerous advantages and has the potential to replace paper-based data collection in the field. The availability of information and communication technologies for direct data transfer has the potential to improve the conduct of public health research in resource-poor settings.

  8. High Value Recycling of Plastics in Electrical and Electronic Equipment%电子电器用塑料的高值化再利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜拴丽; 李迎春; 李洁; 王志强

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of plastics in electrical and electronic equipment, the prospects and process route for re-use and recycling technology of the plastics were discussesed. Respectively according to thermosetting plastics and thermoplastics among the plastics, different recycling methods were used to achieve the high value recycling of the electrical and electronic equipment plastics .%介绍了电子电器用塑料的特点、回收再利用的前景以及回收再利用的工艺流程.分别针对其中的热固性塑料和热塑性塑料,采用不同的回收再利用的方法,实现了电子电器用塑料的高值化回收再利用.

  9. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  10. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S. S.; Muller, Edson I.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO3 or HNO3 plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH4OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k-low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g- 1 for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g-1 for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO3 and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb. In addition, suitable agreement of Cr to

  11. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    OpenAIRE

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lowe...

  12. Research on aircraft electronic equipment repair professional practical teaching%飞机电子设备维修专业实践性教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳; 李航

    2012-01-01

      电子设备维修专业是民航机务维修的重要建设专业,随着民航技术和机电一体化的程度不断提高,工作岗位对民航电子设备维修专业人才的素质要求特别是实际操作能力的要求越来越高,实践性教学的地位作用更加突显。文章通过对电子设备维修专业人才应具备的能力素质分析,就加强该专业实践性教学提出了具体措施。%  Electronic equipment repair is important construction profession in aviation maintenance repair, with the civil aviation technology and mechanical and electrical integration degree rise ceaselessly, job of aviation electronic equipment repair professional personnel quality especially the actual operation ability of the increasingly high demand, the practical teaching plays role more prominent. This article through to the electronic equipment repair profession should have the ability of quality analysis, The paper puts forward the specific measures to strengthens the practice teaching.

  13. Real-Time Dynamics of Galvanic Replacement Reactions of Silver Nanocubes and Au Studied by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Fen; Lin, Guanhua; Bosman, Michel; Mirsaidov, Utkur; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-08-23

    We study the galvanic replacement reaction of silver nanocubes in dilute, aqueous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA)-capped gold aurate solutions using in situ liquid-cell electron microscopy. Au/Ag etched nanostructures with concave faces are formed via (1) etching that starts from the faces of the nanocubes, followed by (2) the deposition of an Au layer as a result of galvanic replacement, and (3) Au deposition via particle coalescence and monomer attachment where small nanoparticles are formed during the reaction as a result of radiolysis. Analysis of the Ag removal rate and Au deposition rate provides a quantitative picture of the growth process and shows that the morphology and composition of the final product are dependent on the stoichiometric ratio between Au and Ag.

  14. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  15. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  16. Effects of Ge replacement in GeTe by Ag or Sb on the Seebeck coefficient and carrier concentration modified by local electron imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.; Howard, A.; Straszheim, W. E.

    2015-03-01

    XRD, SEM, EDS, 125Te NMR, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of AgxGe50-xTe50 and SbxGe50-xTe50 alloys have been studied. Replacement of Ge in GeTe by Sb significantly increases the Seebeck coefficient, while replacement by Ag decreases it. These effects can be attributed to a change in carrier concentration observed via 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements and NMR signal position, which mostly depends on the Knight shift. Variation in carrier concentration in AgxGe50-xTe50 and SbxGe50-xTe50 can be attributed to different electron configurations of valence electrons of Ag (4d105s1) and Sb (5s25p3) compared to that of Ge (4s24p2) resulting in local electron imbalances and changing the concentration of charge carrier (holes) generated by Ge vacancies. In contrast, our 125Te NMR and Seebeck coefficient data for Ag2Sb2Ge46Te50 are similar to those observed for GeTe. This shows that effects from Ag and Sb compensate each other and indicates the existence of [Ag +Sb] pairs. The effects of Ge replacement in GeTe by Ag, Sb, or [Ag +Sb] on rhombohedral lattice distortion also have been analyzed. Interplay between the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity in these alloys results in variation of power factor; the value of 45 mW/cm K2, the highest among known tellurides, was found for Sb2Ge48Te50.

  17. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  18. Safety and Health Evaluation - Command, Control Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Electronic Warfare Equipment. Change 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    hazards. Examples include mounting bracket, rack , and fixture adequacy; routing and size of cabling, power sufficiency and circuit protection to include...79. Where pins or latches are applied during equipment stowage , transportation or maintenance to secure moveable components (such as motorized

  19. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  20. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Muller, Edson I. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, 96900-010 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k—low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g{sup −1} for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g{sup −1} for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO{sub 3} and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb

  1. Evaluating performance characteristics of x-ray equipment and film systems without the use of electronic measurement and/or special instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M.F. [Avio, Rivalta, Rivalta, Torino (Italy); DeNitto, C. [Avio, Brindisi (Italy); Liscio, A. [Avio, Rivalta, Rivalta, Torino (Italy); Scala, N. [Avio, Pomigliano d' Arco, NA (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Measurement and control of characteristics of NDT equipment and system that produce output to be interpreted by inspector is one of the most important tools for NDT reliability. Control activity should be based on: initial accurate measurement and calibration; periodical check to assure maintenance of calibration status; and, immediate verification and corrective action when any malfunctioning is suspected. 'Self-calibration' intended as capability of NDT facility to calibrate and control its own equipment and systems is very important for continuous and reliable activity. Typical approach based on this philosophy is ASTM E317 'Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Examination Instruments and Systems Without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments' that is applicable to shop or field conditions. Is 'Self-calibration' applicable to radiographic system too? Many characteristics can be self-determined according to existing practices and methods, but other ones require assistance and cooperation of supplier both for film system and x-ray equipment. A certified film system being controlled by pre-exposed filmstrips can be adopted as 'measurement device' for X-ray output concerning both intensity and contrast. Basically x-ray equipment manufacturer performs initial accurate measurement and calibration using electronic measurement and/or special instrumentation as necessary. Then specific film set on 'low-price' blocks and specimens is produced according to standard practice whose guidelines are supplied by this paper. Film set, blocks, specimens and results referred to specific film system will be the reference kit for periodical check in NDT facility. This paper supplies some guidelines for standard practice based on testing using mainly GE Inspection Technologies radiographic system being available in Avio facilities. (author)

  2. 电子信息装备环境适应性评价探讨%Discussion on Environmental Worthiness Evaluation of Electronic Information Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱辉

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the configuration and the environmental worthiness evaluation method of electronic information equipment are discussed. Subsequently five evaluation stages, five evaluation opportunities and several evaluation methods are introduced based on the analysis of the demand, the index system, the basis and the criterion of the environmental worthiness evaluation. Then a full set of environmental worthiness e-valuation system is developed in which the five evaluation stages and opportunities, also the evaluation con-tent and work points are used through the whole life cycle of electronic information equipments. The envi-ronmental worthiness of different electronic information equipment can be evaluated by adopting the inde-pendent evaluation method and the composing and decomposing method.%探讨了电子信息装备的组成形态及其全寿命周期环境适应性评价,分析了电子信息装备环境适应性评价的要求、指标体系、依据和准则,提出了评价的阶段性、时机以及评价方法。提出的五个评估评价阶段、五个评价时机及对应的评价内容和工作要点贯穿于电子信息装备的整个寿命期,初步形成一套较完整的评价体系。提出的独立评价法、分解和综合评价法对解决不同的电子信息装备的环境适应性评价有较高的工程应用价值。

  3. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  4. Design of thermal reliability platform for electronic equipment%电子设备的热可靠性平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青

    2016-01-01

    本文是针对于电子设备的热属性测试和热设计优化建立一个可靠性应用研发平台。平台分为热测试和热设计两个模块,热测试半导体器件的热学属性的精确测量和外围散热设备的选型和验证,并结合热设计部分,保证仿真结果的准确性,并可进行结构和选型的优化,平台囊括电力电子产品化过程中热可靠性设计的所有环节。%This paper is aimed at the thermal property testing and thermal design optimization of electronic equipment to establish a reliable application research and development platform.Selection and validation of the platform is divided into two modules,thermal test and thermal design,thermal test semiconductor device thermal properties of accurate measurement and peripheral cooling equipment,combined with thermal design,ensure the accuracy of the simulation results,and can carry on the optimization of structure and selection,the platform include thermal reliability design in the course of power electronic products in all aspects.

  5. Establishing the Recycled Supply Chain Network of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%废旧电器回收再循环体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 郭汉丁

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of successful experiment of some countries of Europe, this paper analyzes the status of recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment of China. Combining the situation of our county, it establishes the recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment according the situation, and advances the countermeasure to guarantee the network working effectively.%在研究发达国家废旧电器回收再生利用成功经验的基础上,分析了中国废旧电器回收处理的现状与问题,结合中国生产企业的具体情况,建立了符合中国国情的废旧电器回收再循环体系,并制定了保障回收体系健康运转的对策,旨在对中国废旧电器回收再循环工作起到一定的指导作用,促进该领域的不断健全与发展.

  6. Internet of things and Big Data as potential solutions to the problems in waste electrical and electronic equipment management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Ma, Buqing; Guo, Jianfeng; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a vital part in solid waste management, there are still some difficult issues require attentionss. This paper investigates the potential of applying Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data as the solutions to the WEEE management problems. The massive data generated during the production, consumption and disposal of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) fits the characteristics of Big Data. Through using the state-of-the-art communication technologies, the IoT derives the WEEE "Big Data" from the life cycle of EEE, and the Big Data technologies process the WEEE "Big Data" for supporting decision making in WEEE management. The framework of implementing the IoT and the Big Data technologies is proposed, with its multiple layers are illustrated. Case studies with the potential application scenarios of the framework are presented and discussed. As an unprecedented exploration, the combined application of the IoT and the Big Data technologies in WEEE management brings a series of opportunities as well as new challenges. This study provides insights and visions for stakeholders in solving the WEEE management problems under the context of IoT and Big Data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Progress of Recycling Technology for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments%我国电子废弃物回收工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕾; 许振明

    2012-01-01

    The recycling technology for waste electrical and electronic equipments attracts domestic and international attentions. The basic recycling methods and their characteristics are summaizedi and the new recycling processes for waste electrical and electronic equipments are reviewed, especially the integrated recycling processes for waste domestic appliances, waste batteries and waste PCBs. Some new trends and potential problems are also discussed.%总结了处理电子废弃物的传统基本技术及其特点.针对传统工艺的缺陷综述了我国具有处理流程简单、成本低、资源利用率较高等优点的电子废弃物回收新工艺的研究进展,重点介绍了机械物理复合工艺处理废旧家电、废旧电池及废旧PCB板.同时提出了我国电子废弃物资源化方面的一些新动向和潜在的问题.

  8. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  9. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  10. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  11. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  12. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  14. The judgment of the All-melted-moment during using electron beam melting equipment to purify silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaojie; Meng, Jianxiong; Wang, Shuaiye; Jiang, Tonghao; Wang, Feng; Tan, Yi; Jiang, Dachuan

    2017-06-01

    Experiment has proved that the rate of impurity removal depends on the pressure and the temperature of the vacuum chamber during using electron beam to smelt silicon, and the amount of removed-impurity depends on time when other conditions are the same. In the actual production process, smelting time is a decisive factor of impurity removal amount while pressure and temperature of the vacuum chamber is certain due to a certain melting power. To avoiding the influence of human control and improving the quality of production, thinking of using cooling water temperature to estimate the state of material during metal smelting is considered. We try to use the change of cooling water temperature to judge that when silicon is all melted and to evaluate the effectiveness of this method.

  15. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  16. Two-Year Operational Evaluation Of A Consumer Electronics-Based Data Acquisition System For Equipment Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoy, Blake W. [ORNL; Phillips, Larry D. [ORNL; Wetherington Jr, G Randall [ORNL; Damiano, Brian [ORNL; Green, Craig [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a two-year evaluation of the performance of an in-house developed consumer electronics-based data acquisition system (DAS). The main advantage of this approach compared to conventional instrumentation grade systems is cost; instrument grade data acquisition systems average costs range from $800 to $2,000 per channel compared to a range of $200 - $400 per channel for a consumer electronics-based system. The DAS is operated as a full-time in-situ vibration monitor. The resulting data stream is streamed over the ORNL network, at an aggregate rate of approximately 2 megabytes/s, to a Linux server. The server includes the capability to implement event-triggered data stores, as well as real-time files for the implementation of continuous display monitoring of the spectra. Detailed spectral analysis is performed post event. The DAS is installed on a large industrial chiller and cooling water pump associated with ORNL’s Titan supercomputer. These mechanical systems include rotating components that operate at fundamental frequencies within the range of 30 Hz to over 3 KHz. Evaluation of the DAS data over a two-year operating period leads to the conclusion that for many industrial processes this system could form the basis for a cost effective means of obtaining operating health data in real time from rotating machinery. The deployment has also shown that the DAS technology is reliable. Furthermore, because the cost of the DAS is low, the other significant advantage of this approach is that the DAS can be deployed in a dedicated manner and operated on a full-time basis.

  17. Application of 3D Printing Technology in Electronic Equipment Industry%3D打印技术在电子设备行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱安超

    2015-01-01

    3D打印是最近几年开始流行的,以成形速度快为特点的打印新技术,最基本的组成元件,就是数字模型,能够按照实物本身的特点和结构,进行分层次的打印,最终形成实际产品,这项技术涉及信息技术、材料科学、精密机械等多个学科领域。在电子设备行业中,3D打印技术也得到了广泛的应用,文章将对3D打印技术进行简单介绍,并对3D技术在电子设备行业中所发挥的作用和应用进行简单探讨。%3D printing is the most popular in recent years, with the characteristics of forming speed printing new technology, the most basic components, is the digital model, can be in accordance with the characteristics and structure of the material itself, the level of printing, eventually forming the actual product, the technology involved in information technology, materials science, precision machinery and other ifelds. In the electronic equipment industry, 3D printing technology has been widely used, the article will be a brief introduction to 3D printing technology, and the role and application of 3D technology in the electronic equipment industry is simply discussed.

  18. Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market: A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ha Phuong; Wang, Feng; Dewulf, Jo; Huynh, Trung-Hai; Schaubroeck, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated issues. However, obtaining an accurate estimation of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called "invisible") inflow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this invisible inflow, this study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called "visible", sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV inflow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This first estimation of the invisible EEE inflow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future.

