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Sample records for replace sensorial interpretation

  1. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

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    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  2. Stability Emulsion and Sensory Characteristics Low Fat Mayonnaise Using Kefir as Emulsifier Replacer

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    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mayonnaise is a kind of semi solid oil in water (o/w emulsion which containing pasteurized egg yolk as an emulsifier. The consumers have demanded that the use of egg yolk be reduced. Kefir was used to develop a low fat mayonnaise as emulsifier replacer to egg yolk. The objective of this research was to observe the emulsion stability, sensory characteristics of low fat mayonnaise prepare during kefir as emulsifier replacer. The research method was using experimental design. The result showed that formulation of low fat mayonnaise by using Rice bran oil 40%, kefir 20% produces the optimal low fat mayonnaise in emulsion stability and accepted by the panelist.

  3. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

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    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  4. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

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    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The use of inulin as fat replacer and its effect on texture and sensory properties of emulsion type sausages

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    Berizi, E.; Shekarforoush, S. S.; Mohammadinezhad, S.; Hosseinzadeh, S.; Farahnaki, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of reducing energy content in emulsion type sausages by replacing fat with inulin. In the manufactured product, the fat content was reduced to 6%-18% and replaced by inulin and water. The quality of the resulting product was determined by chemical and texture profile analyses (TPA), color measurement and sensory evaluation. The results showed that replacing fat with inulin led to a significant energy content reduction of up to 64% (with 6% inulin and 12% water). In addition, color measurement, sensory evaluation and TPA were comparable to the traditional product in the inulin treated samples. The overall acceptability of all experimental groups was adequate; therefore, inulin is suggested as a good replacement for fat in emulsion type sausages. PMID:29387097

  6. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with olive oil on the sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausage

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    M.C. Utrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six assays of low-fat venison salchichon were produced using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat added. The control contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other assays, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed significant differences for most of the attributes studied. The replacement of 35% or more of pork meat by olive oil, prompted a decrease in odour intensity, spicy odour, hardness and an increase of fat mouthfeel, together with the olive oil perception. By contrast, the replacement of 25% of pork meat by olive oil yielded a salchichon not greatly different to the control. Consumers accepted all assays, but preferred those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. From a sensory standpoint, therefore, it is recommended that the replacement of pork meat by olive oil in this product should not exceed 25%.

  7. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert

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    Annamalai Manickvasagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste products or among various levels of replacements in cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and chewiness of kesari.  The developed kesari scored 5.5 to 7.5 on a 9 level hedonic scale (like slightly-like moderately in all sensory attributes.  Replacement of sugar at 75% and 100% levels, significantly lowered the scores for most of the sensory attributes.  Around 50% of the panellist in informed sensory, selected 50% replaced products (paste or syrup as their first choice.

  8. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of noodles produced with partial replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour

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    Víctor Samir Vedia-Quispe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pasta is a worldwide high consumption and acceptability food due to its low cost, easy preparation and storage. Pasta is usually made of edible wheat semolina and water. The replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour stimulates the development of new products and improves nutritional profile of pasta. The aim of this study was to assess physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of noodles made with partially replaced wheat semolina by whole grain and raw amaranth flours. Material and Methods: We evaluated the effect of the partial substitution (20% and 30% of wheat semolina using raw amaranth and whole grain amaranth flours in physicochemical, microbiological, quality characteristics and sensory analysis of acceptance. Results: The best treatment was the combination of 70% wheat semolina and 30% raw amaranth, where flavor was the factor in the overall acceptance, and some quality parameters correlated with the sensory responses. All pastas show sanitary quality and food safety. Conclusions: The partial substitution of amaranth flour, either raw or whole grain, improved significantly physicochemical characteristics of fiber with an increase of 60% and 140% in minerals (calcium and iron in the noodles.

  9. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert)

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai Manickvasagan; Chandini S Kumar; Zaher H Al-Attabi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste pr...

  10. The effect of replacing pork fat of inulin on the physicochemical and sensory quality of guinea fowl pate.

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    Latoch, Agnieszka; Glibowski, Paweł; Libera, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Potentially, pâtés could be a functional food and are an important source of proteins, vitamin A, B complex vitamins and iron. Unfortunately, one problem in pâtés is the high level of animal fat, about 30%. Pâté with low-fat guinea fowl meat and animal fat replaced with inulin can result in this product being classified as a pro-health food. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect on pâté with guinea fowl meat of reducing its pork back fat content (about 1/3, 2/3 and 100%) and the adding inulin as a partial fat substitute. The effects on the pâté's chemical and physicochemical composition, as well as on its textural characteristics and sensory properties were analysed. On the day after production, the following took place: chemical analysis: cooking loss, moisture, protein, total fat, total calories, the pH, lipid oxidation were analysed; physical analysis: colour parameters, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation were analysed. The pâté prepared with inulin gels as fat replacers had a fat content reduced (up to 82%), and decreased (up to 58%) energy value. The fat reduction and addition of inulin gels decreased hardness and chewiness, but the pâté's appearance, taste and odour, as well as overall quality were similar to the control (full-fat samples). The study demonstrated that inulin can be used in guinea fowl pâtés as a total fat replacer and a potential source of prebiotic.

  11. Replacement

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    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  12. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

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    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  13. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

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    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  14. Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea.

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    Ruth R Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals

  15. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

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    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  16. Clinical Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing as a Measure of Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

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    Brandow, Amanda M.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display significantly lower mean/median thermal and mechanical pain thresholds compared to controls. This suggests impaired pain sensitivity where stimuli produce exaggerated pain. Despite these mean/median differences, clinicians need to understand if patients meet criteria for impaired pain sensitivity. We defined thresholds for impaired cold, heat, and mechanical pain sensitivity in SCD patients. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST) we assessed c...

  17. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

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    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  18. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

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    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of the sensory experience and post-ingestive measures for understanding food satisfaction. A case study on sucrose replacement by Stevia rebaudiana and addition of beta glucan in fruit drinks

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    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Mielby, Line H.; Viemose, Ida

    2017-01-01

    apple-cherry fruit drinks with different levels of beta-glucans and different sweeteners, sucrose or Stevia rebaudiana. The aims were: 1) to study the hedonic sensory experience, 2) to study time and product effects on post-ingestive sensations and satisfaction, and 3) to study main drivers....... Satisfaction with sensory attributes was found to be the main driver of food satisfaction, while post-ingestive sensations drove satisfaction as well. While replacing sucrose with Stevia rebaudiana did not affect the hedonic and post-ingestive sensations, addition of beta glucan resulted in both positive...

  20. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

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    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  1. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with an olive oil organogel on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausages.

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    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-08-01

    A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% of the pork meat were replaced by olive oil introduced in the form of an organogel (olive oil emulsified with soy protein and water). All types were satisfactory in terms of physicochemical characteristics (pH, a(w), moisture loss) and instrumental colour throughout ripening, and displayed acceptable levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Higher proportions of olive oil prompted an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content (mainly C18:1). All six types of salchichon were judged acceptable by consumers, the highest scores being given to those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

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    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  3. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

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    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  4. Variable sensory perception in autism.

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    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

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    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  6. Ankle replacement

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    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  7. Knee Replacement

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    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  8. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

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    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  9. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

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    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  10. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  11. The Study on Food Sensory Evaluation based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Wang; Huijuan Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it explores the procedures and methods of the system for establishing food sensory evaluation based on particle swarm optimization algorithm, by means of explaining the interpretation of sensory evaluation and sensory analysis, combined with the applying situation of sensory evaluation in food industry.

  12. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  13. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  14. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  15. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  16. Interpretative commenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  17. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  18. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  19. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  20. Verification and clarification of patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Zoe; Mulligan, Shelley; Roley, Susanne Smith; Blanche, Erna; Cermak, Sharon; Coleman, Gina Geppert; Bodison, Stefanie; Lane, Christianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building on established relationships between the constructs of sensory integration in typical and special needs populations, in this retrospective study we examined patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction in 273 children ages 4-9 who had received occupational therapy evaluations in two private practice settings. Test results on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, portions of the Sensory Processing Measure representing tactile overresponsiveness, and parent report of attention and activity level were included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis identified patterns similar to those found in early studies by Ayres (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, & 1989), namely Visuodyspraxia and Somatodyspraxia, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Bilateral Integration and Sequencing, Tactile and Visual Discrimination, and Tactile Defensiveness and Attention. Findings reinforce associations between constructs of sensory integration and assist with understanding sensory integration disorders that may affect childhood occupation. Limitations include the potential for subjective interpretation in factor analysis and inability to adjust measures available in charts in a retrospective research.

  1. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  2. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  3. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  4. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  6. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  7. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  8. Performing Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  9. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  10. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  12. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  13. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  14. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  15. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  16. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  17. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  18. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  19. Fuzzy Models to Deal with Sensory Data in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serge Guillaume; Brigitte Charnomordic

    2004-01-01

    Sensory data are, due to the lack of an absolute reference, imprecise and uncertain data. Fuzzy logic can handle uncertainty and can be used in approximate reasoning. Automatic learning procedures allow to generate fuzzy reasoning rules from data including numerical and symbolic or sensory variables. We briefly present an induction method that was developed to extract qualitative knowledge from data samples. The induction process is run under interpretability constraints to ensure the fuzzy rules have a meaning for the human expert. We then study two applied problems in the food industry: sensory evaluation and process modeling.

  20. Sensory ERPs predict differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2004-02-09

    The way our brain reacts to sensory stimulation may provide important clues about higher-level cognitive function and its operation. Here we show that short-latency (memory span, as well as between subjects scoring high and low on a fluid intelligence test. Our findings also suggest that this link between sensory responses and complex cognitive tasks is modality specific (visual sensory measures correlate with visuo-spatial tasks whereas auditory sensory measures correlate with verbal tasks). We interpret these findings as indicating that people's effectiveness in controlling attention and gating sensory information is a critical determinant of individual differences in complex cognitive abilities.

  1. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  2. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  3. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  4. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  5. The sensory system acts with a neuromedin U signaling pathway to mediate food type-dependent effects on lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Adilov, Bakhtiyor

    2010-01-01

    In order to survive, the animal uses its sensory system to interpret the complexity of its environment. Interestingly, a subset of sensory neurons, which function in taste or olfaction, has been found to influence the lifespan of C. elegans and Drosophila. Although the mechanisms by which these neurons affect lifespan are unknown, the nature of these neurons suggest that the sensory influence on lifespan is mediated by food-derived cues. This thesis shows that sensory neurons r...

  6. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  7. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  8. Sensory matched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  10. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  11. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  12. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  13. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  14. Associative Learning and Sensory Neuroplasticity: How Does It Happen and What Is It Good For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the body's sensory systems have been presumed to provide the brain with raw information about the external environment, which the brain must interpret to select a behavioral response. Consequently, studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory have focused on circuitry that interfaces between sensory inputs and behavioral…

  15. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  16. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  17. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  18. Sensory Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    little note of the body-mind interactions we have with the material world. Utilizing examples from primary schools, it is argued that a sensory pedagogy in science requires a deliberate sensitization and validation of the senses’ presence and that a sensor pedagogy approach may reveal the unique ways...... in how we all experience the world. Troubling science education pedagogy is therefore also a reconceptualization of who we are and how we make sense of the world and the acceptance that the body-mind is present, imbalanced and complex....

  19. The changing sensory room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the kindergarten The Milky Way in the city Vejle in Denmark made a sensory room that has the special ability change whenever wanted by the children and social educators. Kjetil Sandvik (to the right) from Copenhagen University and Klaus Thestrup from Aarhus University reflects upon what...... they saw, took part in and talked with the social educators about. Jacob Knudsen from VIFIN filmed the two gentlemen and organised the project. it is a room composed around common experiments, many self-made objects, open narrative structures. and a combination of digital and analogue elements....

  20. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  1. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  2. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  3. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-Kumar; B, Nataraju; Bs, Nagaraja

    2014-07-01

    In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ≥ 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts ( 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy.

  4. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  5. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  6. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  7. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  8. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  9. Sensory characteristics of camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G

    1990-05-01

    The perceptual effects of camphor on hairy skin were measured in a psychophysical experiment. Subjects rated the intensity and quality of sensations produced when a solution of 20% camphor (in a vehicle of ethanol and deionized H2O) was applied topically to the volar forearm. Under conditions in which skin temperature was varied either from 33-43 degrees C or from 33-18 degrees C, it was found that camphor increased the perceived intensity of the cutaneous sensations produced during heating and cooling. Although camphor's effect appeared to be greater during warming, neither effect was large. Camphor also produced a significant increase in the frequency of reports of "burning." It is concluded that camphor is a relatively weak sensory irritant that may have a modest excitatory effect on thermosensitive (and perhaps nociceptive) cutaneous fibers.

  10. Prebiotic attributes of inulin enriched biscuits: sensory and nutritional aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihing, C.; Mageshwari, S. U.

    2018-03-01

    The study aims to develop an enriched functional biscuit with prebiotic inulin and to understand the impact of addition of different levels of inulin on sensory and nutritional properties of the biscuits. A standard biscuit and three variations namely P1, P2 and P3 were formulated and standardized through test and trial method to get consistent final products. Inulin was added replacing fat in the standard-0%, P1- 100% P2-62% and P3-37%. The biscuits were evaluated by 15 panel members for sensory attributes i.e. appearance, colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Nutrients analysis for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, free fatty acid and total antioxidant activity were done using standard procedures. Addition of inulin can give rise to products with different rheological behaviour and sensory characteristics. P2 (62% fat replaced) was acceptable with a high score for overall acceptability (7.45±0.39). Fat content was found to be highest in P3 (25.88gm). The inulin content in P1, P2 and P3 was 25.7gm, 34.5gm and 19.1 gm respectively. Antioxidant activity was also observed in all the biscuits and activity was highest in P2 (229.54μg). The partial replacement of fat by inulin in the production of biscuits was effective in reducing the fat content in the final product. A significant difference in taste (p=0.004) and texture (p=0.048) and was observed among the biscuit variations. The formulation P2, with 62 % fat replacement by inulin, presented similar results to the standard product, being the formulation with the greatest sensory acceptance and physical characteristics.

  11. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was al...

  12. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  13. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Latent constructs underlying sensory subtypes in children with autism: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brittany N; Dennis, Simon; Lane, Alison E

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-12 years. Caregiver responses on the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), used to establish Lane's sensory subtypes, were extracted from two existing datasets (total n = 287). Independent component analyses were conducted to test the fit and interpretability of a two-construct structure underlying the SSP, and therefore, the sensory subtypes. The first construct was largely comprised of the taste/smell sensitivity domain, which describes hyper-reactivity to taste and smell stimuli. The second construct had a significant contribution from the low energy/weak domain, which describes behaviors that may be indicative of difficulties with multisensory integration. Findings provide initial support for our hypothesis that sensory reactivity and multisensory integration underlie Lane's sensory subtypes in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1364-1371. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  16. Cancer patients and positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how cancer patients experience the meaning of positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment such as architecture, decoration and the interior. Data were obtained at a general hospital in Denmark by interviewing six cancer patients at two different wards. The analysis...... process was guided by the hermeneutical–phenomenological theory of interpretation as presented by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes were identified: to preserve identity and positive thoughts and feelings. The participants experienced that positive sensory impressions in the hospital...... to recall some of their feelings of identity. This paper adds knowledge about how cancer patients experience sensory impressions in the hospital environment. An environment that provides homeliness and offers a view to nature seems to help some patients to preserve their identity. Furthermore, positive...

  17. The effect of diet and DHA addition on the sensory quality of goat kid meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Morales-Delanuez, Antonio; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo Enrique; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio

    2012-02-01

    To enhance the nutritional quality of meat, dietary strategies have been developed to manipulate the fatty acid profiles of muscle tissue. Fatty acids affect meat attributes, including hardness, colour and lipid stability, and flavour. Little research has been done, however, on the effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on the sensory characteristics of meat. To address this issue, six diets were fed to goat kids: goat's milk, powdered whole cow's milk, powdered whole cow's milk plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (low dose), milk replacer, milk replacer plus DHA (low dose), and milk replacer plus DHA (high dose). A descriptive, semi-trained sensory evaluation and a consumer triangular test were performed to analyse the resulting meat. High doses of omega-3 PUFA produced meat with unusual odours, unpleasant flavours, and low overall appreciation scores. Low doses of DHA maintained a positive sensory perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Awfully afraid? Dissociating decision- from motor- and sensory-related brain activation during perceptual choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobler, P.N.; Kalenscher, T.

    2007-01-01

    We constantly make decisions about how to interpret our current situation and what to do next. Such decisions usually reflect available sensory input and the potential costs and benefits of choosing a particular interpretation or course of action over another. Facial expressions are a particularly

  19. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  20. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  1. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  2. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  3. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  4. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  5. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  6. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  7. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  8. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  9. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use of ...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  10. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  12. Crossmodal Perceptual Learning and Sensory Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.

  13. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  14. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  15. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  16. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  17. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  18. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  19. ADAM10 and gamma-secretase regulate sensory regeneration in the avian vestibular organs

    OpenAIRE

    Warchol, M. E.; Stone, J.; Barton, M.; Ku, J.; Veile, R.; Daudet, N.; Lovett, M.

    2017-01-01

    The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined mo...

  20. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carrie...

  1. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  2. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Sensory memory of illusory depth in structure-from-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Lissner, Anna; Füllekrug, Jana; Braun, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    When multistable displays (stimuli consistent with two or more equally plausible perceptual interpretations) are presented intermittently, their perceptions are stabilized by sensory memory. Independent memory traces are generated not only for different types of multistable displays (Maier, Wilke, Logothetis, & Leopold, Current Biology 13:1076-1085, 2003), but also for different ambiguous features of binocular rivalry (Pearson & Clifford, Journal of Vision 4:196-202, 2004). In the present study, we examined whether a similar independence of sensory memories is observed in structure-from-motion (SFM), a multistable display with two ambiguous properties. In SFM, a 2-D planar motion creates a vivid impression of a rotating 3-D volume. Both the illusory rotation and illusory depth (i.e., how close parts of an object appear to the observer) of an SFM object are ambiguous. We dissociated the sensory memories of these two ambiguous properties by using an intermittent presentation in combination with a forced-ambiguous-switch paradigm (Pastukhov, Vonau, & Braun, PLoS ONE 7:e37734, 2012). We demonstrated that the illusory depth of SFM generates a sensory memory trace that is independent from that of illusory rotation. Despite this independence, the specificities levels of the sensory memories were identical for illusory depth and illusory rotation. The history effect was weakened by a change in the volumetric property of a shape (whether it was a hollow band or a filled drum volume), but not by changes in color or size. We discuss how these new results constrain models of sensory memory and SFM processing.

  4. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    , which is usually considered a sign of centralization. In addition there was cutaneous hypoesthesia, but since there was no obvious correlation to the localization of trauma, these findings may indicate centrally evoked disturbances in sensory transmission, that is, central inhibition. We interpret these findings as a sign of changes in central sensory processing as the unifying pathological mechanism of chronic pain in these persons.

  5. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  6. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  7. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  8. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  10. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  12. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-04-05

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research.

  13. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C. J.; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research. PMID:22371612

  14. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  15. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...

  16. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  17. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  18. Sensory and Physical Effects of Sugar Reduction in a Caramel Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily J; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2017-08-01

    Sugar reduction in processed foods is a pressing and complex problem, as sugars contribute important sensory and physical properties to foods. Composed of sugars and lipids, caramel coating systems, like the coating in caramel popcorns, exemplify this challenge. In order to probe the feasibility and consequences of sugar reduction, both sensory and physical properties were measured for 3 types of caramel coating systems. Four commonly used sugar alcohols, isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, with different thermal properties and relative sweetness values were chosen to replace sugar in the caramel coating systems at 25% and 50% sugar reduction levels. Full sugar (control) and reduced sugar caramel coating samples were prepared in duplicate. Ten trained panelists participated in a 6-wk descriptive analysis panel to define and quantify the intensity of important sensory characteristics. All 24 sensory terms generated by the panel differed significantly across caramel type and sugar replacer. Thermal properties were measured through differential scanning calorimetry, and textural properties were measured through texture profile analysis. Replacement of sugar with sugar alcohols was found to decrease the glass transition temperature and systematically alter the hardness and resilience of caramel samples. Principal component analysis of sensory and physical data revealed that caramel coating type dictates caramel aroma, aroma by mouth, taste, and aftertaste, while sugar replacer and replacement level dictate texture. This research represents the first comprehensive study of the effects of sugar reduction in a caramel coating system and suggests successful strategies for sugar reduction and key parameters to control in reduced sugar systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  20. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  1. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  2. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  3. Embodied Space: a Sensorial Approach to Spatial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Maria João

    2009-03-01

    A reflection is presented on the significance of the role of the body in the interpretation and future creation of spatial living structures. The paper draws on the body as cartography of sensorial meaning that includes vision, touch, smell, hearing, orientation and movement to discuss possible relationships with psychological and sociological parameters of 'sensorial space'. The complex dynamics of body-space is further explored from the standpoint of perceptual variables such as color, light, materialities, texture and their connections with design, technology, culture and symbology. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of knowledge and experimentation in the design of future habitats where body-sensitive frameworks encompass flexibility, communication, interaction and cognitive-driven solutions.

  4. Politicization and the Replacement of Top Civil Servants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Grønnegård; Opstrup, Niels; Klemmensen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article of top civil servants in Danish central and local government sheds new light on politicization. A survival analysis shows that since 1970, the risk that a top civil servant will be replaced has increased. There is no evidence of politicization in central government while city managers......’ risk of replacement increases both when a new mayor, representing another party and holding an absolute majority, and when the shift of mayor takes place within the same party. We interpret these results as evidence of the adaptability of the merit civil service and political executives’ stronger...... insistence on their authority to make discretionary replacements....

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  7. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  8. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  9. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  10. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  11. Structural and Functional Substitution of Deleted Primary Sensory Neurons by New Growth from Intrinsic Spinal Cord Nerve Cells: An Alternative Concept in Reconstruction of Spinal Cord Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent clinical report, return of the tendon stretch reflex was demonstrated after spinal cord surgery in a case of total traumatic brachial plexus avulsion injury. Peripheral nerve grafts had been implanted into the spinal cord to reconnect to the peripheral nerves for motor and sensory function. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG containing the primary sensory nerve cells had been surgically removed in order for secondary or spinal cord sensory neurons to extend into the periphery and replace the deleted DRG neurons. The present experimental study uses a rat injury model first to corroborate the clinical finding of a re-established spinal reflex arch, and second, to elucidate some of the potential mechanisms underlying these findings by means of morphological, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological assessments. Our findings indicate that, after spinal cord surgery, the central nervous system sensory system could replace the traumatically detached original peripheral sensory connections through new neurite growth from dendrites.

  12. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  13. Monitoring the sensory quality of canned white asparagus through cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Inés; Ibañez, Francisco C; Torre, Paloma

    2016-05-01

    White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensory properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors, and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors, and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. AHC grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Popp, Martin; Bongartz, Annette

    2014-08-01

    Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves - which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds - may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping - but not discriminatory - effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the 'ripe fruity' and 'sweet' axis and opposite to the 'bitter' and 'other attributes' (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  16. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  17. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  19. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  20. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  1. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  2. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    compounds and consequently change the sensory quality in wine which provide the useful information of wine quality management to winemakers to as well as knowledge on the behaviour of wine oxidation. Additional, studies focused on understanding the development of volatiles during accelerated cheese ripening......In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves...