  19. Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

    2014-10-30

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  20. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Misra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  1. Replacing the mechanical synchronism by electronic synchronism in metallography machines; Substituicao do sincronismo mecanico por sincronismo eletronico das maquinas de metalografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusco, Miguel A.V.; Reis, Luiz O.M. dos [Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the printing industry there is several segments and one of these segments is the printing in sheet metal, known how cans manufacturer (metallography). This segment consists in a preparation of the steel plates for the manufacturing industry for both cans household and industrial fields. Today most of the machines in this market segment is old and often driven by only one electric motor. The speed variation occurs through electromechanical and / or electromagnetic inverters or DC motors whose process timing and positioning of the sheet along the machine is via mechanical systems gears, gearboxes, belts and transmissions. The objective of this work is to suggest the replacement of the set of mechanical transmission by a completely electronic system through the use of AC motors, frequency inverters and programmable logic controller (PLC), that the synchronization system and position are done by encoders coupled to the PLC, ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine. Using this system, the index of maintenance will be reduced and the machine speed will be increased from 5% to 10%, ensuring a higher production.

  2. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  3. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  4. Electronic Structures and OH-Induced Atmospheric Degradation of CF3NSF2: A Potential Green Dielectric Replacement for SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Hua; Wang, Baoshan

    2017-04-06

    Electronic structures of [(trifluoromethyl)imino]sulfur difluoride (CF3NSF2) and degradation mechanisms by hydroxyl radical have been investigated using density functional theory (M06-2X), the complete basis set quadratic CBS-Q, and the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods [CCSD(T)-F12]. The d-function augmented correlation-consistent basis sets including triple- and quadruple-ξ were employed for the sulfur-containing species. It was found that CF3NSF2 exists as two conformations connected by the internal rotation of CF3 around the central NS bond. The distorted syn conformer is more stable than the symmetrical anti conformer. The nitrogen-sulfur link in CF3NSF2 was revealed to be predominantly ionic CF3N(-)-(+)SF2 in structure rather than the conventional N═S double bond on the basis of natural bond orbital analysis. OH radical prefers to attach on the S atom of CF3NSF2 along the opposite direction of the S-F bond via a nucleophilic addition mechanism with a barrier of 2.9 kcal/mol whereas the ON association pathway is negligible. Although many product channels are thermodynamically favorable, none of them is kinetically accessible because of the significant barriers along the reaction routes. However, the degradation of CF3NSF2 by OH can be accelerated considerably in the presence of a single water molecule, which acts as a bridge for the consecutive proton migration within the floppy cyclic geometries. The half-life of CF3NSF2 was estimated to be 2.5 year, and the final products are exclusively CF3NH and SF2O. Theoretical calculation supports that CF3NSF2 is an environment-friendly green gas. It is worthy of testing its dielectric properties to replace SF6 for practical use.

  5. Research on Shipboard Electronic Equipment Wiring Process%舰载电子设备整机布线技术的工艺性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党艳银; 陈永生

    2012-01-01

    在电子装联中,整机布线的操作方法大概可分为工装式布线、样板式布线及计算机三雏布线3种方法.本文详细介绍了这3种布线的操作方法及优缺点.通过对比分析,提出了三维布线在电子设备整机布线中的优越性.以Pro-Cabling三维布线为例,介绍了Pro-Cabling三维布线以及目前所存在的缺陷,并根据自身实际经验,提出相应的措施,弥补了三维布线存在的缺陷,使Pro-Cabling三维布线所生成的工艺文件对生产现场更具指导性.%In assembling electronic devices, the wiring methods were divided into tooling wiring, board wiring and computer three-dimensional wiring. This paper introduced the three wiring methods and the advantages and disadvantages in details. Through comparison and analysis, highlighted the superiority of the three-dimensional wiring in electronic equipment wiring, and then took the Pro-Cabling three-dimensional wiring as an example, introduced the Pro-Cabling three-dimensional wiring and the current existence of the defects, and in accordance with their own actual experience, put forward the corresponding measures to make up for that, thus making Pro-Cabling three-dimensional wiring the generated process files on the production site has more directive meanings.

  6. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  7. A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  8. Progress of Precious Metal Recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%电子废弃物中贵金属回收技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田庆华; 李宇; 邓多; 郭学益

    2015-01-01

    电子废弃物因其潜在的环境危害性以及富含有价金属而受到了广泛的关注,尤其是电子废弃物中的贵金属,更是其回收的主要经济驱动力。电子废弃物中贵金属回收要经过预处理和提取2个阶段,介绍了2个阶段中的技术进展,对其中的各种方法做出了总结和展望。%Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has received the widespread attention because of its potential environmental hazards and rich in valuable metals. Most of all, the recovery of precious metals from the WEEE is the major economic driving force. The two-stage treatment of precious metals recovery in the WEEE contains pretreatment and extraction, the technical progress of the treatment was introduced, and further summary and outlook were made on the various methods of the two-stage treatment.

  9. 某机载电子设备总体结构设计%Structure Design of Airborne Electronic Equipment for a Certain Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南雁; 郭建平; 张娅妮

    2011-01-01

    从结构设计角度出发,根据航空平台的工作模式和环境空间要求,针对某机载电子设备的标准化设计、热设计、电磁兼容性设计、防冲击、振动、"三防"设计等方面进行了论述.结合型号设计的工程经验,以航空电子设备结构设计的特点和原则为重点,对机载电子设备的结构设计进行了阐述,通过合理的布局设计和仿真计算来实现结构设计要求.介绍机载电子设备结构设计的经验,可供同行参考.%From the point of structure design,according to work and environment requisition for the aircraft flat ,described delailed such as the standardization, heat, EMC,impact and vibration prevention,three proofing designing for a certain aircraft. Focus on the characteristic and principle for aeronauticat electronic equipment,expatiate the structure design from Many- sided ,and guidance thc structure design by logical position and simulation with engineering experience. Pool the experience for structure design and offer the experience for craft brother discuss.

  10. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MODERNIZATION OF CUPOLA EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation. The old cupolas (open type have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion gases and the batch charging, the separate systems of air blast, systems of sludge removal and recirculation of water, the slag granulation installations, mechanized cleaning of cupola furnace and automatic safety system. These activities allowed the company to increase production and improve the quality of cast iron, reduce the coke consumption by 20% and reducing emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere almost 30 times.

  12. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and runs a software application program that communicates with the equipment rack controllers. The software application program of the central control computer stores IDs of the equipment rack controllers and each of its connected electronic ID tags in a database.; The software application program......A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to a equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers then link over a local area network to a central control computer. The central control computer provides an operator interface...

  13. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  14. 浅谈增材制造技术在电子设备结构研制中的应用%Application of Additive Manufacturing Technique in Developing of Electronic Equipment Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧凤

    2015-01-01

    随着技术的发展,电子设备结构正在向集成化、小型化发展,而增材制造技术是一项革命性的加工制造技术。对增材制造技术的定义、分类、优势以及其在电子设备结构研制中的应用进行了分析阐述,增材制造技术可从样件的快速生产、新结构的研制、提高设备的整体性能和新材料的使用四个方面得到应用。%Along with the development of technology, electronic equipment structure is developed to be integrated and minia-turized, and the additive manufacturing technology is a revolutionary manufacturing technology. This article has analyzed and presented the definition, classification, advantages of additive manufacturing technology as well as its application in the devel-oping of electronic equipment structure. The additive manufacturing technology can be applied in the developing of electronic equipment structure from four aspects of quick manufacturing of sample product, development of new structures, improving the whole performance of equipment and the use of new materials.

  15. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role.

  16. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  17. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  18. LS1 Report: Replacing an antique

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    At the PS Booster, the old beam dump and the shielding blocks surrounding it have been removed (see here). Installation of the new beam dump is now under way (see video).   The new PSB beam dump during its installation. At the PS, replacement of the old cooling and ventilation system, which dated back to 1957, is progressing well. The dismantling phase has just been completed and the tunnel is being prepared to receive a brand new ventilation system offering more efficient aeration of radioactive areas. At the same time, testing of the newly installed access system is under way. At the SPS, all the equipment of the Long Straight Section 1 (LSS1) has been removed to make way for the campaign to replace the irradiated cables, which started this week. In the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) campaign is still progressing at a good clip, especially at Point 1, where the teams are two and a half months ahead of schedule. The Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation (SMACC) proje...

  19. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  20. The application of electronic teaching equipment in sports teaching and training%电子教学仪器设备在体育教学与训练中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨亮

    2014-01-01

    电子类仪器,归属于新颖的体育授课设施。电子教学框架下的多样设备,能激发同学内含的锻炼热情,促动体育授课水准的逐渐升高。%Electronic instrument,belonging to the new sports teaching facilities.A variety of equipment for electronic teaching framework,can stimulate the students with training enthusiasm,promoting sports teaching gradually increased level of.

  1. 高校图书馆中电子图书能否取代纸质图书%Whether or Not Electronic Books can Replace Paper Books in University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学娟

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the advantages of electronic books and paper books, and points out that in today’s rapid development of new technologies, even if electronic books’ market share expands unceasingly, paper books, which still occupy very important position in university library, aren’t easily replaced by electronic books.%分析了电子图书与纸质图书各自具有的优势,指出在新科技飞速发展的今天,即使电子图书的市场份额不断扩大,但在高校图书馆,纸质图书仍占有非常重要的地位,不会轻易被电子图书所代替。

  2. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  3. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  4. Evaluation of Bluetooth as a replacement for cables in intensive care and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Mats K E B; Wajntraub, Samson

    2004-03-01

    In today's intensive care and surgery, a great number of cables are attached to patients. These cables can make the care and nursing of the patient difficult. Replacing them with wireless communications technology would facilitate patient care. Bluetooth is a modern radio technology developed specifically to replace cables between different pieces of communications equipment. In this study we sought to determine whether Bluetooth is a suitable replacement for cables in intensive care and during surgery with respect to electromagnetic compatibility. The following questions were addressed: Does Bluetooth interfere with medical equipment? And does the medical equipment decrease the quality of the Bluetooth communication? A Bluetooth link, simulating a patient monitoring system, was constructed with two laptops. The prototype was then used in laboratory and clinical tests according to American standards at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm. The tests, which included 44 different pieces of medical equipment, indicated that Bluetooth does not cause any interference. The tests also showed that the hospital environment does not affect the Bluetooth communication negatively. Bluetooth, a new radio technology transmitting at 2.4 GHz, was tested in a clinical setting. The study showed that a single Bluetooth link was robust and electromagnetically compatible with the tested electronic medical devices.

  5. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  6. Faults in electronic equipment on board planes, due to upper atmosphere neutrons (10 to 20 km); Defauts sur les equipements electroniques a bord d`avions, dus aux neutrons de la haute atmosphere (10 a 20 km)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, M.C. [Aerospatiale, 78 - Les Mureaux (France); Feuillatre, O. [Dassault Electronique, 92 - Saint-Cloud (France); Gaillard, R. [Nucletudes, 91 - Les Ulis (France)

    1995-05-01

    Until now, the effects of the space environment on the electronics of the avionic systems had never been taken into account: given the regions of the earth environment deemed critical, the altitudes of the planes were too low and the electronic components were not integrated enough to become sensitive to the environment. The situation will change with the new generations of planes for which the altitudes become higher than 10 km and on which are integrated submicron components. This paper gives the present state of knowledge of the atmospheric environment and its effects on the components, the available models for events estimation and proposes some disposals to prevent atmospheric environment effects on future planes. (authors). 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The inspection of equipment in the Amazon region: from ACFM to electronic PIG in Urucu; A inspecao de equipamentos na Amazonia: do ACFM ao pig instrumentado em Urucu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac-Culloch, Joao Nazareth Lafayette de Mello [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servicos de Sondagem Auto-Elevatoria; Beuren, Jair; Quadrado, Flavio Emir; Dunham, Paulo Cezar da Costa Lino [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocio da Bacia do Solimoes

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the historical evolution of the activity of equipment inspection of the PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL, in which the developments of a motivation program of the personnel from the effort developed for the certification of inspectors since the techniques more known most modern for the examination of installations and equipment was of great importance. PETROBRAS was introduced in the ACFM by TSC-Technical Software Consultants, during NDT (Non Destructive Test) Congress in 1994. PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL was the first unit to acquire the last equipment, called Amigo. In 2002 has qualified three professionals to ACFM level I. Nowadays, five inspectors level I and one level II and the technique has been used through inspections in several equipment with very well satisfactory. The Duto de Coleta de oleo de LUC de 10in and the Duto de Coleta de gas de LUC de 14in had been inspected with the PIG using the technique of Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), being that in the first one it was used Quantitative Smart PIG (High Resolution) and in as it was used Qualitative Smart PIG (Low Resolution). The results show that, despite the raised cost of the High Resolution PIG, this still is indicated for in-line inspection of pipelines of the UN-BSOL. (author)

  8. Methodology for the accelerated simulation of the deterioration that by atmospheric corrosion appears in electronic equipment; Metodologia para la simulacion acelerada del deterioro que por corrosion atmosferica se presenta en equipo electronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prado, A.; Schouwenaars, R.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of systems and electronic parts which are designed to work in atmospheric conditions have been tested for decades; some of these methods were the Cyclic Humidity Test, Field Tests and Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, the latter was one of the most popular methods. However, the salt spray test and most of the other existing methods do not show strong relationships with the real conditions of service. For this reason, it is necessary to develop appropriated methods and equipment for the accelerated simulation of real atmospheric corrosion phenomena. This article seeks to demonstrate the need to develop a test and the necessary equipment to reproduce the damage in electronic systems and equipment by atmospheric corrosion. [Spanish] Para la evaluacion de la resistencia a la corrosion de sistemas y equipo electronico que trabajaran bajo condiciones de deterioro generadas por el medio ambiente, se han aplicado una serie de ensayos, donde el mas popular es el de camara de niebla salina. Sin embargo, este y otros que se han elaborado para tal efecto no tienen ninguna relacion con las condiciones reales de servicio, por lo que es necesario un metodo de evaluacion que permita simular de forma acelerada los fenomenos de deterioro por efectos ambientales. Este articulo pretende demostrar la necesidad de desarrollar una prueba, que en forma acelerada, reproduzca el dano que sufre el material por efecto de la atmosfera; el cual se orienta a la evaluacion de equipo electrico y electronico.