  3. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction Integration and Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Whitmire, A.; Williams, T.; Young, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability to support crew health and performance for exploration missions. Meal replacement with nutritionally balanced, 700-900 calorie bars was identified as a method to reduce mass. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced, high quality, breakfast replacement bars, which enable a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, all of which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensory, and shelf-life requirements. The four highest scoring bars were evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. color and texture), and microbiological compliance over a period of two years to predict long-term acceptability. All bars maintained overall acceptability throughout the first year of storage, despite minor changes in color and texture. However, added vitamins C, B1, and B9 degraded rapidly in fortified samples of Banana Nut bars, indicating the need for additional development. In addition to shelf-life testing, four bar varieties were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), campaign 3, to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented, based on impact to satiety and psychosocial measurements. Crewmembers (n=16) were asked to consume meal replacement bars every day for the first fifteen days of the mission and every three days for the second half of the mission. Daily surveys assessed the crew's responses to bar acceptability, mood, food fatigue and perceived stress. Preliminary results indicate that the

  4. Deriving Dorsal Spinal Sensory Interneurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs, which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs. Two developmentally relevant factors, retinoic acid in combination with bone morphogenetic protein 4, can be used to generate three classes of sensory INs: the proprioceptive dI1s, the dI2s, and mechanosensory dI3s. Critical to this protocol is the competence state of the neural progenitors, which changes over time. This protocol will facilitate developing cellular replacement therapies to reestablish sensory connections in injured patients. : In this article, Gupta and colleagues describe a robust protocol to derive spinal dorsal sensory interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells using the sequential addition of RA and BMP4. They find that neural progenitors must be in the correct competence state to respond to RA/BMP4 as dorsalizing signals. This competence state changes over time and determines the efficiency of the protocol. Keywords: spinal cord, neurons, sensory interneurons, proprioception, mechanosensation, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, directed differentiation, primate spinal cord, mouse spinal cord

  5. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  6. Opposite influence of perceptual memory on initial and prolonged perception of sensory ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.C.; Knapen, T.; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Observers continually make unconscious inferences about the state of the world based on ambiguous sensory information. This process of perceptual decision-making may be optimized by learning from experience. We investigated the influence of previous perceptual experience on the interpretation of

  7. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  8. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  9. Schrodinger's mechanics interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David B

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been in dispute for nearly a century with no sign of a resolution. Using a careful examination of the relationship between the final form of classical particle mechanics (the Hamilton–Jacobi Equation) and Schrödinger's mechanics, this book presents a coherent way of addressing the problems and paradoxes that emerge through conventional interpretations.Schrödinger's Mechanics critiques the popular way of giving physical interpretation to the various terms in perturbation theory and other technologies and places an emphasis on development of the theory and not on an axiomatic approach. When this interpretation is made, the extension of Schrödinger's mechanics in relation to other areas, including spin, relativity and fields, is investigated and new conclusions are reached.

  10. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...... social theoretical accounts of the case. In disagreements between different normative interpretations, appeals are often made to the ‘context', so it is also considered what roles ‘context' might play in debates over normative interpretations...

  11. Principles of radiological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional radiographic procedures (plain film) are the most frequently utilized imaging modality in the evaluation of the skeletal system. This chapter outlines the essentials of skeletal imaging, anatomy, physiology, and interpretation

  12. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Greiff

    Full Text Available The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+. A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+ was replaced by K(+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt, a replacement of Na(+-ions by K(+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  13. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  14. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  15. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-01-01

    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

  16. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-25

    May 25, 2011 ... This article described a qualitative study that investigated the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement ... of the exodus of health professionals affecting the medical fraternity, as .... and interpret the meanings and effects of specific phenomena. ... as an early indicator of topic and location selection by.

  18. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  19. INULIN AS A PREBIOTIC AND FAT REPLACER IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vasilev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat reduction in meat products is demanded by consumers concerninghealth issues but represents a serious challenge for meat industry as fatty tissue plays an important role for the products properties. Because of that, a special attention is paid to the substances that could replace fatty tissue in meat products. Inulin represents a non digestible fructooligosaccharide that on the one hand represents a good prebiotic substance and from the other hand posses such technological propeties that make it a good fat replacer. In  aqueous systems inulin forms a gel having a structure similar to fats, it has neutral taste and smell and have no impact on the aroma of meat products. Inulin could be added to meat products in form of powder as well as a water suspension. Low fat fermented sausages with good sensory quality could be produced with the addition of inulin as a fat replacer, and such products have abit lower pH- and aw-value and contain a higher number of lactic acid bacteria then conventional products. In heat treated sausages, inulin improves water holding capacity and stability of the low fat meat batter, which reduces cooking loss and shows no adverse effect on the sensory properties of the low fat product. But, there are also certain limitations because it should be paid attention to the degree of polymerization as well as the amount of inulin added the product. Otherwise, on the one hand there could be some adverse effectson sensory properties of the product and from the other hand an excessive amount of inulin could lead to digestive problems by consumers.

  20. Regeneration and replacement in the vertebrate inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Jonathan I; Parker, Mark A; Ryals, Brenda M; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2005-10-01

    Deafness affects more than 40 million people in the UK and the USA, and many more world-wide. The primary cause of hearing loss is damage to or death of the sensory receptor cells in the inner ear, the hair cells. Birds can readily regenerate their cochlear hair cells but the mammalian cochlea has shown no ability to regenerate after damage. Current research efforts are focusing on gene manipulation, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation for repairing or replacing damaged mammalian cochlear hair cells, which could lead to therapies for treating deafness in humans.

  1. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  2. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  3. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  4. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  5. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  6. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  7. Sensory factors in food satisfaction. An understanding of the satisfaction term and a measurement of factors involved in sensory- and food satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad

    Satisfaction is suggested as a holistic response variable when measuring consumers’ hedonic food appreciation. However, “satisfaction” is a relatively new term within sensory science research. Thus, knowledge is needed about how to interpret the term, and about which factors that influence...... response variable “overall liking”, where focus is at the hedonic experience of the foods sensory properties. However, more studies are needed to clarify how “sensory satisfaction” is different from “overall liking”. “Food satisfaction” can be used as a holistic term for food appreciation. In order...... to be able to generalise the results found in the present PhD project, studies are needed which utilise a broader range of products within the same food category, as well as studies that compare results between food categories....

  8. Informal interpreting in general practice: Are interpreters' roles related to perceived control, trust, and satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was twofold. First, we examined how often and which roles informal interpreters performed during consultations between Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and general practitioners (GPs). Second, relations between these roles and patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust in informal interpreters and satisfaction with the consultation were assessed. A coding instrument was developed to quantitatively code informal interpreters' roles from transcripts of 84 audio-recorded interpreter-mediated consultations in general practice. Patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust and satisfaction were assessed in a post consultation questionnaire. Informal interpreters most often performed the conduit role (almost 25% of all coded utterances), and also frequently acted as replacers and excluders of patients and GPs by asking and answering questions on their own behalf, and by ignoring and omitting patients' and GPs' utterances. The role of information source was negatively related to patients' trust and the role of GP excluder was negatively related to patients' perceived control. Patients and GPs are possibly insufficiently aware of the performed roles of informal interpreters, as these were barely related to patients' and GPs' perceived trust, control and satisfaction. Patients and GPs should be educated about the possible negative consequences of informal interpreting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  10. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  11. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  12. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  13. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  14. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  16. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  17. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  18. Combining symbolic cues with sensory input and prior experience in an iterative Bayesian framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Hermi Petzschner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception and action are the result of an integration of various sources of information, such as current sensory input, prior experience, or the context in which a stimulus occurs. Often, the interpretation is not trivial hence needs to be learned from the co-occurrence of stimuli. Yet, how do we combine such diverse information to guide our action?Here we use a distance production-reproduction task to investigate the influence of auxiliary, symbolic cues, sensory input, and prior experience on human performance under three different conditions that vary in the information provided. Our results indicate that subjects can (1 learn the mapping of a verbal, symbolic cue onto the stimulus dimension and (2 integrate symbolic information and prior experience into their estimate of displacements.The behavioral results are explained by to two distinct generative models that represent different structural approaches of how a Bayesian observer would combine prior experience, sensory input, and symbolic cue information into a single estimate of displacement. The first model interprets the symbolic cue in the context of categorization, assuming that it reflects information about a distinct underlying stimulus range (categorical model. The second model applies a multi-modal integration approach and treats the symbolic cue as additional sensory input to the system, which is combined with the current sensory measurement and the subjects’ prior experience (cue-combination model. Notably, both models account equally well for the observed behavior despite their different structural assumptions. The present work thus provides evidence that humans can interpret abstract symbolic information and combine it with other types of information such as sensory input and prior experience. The similar explanatory power of the two models further suggest that issues such as categorization and cue-combination could be explained by alternative probabilistic approaches.

  19. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Stephanie J; McNair, Steven W; Kayser, Christoph

    2016-04-26

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task.

  20. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  1. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  2. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation is the final phase of an LCA where the results of the other phases are considered together and analysed in the light of the uncertainties of the applied data and the assumptions that have been made and documented throughout the study. This chapter teaches how to perform an inte...

  3. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  4. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  5. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  6. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tavassoli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD. To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ and Systemizing Quotient (SQ to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions, Sensory processing disorder, Sensory symptoms, Empathy, Systemizing

  7. Why do unusual novel foods like insects lack sensory appeal? Investigating the underlying sensory perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Tibboel, Claudia Joyce; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects generally hold little sensory appeal for consumers, but little is known about the underlying sensory perceptions and how the properties of the food contribute to acceptance. This study examined the sensory perceptions of 3 unusual novel foods (lamb brain, frog

  8. Structural, textural and sensory impact of sodium reduction on long fermented pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, Isabelle; Neußer, Christian; Moroni, Alice V; Gysler, Christof; Spagnolello, Alessandro; Chung, Wookyung; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the microstructural, textural, and sensory impact of sodium reduction and its partial replacement by potassium chloride in pizza dough and crusts prepared by a traditional long fermentation process. For the first time, macrostructural changes in texture were elucidated and quantified by a novel protein network analysis. The fermentation process exerted a strengthening effect in the doughs, allowing to reduce sodium up to 25% without any negative impact on texture. Sodium reduction by 15% did not cause any significant textural changes in pizza crusts and partial replacement by KCl resulted in a strengthened dough and firmer pizza crust. The use of toppings masked the effect of lowering the sodium content, allowing to increase the reduction level from 15% to 35%. A reduction of NaCl by 25% with an addition of KCl achieved high acceptance in the sensory evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher SERIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pogaca is a traditional high-fat bakery product in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat replacement in pogaca formulation by various amounts (5, 10 and 15 g on 100 g wheat flour basis of inulin, polydextrose and maltodextrin on the properties of dough and quality of pogaca. Dough stickiness values were increased by increasing the amount of fat replacer at the all fat reduction levels (20, 30 and 40% studied. Extensibility and resistance to extension values of dough were also significantly changed due to the fat replacement. Sensory analysis of pogaca showed that the formulations prepared by maltodextrin and polydextrose generally received higher scores than the formulation prepared by inulin. Overall, it was observed that up to 30% of the fat can be replaced in pogaca formulation without any decrease in the physical, textural and sensory quality of pogaca.

  10. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher SERIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Pogaca is a traditional high-fat bakery product in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat replacement in pogaca formulation by various amounts (5, 10 and 15 g on 100 g wheat flour basis of inulin, polydextrose and maltodextrin on the properties of dough and quality of pogaca. Dough stickiness values were increased by increasing the amount of fat replacer at the all fat reduction levels (20, 30 and 40% studied. Extensibility and resistance to extension values of dough were also significantly changed due to the fat replacement. Sensory analysis of pogaca showed that the formulations prepared by maltodextrin and polydextrose generally received higher scores than the formulation prepared by inulin. Overall, it was observed that up to 30% of the fat can be replaced in pogaca formulation without any decrease in the physical, textural and sensory quality of pogaca.

  11. Tactile and non-tactile sensory paradigms for fMRI and neurophysiologic studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Bailey, Christopher J; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a popular functional imaging tool for human studies. Future diagnostic use of fMRI depends, however, on a suitable neurophysiologic interpretation of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change. This particular goal is best achieved in animal models primarily due to the invasive nature of other methods used and/or pharmacological agents applied to probe different nuances of neuronal (and glial) activity coupled to the BOLD signal change. In the last decade, we have directed our efforts towards the development of stimulation protocols for a variety of modalities in rodents with fMRI. Cortical perception of the natural world relies on the formation of multi-dimensional representation of stimuli impinging on the different sensory systems, leading to the hypothesis that a sensory stimulus may have very different neurophysiologic outcome(s) when paired with a near simultaneous event in another modality. Before approaching this level of complexity, reliable measures must be obtained of the relatively small changes in the BOLD signal and other neurophysiologic markers (electrical activity, blood flow) induced by different peripheral stimuli. Here we describe different tactile (i.e., forepaw, whisker) and non-tactile (i.e., olfactory, visual) sensory paradigms applied to the anesthetized rat. The main focus is on development and validation of methods for reproducible stimulation of each sensory modality applied independently or in conjunction with one another, both inside and outside the magnet. We discuss similarities and/or differences across the sensory systems as well as advantages they may have for studying essential neuroscientific questions. We envisage that the different sensory paradigms described here may be applied directly to studies of multi-sensory interactions in anesthetized rats, en route to a rudimentary understanding of the awake functioning brain where various sensory cues presumably

  12. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  13. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  14. CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesola Osibona

    Presently, there are numerous problems facing the field of fisheries, some of which are related to the keeping ... The two main methods of assessing fish quality are sensory and non-sensory ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample ..... The initial lag phase of micro-organisms in the stored fish was followed by an increase in ...

  15. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  16. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  17. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  18. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  19. [Sensory integration: hierarchy and synchronization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V I

    2005-01-01

    This is the first in the series of mini-reviews devoted to the basic problems and most important effects of attention in terms of neuronal modeling. We believe that the absence of the unified view on wealth of new date on attention is the main obstacle for further understanding of higher nervous activity. The present work deals with the main ground problem of reconciling two competing architectures designed to integrate the sensory information in the brain. The other mini-reviews will be concerned with the remaining five or six problems of attention, all of them to be ultimately resolved uniformly in the framework of small modification of dominant model of attention and memory.

  20. The effect of L-dopa in Parkinson's disease as revealed by neurophysiological studies of motor and sensory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This review will first discuss evidence of motor and sensory abnormalities as yielded by neurophysiological techniques in patients with PD. It will then go on to describe the effects of L-dopa replacement on motor and sensory abnormalities in PD as assessed by neurophysiological studies. Areas covered: We analyzed papers in English using Pubmed with the following keywords: L-dopa, dopamine, bradykinesia, basal ganglia, kinematic analysis, TMS, motor cortex plasticity, motor cortex excitability, somatosensory discrimination threshold, pain Expert commentary: L-dopa improves the amplitude and speed of upper limb voluntary movements, but it does not restore abnormalities in the sequence effect or voluntary facial movements. L-dopa only partially normalizes changes in motor cortex excitability and plasticity and has also contrasting effects on the sensory system and on sensory-motor integration. The neurophysiological studies reviewed here show that PD is more than a hypo-dopaminergic disease, and non-dopaminergic mechanisms should also be considered.

  1. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR) on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, ...

  2. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    that individuals can improve sensory and sociosensory resolution through deliberate sensory reintegration practices. We conclude that we humans are the victims of our own success, our hands so skilled they fill the world with captivating things, our eyes so innocent they follow eagerly.

  3. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  4. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  5. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  6. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  7. The Age of Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietz...

  8. Effect of sorbitol on dough rheology and quality of sugar replaced cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A high amount of sugar is used in bakery products, which may cause diabetes, high blood glucose levels and obesity. Due to these reasons, sugar is being replaced with substitutes. There is different carbohydrate-based sugar substitutes (polyols that can efficiently replace sugar. Among polyols, sorbitol is an efficient replacer that can mimic sugar with minimal effects on cookie quality. Effects of different sorbitol levels (0 to 12.5% were seen on the dough rheology. Mixographic studies showed that peak height and mixing time reduced with the addition of sorbitol. Farinographic studies showed that water absorption and the mixing tolerance index of dough reduced with the supplementation of sorbitol, whereas dough development time, arrival time, dough stability time and softening of dough increased. Extensographic studies revealed that sorbitol substitution produced hard, cohesive, adhesive and elastic dough. Sugar in cookies formulations was reduced from 100 to 50% by replacing with sorbitol 0 to 50%. Physical analysis of sorbitol containing cookies showed that the diameter and spread factor of cookies decreased with higher levels of sorbitol, whereas thickness, color, hardness and water activity of cookies increased. The calorific value of cookies decreased with the increasing levels of sorbitol. At upto 20% replacement of sugar, other parameters of cookies were not affected. Sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that hedonic points for sensory evaluation parameters reduced with the increasing levels of sorbitol, T2 (20% replacement showed maximum overall acceptability. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA

  9. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  10. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  11. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  13. Soil Overconsolidation Changes Caused by Dynamic Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr, Kanty; Sławomir, Kwiecień; Jerzy, Sękowski

    2017-10-01

    In the dynamic replacement method (DR) the soil is improved by initially dropping a large weight (typically 8-20 t) pounder from a significant height up to 25 m. The created crater is filled with a stronger material (gravel, rubble, stone aggregate, debris), and the pounder is dropped once or multiple times again. The construction of dynamic replacement pillars influences the parameters of the adjacent soil. It results from the energy generated by dropping a pounder into the soil. In the current practice, these changes are not taken into the account during the design. This paper focuses on the changes of overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and in situ coefficient of lateral earth pressure (K) values estimated base on cone penetration test (CPTU) and Dilatometric test (DMT) performed at a test site. A single column was constructed and the ground around the column was examined using CPTU and DMT, performed at different distances from the column centre (2, 3, 4 and 6 m) and at different time intervals (during construction and 1, 8, 30 days later). The column was constructed in so-called transition soils (between cohesive and non-cohesive). While interpreting the results of the research, the authors addressed the matter of choosing the procedure of OCR and K indication for transition soils (in this case described as silts and/or sandy silts). Overconsolidation changes may differ depending on the chosen analysis procedure (for cohesive or non-cohesive soils). On the basis of the analysis presented in the paper and the observation of soil (acknowledged as cohesive according to macroscopic observations) during column excavation, it was decided that for more detailed analyses methods dedicated to cohesive soils should be applied. Generally, it can be stated that although the changes were complex, DR pillar formation process resulted in the increase of these parameters. The average increases of OCR and K values were 25% and 10% respectively. The post installation values are not

  14. Sensory and physicochemical characteristics of salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Lilge Kawski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical quality of colonial salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients as potential enhancers of quality products. Salamis were produced according to three treatments: (A Control: 0.1% curing salt; (B rosemary: 0.05% curing salt + 0.5% rosemary extract (RE; and (C RE+celery: 0.14% Veg 503 + 0.27% Veg 504 (sea salt plus celery, nitrate and nitrite supplies, respectively + 0.5% of RE. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05 among the three treatments for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, ether extract (EE and gross energy (GE. Sensory analysis was performed by applying the preference test and multiple comparison between the three treatments. Salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients were sensory equivalent to conventional level of curing salts. Vegetable extracts allowed the development of the sensory features of salami and did not interfere in the fermentation process. Results suggested that the extracts can serve as effective natural curing ingredients for the ripening process and cured meat color as well as adequate shelf-life replacing the commercial curing salts in meat and meat products. After 30 days of ripening, salami from the control treatment (conventional levels of nitrite and nitrate and the treatments with added vegetable-based curing ingredients and low nitrite and nitrate content (RE and RE + celery were equivalent in sensory quality.

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  16. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  17. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacement of sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a number of quality aspects related to replacement of important systems or components in a nuclear power station. Reference is given to the steam generator replacement and power uprating performed at Ringhals 2 in Sweden in 1989. Since quality is a wide concept there has been put special emphasis in this paper to the important aspects that traditionally are not connected to quality. (author) 1 fig

  19. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  20. Sensory evaluation of ice cream with hydrosoluble soy extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, M.M.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a nutritious food because it contains ingredients responsible for supplying energy to the body. Soy has a high nutritional value and functional properties which make it to be an alternative ingredient to replace cow's milk. The purpose of this paper was to formulate an ice cream with hydrosoluble soy extract and submitted to a sensory evaluation. Two formulations of ice cream were prepared: one soy-based and the other with cow's milk (control. Both ice creams were submitted to a sensory evaluation in order to evaluate the appearance, flavor and texture attributes, for this examination it was used the hedonic scale of nine points. For the appearance attribute, the soy-based ice cream had an average score of 7.6, which means between “liked moderately and liked very much”, and cow’s milk ice cream had an average score of 8.1, “liked very much”. For the texture attribute, the soy-based ice cream reached an average of 7.4, meaning “like moderately” and “liked very much” and the cow´s milk ice cream obtained an average of 8.2, meaning “liked very much”. The flavor attribute had an average score of 6.1, meaning “liked slightly” and 8.2 “liked very much” for the soy-based ice cream and the cow´s milk ice cream respectively. When the assessors were asked about their purchase intention, 68% said that certainly they would buy the control sample and 32% definitely or probably would buy the soy-based ice cream. The sensory parameters evaluated showed that the soy-based ice cream had a good acceptance.

  1. Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

    2009-02-15

    Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements.

  2. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  3. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of steviolbioside synthesized from stevioside and its application in fruit drinks and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Abd El-Razek, Amal M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Steviolbioside (Sb) was synthesized from stevioside and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) spectroscopy. The purity melting point, solubility, acute toxicity, heat stability and sensory properties of Sb were evaluated. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of low calorie fruit drinks and shortened cake prepared by replacing sugar with Sb were evaluated. Sb was stable in neutral or acidic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of Sb was found to be about 44 and 18.51 times sweeter than 0.5% and 10% sucrose solution, respectively. Sb solutions had sweet taste without bitterness compared to stevioside. No significant differences between the organoleptic properties of cakes prepared using sugar and those prepared replacing sugar with 50% Sb were observed. All drinks replacing sugar with Sb at 66% level had the highest overall acceptability scores comparable to those prepared using sugar alone.

  4. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio...

  5. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...... in the 18th century. Very few Plotinus scholars have examined the interpretative development prior to Zeller. Schiavone (1952) and Bonetti (1971), for instance, have given little attention to Brucker’s introduction of the concept system of philosophy. The present analysis, then, has value...

  6. Sensory memory for ambiguous vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Joel; Brascamp, Jan

    2008-09-01

    In recent years the overlap between visual perception and memory has shed light on our understanding of both. When ambiguous images that normally cause perception to waver unpredictably are presented briefly with intervening blank periods, perception tends to freeze, locking into one interpretation. This indicates that there is a form of memory storage across the blank interval. This memory trace codes low-level characteristics of the stored stimulus. Although a trace is evident after a single perceptual instance, the trace builds over many separate stimulus presentations, indicating a flexible, variable-length time-course. This memory shares important characteristics with priming by non-ambiguous stimuli. Computational models now provide a framework to interpret many empirical observations.