  9. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  10. Minimization and recycling of electronic equipments; La minimizacion y reciclado de los equipos electricos y electronicos en su fin de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irasarri, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    The get a satisfactory treatment of electronic waste it should be known which hazardous and toxic substances are contained. Since 1987 Indumetal Recycling company has been developing a taking to pieces process to recover materials from electronic, communication... industry. This paper reviews how the state of art is wind energy. 11 refs.

  11. Integration Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test and Thermal Balance Test for Electronic Equipment%电子学设备热真空/热平衡试验一体化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维春

    2012-01-01

    Thermal vacuum test and thermal balance test of electronic equipment for space remote sensor are performed during development. In this paper an integration technology of thermal vacuum test and thermal balance test for electronic equipment is presented. The thermal balance test can be arranged reasonably and the development efficiency be inproved. The inherent relationship between the two thermal tests is analyzed deeply, and a test method is proposed that the two thermal tests are conducted at a time by using a set of thermal boundary simulation device,in order to research the realization of integration of the two thermal tests. Subsequently, the feasibility of realization of thermal balance test is analyzed, and the integration technology is validated by taking an electronic equipment as an example.%航天遥感相机电子学设备在研制过程中需要进行热真空试验与热平衡试验。电子学设备热真空试验与热平衡试验的一体化技术能够更为合理地组织热试验进程并进一步提高研制效率。为了研究两种热试验一体化技术的可实现性,文章分析了两种热试验的内在联系.提出了采用一套热边界模拟装置在一次试验中先后完成两种热试验的试验方法。在此基础上,文章以某项目电子学设备为仿真实例,重点分析了热平衡试验的可实现性,从而验证了一体化技术的正确性。

  12. A multi-criteria application for an equipment replacement decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ariel Sarache Castro

    2009-01-01

    construcción de un procedimiento para el reemplazo de equipos, basado en el uso de técnicas multicriteriales y métodos expertos; los resultados de esta aplicación en la decisión de reemplazar dos equipos para una fábrica de azúcar se muestran a continuación.

  13. REPLACEMENT SPARE PART INVENTORY MONITORING USING ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Hartono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The amount of inventory is determined on the basis of the demand. So that users can know the demand forecasts need to be done on the request. This study uses the data to implement a replacement parts on the electronic module production equipment in the telecommunications transmission systems, switching, access and power, ie by replacing the electronic module in the system is trouble  or damaged parts of a good electronic module spare parts inventory, while the faulty electronic modules shipped to the Repair Center for repaired again, so that the results of these improvements can replenish spare part  inventory. Parameters speed on improvement process of electronic module broken (repaired, in the form of an average repair time at the repair centers, in order to get back into the electronic module that is ready for used as spare parts in compliance with the safe supply inventory  warehouse.  This research using the method  of  Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS in developing a decision support system for inventory control of spare parts available in Warehouse Inventory taking into account several parameters supporters, namely demand, improvement and fulfillment of spare parts and repair time. This study uses a recycling input parameter repair faulty electronic module of the customer to immediately replace the module in inventory warehouse,  do improvements in the Repair Center. So the acceleration restoration factor is very influential as the input spare parts inventory supply in the warehouse and using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS method.   Keywords: ANFIS, inventory control, replacement

  14. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  15. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  16. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  17. Designs for surge immunity in critical electronic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Edward F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) embarked on a program replacing older tube type electronic equipment with newer solid state equipment. This replacement program dramatically increased the susceptibility of the FAA's facilities to lightning related damages. The proposal is presented of techniques which may be employed to lessen the susceptibility of new FAA electronic facility designs to failures resulting from lightning related surges and transients as well as direct strikes. The general concept espoused is one of a consistent system approach employing both perimeter and internal protection. It compares the technique presently employed to reduce electronic noise with other techniques which reduce noise while lowering susceptibility to lightning related damage. It is anticipated that these techniques will be employed in the design of an Air Traffic Control Tower in a high isokeraunic area. This facility would be subjected to rigorous monitoring over a multi-year period to provide quantitative data hopefully supporting the advantage of this design.

  18. Designs for surge immunity in critical electronic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Edward F., Jr.

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) embarked on a program replacing older tube type electronic equipment with newer solid state equipment. This replacement program dramatically increased the susceptibility of the FAA's facilities to lightning related damages. The proposal is presented of techniques which may be employed to lessen the susceptibility of new FAA electronic facility designs to failures resulting from lightning related surges and transients as well as direct strikes. The general concept espoused is one of a consistent system approach employing both perimeter and internal protection. It compares the technique presently employed to reduce electronic noise with other techniques which reduce noise while lowering susceptibility to lightning related damage. It is anticipated that these techniques will be employed in the design of an Air Traffic Control Tower in a high isokeraunic area. This facility would be subjected to rigorous monitoring over a multi-year period to provide quantitative data hopefully supporting the advantage of this design.

  19. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  20. Design of remainder particle auto-detection system for aerospace electronic equipment%航天电子设备多余物自动检测系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 戚乐; 陈金豹; 翟国富

    2012-01-01

    Remainder particle is a very important factor for the reliability of aerospace electronic equipment. Due to the existing detection system for remainder detection with low precision and couldn't drive the turntable automatically, a remainder particle auto-detection system for aerospace electronic equipment based on turntable driven by motor is designed. The design of the hardware and software of the system is mainly introduced. The hardware design includes mechanical structure, drive and control module, acceleration feedback circuit and data acquisition card. The software design includes the function of the system and the mainly algorithms. The experiments verify that the new remainder particle auto-detection system for aerospace electronic equipment designed in this paper can drive the turntable automatically,and the precision of remainder detection and material identification both satisfy the requirements.%多余物的存在是影响航天电子设备可靠性的重要因素.针对现有检测装置多余物检测精度低且不能实现转台自动控制的问题,研制了基于电机驱动转台的航天电子设备多余物自动检测系统.重点介绍了该系统的硬件设计和软件设计,硬件设计部分主要包括机械装置、驱动控制电路、加速度反馈电路和数据采集电路的具体实现,软件设计部分主要介绍了该系统的软件功能和核心算法.实验表明,该检测系统实现了转台的自动控制,并且多余物有无检测准确率和多余物材质识别准确率均达到设计指标.

  1. 电子信息设备防雷击电磁脉冲方法研究%Reseach on Method of Electronic and Information Equipment Against Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅芳; 郭健

    2011-01-01

    The hazards of lightning electromagnetic pulse on electronic and information equipment is introduced, and the cause is analyzed. On the basis of the principle of electromagnetic shielding, the magnetic field strength of the lightning strikes in different regions is analyzed, copper and aluminum mesh grille is made for protection. Finally the protective effect is analyzed.%介绍雷击电磁脉冲对电子信息设备的危害,分析原因,在此基础上,利用电磁屏蔽的原理,分析雷击时,不同屏蔽区域的磁场强度,提出利用铜铝网格格栅进行防护的方法,最后对防护效果进行分析研究.

  2. Progress in Recycle Treatment of Waste of Electronic/Electric Equipment%废旧电子电气设备回收处理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘舸; 陈烈强; 彭绍洪; 蔡明招; 吴耀森

    2005-01-01

    概述了目前全球对废旧电子电气设备(Waste of Electronic Electric Equipment,简称WEEE )回收处理的基本情况, 并根据废旧电子电气设备处理的特点,从机械物理处理方法、热化学处理方法以及处理过程中产生有毒有害物质的分离技术三方面,介绍近年来废旧电子电气设备回收处理的研究进展,最后指出了真空热解的使用将作为未来废旧电子电气设备处理的发展方向.

  3. Effects of EMP Disturbance Parameters on Electronic Equipment Response%电路端口电磁脉冲响应影响参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫超; 魏明; 樊高辉; 吴启蒙

    2012-01-01

    To understand the response of the equipment under test (EUT) to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and the relation of the response and the pulse disturbance, a pulse input experiment is conducted on an operational amplifier composed of two different operational amplifier chips. The effects of EMP parameters such as peak, rise time and fall time on the response are analyzed according to the experimental data. It is found that for a circuit with special function, same type of pulse but with different parameters induces different responses. An energy-coupling circuit model is established by using input and output data according to the artificial neural network (ANN) identification theory. The goodness of fit of the model can reach 88.4%, and it has a good generalization capability to qualitatively make response prediction.%为了探寻电子设备中的单元电路在电磁脉冲激励下的响应规律以及响应输出与输入脉冲干扰之间的关系,笔者选用两种不同型号的运算放大器集成芯片组成的仪表放大电路进行了脉冲注入实验.根据采集的实验数据,分析了脉宽、幅值等因素对响应输出的影响.通过对比发现:一定功能的电路,在同一类但不同参数的脉冲激励下,响应有所不同,且与各参数有一定的联系.根据基于人工神经网络的系统辨识理论,建立了能量耦合模型.经过自验证,其拟合度能够达到88.4%,且具有较好地泛化能力,能够定性地对电路做出响应预测.

  4. Design of the Remote Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System for Power Electronic Equipment%电力电子设备远程监控与故障诊断系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马皓; 韩思亮

    2005-01-01

    针对电力电子设备中监控与故障诊断实时性要求高、数据传输量大、诊断原因复杂的特点,提出了一种具有强兼容性的基于工控机(IPC)和PLC现场控制分布式远程监控与故障诊断系统的新思路.结合电力电子技术、故障诊断技术以及网络技术,设计开发了一种三层C/S结构与Internet结合的电力电子设备远程监控与故障诊断网络系统,着重介绍了具有强兼容性的系统结构、现场监控兼容性设计、数据采集子系统和实时监控子系统等各部分子系统的设计和通信协议设计开发.%To meet the requirement of highly real-time, tremendous data transferring and complicated diagnostic causes of remote monitoring and fault diagnosis with power electronic equipment, a novel idea of distributed system with industrial PC (IPC) and PLC controlling field terminal is proposed in this paper. Based on the techniques of power electronics, fault diagnosis and network, a remote monitoring and fault diagnosis system with combination of a three-layer C/S structure and Internet is presented, which achieves with high compatibility between different equipment. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the discussion about the structure of compatible systems, the compatibility design of remote monitoring and the realization of field control equipment, such as the data collection sub-system, the real-time monitoring sub-system, the fault diagnosis sub-system and the data disposal and management sub-system, and the design of the data transferring sub-system and the communication protocol format.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50207008).

  5. Review on Recycling Precious Metals from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment by Microorganism%微生物法回收电子废弃物中贵金属的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费彦肖; 白建峰; 邓明强; 张承龙; 王鹏程

    2014-01-01

    In today’s society, it is important to deal with waste electrical and electronic equipment properly. The mechanism of recycling precious metals by microorganisms was outlined. The research status of recycling precious metals from electronic waste by microor-ganisms was described. The existing bacteria research and the current situation was analyzed. The prospect for this technology was made. At this stage, the main task is to screen and culture other microorganisms which can recycle precious metals from electronic waste, optimize their culture conditions and put forward conditions and ways to shorten the leaching time and improve recovery rates on recycling precious metals from electronic waste.%电子废弃物的资源化处理是当今社会的一项重要内容。概述了微生物法回收贵金属的作用机理,阐述了利用微生物回收电子废弃物中贵金属的研究现状,并对现有的菌体研究现状进行了分析,对微生物法回收贵金属的发展前景进行了展望。提出现阶段主要任务是筛选和培养出可以回收电子废弃物中贵金属的其他微生物,并对培养条件进行优化,以缩短浸取时间,提高贵金属的回收率。

  6. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  7. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  8. Emission of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in use of electric/electronic equipment and recycling of e-waste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-02-01

    The emission rates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from electric/electronic products during their use and disposal were estimated. E-wastes, including televisions and refrigerators, gathered at recycling centers were also analyzed to estimate their emissions. The average concentrations of PBDEs in TV rear covers produced before and after the year 2000 were 145,027 mg/kg and 14,049 mg/kg, respectively. The PBDEs concentration in TV front covers was lower than the concentration in TV rear covers. The concentration in the components of the refrigerator samples ranged from ND to 445 mg/kg. We estimated the atmospheric emissions of PBDEs based on the concentrations. The annual emissions from TV rear covers produced before 2000 were calculated to be approximately 162.1 kg and after 2000, the annual emissions were 18.7 kg. Refrigerators showed the lowest annual emissions of PBDEs (0.7 kg). The atmospheric concentrations were also measured to calculate emissions generated during the recycling process. The highest concentration was 16.86 ng/m(3) emitted from the TV sets during the dismantling process. The concentrations of PBDEs generated in the plastic processing field ranged from 2.05 to 5.43 ng/m(3) depending on the products, and ambient air in open-air yards showed concentrations in the range of 0.32 to 5.55 ng/m(3). Emission factors for the recycling process were calculated using the observed concentrations. The estimated emissions according to the emission factors ranged from 0.3×10(-1) to 90.3 kg/year for open-air yards and from 0.1×10(-1) to 292.7 kg/year for the dismantling and crushing processes of TV set, depending on the production year.

  9. Selecting the right ultrasound equipment--an administrator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Recent advancements in ultrasound equipment, technology and capability make the selection of new or replacement equipment a difficult task. It is not uncommon that the sonographers will have different needs and wants from the equipment than do the radiologists. This potential hurdle needs to be addressed in order to arrive at a mutually acceptable selection. Vendors across the board all have very competitive products and they each have that special little "function" or "enhancement" that sets them apart from their competitor. The customer needs to approach the evaluation of the equipment in a very objective manner in order to truly understand not only the differences of each piece of equipment but the actual capability of each piece of equipment. In the end however, it is the individual sonographer that will be utilizing the equipment most of the time and they should have the final say to department management as to which equipment is selected.

  10. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  11. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  12. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. 我国电子废弃物管理现状及对策研究%Research on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments(WEEE)Management and Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵诣臻; 黄菊文; 李光明; 贺文智; 庄绪宁; 殷进

    2011-01-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the electric industry, more and more electrical and electronic equipments (EEE) have come into their end of life stage which led to a huge amount of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) to be disposed of. The high environmental risk and high recycling value of WEEE has become a concerned problem for the world. Simultaneously, the growth of WEEE in China is fast while the building of WEEE management system is not complete. The WEEE management in developed countries is reviewed including Europe, USA and Japan then the situation of legislation development of WEEE in China is analyzed. With the analysis, the existing problems related to policies, regulations, technology and social economy are pointed out. Concerned with the experience and ideas from developed countries, countermeasures are proposed to improve the China's WEEE management system.%随着电子工业的快速发展,越来越多的电子电气产品进入了报废期,带来了巨大的电子废弃物产生量.电子废弃物以高环境风险性和高资源化价值引起了全球的关注.同时,我国的电子废弃物也快速增长,其管理现状亦不容乐观.介绍了国外发达国家(包括欧洲、美国和日本)电子废弃物的管理现状以及分析了我国电子废弃物管理和立法的进程发展.在对我国分析的基础之上,指出目前我国在电子废弃物管理中所存在的问题,问题涉及政策、技术及社会经济等方面;并结合发达国家的先进管理经验,提出针对我国的对策与建议.