  7. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  8. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  9. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Linking product-elicited emotional associations and sensory perceptions through a circumplex model based on valence and arousal: Five consumer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Spinelli, Sara; Ares, Gastón; Monteleone, Erminio

    2018-07-01

    Sensory product characterisation by consumers is increasingly supplemented by measurement of emotional associations. However, studies that link products' sensory perception and emotional associations are still scarce. Five consumer studies were conducted using cashew nuts, peanuts, chocolate, fruit and processed tomatoes as the product categories. Consumers (n = 685) completed check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions to obtain sensory product perceptions and associations with emotion words. The latter were conceptualised and interpreted through a circumplex emotion model spanned by the dimensions of valence (pleasure to displeasure) and arousal (activation to deactivation). Through regression analysis, sensory terms were mapped to the circumplex model to represent statistical linkages with emotion words. Within a were interpretable. The most notable finding was the highly study-specific nature of the linkages, which was mainly attributed to the influence of product category. Methodological choices may also have been partly responsible for the differences. Three studies used a general emotion vocabulary (EsSense Profile®) and an identical number of sensory terms (n = 39). The less complete coverage of the emotional circumplex and the presence of synonymous sensory terms could have diminished the ability to interpret the results. Conversely, two studies used fewer emotion words and sensory terms and these, furthermore, were purposefully selected for the focal sets of samples. The linkages in these latter studies were more interpretable and this could suggest that customised vocabularies of modest length may be desirable when seeking to establish linkages between emotional associations and sensory characteristics of food/beverage stimuli. Purposeful inclusion of emotion words that fully span the circumplex emotion model may also be desirable. Overall, the research represents a new method for establishing linkages between the sensory properties and emotional

  11. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  12. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  13. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  14. Sensory optimization by stochastic tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-10-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system's preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: The higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  16. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.

  17. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  18. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  19. Anti-hebbian spike-timing-dependent plasticity and adaptive sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick D; Leen, Todd K

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive sensory processing influences the central nervous system's interpretation of incoming sensory information. One of the functions of this adaptive sensory processing is to allow the nervous system to ignore predictable sensory information so that it may focus on important novel information needed to improve performance of specific tasks. The mechanism of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has proven to be intriguing in this context because of its dual role in long-term memory and ongoing adaptation to maintain optimal tuning of neural responses. Some of the clearest links between STDP and adaptive sensory processing have come from in vitro, in vivo, and modeling studies of the electrosensory systems of weakly electric fish. Plasticity in these systems is anti-Hebbian, so that presynaptic inputs that repeatedly precede, and possibly could contribute to, a postsynaptic neuron's firing are weakened. The learning dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules are stable if the timing relations obey strict constraints. The stability of these learning rules leads to clear predictions of how functional consequences can arise from the detailed structure of the plasticity. Here we review the connection between theoretical predictions and functional consequences of anti-Hebbian STDP, focusing on adaptive processing in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish. After introducing electrosensory adaptive processing and the dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules, we address issues of predictive sensory cancelation and novelty detection, descending control of plasticity, synaptic scaling, and optimal sensory tuning. We conclude with examples in other systems where these principles may apply.

  20. A comparison of sensory-motor activity during speech in first and second languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J; Wise, Richard J S; Dhanjal, Novraj S; Leech, Robert

    2011-07-01

    A foreign language (L2) learned after childhood results in an accent. This functional neuroimaging study investigated speech in L2 as a sensory-motor skill. The hypothesis was that there would be an altered response in auditory and somatosensory association cortex, specifically the planum temporale and parietal operculum, respectively, when speaking in L2 relative to L1, independent of rate of speaking. These regions were selected for three reasons. First, an influential computational model proposes that these cortices integrate predictive feedforward and postarticulatory sensory feedback signals during articulation. Second, these adjacent regions (known as Spt) have been identified as a "sensory-motor interface" for speech production. Third, probabilistic anatomical atlases exist for these regions, to ensure the analyses are confined to sensory-motor differences between L2 and L1. The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and participants produced connected overt speech. The first hypothesis was that there would be greater activity in the planum temporale and the parietal operculum when subjects spoke in L2 compared with L1, one interpretation being that there is less efficient postarticulatory sensory monitoring when speaking in the less familiar L2. The second hypothesis was that this effect would be observed in both cerebral hemispheres. Although Spt is considered to be left-lateralized, this is based on studies of covert speech, whereas overt speech is accompanied by sensory feedback to bilateral auditory and somatosensory cortices. Both hypotheses were confirmed by the results. These findings provide the basis for future investigations of sensory-motor aspects of language learning using serial fMRI studies.

  1. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies.

  2. Replacement of nitrite with annatto and red rice in sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Javadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, by increasing consumer awareness about the hazards of chemical preservatives, the demand for foods with increased natural preservatives has increased. The main objective of this study was to replace the annatto and the red rice instead of nitrite in sausage. For this purpose, annatto replaced by zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of nitrite then sausage with 60 % red meat and 0.05 % fixed amount of red rice were made. Chemical, microbiological and sensory testing on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were performed in triplicate. The results of chemical and microbial tests showed that the annatto and red rice do not have negative effects on sausage with 60% meat. According to the results of sensory evaluation, samples with 50% annatto, and 75 % annatto, had the highest satisfaction in terms of color, taste, smell, consistency and compliance. Only the group with 100% of annatto in all sensory factors in the study showed significant differences with the rest of the group. Finally, the group with 75% annatto and 0.05% red rice, In terms of five different times, microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluation had a higher approval rating than other samples and was closer to control sample.

  3. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  4. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  5. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  6. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): Understanding the triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Barratt, EL; Spence, CJ; Davis, NJ

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as...

  7. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data captured by the different variables entered into the Joint Register covering the pre-op, intra-op and post-op period of all total hip and knee replacement surgery done at the ZIOH from 1998 to 2010 was entered into a spreadsheet after verification with individual patient medical records. This was then imported ...

  8. Sensory deprivation leading to late onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory deprivation is understood as diminution or absence of perceptual experiences to the usual external stimuli. Sensory deprivation in elderly is reported to be associated with depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, etc. In this report, we present the case of an 84-year- elderly man who developed auditory hallucination and after 1 year of onset of hearing difficulties. He was managed with quetiapine, with which he showed significant improvement.

  9. Sensory marketing strategies. Case study: Oltenia

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU; Mihail-Cristian DIŢOIU; Nicolae TEODORESCU; Lucian-Florin ONIŞOR; Ion PÂRGARU

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of the tourist, sensory marketing strategies may result in an experience improvement which leads, in time, to acquiring a positive destination image, and, from the perspective of the destination, to furthering its harmonious development. Even though it appears that sensory marketing strategies can be considered as alternatives for marketing strategies, they actually are complementary, and their objective (increasing product quality by “turning to the beginning”, where per...

  10. Intravenous dex medetomidine or propofol adjuvant to spinal anesthesia in total knee replacement surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlOweidi, A.S.; Al-Mustafa, M.M.; Alghanem, S.M.; Qudaisat, Y.; Halaweh, S.A.; Massad, I.M.; Al Ajlouni, J.M; Mas'ad, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effect of intravenous dex medetomidine with the intravenous propofol adjuvant to spinal intrathecal anesthesia on the duration of spinal anesthesia and hemodynamic parameters during total knee replacement surgery. Supplementation of spinal anesthesia with intravenous dexemedetomidine or propofol produces good sedation levels without significant clinical hemodynamic changes. Adding dex medetomidine produces significantly longer sensory and motor block than propofol . (authors).

  11. Evaluasi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Pengganti Telur (Egg Replacer) Pada Pembuatan Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Nova Sarifah

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays many people are allergic to egg either the white or the egg yolk, that is why the research way conducted. The research was aimed to evaluate the functional characteristics and sensory quality of cakes made of soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate, corn starch, guar gum, xanthan gum and whole egg powder. The research had been performed using a non factorial completely randomized design with 7 levels and 3 repetition. The egg replacer composition were E1 = whey protein isolate (18,...

  12. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  13. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  14. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  16. Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sczyrba, Alexander; Hofmann, Peter; Belmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchma...

  17. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  18. [Treatment of sensory information in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoenen, D; Delvenne, V

    2018-01-01

    The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the years, these conditions have been the subject of numerous controversies. Nowadays, they are all grouped together under the term of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in DSM-5. The semiology of these disorders is rich and complex due to the frequent presence of comorbidities and their impact on cognitive, behavioural, and sensorimotor organization but also on a child's personality, as well as his family, his school, or his social relationships. We carried out a review of the literature on the alterations in the treatment of sensory information in ASD but also on the different neurodevelopmental clinical panels in order to show their impact on child development. Atypical sensory profiles have been demonstrated in several neurodevelopmental clinical populations such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, Dysphasia and Intellectual Disability. Abnomalies in the processing of sensory information should be systematically evaluated in child developmental disorders.

  19. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  20. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  1. Interpretations of NMR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.Z.; McFarland, W.D.; Chen, S.S.; Sadhu, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Two color display schemes are generally considered in medical images: pseudo-color and color composite. Psuedo-color technique maps the intensity means of a single monochrome image into a three dimensional color space, the gray level is thus replaced by the assigned color. Such a psuedo-color assignment is somewhat arbitrary but may be advantageous if the monochrome image is composed of simple intensity patterns. A good example of psuedo-color application is in nuclear medicine: The change of gray levels can be simply determined and the isocounts from two regions with different surroundings can be readily recognized. However, the use of psuedo-color in CT or MR imaging is controversial because it does not give additional information and may exaggerate insignificant gray scale differences. The color composite technique maps three parametric image data into a three dimensional color space, and thus three monochrome images are merged to form a single color image. The color composite technique increases the number of ways information can be displayed and provides both quantitative and qualitative data about the object or event represented. This paper describes the application of color composite in NMR images

  2. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  3. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  4. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  5. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  6. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  7. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  8. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  9. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-01

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect—using electric current shape analysis—for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between “does-not-need-to-be-replaced” and “needs-to-be-replaced” shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification. PMID:28146057

  10. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta

    2007-07-01

    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction.

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  12. Fractal dimension evolution and spatial replacement dynamics of urban growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fractal dimension growth can be modeled by Boltzmann’s equation. ► Boltzmann’s model suggests urban spatial replacement dynamics. ► If the rate of urban growth is too high, periodic oscillations or chaos will arise. ► Chaos is associated with fractals by the fractal dimension evolution model. ► The fractal dimension of urban form implies the space-filling ratio of a city. - Abstract: This paper presents a new perspective of looking at the relation between fractals and chaos by means of cities. Especially, a principle of space filling and spatial replacement is proposed to interpret the fractal dimension of urban form. The fractal dimension evolution of urban growth can be empirically modeled with Boltzmann’s equation. For the normalized data, Boltzmann’s equation is just equivalent to the logistic function. The logistic equation can be transformed into the well-known 1-dimensional logistic map, which is based on a 2-dimensional map suggesting spatial replacement dynamics of city development. The 2-dimensional recurrence relations can be employed to generate the nonlinear dynamical behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos. A discovery is thus made in this article that, for the fractal dimension growth following the logistic curve, the normalized dimension value is the ratio of space filling. If the rate of spatial replacement (urban growth) is too high, the periodic oscillations and chaos will arise. The spatial replacement dynamics can be extended to general replacement dynamics, and bifurcation and chaos mirror a process of complex replacement.