  15. Research on Synergy Mechanism of Prices of Industry Chain on Recycling the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%废旧电器回收再生利用产业链价格协同机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭汉丁; 张印贤; 郭伟; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    Industry of recycling the waste electrical and electronic equipment exist many problems, such as development block, inferiority given priority, condition by the behind, and fixed low technique. That reflects the bottleneck of the industry development lying in price coordination of the industry chain. The study on the question is short in domestic and abroad. The nature of form process of the industry chain on recycling the waste electrical and electronic equipment is the course of the value circulation. Based on the value circulation, the prices of industry chain are taken shape. And the prices are affected by macroscopic factors, environment support elements, business growing factors, and characteristic factors of the industry chain, but key factors are government subsidy, adjusting taxes and dues, and capital of nature resources. The capital of nature resources is the order parameter. It will promote movement in coordination with industry chain prices and the industry development by efficient policies and scientific capital of nature resources.%废旧电器回收再生利用产业发展受阻、“劣币驱逐良币”、下游纵向制约、技术低端锁定等问题,集中反映了产业发展的瓶颈在于产业链价格协同.国内外废旧电器回收再生利用产业链价格协同机理研究尚属鲜见.废旧电器产业链形成过程的本质是价值循环的过程,基于价值循环内在地构成了产业链各环节的价格,这些价格受到宏观因素、环境支撑因素、企业成长因素及产业特征因素的综合影响,政府补贴与税费调节、自然资源资本是影响产业链价格的关键因素,废旧电器回收再生利用产业链价格协同运行的序参量是自然资源资本,有效的政策调控和科学的自然资源资本度量,将促进其产业链价格协同运行和产业健康发展.

  16. Research on Construction of Industrialization Policy System about Recycling the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%废旧电器回收处理产业化政策体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭汉丁; 张印贤; 马辉; 李芬芳

    2012-01-01

    The waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) possess rubbish attributes and commodity attributes, and also environmental pollution characteristic and renewable resource characteristic. Hence, it decides recycling WEEE to go the way of industrialization development. The industrialization of recycling WEEE is the demands of the new age to promote economic and social sustainable development, for improving the comprehensive benefits of quantitative business, protecting the environment and ensuring the human health. Recycling Management Regulations on Recycling Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment constructs the legal platform for industrialized development. It also explicates the bottlenecks, the law, the legal system and the industry chain price of the industry development of recycling WEEE. It will promote the industrial chain of recycling WEEE collaborative operation and promote the industry healthy and orderly developing by establishing technical policy, social policy, economic policy and industrial policy of industrial development of the recycling WEEE.%废旧电器具有垃圾和商品的二重属性,环境污染和可再生资源性的双重特性,这决定了废旧电器回收处理必须走产业化发展之路,废旧电器回收处理业务产业化是经济社会可持续发展,提高规模化经营的综合效益,保护环境和保障人体健康的时代要求.《废旧电器电子产品回收处理管理条例》为产业化发展构建了法律平台,明确了我国废旧电器回收再生利用产业发展的瓶颈、法律法规体系和产业链价格政策,构建废旧电器回收再生利用产业化发展的技术政策、社会政策、经济政策和产业政策,将促进废旧电器回收再生利用产业链的协同运行,推动其产业健康有序发展.

  17. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  18. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  19. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  20. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  1. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  2. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  3. 2007 special equipment safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R.China (AQSIQ) issued a notice on May 28, 2007,requiring various locations to rectify their procedures for checking special equipment and hoisting machines for hidden problems. To further clarify and implement responsibility in the safety management of special equipment in enterprises, inspection responsibilities and test organizations related to technical assurance are to be established. Further, quality inspection departments will be supervised by law in order to improve special equipment safety.

  4. Military Handbook: General Guidelines for Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for MIL-B-7838 Bolt, Internal Wrenching, 160 KSI FTU MIL-R-7885 Rivets; Blind, Structural, Pull-Stem and Chemically Expanded KIL-R- 8814 Rivets, Blind...Nonstructural blind rivets should conform to NIL-R- 8814 . c. Blind, nonstructurat, retained mandrel type rivets should conform to MIL-R-24243. 4.2.2...6 MIL-R- 8814 ...................... 12 MIL-W-4088 ..................... 44 MIL-B-8831 ...................... 12 MIL-M-4820

  5. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  6. Analysis on Domestic and Foreign WTO/TBT notification of Energy efficiency of Electrical and Electronic Equipment%国内外有关电子电器产品能效WTO/TBT通报分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万茸茸; 曾延光

    2011-01-01

    提高产品能效水平成为全球应对能源危机和达到各国节能减排目标的重要手段.文章从发布数量、成员组成结构和产品类别等方面分析了2007~2010年国内外有关电子电器产品能效的WTO/TBT通报状况,研究此类通报的特点和趋势,为企业应对待机能效壁垒提供技术参考.%Improving energy efficiency is becoming one of effective approaches to address the energy crisis and global emission reduction. This paper analyzes Domestic and Foreign WTO/TBT notification of Energy efficiency of electrical and electronic Equipment from 2007 to 2010 in the aspects of issuance amount, structure of members and product categories. In order to provide a good reference for the export enterprises to overcome the technical barriers, this paper also analyzes status of these notifications and investigated characteristics and tendency.

  7. 试析电子与电器废弃物资源化处理技术%Analysis on Waste Resource Treatment Technology of Electronic and Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘有成

    2016-01-01

    电子、电器设备的更新换代可谓是飞速发展,而这急速的产品更替产生了大量的电子与电器废弃物(waste electric and electronic equipment,WEEE).而WEEE含有大量的重金属、贵金属以及塑料、玻璃等物质,一旦遗漏在外,将带来无法想象的环境破坏问题,因此,目前社会各界对于W EEE进行回收利用的资源化处理成为了人们关注的热点.文章在介绍电子、电器废弃物的特点的基础上,主要分析了目前社会上对于电子、电器设备废弃物资源化处理的主要技术,进而分析各种处理技术对提高电子与电器废弃物的利用效果.

  8. Study on Electrically Conductive Elastomer Shielding Efficiency for HIRF Condition of Civil Aircraft Electronics Equipment Bay%民用飞机设备舱舱门导电橡胶屏蔽效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永根; 代继刚; 王乐意

    2014-01-01

    通过理论计算和软件仿真相结合的方法,给出了民用飞机电子电气设备舱高强度辐射场( HIRF)条件下的腔体谐振特性,并对腔体内部电磁场进行仿真。通过对比舱门缝隙导电橡胶屏蔽效能的仿真结果,给出了电子电气设备舱不同状态下的电磁场分布结果,为电子电气舱舱门屏蔽设计提供技术支持。%Resonance Characteristic of the civil aircraft electronics equipment bay ( E/E Bay ) on HIRF condition is obtained through combining the theory calculation with software simulation method .Compa-ring the simulation results of the electrically conductive elastomer shield efficiency , the electromagnetic field inside the E/E bay are supplied ,and this simulation results can support the E/E bay door design .

  9. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  10. Consolidômetro: equipamento pneumático-eletrônico para avaliação do estado de consolidação do solo Consolidometer: electronic-pneumatic equipment to evaluate soil consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2007-08-01

    a load onto the soil until all porosity is compressed. The equipment used for this test is a consolidometer, which is not available in Brazil, while the models used abroad are very costly. In some cases this situation impairs the access of Brazilian researchers and farmers to data of Soil Load Support Capacity (SLCS. This study had the objective of developing and evaluating an electronic-pneumatic device by which sigmap can be obtained in the consolidation test. The equipment was developed at the Universidade Estadual Paulista and evaluated in uniaxial tests using specimens of two Oxisol horizons (surface and sub surface. The soil density values in the soil compression curves increased showing the variation of specimen strain recalque/ sinkage or displacement in function of the increasing pressure levels and soil moisture. The equipment efficiency was confirmed by the differentiated compression curves and equations obtained for the soil load support capacity models, which were able to detect the different soil consolidation degrees as well as the different sequences of structure tension in each Oxisol layer.

  11. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  12. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  13. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  14. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  15. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  16. 我国WEEE的盈亏平衡与敏感性分析%Profit and Loss Balance of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Sensitivity Analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章分别从不考虑价格变动影响和考虑价格变动影响两个方面对废弃电器电子产品处理企业的规模经济量进行了估算,并对其进行敏感性分析,结果显示基金补贴最敏感,拆解产物价值次之,在考虑价格变动情况下年固定成本总额和单台处理成本相对敏感,相关税金最不敏感。为此建议不断完善基金补贴政策,出台鼓励回收政策,引导处理企业向细分化发展,鼓励兼并重组。%This paper estimates the scale of economy of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) processing enter⁃prises from two aspects respectively (considering and not considering the impact of price changes),and also makes the sensi⁃tivity analysis on both aspects. The results show that fund subsidies are the most sensitive,followed by dismantling product value. In the case of price changes,the total annual fixed cost and single processing cost are relatively sensitive,whereas re⁃lated taxes are the least sensitive. Therefore,the paper puts forward some suggestions,such as,continuing to improve the fund subsidy policy,introducing incentives to encourage recycling,guiding enterprises to make further subdivision and en⁃couraging enterprises mergers and acquisitions.

  17. 居民电子废物回收行为影响因素的实证研究%An empirical research on recycling behavior of waste electrical and electronic equipment and its influence factor.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余福茂; 段显明; 梁慧娟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of questionnaire investigation to 350 urban residents, an empirical research was done on the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), aiming to the recycling behavior, the behavior intention and the influence factors. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the structure equal model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) could be used to interpret the related hypotheses effectively, and some situational factors, such as environmental knowledge, public preach and trash separation of home wastes, played regulating roles on the recycling behavior. Perceived behavioral control played a vital role on promoting the conversion of behavior intention into behavior. While the convenience situation of recycling behavior was an important factor impacting perceived behavioral control.%基于对350名城市居民的问卷调查结果,运用验证性因子分析方法对居民的电子废物回收行为、行为意向及其影响因素进行了实证研究.结果表明,基于计划行为理论所建立的结构方程模型可以较为有效地诠释有关研究假设,环境知识、舆论宣传和垃圾分类等情境因素对电子废物回收行为具有调节作用.知觉行为控制对于行为意向转化为行为具有非常重要地促进作用,而便利状况则是影响知觉行为控制的重要因素.

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Quarry Equipment Yearbook 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to an annual review of developments in the equipment used for minerals extraction and recycling. For each of 12 types of equipment, an editorial review is presented of developments and a tabular presentation of suppliers' ranges and contact information, including e-mail addresses and websites. The sections are: asphalt plants, conveyors, crushers and screens, drill rigs, dump trucks, excavators, hammers, pumps, tyres, weighbridges, wheel loaders and wheel washers.

  20. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  1. [Acute renal replacement therapy in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, T; Ozanne, B; Bétrémieux, P; Tirel, O; Ecoffey, C

    2013-12-01

    In pediatric intensive care unit, the available modalities of acute renal replacement therapy include intermittent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapies. No prospective studies have evaluated to date the effect of dialysis modality on the outcomes of children. The decision about dialysis modality should therefore be based on local expertise, resources available, and the patient's clinical status. Poor hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis is a common problem in critically ill patients. Moreover, many pediatric intensive care units are not equipped with dedicated water circuit. Peritoneal dialysis, a simple and inexpensive alternative, is the most widely available form of acute renal replacement therapy. However, its efficacy may be limited in critically ill patients. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy permits usually to reach a greater estimated dialysis dose, a better control of fluid balance, and additionally, to provide adequate nutrition. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  3. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  4. Liver enzymes among microelectronics equipment maintenance technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upfal, M

    1992-04-01

    Equipment maintenance workers within the microelectronics industry have opportunities for occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents. This pilot investigation compares liver enzymes in this population with that of other coworkers. Participants (n = 135) were randomly selected from a medical surveillance program at the manufacturing facility. Nine job categories were examined, including equipment maintenance workers and electronic technicians. Although abnormal liver enzymes were detected among equipment maintenance workers (odds ratio 16.4; P less than .008) and electronic technicians (odds ratio 27; P less than .0005), the numbers of participants were small (n = 8, 10). The data suggest that independent and/or interactive etiologic roles of occupation and alcohol should be further investigated. Early detection of subclinical occupational or recreational hepatotoxicity with appropriate employment of industrial hygiene control technology and/or the reduction of alcohol consumption may provide a means of preventing liver disease.

  5. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  6. Nanocopper Based Solder-Free Electronic Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, K.; Wentlent, L.; Mootoo, K.; Khasawneh, S.; Zinn, A. A.; Beddow, J.; Hauptfleisch, E.; Blass, D.; Borgesen, P.

    2014-12-01

    CuantumFuse nano copper material has been used to assemble functional LED test boards and a small camera board with a 48 pad CMOS sensor quad-flat no-lead chip and a 10 in flexible electronics demo. Drop-in replacement of solder, by use of stencil printing and standard surface mount technology equipment, has been demonstrated. Applications in space and commercial systems are currently under consideration. The stable copper-nanoparticle paste has been examined and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy; this has shown that the joints are nanocrystalline but with substantial porosity. Assessment of reliability is expected to be complicated by this and by the effects of thermal and strain-enhanced coarsening of pores. Strength, creep, and fatigue properties were measured and results are discussed with reference to our understanding of solder reliability to assess the potential of this nano-copper based solder alternative.

  7. Research on Testability Prediction Technique for Complex Electronic Equipments Based on Simulation Analysis%基于仿真分析的复杂电子装备测试性预计技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓艳

    2016-01-01

    测试性是产品的一种设计特性,是伴随功能原理设计时赋予产品的一种固有属性。随着电子产品及设备的复杂和多样化,导致其故障诊断越来越困难,产品的测试性也逐渐得到生产和使用单位的重视。为尽早在研制阶段对产品的测试性水平进行评估,发现测试性设计的薄弱环节,首先对测试性仿真技术进行了简单介绍,之后详细阐述了基于TEAMS的测试性仿真方法,最后以某型柴油机系统为例,对其测试性指标进行预计,同时发现产品测试性设计上的薄弱环节,为产品的设计改进提供建议。%Testability is a kind of design characteristics of product and inherent attribute given by products with functional principle design. Fault diagnostic becomes more and more difficult with the complication and diversification of electronic equipment. The product’s testability is received much more attention of both producer and user. To solve the problem of evaluating the product’s testability at the design phase as soon as possible, firstly it introduces the testability simulation simply, then elaborates the testability modeling and simulation technology based on TEAMS in detail, finally applies this method on a diesel engine system to predict the testability values, and in the meantime to discover the weakness in the design, which gives help to improving product’s testability.