  13. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  14. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  15. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  16. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  17. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  18. The effect of preheated tendon as a lean meat replacement on the properties of fine emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, D H; Young, O A

    1993-01-01

    Tendon from beef hind leg muscles was used to replace some of the lean in a conventional emulsion formulation. The tendon was homogenized and either used raw or preheated for 2·5 h at a range of temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80°C) before use. Texture analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on cylinders of cooked sausage. Texture analysis was carried out on formulations which had 20% of meat protein replaced by 20% tendons which were raw or had been preheated to 50, 60, 70, or 80°C. Fracturability decreased by about 40% with raw tendon, but was restored to within 20% of the no-replacement control if the tendon had been preheated. Hardness was approximately doubled by replacement with raw tendon or tendon heated at 50°C. At temperatures higher than that, hardness returned to approximately no-replacement levels. For sensory evaluation (0-25% replacement; preheating at 70°C), sausages were assessed by a 12-member panel for texture, flavour and overall acceptability. All attributes decreased with increasing collagen content, the decrease being less marked with preheated tendon. Thus more connective tissue could be added for the same panel score if the tissue was preheated. Comparison of the texture profile and the panel scores for texture at the same lean replacement level suggested that reduced fracturability was the texture parameter that panellists objected to when heated tendon replaced some of the lean. Other researchers have shown that connective tissue preheated to 100°C before addition in emulsion sausages results in improved yields and better sensory attributes, but the present results show that temperatures as low as 60°C can be effective for beef tendon. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  20. Phenolic content, physical and sensory properties of breads made with different types of barley wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Terracone, Carmela; Romaniello, Roberto; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Barley wort, an intermediate product of beer brewing, is rich in phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the antioxidant content of bread by replacing water with three types of wort: two of them withdrawn at the end of the mashing operation during the production of a Pilsner and a Double Malt Pilsner beer respectively; the other collected at an intermediate stage of mashing of the Pilsner beer. The chemical, physical and sensory properties of the wort-added breads were compared with those of a control bread. All three worts led to increased phenolic content, volume and specific volume of the breads and induced significant changes in 11 of 23 sensory descriptors. The highest phenolic contents were detected in breads made either with the Pilsner wort withdrawn at an intermediate stage of mashing or with the Double Malt Pilsner wort. The former also gave the highest increase in volume and specific volume but significantly reduced the scores for crunchiness, firmness and cohesiveness. The latter led to lower increases in volume and specific volume, but less significant changes in the sensory properties were associated with its use. Worts can be conveniently used to increase the antioxidant content of bread. However, different types of wort can modify to different extents the physical and sensory properties of the product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Depletion of resident macrophages does not alter sensory regeneration in the avian cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Warchol

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary effector cells of the innate immune system and are also activated in response to tissue injury. The avian cochlea contains a population of resident macrophages, but the precise function of those cells is not known. The present study characterized the behavior of cochlear macrophages after aminoglycoside ototoxicity and also examined the possible role of macrophages in sensory regeneration. We found that the undamaged chick cochlea contains a large resting population of macrophages that reside in the hyaline cell region, immediately outside the abneural (inferior border of the sensory epithelium. Following ototoxic injury, macrophages appear to migrate out of the hyaline cell region and towards the basilar membrane, congregating immediately below the lesioned sensory epithelium. In order to determine whether recruited macrophages contribute to the regeneration of sensory receptors, we quantified supporting cell proliferation and hair cell recovery after the elimination of most resident macrophages via application of liposomally-encapsulated clodronate. Examination of macrophage-depleted specimens at two days following ototoxic injury revealed no deficits in hair cell clearance, when compared to normal controls. In addition, we found that elimination of macrophages did not affect either regenerative proliferation of supporting cells or the production of replacement hair cells. However, we did find that macrophage-depleted cochleae contained reduced numbers of proliferative mesothelial cells below the basilar membrane. Our data suggest that macrophages are not required for normal debris clearance and regeneration, but that they may play a role in the maintenance of the basilar membrane.

  2. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  4. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  6. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    seems less typical and characteristic substitute in evaluation.Riesling rhine – the most suitable location was chosen vineyard Šobes by judges, which gives incommutable features to smell and taste by sandy soils of Dyje massif above river Dyje. A specimen No. 9 represented the smell; specimens No. 10 and 11 were evaluated as average and untypical. They had quite different features in recognizing vintages.The authenticity was extended by sensorial evaluation and at the same time the outstanding locations were chosen, which can give wines of unusual quantity every year in connecting certain variety. The most suitable locations for singular type of wine with extending authenticity are Riesling rhine – vineyard Šobes, Sauvignon blanc – vineyard Knížecí vrch, Veltliner grun – vineyard Weinperky.

  7. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  8. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  9. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  10. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  11. Anti-Hebbian Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity and Adaptive Sensory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Roberts

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive processing influences the central nervous system's interpretation of incoming sensory information. One of the functions of this adaptative sensory processing is to allow the nervous system to ignore predictable sensory information so that it may focus on important new information needed to improve performance of specific tasks. The mechanism of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP has proven to be intriguing in this context because of its dual role in long-term memory and ongoing adaptation to maintain optimal tuning of neural responses. Some of the clearest links between STDP and adaptive sensory processing have come from in vitro, in vivo, and modeling studies of the electrosensory systems of fish. Plasticity in such systems is anti-Hebbian, i.e. presynaptic inputs that repeatedly precede and hence could contribute to a postsynaptic neuron’s firing are weakened. The learning dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules are stable if the timing relations obey strict constraints. The stability of these learning rules leads to clear predictions of how functional consequences can arise from the detailed structure of the plasticity. Here we review the connection between theoretical predictions and functional consequences of anti-Hebbian STDP, focusing on adaptive processing in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish. After introducing electrosensory adaptive processing and the dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules, we address issues of predictive sensory cancellation and novelty detection, descending control of plasticity, synaptic scaling, and optimal sensory tuning. We conclude with examples in other systems where these principles may apply.

  12. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2016-07-01

    . Conclusion: painDETECT differentiates pain profiles across the range of scores such that, for a particular score, the probability of experiencing at least a moderate sensation of each symptom was determined and compared. These results can help characterize NeP symptomatology, enrich interpretation of painDETECT scores, and provide a basis for individualizing NeP management. Keywords: neuropathic pain, painDETECT, sensory symptoms, pain profile, interpretation, patient-reported outcomes

  14. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z......=-8, pressure). Hyperalgesia for various modalities were found in 80% of patients, with pressure hyperalgesia in approximately 65%, and cutaneous (mechanical or thermal) hyperalgesia in approximately 35% of patients. The paradoxical combination of tactile hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia was seen...

  15. Composite foods: from structure to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-02-22

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties of both liquid and solid foods can be related to textural attributes such as thickness and firmness, they do not always correlate to more complex sensory attributes, such as creamy and smooth. These attributes are often a result of different contributions, including lubrication aspects and interactions between food and components present in the oral cavity. In this review, the different contributions for a variety of composite foods, such as dispersions, emulsions and emulsion-filled gels, are discussed. The rheological properties are discussed in relation to specific structural characteristics of the foods, which are then linked to lubrication aspects and sensory perception.

  16. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  17. Age differences in visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Thompson, L W

    1978-05-01

    Age differences in visual sensory memory were studied using the direct measure procedure of Haber and Standing (1969) -- the longest interstimulus interval at which subjects reported a single stimulus as continuous was measured. The visual storage of the young (mean age 24 years) was found to persist for 289 msec compared to 248 for the old (mean age 67 years). Similar estimates of sensory memory duration were obtained when either monoptic or dichoptic stimulus presentations were employed, supporting the idea that visual storage is centrally mediated for both age groups. The relevance of these findings for age differences in the registration of information into primary and secondary memory and their implications for the stimulus persistence hypothesis are considered. The appropriateness and validity of the persistence of form task for studies of sensory memory and aging are also discussed.

  18. William Carlos Williams’ cubism: The sensory dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L Kruger

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the cubism of the American poet William Carlos Williams is discussed as a product of sensory elements combined with techniques derived from the work of the visual artists associated with this style. Through the study o f a number of poems written in the period between 1917 and 1923 it is shown that Williams employs the cubist intersection of sensory planes in particular to create a sensory dimension that not only renews the traditions and mode of poetry, but also reveals the cubist concern with the defamiliarization and foregrounding of fragments of everyday experiences. Ultimately the article is an attempt to indicate Williams’ incorporation o f a sensual dimension in creating a style that achieves modernist presentation revealing an independence from both traditional literary and visual styles.

  19. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  20. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (PBaking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  1. Sensory profile and acceptability for pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) nectar with different sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose. Consumers' most accepted samples were prepared with sucrose, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame. The sweeteners that have the greatest potential to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar are sucralose and aspartame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca 2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO 3 /Ca 2+ /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Automated, computer interpreted radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Nagle, C.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Wetzel, R.; Sawyer, N.; Ferry, D.; Hershberger, D.

    1984-01-01

    90,000 Radioimmunoassay results have been interpreted and transcribed automatically using software developed for use on a Hewlett Packard Model 1000 mini-computer system with conventional dot matrix printers. The computer program correlates the results of a combination of assays, interprets them and prints a report ready for physician review and signature within minutes of completion of the assay. The authors designed and wrote a computer program to query their patient data base for radioassay laboratory results and to produce a computer generated interpretation of these results using an algorithm that produces normal and abnormal interpretives. Their laboratory assays 50,000 patient samples each year using 28 different radioassays. Of these 85% have been interpreted using our computer program. Allowances are made for drug and patient history and individualized reports are generated with regard to the patients age and sex. Finalization of reports is still subject to change by the nuclear physician at the time of final review. Automated, computerized interpretations have realized cost savings through reduced personnel and personnel time and provided uniformity of the interpretations among the five physicians. Prior to computerization of interpretations, all radioassay results had to be dictated and reviewed for signing by one of the resident or staff physicians. Turn around times for reports prior to the automated computer program generally were two to three days. Whereas, the computerized interpret system allows reports to generally be issued the day assays are completed

  5. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  6. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a pan-cultural phenomenon, laughter is arguably the least understood behaviour deployed in social interaction. As well as being a response to humour, it has other important functions including promoting social affiliation, developing cooperation and regulating competitive behaviours. This multi-functional feature of laughter marks it as an adaptive behaviour central to facilitating social cohesion. However, it is not clear how laughter achieves this social cohesion. We consider two approaches to understanding how laughter facilitates social cohesion – the ‘representational’ approach and the ‘affect-induction’ approach. The representational approach suggests that laughter conveys information about the expresser’s emotional state, and the listener decodes this information to gain knowledge about the laugher’s felt state. The affect-induction approach views laughter as a tool to influence the affective state of listeners. We describe a modified version of the affect-induction approach, in which laughter is combined with additional factors – including social context, verbal information, other social signals and knowledge of the listener’s emotional state – to influence an interaction partner. This view asserts that laughter by itself is ambiguous: the same laughter may induce positive or negative affect in a listener, with the outcome determined by the combination of these additional factors. Here we describe two experiments exploring which of these approaches accurately describes laughter. Participants judged the genuineness of audio–video recordings of social interactions containing laughter. Unknown to the participants the recordings contained either the original laughter or replacement laughter from a different part of the interaction. When replacement laughter was matched for intensity, genuineness judgements were similar to judgements of the original unmodified recordings. When replacement laughter was not

  7. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, William; McKeown, Gary J; Rychlowska, Magdalena; André, Elisabeth; Wagner, Johannes; Lingenfelser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a pan-cultural phenomenon, laughter is arguably the least understood behaviour deployed in social interaction. As well as being a response to humour, it has other important functions including promoting social affiliation, developing cooperation and regulating competitive behaviours. This multi-functional feature of laughter marks it as an adaptive behaviour central to facilitating social cohesion. However, it is not clear how laughter achieves this social cohesion. We consider two approaches to understanding how laughter facilitates social cohesion - the 'representational' approach and the 'affect-induction' approach. The representational approach suggests that laughter conveys information about the expresser's emotional state, and the listener decodes this information to gain knowledge about the laugher's felt state. The affect-induction approach views laughter as a tool to influence the affective state of listeners. We describe a modified version of the affect-induction approach, in which laughter is combined with additional factors - including social context, verbal information, other social signals and knowledge of the listener's emotional state - to influence an interaction partner. This view asserts that laughter by itself is ambiguous: the same laughter may induce positive or negative affect in a listener, with the outcome determined by the combination of these additional factors. Here we describe two experiments exploring which of these approaches accurately describes laughter. Participants judged the genuineness of audio-video recordings of social interactions containing laughter. Unknown to the participants the recordings contained either the original laughter or replacement laughter from a different part of the interaction. When replacement laughter was matched for intensity, genuineness judgements were similar to judgements of the original unmodified recordings. When replacement laughter was not matched for intensity, genuineness

  8. Estrabismo sensorial: estudo de 191 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Bráulio Folco Telles de; Bigolin,Silvane; Souza,Murilo Barreto; Polati,Mariza

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os prontuários dos pacientes com estrabismo sensorial em aspectos variados, como etiologia, tipo e medida do desvio, correlação do tipo do desvio com a idade de aparecimento da doença de base, e resultado cirúrgico dos casos operados. MÉTODOS: Avaliação dos prontuários médicos dos pacientes com estrabismo sensorial atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - USP - no setor de Motilidade Ocular Extrínseca, no período de setembro ...

  9. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  10. Biomechanics important to interpret radiographs of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.I.; Scott, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Biomechanic principles have important implications to film interpretation. Angulation of the femoral neck results in four different types of forces: compression on the medial side, tension on the lateral side, shear stress in the center, and torque forces at the neck-shaft angle. The body's response to these forces results in recognicable trabecular patterns which respond in a predictable manner to disease states. Surgical intervention in the form of hip replacement or fracture fixation must reflect these engineering consideration. (orig.)

  11. Silver impregnation in situ: an aid to radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.; Rantanen, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    In evaluating radiographs of the limb joints and head, students encounter difficulty where superimposition occurs. By replacing calcium with silver salts in the bone, enhanced radiopacity can be produced. In this study, silver impregnation was used to increase the radiopacity of individual carpal and tarsal bones, selected bones of the skull and the sinuses, and guttural pouch of the horse. This provides an interpretation aid for teaching radiographic anatomy of these regions

  12. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  13. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  14. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  15. The Embodied GIS. Using Mixed Reality to explore multi-sensory archaeological landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Eve

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We are at a turning point in development and thought about multi-sensorial engagement using digital mediation. From Oculus Rift VR goggles, Google Cardboard, noise-reducing headphones, vibrating-haptic simulating gloves, smell generators and virtual treadmills, every week a new technology or software emerges that can be used to virtualise, augment or diminish our reality, across all of our senses. In many cases these technologies have been used by archaeologists or museum professionals to didactically present or reconstruct archaeological sites or artefacts. However, Mixed Reality is rarely used to actively explore or analyse archaeological sites. This article explores a number of ways that these new multi-sensory developments can be harnessed and linked to a traditional GIS database using Mixed Reality. Through the example of three different sensory applications, I will demonstrate the implementation of an embodied GIS – allowing a multi-sensorial experience of archaeological data in situ, and enabling archaeologists to explore data in new ways, encouraging new interpretations by thinking and working through the body.

  16. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving sensory stimulation. A comprehensive examination of the literature was conducted on children with ADHD with and without co-occurring disabilities, summarizing their reading and math achievement and the effects of psychostimulant and sensory stimulant interventions on these academic areas. Students without co-occurring disabilities (ADHD-) had fewer deficits in reading than in math and than students with co-occurring disabilities (ADHD+). Furthermore, students with ADHD+ demonstrated greater responsiveness to psychostimulants through improved reading recognition and math calculations, with limited gains in literal reading comprehension. Added sensory stimulation produced differential gains for both groups in reading recognition and comprehension and in math calculations and problem solving. The efficacy of psychostimulants was documented on specific areas of achievement for the ADHD+ group, but this review did not support the administration of psychostimulants for students with ADHD-. For both groups of students, differential gains, losses, and habituation were documented in response to sensory stimulation for both subareas within reading and math, which were interpreted as support for the optimal stimulation theory.

  17. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  18. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  19. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  20. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode. The c...

  1. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  2. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  3. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of balady flat bread supplemented with banana peels as a natural source of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareman S. Eshak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of banana peels BP (5% and 10% as a partial replacement for wheat flour on physicochemical and sensory properties of Egyptian balady flat bread. The peel powder (0.50 mm size from banana was prepared from their dried peel. The bread was prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of wheat flour with a banana peel. The bread prepared was designated as B1 and B2 respectively. They were tested for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber as per the standard methods. The physicochemical and sensory parameters of these two test bread were compared with a control bread 100% wheat flour designated as B0. Results showed that BP flour was owing 11.20% crude fiber which is higher than the wheat flour 1.21%. Also, BP flour has high potassium, calcium, sodium, iron and manganese compared with wheat flour. The protein and fiber content of B2 and B1 bread were higher (12.52% and 11.79% protein and 2.18% and 1.97% fiber as compared to the control bread (10.79 protein and 1.42% fiber. B1 and B2 had the highest K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn content compared with control bread. The water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity (OHC of bread with BP flour were higher as compared to the bread control. The bread prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of BP (B2 is found to be sensorially acceptable. Our results showed that the nutritionally and sensory accepted bread can be prepared by replacing at most 10% of flour.

  4. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  5. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Revising ecological assumptions about Human papillomavirus interactions and type replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murall, Carmen Lía; McCann, Kevin S; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-06-07

    The controversy over whether vaccine-targeted HPV types will be replaced by other oncogenic, non-vaccine-targeted types remains unresolved. This is in part because little is known about the ecology of HPV types. Patient data has been interpreted to suggest independence or facilitative interactions between types and therefore replacement is believed to be unlikely. With a novel mathematical model, we investigated which HPV type interactions and their immune responses gave qualitatively similar patterns frequently observed in patients. To assess the possibility of type replacement, vaccination was added to see if non-vaccine-targeted types increased their 'niche'. Our model predicts that independence and facilitation are not necessary for the coexistence of types inside hosts, especially given the patchy nature of HPV infection. In fact, independence and facilitation inadequately represented co-infected patients. We found that some form of competition is likely in natural co-infections. Hence, non-vaccine-targeted types that are not cross-reactive with the vaccine could spread to more patches and can increase their viral load in vaccinated hosts. The degree to which this happens will depend on replication and patch colonization rates. Our results suggest that independence between types could be a fallacy, and so without conclusively untangling HPV within-host ecology, type replacement remains theoretically viable. More ecological thinking is needed in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  8. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  10. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    (rho=0.58, p=0.002) to the hyperalgesic level on the painful side, again suggesting central nervous mechanisms in PPP. In conclusion, this study shows that a standardized trauma results in heterogeneous combinations of hypo- and hyperalgesia. Z-score evaluation of sensory function identifies...

  11. Sensory source strength of used ventilation filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, Ole Martin; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A two-year-old filter was placed in a ventilation system recirculating the air in an experimental space. Via glass tubes supplied with a small fan it was possible to extract air upstream and downstream of the filter to an adjacent room. A panel could thus perform sensory assessments of the air fr...

  12. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  14. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  16. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Barrett, A.B.; Seth, A.K.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the

  17. The Sensory Neocortex and Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, Dominik; Rumpel, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Most behaviors in mammals are directly or indirectly guided by prior experience and therefore depend on the ability of our brains to form memories. The ability to form an association between an initially possibly neutral sensory stimulus and its behavioral relevance is essential for our ability to navigate in a changing environment. The formation of a memory is a complex process involving many areas of the brain. In this chapter we review classic and recent work that has shed light on the specific contribution of sensory cortical areas to the formation of associative memories. We discuss synaptic and circuit mechanisms that mediate plastic adaptations of functional properties in individual neurons as well as larger neuronal populations forming topographically organized representations. Furthermore, we describe commonly used behavioral paradigms that are used to study the mechanisms of memory formation. We focus on the auditory modality that is receiving increasing attention for the study of associative memory in rodent model systems. We argue that sensory cortical areas may play an important role for the memory-dependent categorical recognition of previously encountered sensory stimuli.

  18. Sensory and motor effects of etomidate anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, J.; Bacelo, J.; Burg, E.H. van den; Grant, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of anesthesia with etomidate on the cellular mechanisms of sensory processing and sensorimotor coordination have been studied in the active electric sense of the mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii. Like many anesthetics, etomidate is known to potentiate GABA(A) receptors, but little is

  19. Disrupted sensory gating in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Wendy; Karayanidis, Frini; Johnston, Patrick; Bailey, Andrew; Carr, Vaughan; Schall, Ulrich

    2003-08-15

    Some neurochemical evidence as well as recent studies on molecular genetics suggest that pathologic gambling may be related to dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined sensory (motor) gating in pathologic gamblers as a putative measure of endogenous brain dopamine activity with prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink response and the auditory P300 event-related potential. Seventeen pathologic gamblers and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were assessed. Both prepulse inhibition measures were recorded under passive listening and two-tone prepulse discrimination conditions. Compared to the control group, pathologic gamblers exhibited disrupted sensory (motor) gating on all measures of prepulse inhibition. Sensory motor gating deficits of eye-blink responses were most profound at 120-millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the passive listening task and at 240-millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the two-tone prepulse discrimination task. Sensory gating of P300 was also impaired in pathologic gamblers, particularly at 500-millisecond lead intervals, when performing the discrimination task on the prepulse. In the context of preclinical studies on the disruptive effects of dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition, our findings suggest increased endogenous brain dopamine activity in pathologic gambling in line with previous neurobiological findings.

  20. Abnormal Sensory Experiences, Synaesthesia, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluegge, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that sensory processing may be affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this letter is to highlight a few recent studies on the topic and tie the findings to a recently identified epidemiological risk factor for ASD, principally environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N[subscript…

  1. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  2. Correlations among sensory characteristics and relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the correlations among sensory characteristics and relationships between flavour scores and off-flavour descriptors of chevon. Forty-eight male 6-months old Xhosa lop-eared, Nguni, Xhosa-Boer cross and Boer goat kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until ...

  3. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  4. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or cognitive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eOhla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the first sex-dependent differences for chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG, psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and oldorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate attention stronger to potentially noxious stimuli, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception.

  5. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  6. Do Interpreters Indeed Have Superior Working Memory in Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent communications between China and western countries in the field of economy,politics and culture,etc,Inter preting becomes more and more important to people in all walks of life.This paper aims to testify the author’s hypothesis "professional interpreters have similar short-term memory with unprofessional interpreters,but they have superior working memory." After the illustration of literatures concerning with consecutive interpreting,short-term memory and working memory,experiments are designed and analysis are described.