  8. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  9. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  10. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  11. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  12. Grey System Judgment on Reliability of Mechanical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Grey system theory was applied in reliability analysis of mechanical equip-ment. It is a new theory and method in reliability engineering of mechanical engineering of mechanical equipment. Through the Grey forecast of reliability parameters and the relia-bility forecast of parts and systems, decisions were made in the real operative state of e-quipment in real time. It replaced the old method that required mathematics and physical statistics in a large base of test data to obtain a pre-check, and it was used in a practical problem. Because of applying the data of practical operation state in real time, it could much more approach the real condition of equipment; it was applied to guide the procedure and had rather considerable economic and social benefits.

  13. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  14. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  18. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  19. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  20. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  1. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  2. Surrogates of plutonium for detection equipment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerani, Paolo; Tomanin, Alice

    2011-10-01

    Fight against illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the possibility to detect nuclear material concealed in vehicles, people or cargo containers. This is done by equipping and training law enforcement and security staff in border stations or other points of access to strategic places and critical infrastructures with radiation detection equipment. The design, development, testing and evaluation of these instruments ideally require the use of real nuclear material to assess, verify and certify their detection performance. Availability of special nuclear material may be an issue, especially for industry, since only few specialized laboratories are licensed for such material. This paper tries to analyse and describe the possibility to use suitable surrogates that may replace the use of real nuclear material in testing the detection capabilities of instruments used in nuclear security.

  3. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  4. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  5. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    bed, and a digital clock and a transponder helped to locate the camera. Equipment for the analysis of the nodules such as x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrophotometers were installed aboard MV Skandi Surveyor and MV Fernella and MV G A...

  6. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  7. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  8. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic indicators or automatic control or alarm systems shall be accomplished as soon as practicable. (b) The...

  9. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  10. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  11. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  12. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  13. Electronics and Telemetry Engineering and Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronics Laboratory is a fully equipped facility providing the capability to support electronic product development from highly complex weapon system sensors,...

  14. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  15. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  16. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the equipment is operated. (d) The intake air filter on diesel-powered equipment shall be replaced or serviced, by a person who is trained to perform this task, when the intake air pressure drop device so indicates or when the engine manufacturer's maximum allowable air pressure drop level is exceeded....

  18. How to Use Equipment Therapeutically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Shares therapeutic and economic practices surrounding equipment used in New York's Higher Horizons adventure program of therapy for troubled youth. Encourages educators, therapists, and administrators to explore relationship between equipment selection, program goals, and clients. (NEC)

  19. A Maintenance Model Based on Phase Type Distribution for Equipment under Two Types of Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao-hu; WEN Xi-sen; YANG Yong-min; QIAN Yan-ling

    2007-01-01

    A maintenance model is put forward for equipment, which is subjected to internal and external failures. In the model, two maintenance policies-perfect minimal repair and replacement are considered. The operational time has a phase type distribution (PH distribution). Failures' arrival follows a Markovian Arrival Process (MAP). Some failures require the replacement of the system, and others minimal repairs. The performance measures-the mean number of minimal repairs and replacements are analyzed and calculated.

  20. Design and implementation of equipment for monitoring the salinity in the subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Norzagaray Campos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical exploration equipments to explore the contaminants and structures geological in the subsoil come from abroad are expensive and sometimes parts for replacement are not available in the market. So it is necessary design apparatus that meet cover these needs. To the monitoring of variations in salinity there is semi-automatic equipment, but it always has difficult to manage. However, is not equipment for the indirect study of salinity in the subsoil. In this work was design equipment for measurement the apparent resistivity in the subsoil, at same time allow know the salinity, as well as the detection of any pollutant in groundwater. For make it, was selected a design of earthing systems, with electronic hardware which were jointed for apply to subsoil a direct current (DC through an array dipole-dipole and vertical electric sounding, with brass and stainless steel electrodes. In the earthing systems the electrodes were collocated in the equidistant line between the detectors of potential and current. A geometric factor (K, that depend on theelectrodes distance and direct current (I injected in the electrodes A and B, was used for measure the potential difference between the electrodes M and N; after was calculate the resistivity point to point for obtain a subsoil tomography geoelectrical. The equipment was calibrated with minimum error (rms < 2% whit respect to curves obtained in similar commercial equipment. On this situation, in this work was modernized and automated an equipment to determine thesalinity of the subsoil. The instrument was tasted in the micro basin Texcoco, State of Mexico, to define the environment geometry formed by alluvial or lake sediments from igneous rocks (andesites, rhyolites and tuffs vitreous or “tepetates” which by its mineralogical composition allowed to the lateral resistivity be associate with free components trace from the aquifer: Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb or Zn and others. This method constitutes

  1. Projected world market for seawater desalination equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A forecast is presented of the market for seawater desalination plants. The conclusions presented herein are based on a number of sources of information, of which the most important are: responses to questionnaires mailed to 300 cognizant water agencies in 61 countries; the published market growth trend over the period 1971 to 1983; and an analysis of the geography, rainfall, population, industrial growth, and energy availability in the respective countries. Analysis suggests the possibility that financing, although currently a major stumbling block to the purchase of desalting plants, may be effected by an exchange program in which the purchaser of plants will offer some exportable product(s) in exchange. The forecast suggests the likelihood that the seawater desalination market is becoming saturated. A plateau is expected to develop in new plant sales of additional capacity in the immediate future, followed by a downturn by the end of the century. This report, however, emphasizes the importance of the replacement market, which will involve substantial sales to replace worn-out and obsolescent equipment. The combined new-plus-replacement annual sales can be expected to reach 1.25 million m/sup 3//d (330 Mgd) by the year 2000. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is expected to represent 270,000 m/sup 3//d (70 Mgd) by the end of the century because of technological improvements in membrane systems and components.

  2. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  3. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  4. 48 CFR 22.1003-6 - Repair distinguished from remanufacturing of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service... other electronic equipment. (4) Inspecting, testing, calibration, painting, packaging, lubrication,...

  5. Abyssal soil investigation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, F.P.; Maggioni, W.; Mainardi, U. [ISMES, Bergamo (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with the development of a testing device for quick offshore geotechnical investigations. The equipment, at present, consists of a penetrometer, mounted on a sea bed platform, a handling frame and a control cabin; a further development includes a drill rig and a geotechnical laboratory. All this is designed so as to be an autonomous unit that can be handled by various types of non-specialized ships which have the necessary deck space. The sea bed platform can operate in 2,000 m of waterdepth and is provided with a hydraulic penetrometer, with a thrust capacity of 400 kN, able to carry out cone penetration type testing until a depth of more than 100 m, as well as shallow depth continuous sampling. The penetrometer can be equipped with a series of probes (piezocone, pressiocone, total radial pressure transducer, seismic cone) allowing the execution of the wide range of direct geotechnical measurements normally performed during on-land penetration tests.

  6. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  7. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong

    2005-01-01

    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  8. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  9. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  10. [Ascending aorta replacement late after aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasunari; Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junji

    2013-07-01

    Replacement of the asceding aorta is indicated in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement( AVR), if the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 5.0 cm. If the diameter of the asceding aorta is from 4.0 to 5.0 cm, it was arguable whether replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed. Nine patients who underwent reoperative ascending aorta replacement after AVR were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation on the asending aorta replacement was performed 11.8±7.2 years (range 1y5m~23y3m) after AVR. Mean patient age was 69.9±6.3 (range 60~81). In 2 cases, reoperations were performed early year after AVR. Although ascending aorta was dilated at the 1st operation, replacement wasn't performed for the age and minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). In 3 cases, reoperations were performed more than 10 years later. On these cases, ascending aorta aneurysm and dissection occurred with no pain and were pointed out by computed tomography(CT) or ultrasonic cardiogram(UCG). We think that patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta should undergo AVR and aorta replacement at the 1st operation regardness of age. It is important that patients who underwent AVR should undergo a regular checkup on the ascending aorta.

  11. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  12. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  13. Radio telemetry equipment and applications for carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.; Fuller, Todd K.; Boitani, Luigi; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Radio-telemetry was not included in the first comprehensive manual of wildlife research techniques (Mosby 1960) because the first published papers were about physiological wildlife telemetry (LeMunyan et al. 1959) and because research using telemetry in field ecology was just being initiated (Marshall et al. 1962; Cochran and Lord 1963). Among the first uses of telemetry to study wildlife, however, was a study of carnivores (Craighead et al. 1963), and telemetry has become a common method for studying numerous topics of carnivore biology. Our goals for this chapter are to provide basic information about radio-telemetry equipment and procedures. Although we provide many references to studies using telemetry equipment and methods, we recommend Kenward's (2001) comprehensive book, A manual of wildlife radio tagging for persons who are unfamiliar with radio-telemetry, Fuller et al. (2005), and Tomkiewicz et al. (2010). Compendia of uses of radio-telemetry in animal research appear regularly as chapters in manuals (Cochran 1980; Samuel and Fuller 1994), in books about equipment, field procedures, study design, and applications (Amlaner and Macdonald 1980; Anderka 1987; Amlaner 1989; White and Garrott 1990; Priede and Swift 1992; Kenward 2001; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001; Mech and Barber 2002), and in reviews highlighting new developments (Cooke et al. 2004; Rutz and Hays 2009; Cagnacci et al. 2010). Some animal telemetry products and techniques have remained almost unchanged for years, but new technologies and approaches emerge and replace previously available equipment at an increasing pace. Here, we emphasize recent studies for which telemetry was used with carnivores.

  14. Patterns of risk of cancer in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements versus other bearing surface types: a record linkage study between a prospective joint registry and general practice electronic health records in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Lalmohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are concerns that metal-on-metal hip implants may cause cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate patterns and timing of risk of cancer in patients with metal-on-metal total hip replacements (THR. METHODS: In a linkage study between the English National Joint Registry (NJR and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, we selected all THR surgeries (NJR between 2003 and 2010 (n = 11,540. THR patients were stratified by type of bearing surface. Patients were followed up for cancer and Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative rates (RR. RESULTS: The risk of cancer was similar in patients with hip resurfacing (RR 0.69; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.39-1.22 or other types of bearing surfaces (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.64-1.43 compared to individuals with stemmed metal-on-metal THR. The pattern of cancer risk over time did not support a detrimental effect of metal hip implants. There was substantial confounding: patients with metal-on-metal THRs used fewer drugs and had less comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Metal-on-metal THRs were not associated with an increased risk of cancer. There were substantial baseline differences between the different hip implants, indicating possibility of confounding in the comparisons between different types of THR implants.

  15. US8,994,532 "Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  16. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Papaderakis; Ioanna Mintsouli; Jenia Georgieva; Sotiris Sotiropoulos

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases) hydrogen evolution too...

  17. The DST group ionospheric sounder replacement for JORN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. J.; Quinn, A. D.; Pederick, L. H.

    2016-06-01

    The Jindalee Over-the-horizon Radar Network (JORN) is an integral part of Australia's national defense capability. JORN uses a real-time ionospheric model as part of its operations. The primary source of data for this model is a set of 13 vertical-incidence sounders (VIS) scattered around the Australian coast and inland locations. These sounders are a mix of Lowell digisonde portable sounder (DPS)-1 and DPS-4. Both of these sounders, the DPS-1 in particular, are near the end of their maintainable life. A replacement for these aging sounders was required as part of the ongoing sustainment program for JORN. Over the last few years the High-Frequency Radar Branch (HFRB) of the Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group, Australian Department of Defence, has been developing its own sounders based on its successful radar hardware technology. The DST Group VIS solution known as PRIME (Portable Remote Ionospheric Monitoring Equipment) is a 100% duty cycle, continuous wave system that receives the returned ionospheric signal while it is still transmitting and operates the receiver in the near field of the transmitter. Of considerable importance to a successful VIS is the autoscaling software, which takes the ionogram data and produces an ionogram trace (group delay as a function of frequency), and from that produces a set of ionospheric parameters that represent the (bottomside) overhead electron density profile. HFRB has developed its own robust autoscaling software. The performance of DST Group's PRIME under a multitude of challenging ionospheric conditions has been studied. In December 2014, PRIME was trialed at a JORN VIS site collocated with the existing Lowell Digisonde DPS-1. This side-by-side testing determined that PRIME was fit for purpose. A summary of the results of this comparison and example PRIME output will be discussed. Note that this paper compares PRIME with the 25 year old Lowell Digisonde DPS-1, which is planned to be replaced. Our future plans include

  18. Replacing a battery by a nanogenerator with 20 V output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-01-03

    Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 {mu}A, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm{sup -3}. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um controlador eletrônico para equipamentos de aplicação de insumos Development and evaluation of electronic control system in equipments for application of fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio K. Umezu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se o desenvolvimento e avaliação de um sistema de controle para compensar a variação na rotação de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizantes sólidos de um equipamento para formulação, dosagem e aplicação de fertilizantes sólidos no sulco, a taxas variáveis, em função da alteração da temperatura do óleo hidráulico. Desenvolveram-se controladores do tipo PID, para assegurar a manutenção precisa das rotações desejadas nos motores hidráulicos de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizante. O equipamento foi testado em laboratório, utilizando-se sinais de testes padronizados, onde foi avaliado o seu comportamento em função do aquecimento do óleo hidráulico. Os testes realizados mostraram que o sistema de controle de rotação implementado foi adequado, mantendo inalterado o comportamento do sistema hidráulico, mesmo na ocorrência de variação da temperatura do óleo hidráulico.The objective of this research was the development and evaluation of a control system used to compensate variation on angular speed of dosers in an equipment for formulation, dosing and application of solid fertilizers in the furrow, at variable rates, by monitoring the hydraulic oil temperature changes. PID controllers were designed to guarantee the desired angular speed of the hydraulic motors dosing shaft. The equipment was tested in laboratory using standard signal tests procedure, being able to analyze the machine behavior as a function of the hydraulic oil temperature variations. The accomplished tests showed that the implemented control system was suitable and exhibited a steady behavior even during hydraulic oil temperature changes.

  20. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  1. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  2. 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, D. [KMC Mining, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    KMC Mining is a privately-owned major mining contractor that was established in 1949. The company has a long history in construction of roads; railroads; dams; and other major earthworks. It is primarily involved in Alberta oilsands, although it has also performed elsewhere in northern and western Canada. This presentation provided a corporate overview of KMC Mining and discussed its fleet profile, operations and an overview of its South Tailings Pond Project. The company added 7 new 320 ton class haul trucks to its fleet in 2005 to match its shovel capacity. The presentation provided an overview of 3 separate incidents in 2005 that resulted in damage to the frame and steering linkage; tie-rod failure with both front struts separated from a truck; and tie-rod failure with left hand front strut separated from a truck. These incidents were described in detail and post-investigations were conducted. As a result of this investigation, some possible incident contributors were also discussed. Next, the presentation discussed mounting hardware and provided an overview of hardware failure and replacement hardware. Last, the presentation addressed incident reoccurrence mitigation. A reoccurrence prevention plan was developed, which included suspension mounting hardware; tie-rod inspection and re-design; and payload monitoring and operating practices. It was summarized that measures are still in place since the reoccurrence prevention plan and there have been no further incidents. figs.

  3. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  4. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  5. Next generation of dock safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietlik, Walt

    2013-09-01

    OSHA and forklift manufacturers have made extensive efforts to improve the safety of forklift operation in and around industrial facilities and warehouses. However, the use of next-generation vehicle restraint and light communications technology will go much farther toward protecting forklift operators and pedestrians, reducing accidents, and improving productivity at the loading dock. While these new technologies mark a significant advance in loading dock safety, they cannot replace forklift and loading dock safety policies. Employers must continue to focus on forklift safety training and consider the use of multiple safety devices, such as strategically placed signs, painted aisles, and guarded walkways. The best practice is to seek the advice of safety consultants and qualified loading dock equipment representatives.

  6. Development of a thermal-chemical process for the treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment - ''the Haloclean''-pyrolysis; Entwicklung eines thermisch-chemischen Prozesses zur Verwertung von Abfaellen aus Elektro- und Elektronikaltgeraeten - die ''Haloclean''-Pyrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W.

    2007-07-15

    In the context of these studies a thermal-chemical process for the treatment of electronic scrap was tested, extended and improved. The process divides shreddered electronic scrap into a valuable material stream and an energy flow, so that a further use of the electronic scrap in existing processes can be optimized. In a two-stage pyrolysis the plastic components are converted into oil and gas. A further chemical process step recovers bromine and other halogens out of these products. From the remaining pyroylsis residue precious metals and other metals can be separated. Heart of the process is a gas-tight rotary kiln equipped with a screw and spheres for improving heat transfer, the patented Haloclean {sup registered} reactor. Therefore, different plants have been developed and set into operation in laboratory and technical scale. Both in laboratory and technical scale different electronic scrap fractions have been decomposed. The results gained in this work lead to the technical base for engineering a demonstration plant, which will be carried out by the company Sea Marconi, Italy. (orig.)

  7. Study of the Formation of the Semiconductor Equipment Industry in the Bingo District in Hiroshima (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KATO Atsumi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview on how the semiconductor equipment industry in the Bingo district in Hiroshima was developed. The textile industry once prospered in the Bingo district, but after its decline, semiconductor equipment-related companies were started centering around the Shinco Electronics Group Co., Ltd., which was a subcontractor of ROHM Co., Ltd. Furthermore, other semiconductor equipment companies and liquid crystal equipment companies are located in the Bingo district, and...

  8. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  9. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requirement. Based on this average cost function, we propose the genetic algorithm to locate the optimal replacement policy N to minimize the average cost rate. The results show that the GA is effective and efficient in finding the optimal solutions. The availability of equipment has significance effect on the optimal replacement policy. Many practical systems fit the model developed in this paper.

  10. Application Research of Marine Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell as Power Supply to Drive Small Electronic Equipments%海底生物燃料电池作为电源驱动小型电子器件的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉彬; 李建海; 赵仲凯; 徐谦

    2012-01-01

    Marine sediment microbial fuel cell (or Microbial fuel cell on ocean floor) is a kind of novel energy material. Its mechanism is that bacteria in the sediment produce electrons and transfer to a modified graphite anode that is connected with a cathode by external circuit,and the cathode is positioned in the water to consume these electrons by oxygen reduction, and electronic energy can be artificially obtained to drive small electronic vehicles on ocean floor to work continuously. Two cell structures in the lab are designed to get power, and these cells can be connected in series to increase output voltage and drive small e-lectronic equipments (for example, radio, watch, and wireless temperature and depth sensor) for a long time. On the basis of that, another cell structure is further designed for a field test in JiaoZou Bay, Qingdao. Three cell structures are connected in parallel to increase output current, and a special voltage conditioner is designed to increase their cell output voltage, and finally, small electronic equipments are successfully driven for long-lasting time in the field. The research in the paper demonstrated the application feasibility that the microbial fuel cell on the ocean floor can be used to be a power supply for small monitor instruments or vehicles on the marine sediment in the future.%海底沉积物生物燃料电池(简称海底生物燃料电池)是一种新型的海洋能源材料电池,它的发电机理主要是利用海底沉积层内细菌代谢产生电子,通过人工放置的改性阳极收集电子,产生电能,可用于驱动水下监测仪器的长期连续运行.本研究首先设计海底生物燃料电池实验室装置,利用电池串联升压的方式,实现其驱动小型电子装置和监测仪器的连续运行.在此基础上,设计并安装了实际海况电池实验装置,利用并联设计和特殊升压装置,在胶州湾浅海成功驱动小型电子装置的运行.本研究初步验证了海底生物燃

  11. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  12. 电子工业厂房洁净室内工艺设备对气流影响的研究%Study on Airflow Problem Caused by Process Equipment of Micro Electron Industry Cleanroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢壮

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of undirection Vertical airflow in cleamroom was made,which can skew random and blow unef iciently by the influence of proces equipment.Discus ed the major is ues that should be considered in the cleanroom design and Construction phase and adjustment plans of airflow in cleanroom operation phase, so that airflow could meet the production requirement.%针对单向垂直流洁净室内,受工艺设备影响导致的气流偏移、无效气流现象进行综合分析,探讨在洁净室设计和施工过程中所要考虑的因素以及运行阶段气流二次调整的方案,使洁净室形成良好的气流流型,并能更好地满足实际生产的需要。

  13. Dental operatory design and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M

    1993-08-01

    Improving and expanding the dental services of a practice can involve purchasing new equipment and even modifying or expanding the physical plant. Operatory design is important to the efficiency with which dental procedures can be performed. Equipment purchases to outfit the dental operatory should be made based on the specific needs and functions of a practice.

  14. Measurement and control system for ITER remote maintenance equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Takiguchi, Yuji; Akou, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets and divertors are categorized as scheduled maintenance components because they are subjected to severe plasma heat and particle loads. Blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle Heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a 2 mm precision tolerance. Divertor maintenance requires remote replacement of 60 cassettes with a dead weight of about 25 tons each. In the ITER R and D program, full-scale remote handling equipment for blanket and divertor maintenance has been designed and assembled for demonstration tests. This paper reviews the measurement and control system developed for full-scale remote handling equipment, the Japan Home Team contribution. (author)

  15. Seismic analyses of equipment in 2736-Z complex. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the structural qualification for the existing equipment when subjected to seismic loading in the Plutonium Storage Complex. It replaces in entirety Revision 0 and reconciles the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) comments on Revision 0. The Complex consists of 2736-Z Building (plutonium storage vault), 2736-ZA Building (vault ventilation equipment building), and 2736-ZB Building (shipping/receiving, repackaging activities). The existing equipment structurally qualified in this report are the metal storage racks for 7 inch and lard cans in room 2 of Building 2736-Z; the cubicles, can holders and pedestals in rooms 1, 3, and 4 of Building 2736-Z; the ventilation duct including exhaust fans/motors, emergency diesel generator, and HEPA filter housing in Building 2736-ZA; the repackaging glovebox in Building 2736-ZB; and the interface duct between Buildings 2736-Z and 2736-ZA.

  16. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  17. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  18. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  19. Knee Replacement: What you can Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves function lessen with each additional surgery. Artificial knees can wear out Another risk of knee replacement ... replacement surgery to last about two hours. After knee replacement surgery After surgery, you're wheeled to ...

  20. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Equipe de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gerber Hornink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Equipe de Trabalho 2014 1. Equipe editorial Editor-Chefe Bayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Eduardo Galembeck, Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Biologia UNICAMP, Brasil   Editores Gabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas - Unifal-MG, Brasil Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil   Corpo Editorial Adriana Cassina, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Angel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Espanha André Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, Brasil Denise Vaz de Macedo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Eneida de Paula, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Guilherme Andrade Marson, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Jose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, Chile Josep Maria Fernández Novell, Dept. Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular Universitat de Barcelona, Espanha Leila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Manuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, Portugal Maria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Brasil María Noel Alvarez, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Miguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, Espanha Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Paulo De Avila

  2. In Vitro Fatigue Failure of Cemented Acetabular Replacements: A Hip Simulator Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zant, N.; Heaton-Adegbile, P.; Hussell, J.; Tong, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Although hip simulators for in vitro wear testing of prosthetic materials used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been available for a number of years, similar equipment has yet to appear for endurance testing of fixation in cemented THA, despite considerable evidence of late aseptic loosening as one of the most significant failure mechanisms in this type of replacements. An in vitro study of fatigue behavior in cemented acetabular replacements has been carried out, utilizing a newly develo...

  3. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  4. Design of the optical fiber unit for industrial equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.

    2017-05-01

    Optical systems with UV lasers are widely used in various areas of manufacturing, for processing materials. To provide high operation accuracy, the equipment with high power UV laser sources requires complicated optical and mechanical unit with control electronic blocks. In order to develop successful and stable equipment and to increase accuracy, the development of each part (optical, mechanical, and electronic) is needed to solve many complex engineering problems. In this article the special features of the development of an optical unit with a high powered UV laser source are considered along with some problems and solutions.

  5. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  6. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  7. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  8. Registry data trends of total ankle replacement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Joint arthroplasty registry data are meaningful when evaluating the outcomes of total joint replacement, because they provide unbiased objective information regarding survivorship and incidence of use. Critical evaluation of the registry data information will benefit the surgeon, patient, and industry. However, the implementation and acceptance of registry data for total ankle replacement has lagged behind that of hip and knee implant arthroplasty. Currently, several countries have national joint arthroplasty registries, with only some procuring information for total ankle replacement. We performed an electronic search to identify publications and worldwide registry databanks with pertinent information specific to total ankle replacement to determine the type of prostheses used and usage trends over time. We identified worldwide registry data from 33 countries, with details pertinent to total ankle replacement identified in only 6 countries. The obtained information was arbitrarily stratified into 3 distinct periods: 2000 to 2006, 2007 to 2010, and 2011. Within these study periods, the data from 13 total ankle replacement systems involving 3,980 ankles were identified. The vast majority (97%) of the reported ankle replacements were 3-component, mobile-bearing, uncemented prostheses. Three usage trends were identified: initial robust embracement followed by abrupt disuse, minimal use, and initial embracement followed by sustained growth in implantation. Before the widespread acceptance of new total ankle replacements, the United States should scrutinize and learn from the international registry data and develop its own national joint registry that would include total ankle replacement. Caution against the adoption of newly released prostheses, especially those without readily available revision components, is recommended.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired

  10. Equipment for thoracoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M S; Trastek, V F; Daly, R C; Deschamps, C; Pairolero, P C

    1993-09-01

    The combining of miniaturized video technology with thoracoscopy now allows surgeons to perform a variety of thoracic procedures percutaneously. Both rigid and flexible video thoracoscopes are available. The rigid endoscope has a camera located proximally at the eye-piece and is capable of excellent resolution. However, visualization of the entire pleural cavity is difficult because of the rigid chest wall. Placing the video camera at the distal end of a flexible thoracoscope, as in the electronic video thoracoscope (EVE-L; Fujinon, Wayne, NJ), yields better visualization of these relatively inaccessible areas. However, disadvantages of the flexible thoracoscope include increased expense and complexity, reduced resolution as compared to rigid systems, and the need for a strobed light source, thus making video-assisted surgery more difficult. Thoracoscopic wedge excisions of the lung are now possible because of the adaptation of gastrointestinal staplers for percutaneous use. The initial design consisted of a reloadable 30-mm disposable stapler. Newer models, however, have a longer staple line and some are reusable. Future refinements may allow the head of the instrument to articulate, thus permitting it to be applied to the lung at various angles. Thoracoscopic ports that provide an air-tight seal are available but are not essential; therefore, standard thoracotomy instruments can be utilized through small open incisions. Specialized disposable thoracoscopic instruments are also available, including scissors, dissectors, and fan retractors. It is hoped that the future will bring improved optics, better staplers, and refined percutaneous instrumentation.

  11. 77 FR 38375 - Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D, Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D, Airport Lighting Equipment... replace AC150/5345-53C with AC150/5345-53D to clarify the criteria under the Airport Lighting Equipment... Transportation is providing notice in the Federal Register of, and an opportunity for public comment on AC150...

  12. Ventajas del uso de la inyección electrónica para vehículos diesel pesados en las condiciones de Cuba. // Advantages of electronic injection for diesel engines in heavy duty equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Reyes González

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en cuenta la importancia que tiene para Cuba el obtener una eficiencia energética elevada en los motores decombustión interna, al igual que el control de las emanaciones de gases tóxicos en los mismos, se realizó este trabajo dondese demuestran las ventajas tanto en el orden económico como ecológico de los motores diesel con mando electrónico paraequipos pesados empleados en la transportación de carga por camiones en la empresa Cubalse.Por medio de métodos experimentales y estadísticos, se obtuvo el consumo de combustible y la humosidad en motores coninyección electrónica (Detroit y en motores que utilizan los métodos tradicionales (Cummins. Los rresultadosdemostraron la superioridad en ambos aspectos de los motores con inyección electrónica.Se realizó una valoración del tiempo de amortización de la inversión inicial necesaria para utilizar en el parque existenteesta novedosa técnica de la inyección electrónica.Palabras claves: Eficiencia energética, inyección electrónica, consumo de combustible, motores de combustióninterna.__________________________________________________________________Abstract.Taking into consideration the importance of achieving a high efficiency in the internal combustion engines and emissioncontrol of the exhaust gases, this paper deals with economical and environmental advantages of the electronic controlleddiesel engines in heavy-duty trucks, which are used by Cubalse in the transportation. The fuel consumption and the sootemission in Detroit motors (with electronic injection system and Cummins (with traditional system, were studied usingstatistic and experimental methods, and the Detroit proved to be superior in both parameters. The pay back time for theinvestment needed to change the systems of all the existent trucks were calculatedKey words: Energetic efficiency, electronic injection, fuel consumption, internal combustion engine.

  13. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1997-09-29

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive.

  14. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  15. Reviews Equipment: Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Book: A Universe from Nothing Equipment: Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Report: Nuclear Physics and Technology Book: Particle Physics Booklet: Radiation and You Book: The Million Death Quake Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Robust, reliable and proven classroom kit The Million Death Quake: the Science of Predicting the Earth's Deadliest Natural Disaster Accessible and well-written book covers everything you might (and perhaps should) want to know about earthquakes WORTH A LOOK Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Fun kit for use with toy cars but little flexibility for other uses A Universe From Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing Up-to-date account of cosmology explains very well but becomes polemical and loses focus Nuclear physics and technology—inside the atom IOP report useful for students considering a career in physics Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction Passages of good writing undermined by editing as the structure and illustrations disappoint Radiation and You Report is an interesting insight into radiation information from 25 years back, but some errors and a slow start let it down WEB WATCH App that aids star identification is highly recommended and videos for students and teachers also make the grade

  16. Integration of Acoustic Detection Equipment into ANTARES

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2005-01-01

    The ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen is working towards the integration of a set of acoustic sensors into the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. With this setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and background studies shall be performed. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope, which is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea, will be equipped with the infrastructure to accommodate a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers for the detection of Cherenkov light. Within this infrastructure, the required resources for acoustic sensors are available: Bandwidth for the transmission of the acoustic data to the shore, electrical power for the off-shore electronics and physical space to install the acoustic sensors and to route the connecting cables (transmitting signals and power) into the electronics containers. It will be explained how the integration will be performed with minimal modifications of the existing ANTARES design and which setup is foreseen for the acquisition of the acoustic data.

  17. Experimental replacement of aragonite by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasioptas, A.; Perdikouri, C.; Geisler, T.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of aragonite with (NH4)2HPO4 solution has been shown to produce hydroxyapatite (HAP) with an overall identical and thus pre-determined morphology (Kasioptas et al, 2008). The preservation of the morphology is an outcome of the pseudomorphic nature of this particular reaction. We have investigated the mechanism of the replacement of aragonite by HAP using single, natural, inorganic aragonite crystals. Isothermal experiments were carried out with small crystals placed and sealed in autoclaves with (NH4)2HPO4 solution. After the experiments the aragonite crystals are partly replaced by a new phase. X-ray powder diffraction confirmed that the product phase is indeed HAP; however electron microprobe measurements revealed that the HAP is probably non-stoichiometric. Even when completely converted to HAP, scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine-structure of the aragonite has perfectly been retained. It was also observed that the HAP product phase exhibited a high porosity and was separated from the aragonite parent phase by a sharp interface (on the micrometer scale). The replacement of aragonite by HAP in an aqueous solution can be described in terms of a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism that takes place at an inward moving reaction front (Putnis& Putnis, 2007). The porosity in the HAP product phase allows the solution to reach the reaction interface. In addition, we have performed experiments with (NH4)2HPO4 solutions prepared with H2O enriched with 97 at.% 18O. The solutions were pre-heated separately to equilibrate the oxygen isotopes in the solution. Raman spectroscopy of the HAP product was used to identify the different vibration modes in the PO43-molecule due to the exchange of 16O with 18O atoms. Apart from the main ?1(PO4) band located near 962 cm-1, we observed four new bands near 945, 931, 919 and 908 cm-1. We have attributed the generation of these new bands to four different degrees of 18O atomic substitutions in

  18. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  19. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  20. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  2. EAS Equipment Authorization Grantee Registrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). Radio Frequency (RF) devices are required to be properly authorized under 47 CFR Part 2 prior to being marketed or imported...

  3. EMR Measurements on NDA Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonell, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meierbachtol, Krista Cruse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Evans, James Walter Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emission strength measurements were performed on a suite of passive non-destructive assay (NDA) radiation detection equipment. Data were collected from 9 kHz up to 6 GHz on each of the assembled systems.

  4. Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Space and Missile Systems Center Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) Lt Col James “Mutt” Wilson Program Manager 29 Apr 15 Information contained in...SUBTITLE Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the GPS Partnership Council 2015 (GPSPC15), held April 29 to May 1, 2015, at the Los Angeles AFB, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  5. Nuclear Weapon and Military Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Natarajan

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Military equipment must survive a, nuclear attack if enough personnel required to operate them remain combat effective. To achieve this goal, the criteria that determine equipment survivability should be established and any new design should incorporate these criteria to evolve a hardened design. An analysis of the overall response by considering the response to each individual nuclear environment can result in a balanced overall hardened system. The paper discusses the criteria required to be known.

  6. Research on Selection of Equipment Maintenance Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wen-li; SHI Hai-bo; HE Bai-tao

    2006-01-01

    The development of equipment maintenance management is introduced, and equipment maintenance concept is defined. Equipment maintenance modes are classified, analyzed and compared, which merits and demerits are pointed out. At last, a decision-making frame to select equipment maintenance modes is advanced, and steps to select and implement equipment maintenance are given.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 25.1415 Section 25.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under § 25.801, and required by...

  8. Flammability control in the oxygen environment of the Apollo guidance and navigation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, M. D.; Bachman, S.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo guidance and navigation (G&N) equipment test program, the redesign philosophy, and the actual equipment modifications that were used to limit burn rates in an environment of 100 percent oxygen at pressures of 6.2 and 16 psia are described. The major approach was a serious basic review of the real function of the nonmetallic materials of concern. The result of this review was that the materials could be replaced, eliminated, or covered by nonflammable metallic materials. Although several low-flammability nonmetallic materials were investigated, the direct approach of cover, eliminate, or replace generally proved to be quicker and more effective.

  9. 我国电子废弃物的管理现状及发展方向%Current management status and prospect of waste electric and electronic equipment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左海强; 陈磊; 汪彩虹

    2012-01-01

    全球日益严重的电子废弃物污染已直接或间接危害到人类的生存和发展,目前发达国家都已制定了电子废弃物法律法规和管理体系,我国电子废弃物管理起步较晚,在借鉴国外先进经验的同时,更应结合本国国情,提高公众参与意识、建立健全电子废弃物回收处置网络,疏堵结合,逐步完善电子废弃物法律体系和管理制度。%Pollution from Waste electric and electronic equipment(WEEE) has been getting more serious and has been effecting the surviving and develompment of human kind worldwide directly or indirectly.Till today many developed countries has corresponsing legislation and executive management in operation.WEEE manegement in China does not have an early start but maybe we should learn from good experience abroad and combine with local situation.Public participation shall be promoted and both to-do and not-to-do should be clarified.Recycling and treatment network on WEEE should be established.Also legal and managemement system must be improved gradually.

  10. Photoelectric equipment type MFS-7 for analyzing oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, S.A.; Fridman, M.G.; Kholosha, T.V.; Ezhoda, G.D.; Nechitailov, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    The authors describe the equipment type MFS-7 which is intended for analyzing used oils for the wear products of motors. The difference between type MFS-7 and its predecessors lies in the application of computer techniques to control the equipment and process the output data; and in the design of the sample container, which allows for two methods of introducing the sample into the discharge. The photoelectric equipment consists of an excitation spectrum source IVS-28, having an ac arc mode and 1.v. spark, a polychoromator, a special sample holder for analyzing liquid samples, an electronic recording apparatus with digital voltmeter type ERU-18 and control computer system Spectr 2.2 based on a minicomputer with its own printer. The type MFS-7 equipment has been tested and put into mass production.

  11. Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the U.S.: Detailed report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Kaoru; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.; Piette, Mary Ann; Ting, Michael; Meier, Alan K.

    2001-02-01

    In spite of the recent explosive growth in the use of office and network equipment, there has been no recent study that estimates in detail how much electricity is consumed by that equipment in the United States. In this study, we examined energy use by office equipment and network equipment at the end of 1999. We classified office equipment into 11 types; for each type we estimated annual energy consumption for residential, commercial, and industrial use by combining estimates of stock, power requirements, usage, and saturation of power management. We also classified network equipment into six types and estimated the annual energy consumption for each type. We found that total direct power use by office and network equipment is about 74 TWh per year, which is about 2% of total electricity use in the U.S. When electricity used by telecommunications equipment and electronics manufacturing is included, that figure rises to 3% of all electricity use (Koomey 2000). More than 70% of the 74 TWh/year is dedicated to office equipment for commercial use. We also found that power management currently saves 23 TWh/year, and complete saturation and proper functioning of power management would achieve additional savings of 17 TWh/year. Furthermore, complete saturation of night shutdown for equipment not required to operate at night would reduce power use by an additional 7 TWh/year. Finally, we compared our current estimater with our 1995 forecast for 1999. We found that the total difference between our current estimate and the previous forecast is less than 15% and identified the factors that led to inaccuracies in the previous forecast. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in our current forecast and identified the data sets that have the largest impact on our current estimate of energy use.

  12. Radiological assessment of steam generator repair and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, M.A.; Rathbun, L.A.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous analyses of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators have been updated based on experience at Surry Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4. The sleeving repairs of degraded tubes at San Onofre Unit 1, Point Beach Unit 2, and R.E. Ginna are also analyzed. Actual occupational doses incurred during application of the various technologies used in repairs have been included, along with radioactive waste quantities and constituents. Considerable progress has been made in improving radiation protection and reducing worker dose by the development of remotely controlled equipment and the implementation of dose reduction strategies that have been successful in previous repair operations.

  13. 49 CFR 175.8 - Exceptions for operator equipment and items of replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., solid) intended for use by the operator in food and beverage service aboard the aircraft. (3) Alcoholic beverages, perfumes, colognes, and liquefied gas lighters carried aboard a passenger-carrying aircraft by...

  14. 15 CFR 740.10 - Servicing and replacement of parts and equipment (RPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such as those composed of a number of subassemblies.) Items that improve or change the basic design..., nuclear testing related to activities described in § 744.2(a) of the EAR, the chemical processing of... source and special nuclear materials, or the fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel containing plutonium,...

  15. Small Portable Analyzer Diagnostic Equipment (SPADE) Program -- Diagnostic Software Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    the beeswax - coated shaker table to guarantee good high-frequency transmission. The primary reference for performance evaluation was a sensor that is...Environment Resisting), Receptables and Plugs, General Specification for Coating , Epoxy-Polyamide Insulation Sleeving, Electrical, Heat Shrinkable...with Electrical and Electronic Equipment Insulating Compound, Electrical (for Coating Printed Circuit Assemblies) Coupling Procedures and Tables

  16. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  17. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  18. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  19. 78 FR 32274 - Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... National Park Service Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara... analysis process for the proposed replacement and potential relocation of the existing Scorpion Pier at..., Attn: Scorpion Pier Project, 1901 Spinnaker Drive, Ventura, CA 93001 or electronically to...

  20. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  1. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  2. CERN lifting equipment use authorisation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Updated procedures to obtain authorisation to use lifting equipment at CERN have been put in place. As a general rule, lifting equipment at CERN may be operated only by qualified staff, i.e. those who have had intensive training in and adequate experience of using such equipment. However, for straightforward recurrent lifting operations, the Organization issues authorisations to operate lifting equipment at CERN to people who have followed a suitable course of training. The authorisation to use lifting equipment is valid for five years. More information about the procedures will be found at the following addresses: CERN Staff: http://sc-gs.web.cern.ch/sc-gs/gs_ms/ms/freq%20topics/te_mc_FT_staff.htm Associated members of the personnel (users, ...) : http://sc-gs.web.cern.ch/sc-gs/gs_ms/ms/freq%20topics/te_mc_FT_users.htm Contractors personnel : http://sc-gs.web.cern.ch/sc-gs/gs_ms/ms/freq%20topics/te_mc_FT_peoplefromext.htm In case of questions, please send a message to: securite...

  3. Mining equipment manufacturers; 17th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping, and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  4. Mining equipment manufacturers. 13th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  5. Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities, Equipment, and Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The following facilities, equipment, and capabilities are available in the Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities and Equipment (1) Subsonic, open-jet wind tunnel with...

  6. The Mouse Replaces the Pencil: TOEFL Goes Electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Effie Papatzikou

    1998-01-01

    Describes the conversion of the Test of English as a Foreign Language to computer-based testing (CBT), explaining the impetus for change and answering questions about benefits of CBT, introduction of CBT into the U.S. and internationally, test scoring and reporting, effects of computer literacy on test scores, preparing test-takers for CBT, and…

  7. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program for Exploration of the Moon and Mars places human crews in extreme isolation in resource scarce environments. Near Earth, the discontinuation of Space Shuttle flights after 2010 will alter the up- and down-mass capacity for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is considering new options for logistics support strategies for future missions. Aerospace systems are often composed of replaceable modular blocks that minimize the need for complex service operations in the field. Such a strategy however, implies a robust and responsive logistics infrastructure with relatively low transportation costs. The modular Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) used for ISS requires relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may really be three orders of magnitude smaller. The ability to perform in-situ repair of electronics circuits at the component level can dramatically reduce the scale of spares and related logistics cost. This ability also reduces mission risk, increases crew independence and improves the overall supportability of the program. The Component-Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task under the NASA Supportability program was established to demonstrate the practicality of repair by first investigating widely used soldering materials and processes (M&P) performed by modest manual means. The work will result in program guidelines for performing manual repairs along with design guidance for circuit reparability. The next phase of CLEAR recognizes that manual repair has its limitations and some highly integrated devices are extremely difficult to handle and demand semi-automated equipment. Further, electronics repairs require a broad range of diagnostic capability to isolate the faulty components. Finally repairs must pass functional tests to determine that the repairs are successful and the circuit can be returned to service. To prevent equipment demands from exceeding spacecraft volume

  8. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  9. MULTIDISCIPLINARIDADE E TRABALHO EM EQUIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Krüger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram dois os objetivos deste trabalho: estabelecer critérios para a comparação de pesquisas científicas e analisar alguns problemas psicossociais que podem ocorrer em equipes multiprofissionais. Conclui-se que os critérios de comparação podem ser os quatro componentes de qualquer disciplina científica: o conjunto dos pressupostos filosóficos, o objeto a investigar, a metodologia de pesquisa e a linguagem técnica empregada na elaboração de teorias. Quanto às equipes multiprofissionais, foram analisados 3 problemas: a atribuição de papéis sociais, a confidencialidade das informações e as diferenças de prestígio social entre os membros dessas equipes.

  10. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  11. Potential of ZrO clusters as replacement Pd catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Swayamprabha; King, Nicholas; Jena, Puru, E-mail: pjena@vcu.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Samanta, Devleena [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Atomic clusters with specific size and composition and mimicking the chemistry of elements in the periodic table are commonly known as superatoms. It has been suggested that superatoms could be used to replace elements that are either scarce or expensive. Based on a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment of negatively charged ions, Castleman and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 975 (2010)] have recently shown that atoms of Ni, Pd, and Pt which are well known for their catalytic properties, have the same electronic structure as their counterpart isovalent diatomic species, TiO, ZrO, and WC, respectively. Based on this similarity they have suggested that ZrO, for example, could be a replacement catalyst for Pd. Since catalysts are seldom single isolated atoms, one has to demonstrate that clusters of ZrO also have the same electronic structure as same sized Pd clusters. To examine if this is indeed the case, we have calculated the geometries, electronic structure, electron affinity, ionization potential, and hardness of Pd{sub n} and (ZrO){sub n} clusters (n = 1-5). We further studied the reaction of these clusters in neutral and charged forms with H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO and found it to be qualitatively different in most cases. These results obtained using density functional theory with hybrid B3LYP functional do not support the view that ZrO clusters can replace Pd as a catalyst.

  12. Career Directions--Electronics Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Electronics technicians (ETs) work with electronics engineers to set up and maintain complicated electronics equipment that many of today's businesses rely on. The field is varied. An ET might service the industrial controls on a factory floor. Or repair missile control systems for the government. Or an ET could specialize in cars and trucks,…

  13. After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment and Inventory of Miscellaneous Plug-load Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret J.; Busch, John F.

    2004-01-22

    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of ''miscellaneous'' plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from twelve commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: two health care buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees), four education buildings, and one ''small office'' that is actually an aggregate of five small businesses. Two buildings are in the San Francisco Bay area of California, five are in

  14. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  15. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  16. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  17. Security interests under the UNIDROIT Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Saidova, Sanam

    2012-01-01

    This work examines security interests under the Cape Town Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment. The main purpose of the Convention is to provide a uniform legal regime for the creation, registration and protection of a creditor’s interests held in high value types of mobile equipment, such as aircraft, railway and space objects. The Convention provides for the creation of an autonomous international interest in these types of equipment and establishes an electronic Intern...

  18. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  19. [Proximal and total femur replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, P H; Wirtz, D C; Dürr, H R

    2012-07-01

    Reconstruction of segmental bone defects of the proximal femur following wide tumor resection or revision arthroplasty. Aggressive benign or primary malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur; destructive metastases; massive segmental bone defects of the proximal femur; periprosthetic fractures. Local infection; very short life expectancy (acetabular bone stock. Anterolateral approach. Exposure and detachment of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius muscle from the proximal femur with a sufficient safety margin to the bone; distal transsection of the vastus lateralis/intermedius and rectus femoris muscle according to the extraosseous tumor extension; distal femur osteotomy al least 3 cm beyond the farthest point of tumor extension; in case of total femur replacement, additional lateral arthrotomy of the knee with resection of the ligaments and menisci; reaming of the medullary canal after securing the shaft with a Verbrugge clamp; trial assembly and reduction followed by the definitive implantation of the prosthesis with adjustment of the femoral neck anteversion in 5° increments; soft tissue reconstruction and fixation to an attachment tube covering the prosthesis; in case of total femur replacement, the preparation of the tibia is followed by the coupling of the tibial and femoral components. Infection prophylaxis, 20 kg partial weight bearing, continuous passive motion. A total of 20  patients with proximal femur replacement and 2 patients with total femur replacement implanted between June 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had primary malignant bone tumors, while 19 patients underwent resection for metastatic disease. The mean age at surgery was 62.0 ± 18.1 years (18-82 years). Fifteen patients with a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17.2 months (4-51 months) were studied. Among the 22 cases, periprosthetic infection occurred in 3 patients (13.6%), dislocation in 2 patients (9.1%). Evaluation of the functional

  20. Strategy Guideline. HVAC Equipment Sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, FL. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  1. Lifting operations and lifting equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifting operations are inherent to many occupations in the construction industry. They can be performed manually or using lifting equipment. Both manual lifting and mechanical lifting operations can put construction workers at great risk of injury or health symptoms causing sick leave or disability.

  2. Robotic joint replacement surgery: does technology improve outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Chelsea; El-Bash, Reem; Johnson, Leslie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common disease that leads patients to seek total joint replacement (TJR). Component misalignment leads to failure of TJR. Computer navigation enhances the precision of component alignment, but the addition of robotic guidance can boost TJR to a higher level of accuracy. Some 29 English-language peer-reviewed articles from 2002 to 2013 and 1 Web site were reviewed. A conceptual framework was adapted to explain benefits and barriers of adoption of robotic TJR. A total of 10 studies were reviewed with focus on more precise alignment, outcomes, length of stay, and costs. Cost to obtain robotic surgical equipment was found to be about $1 million with maintenance costs approaching $350 000. Robotic techniques compared with conventional orthopedic surgery showed slight variances in favor of robotic procedures. Although hospitals have the potential to reduce costs and improve outcomes with robotic TJR, the expenditure and maintenance have not been proven a clear return on investment. As surgical robotic technology evolves in accuracy and accessibility, joint replacement surgery may benefit from improved precision and decreased health care costs. However, equipment purchase and upkeep costs and surgeon training may impede use to its full potential in orthopedic surgery in the United States.

  3. Electronics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  4. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  5. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  6. Energy-related laboratory equipment (ERLE) guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Used Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment grants, and eligibility and procedures for participation. The document contains tables identifying typical equipment that may be requested, where to review ERLE equipment lists, and where to mail applications, a description of the eligible equipment grants access data system, and a copy of the ERLE grant application and instructions for its completion and submission.

  7. 21 CFR 606.60 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 606.60 Section 606.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.60 Equipment. (a) Equipment used in the collection, processing,...

  8. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 27.1415 Section 27.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency... accommodate one life preserver for each occupant for which certification for ditching is requested. (c)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 29.1415 Section 29.1415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1415 Ditching equipment....

  11. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  12. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATING DRIVE SYSTEMS IN ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlobai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering machines being in operational service with military units of  engineer troops are fit to their purpose and their application is relevant in modern conditions. Maintenance of operating conditions in engineering equipment which was produced earlier by the USSR enterprises is considered as a rather complicated task due to lack of spare parts because their production has been discontinued.One of the approaches used for maintenance of engineering equipment combat capabilities is modernization of operating drive systems that presupposes replacement of mechanical systems in working element drives by hydrostatic drives which are realized while using modern element base. Usage of hydraulic units in drive systems being in mass production for replacement of mechanical systems manufactured earlier in small batches makes it possible to reduce labour inputs for maintenance and repair of machines. The paper presents some possibilities for development of operating drive systems in engineering equipment. The proposed approach is given through an example of  engineering obstacle-clearing vehicle (IMR-2M and excavation machines (MDK-3 and MDK-2M.Application of a hydraulic drive in working elements of the excavation machines permits to withdraw from cardan  shafts, a gear box, a rotary gear and an overload clutch. A hydraulic motor of the cutter and thrower drive is mounted  on a working element gearbox. While executing modernization of hydraulic systems in excavation machines a pump unit has been proposed for the cutter and thrower drive which consists of a controlled pump and a system for automatic maintenance of the pump operational parameters. While developing the operating drive systems in engineering equipment in accordance with the proposed requirements it is possible to simplify drive systems of working elements and  ensure reliable machinery operation in the units of engineer troops. 

  14. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  15. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  16. A Failing Grade for WEEE Take-Back Programs for Information Technology Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    Product take-back (also called extended producer responsibility) has become a trend for dealing with the garbage resulting from categories of problematic products. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one such category with computer equipment being of particular significance. This article provides a description of the European…

  17. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  18. Designing a power supply for Nim-bin formatted equipment; Diseno de una fuente de alimentacion para equipos con formato Nim-bin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos G, L. E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: lebluis2012@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    From an old Nuclear Chicago power supply that was practically in the trash, was able to recover the 19 inches casing, rear connectors and the housing where the circuits were. From here all mechanical parts were cleaned and the electronic design was started to replace the original voltage and current functions of this equipment. The cards for the ±6, ±12 and ±24 voltages were designed, simulated and tested with circuitry that does not rely on specialized components or that is sold only by the equipment manufacturer. In the handling of the current by each voltage to operate, was possible to tie with the specifications of the manufacturers like Ortec or Canberra where a model of power supply gives a power of 160 Watts. Basic tests were performed to show that the behavior is very similar to commercial equipment; such as the full load regulation index and the noise level in the supply voltages. So our Nim-bin voltage source is viable for use in our institution laboratories. (Author)

  19. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  20. Protecting electronic equipment in composite structures against lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, Mihai Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Damage resulting from an interaction with lightning current in a military naval vessel, especially in a conflict zone and at the time of a conflict, which leads to the incapacitation of vital activities on the ship, is unacceptable. Because many potential conflict zones are in littoral areas, and be

  1. Design of highwall mining equipment electronic guidance package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenden, B.B.; Morgen, G.P.; Shorpik, J.R.; Farrar, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides design specifics and guidance software for a guidance system intended for use in guiding an auger type highwall mining head through thin coal seams to depths of up to 600 ft. A small desk top computer is used at the operator's station to send and receive signals in serialized bit streams to a downhole microprocessor. The guidance system accepts signals from a variety of sensors and uses these signals to plot and control the course of the auger head automatically using computer algorithms designed to keep the auger head in the coal seam and maintain a specified stump thickness.

  2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    to estimate the flows for the period of 1990–2025. The estimates are based on sales data of 61 household products – equivalent to 80% (by weight) of the total household EEE – and their lifespans modelled using Weibull distribution function. Building on this, the potential resources available for recovery over...... time, and their corresponding revenues are evaluated. The results show that the amount of WEEE generated per year increased from 45 to 81 kilo tons (kt) between 1990 and 2015. The amount of EEE put on market (PoM), on the other hand, peaked to 101 kt in 2006 from 61 kt in 1991, but declined to 84 kt...

  3. Simulated E-Bomb Effects on Electronically Equipped Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    65 Figure 23. GBU-10 Paveway II (From: Bombas Guidas, 2009) ........................... 66 Figure 24. Representative Laser Guided Bomb...from the target. A picture of the GBU- 10 bomb is in Figure 23. Figure 23. GBU-10 Paveway II (From: Bombas Guidas, 2009) According to the Air...Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/blu-82.htm Bombas Guidas. Retrieved June 23 2009, from

  4. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  5. Guide Manual of Cooling Methods for Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-03-31

    in. of mercury /2.036) t is in OF. It is important to note that equations (41) and (42) are the two basic equations which enter into heat transfer...mechanical deterioration with time. Ultimately, a short circuit occurs and subsequent" cremation " re- sults. Nith class A insulation, for example...2,4 Magnesium 1.75 .025 I? I 2048 ,0083 37.6 35.8 20,000 Manganes e 8.0 .... 2246 3. 52 ..... .... .... ...... Mercury 13,58 .033 -37.97 680 .0182 1,8

  6. Review of Climatic Protection Techniques for Electronic Equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    p’rge gas flow. d. Activated Alumina This material, which is little used nowadays, is a form of hydrated aluminium oxide . Its characteristics are...film capacitive sensor. This uses a thick film paste incor- porating aluminium oxide in the form of a porous humidity sensitive glass as a dielectric

  7. Screening Panographic Maxillofacial X-Rays by Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    true for the upper jaws where the images of the maxillary sinus , orbits, zygmatic arch, nasal fossae and hard palate freuently are sueispoed over the...display the a*A=ien~tal appomatu (the teeth anid their supporting and undzving astm lytrea) on am contiiiou 5" x 12" film. 2he objective of this...the object, the film is tZaD5.D-’-d acroes the slit in the film carrer at a rate such that the image of the teeth a"ears "sharp", while the

  8. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline. Surfactant replacement therapy: 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian K; Daigle, Brandon; DiBlasi, Robert M; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2013-02-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and articles investigating surfactant replacement therapy published between January 1990 and July 2012. By inspection of titles, references having no relevance to the clinical practice guideline were eliminated. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 253 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 12 articles investigating surfactant replacement therapy. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scoring system: 1: Administration of surfactant replacement therapy is strongly recommended in a clinical setting where properly trained personnel and equipment for intubation and resuscitation are readily available. 2: Prophylactic surfactant administration is recommended for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in which surfactant deficiency is suspected. 3: Rescue or therapeutic administration of surfactant after the initiation of mechanical ventilation in infants with clinically confirmed RDS is strongly recommended. 4: A multiple surfactant dose strategy is recommended over a single dose strategy. 5: Natural exogenous surfactant preparations are recommended over laboratory derived synthetic suspensions at this time. 6: We suggest that aerosolized delivery of surfactant not be utilized at this time.

  9. OPTIMUM ORDERING POLICY FOR PREVENTIVE AGE REPLACEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN

    2009-01-01

    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  10. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  11. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  12. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  13. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  14. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  15. Leptin replacement improves cognitive development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto J Paz-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY: A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105 was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS, a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828.

  16. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  17. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  18. Waterway Equipment - Boat, Barge, Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    and service systems; deck and special machinery; and hoisting gear and equipment are operated and monitored throughout the entire test period...loaded statically to 200 percent of the ramp design hoist condition. This load is held for a minimum of three minutes. 4.6.6.2 Data Required...the contents fall short of filling a container. Wake The body of water that tends to follow a ship. It is set in motion by the friction with the

  19. Profitability Versus Construction Equipment Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH XX-05-2010 Master’s Thesis DEC 2009 - MAY 2010 Profitability Versus Construction Equipment Maintenance...optimization of a perceived profit . This project recommends a decision support model that can be used by private and public entities alike to determine the...best fir acquisition method between rent-lease-buy and guidance for profitability optimization. Methods of life cycle cost estimating and decision

  20. [Equipment and technology in robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan; Challacombe, Ben; Nedas, Tim; Elhage, Oussama; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2007-05-01

    We review the evolution and current status of robotic equipment and technology in urology. We also describe future developments in the key areas of virtual reality simulation, mechatronics and nanorobotics. The history of robotic technology is reviewed and put into the context of current systems. Experts in the associated fields of nanorobotics, mechatronics and virtual reality simulation simulation review the important future developments in these areas.