  7. Sensory evaluation of aromatic foods packed in developed starch based films using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Chowdhury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen attempts to replace non biodegradable, synthetic food packaging films with alternatives made from biopolymers. The objective of the present work was to evaluate sensory quality of tea leaf and culinary tastemaker powder when sealed in pouches based on starch films.Films were developed from corn starch and a functional polysaccharide (FP from amylose (AM, methylcellulose (MC, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, using a casting technique. Pouches were stored inside a secondary package (plastic jar under ambient condition for 90 days. Sensory attributes of the stored food samples were evaluated (tea in liquor form and the scores analysed by fuzzy logic. Results were compared with similarly stored foods but using market available poly-pouches as packaging material.For tea and tastemaker in general, the relative importance of the sensory attributes under consideration was assessed as:  aroma (Highly important >taste (Highly important>colour (Highly important > strength (Important for tea, and taste (Highly important>aroma (Highly important>colour (Important>appearance (Important for tastemaker. Among the three films that were developed, the highly important sensory attributes of aroma and taste were maintained as ‘Very good’ when the foods were packed in starch–HPMC/AM film. When the products were packed in market-available poly-pouches they exhibited similar attributes. With the exception of ‘Very good’ maintenance of the colour of tastemaker by the commercial pouch, irrespective of film and food, the colour and strength/appearance were retained in the ‘Good’-‘Satisfactory’ range. The overall sensory score of tea was also maintained as ‘Very good’ in starch-HPMC film.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    haemorrhage, 846 thromboembolic infarction, 321 transient ischaemic attack) and 3171 controls. FINDINGS: After adjustment for confounding variables and correction for the trend in sales of HRT preparations, no significant associations were detected between current use of unopposed oestrogen replacement...... influence on the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.22 [0.79-1.89]), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.17 [0.64-2.13]), or thromboembolic infarction (1.17 [0.92-1.47]). A significantly increased incidence of transient ischaemic attacks among former users of HRT and among current users of unopposed oestrogen may...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  9. Expediting the transition from replacement medicine to tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, Arthur J

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an expansive interpretation of "Tissue Engineering" is proposed which is in congruence with classical and recent published definitions. I further simplify the definition of tissue engineering as: "Exerting systematic control of the body's cells, matrices and fluids." As a consequence, many medical therapies not commonly considered tissue engineering are placed in this category because of their effect on the body's responses. While the progress of tissue engineering strategies is inexorable and generally positive, it has been subject to setbacks as have many important medical therapies. Medical practice is currently undergoing a transition on several fronts (academics, start-up companies, going concerns) from the era of "replacement medicine" where body parts and functions are replaced by mechanical, electrical or chemical therapies to the era of tissue engineering where health is restored by regeneration generation or limitation of the body's tissues and functions by exploiting our expanding knowledge of the body's biological processes to produce natural, healthy outcomes.

  10. Other ways of seeing: From behavior to neural mechanisms in the online “visual” control of action with sensory substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J.; Gwinnutt, James; Dell’Erba, Sara; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Brown, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense for perception-for-action in humans and other higher primates. Advances in sight restoration now utilize the other intact senses to provide information that is normally sensed visually through sensory substitution to replace missing visual information. Sensory substitution devices translate visual information from a sensor, such as a camera or ultrasound device, into a format that the auditory or tactile systems can detect and process, so the visually impaired can see through hearing or touch. Online control of action is essential for many daily tasks such as pointing, grasping and navigating, and adapting to a sensory substitution device successfully requires extensive learning. Here we review the research on sensory substitution for vision restoration in the context of providing the means of online control for action in the blind or blindfolded. It appears that the use of sensory substitution devices utilizes the neural visual system; this suggests the hypothesis that sensory substitution draws on the same underlying mechanisms as unimpaired visual control of action. Here we review the current state of the art for sensory substitution approaches to object recognition, localization, and navigation, and the potential these approaches have for revealing a metamodal behavioral and neural basis for the online control of action. PMID:26599473

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  12. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  13. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down ...

  14. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  15. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  16. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  17. Comment entrainer la memoire sensorielle (How to Train Sensory Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Regine

    1993-01-01

    At the University of Queensland (Australia), second-language instruction techniques involving principles of sensory training are being used experimentally. The method promotes sensory integration of speech events through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic memory. (MSE)

  18. Sensory evaluation of food: statistical methods and procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Mahony, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide basic knowledge of the logic and computation of statistics for the sensory evaluation of food, or for other forms of sensory measurement encountered in, say, psychophysics...

  19. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues

  20. Physical properties and consumer liking of cookies prepared by replacing sucrose with tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T P; Fasina, O; Bell, L N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of tagatose, a minimally absorbed prebiotic monosaccharide, as a replacement for sucrose in cookies. A sucrose-containing cookie recipe was prepared as the control. Sucrose was replaced with tagatose at various levels ranging from 25% to 100%. Cookies containing fructose were also prepared for comparison due to the structural similarities between tagatose and fructose. The rheological properties of the dough were measured using texture profile analysis. The baked cookies were evaluated for spread, color, and hardness. For tagatose-containing cookies, the extent of likeness was evaluated by 53 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. When sucrose was replaced by tagatose, doughs with similar rheological properties to the control resulted. The tagatose-containing cookies were harder and darker with a lower spread than the control. Sensory data indicated that panelists liked the brown color of the 100% tagatose cookies better than the control, but disliked their sweetness. Overall likeness scores of the control and cookies made by replacing half of the sucrose with tagatose were the same. Tagatose appears to be suitable as a partial replacer for sucrose in cookies based on similar dough properties, cookie properties, and likeness scores. Using tagatose to replace sucrose in foods would reduce the amount of metabolizeable sugars in the diet as well as provide the desirable prebiotic effect.

  1. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child's sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension.

  2. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  3. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  4. Comparison of sensory perception and verbal expression of Korean Kimchi stews between Chinese consumers and Korean trained panelists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Won; Kim, Young Choul; Jang, Seong-Ho; Hong, Jae-Hee

    2018-05-25

    Sensory drivers of liking in foreign food markets are difficult to identify because expression of perceived characteristics varies depending on cultural differences. We aimed to identify differences in perception and expression of a Korean home meal replacement product (Kimchi stew) between 10 Korean trained panelists and 50 eastern Chinese consumers (EC) and 54 northern Chinese consumers (NC) using descriptive analysis and rate-all-that-apply (RATA) tests. Regional differences between EC and NC groups were also investigated. Sensory representations of the six Kimchi stew samples were similar between the Korean trained and Chinese consumer panels. Use of simple sensory RATA terms was similar among the groups. However, EC whose daily diet has mild flavors associated consumer terms with negative connotations, such as odd flavor and sharp, with burning sensation and seasoning, implying the influence of regional food cultures. RATA could elicit foreign consumers' sensory representations of an unfamiliar ethnic food that was comparable to that from descriptive analysis, assisting researchers in understanding target consumers' sensory perceptions in a more cost- and time-effective manner. Inclusion of consumer terms in a RATA list and its correlation with descriptive analysis by a native descriptive panel can help in understanding foreign consumers' verbal expressions This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory Evaluation of the Selected Coffee Products Using Fuzzy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Lazim; M. Suriani

    2009-01-01

    Knowing consumers' preferences and perceptions of the sensory evaluation of drink products are very significant to manufacturers and retailers alike. With no appropriate sensory analysis, there is a high risk of market disappointment. This paper aims to rank the selected coffee products and also to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation using fuzzy decision making model. Three products of coffee drinks were used for sensory evaluation. Data wer...

  6. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  7. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  8. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  9. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  10. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  11. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  12. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  14. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  15. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  16. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  17. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

  18. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  19. Sensory Media: Multidisciplinary Approaches in Designing a Situated & Mobile Learning Environment for Past Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Rasmussen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Handheld digital devices are rapidly increasing their sensory capabilities for registering multiple types of input, such as movement, orientation, position and touch, as well as light and sound. Mobile Augmented Rreality is one of the emerging forms of representation and expression that exploits these sensory media. In the following text we will present and discuss a type of indirect augmented reality, which we call situated simulations. In a situated simulation there is approximate identity between the 3D environment displayed on the screen and the user's real perspective on a given location. This makes it possible to create simulations of relevant objects and environments related to a specific place, for example, interpretations of its past. We present a situated simulation

  20. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    .5 SD) than within-patient variation (0.23 to 3.55 SD). There were no significant differences between pain and pain-free patients. The individual test-retest variability was higher on the operated side compared with the nonoperated side. DISCUSSION: The QST protocol reliability allows for group......OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... persistent pain after breast cancer treatment, suggesting neuropathic pain being a prominent pain mechanism. However, the agreement and reliability of QST has not been described in the postsurgical breast cancer population, hindering exact interpretation of QST studies in this population. The aim...

  1. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  2. Feasibility of recommending certain replacement or alternative fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M

    2009-05-01

    Expert groups and public health authorities recommend that trans-fatty acid (TFA) intakes from industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) should be less than 1% of total energy intake. The starting point for any regulatory or nonregulatory response to this recommendation is to assess the extent of the problem by determining where in the food supply TFAs are found and the amounts consumed in the population. Unfortunately, this is a particularly difficult task using traditional methods of dietary assessment inasmuch as food composition databases with TFA data are either nonexistent or incomplete in most countries. Current evidence on estimates of intake suggests there is high variability in TFA intakes and their food sources between countries. The ubiquitous presence of PHVOs in the global food supply in bakery products, deep-fried foods, snack foods, confectionery products and table spreads attests to their commercial value and convenience. However, their common use is more the result of historical convenience from an industry infrastructure developed over 50 years based on efficient, cost-effective hydrogenation of vegetable oils rather than any inherent sensory or physical superiority of the hydrogenated fats over purpose-made zero-trans fats and oils. Current global supply of appropriate zero-trans replacement fats high in cis-unsaturated fatty acids is insufficient to meet the demand if all PHVOs in the food supply were replaced. Regulatory action needs to be coordinated with supply to maximize the opportunity for health gains by replacing partially hydrogenated fats with purpose-ready zero-trans vegetable oils low in saturates and high in cis-unsaturates rather than animal fats and tropical oils high in saturated fatty acids.

  3. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  6. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  7. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  8. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  9. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... Secondly, it is an individual and independent interpretation of the Matthean .... specific social context is emphasised: certain events in the early church ...... Moses-theology, a Covenant-theology or any other exclusive theology.

  10. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  11. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  12. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  13. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  14. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  15. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  16. Begriffsverwirrung? Interpretation Analyse Bedeutung Applikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayr, Jeremia Josef M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research on the reception of biblical texts confronts scientific exegesis with valid and challenging requests and demands. The hermeneutic question of the compatibility of interpretations resulting out of different contexts (e.g. scientific exegesis and ordinary readers‘ exegesis plays an important role. Taking these requests seriously by coherently restructuring fundamental and central aspects of the theory of scientific interpretation, the present article attempts to offer a stimulating approach for further investigation.

  17. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  18. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  19. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  20. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  1. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  3. Does sensory stimulation threshold affect lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation outcomes? A prospective clinical correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven P; Strassels, Scott A; Kurihara, Connie; Lesnick, Ivan K; Hanling, Steven R; Griffith, Scott R; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Nguyen, Conner

    2011-11-01

    Radiofrequency facet denervation is one of the most frequently performed procedures for chronic low back pain. Although sensory stimulation is generally used as a surrogate measure to denote sufficient proximity of the electrode to the nerve, no study has examined whether stimulation threshold influences outcome. We prospectively recorded data in 61 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation who experienced significant pain relief after medial branch blocks. For each nerve lesioned, multiple attempts were made to maximize sensory stimulation threshold (SST). Mean SST was calculated on the basis of the lowest stimulation perceived at 0.1-V increments for each medial branch. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥50% reduction in back pain coupled with a positive satisfaction score lasting ≥3 months. The relationship between mean SST and denervation outcomes was evaluated via a receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and stratifying outcomes on the basis of various cutoff values. No correlation was noted between mean SST and pain relief at rest (Pearson's r=-0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.24 to 0.23, P=0.97), with activity (r=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.07, P=0.20), or a successful outcome. No optimal SST could be identified. There is no significant relationship between mean SST during lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and treatment outcome, which may be due to differences in general sensory perception. Because stimulation threshold was optimized for each patient, these data cannot be interpreted to suggest that sensory testing should not be performed, or that high sensory stimulation thresholds obtained on the first attempt should be deemed acceptable.

  4. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  5. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  7. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  8. Sensory analysis for magnetic resonance-image analysis: Using human perception and cognition to segment and assess the interior of potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Harald; Thybo, A.K.; Andersen, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    were developed by the panel during preliminary training sessions, and consisted in definitions of various biological compartments inside the tubers. The results from the sensory and the computer-assisted image analyses of the shape and interior structure of the tubers were related to the experimental...... able to detect differences between varieties as well as storage times. The sensory image analysis gave better discrimination between varieties than the computer-assisted image analysis presently employed, and was easier to interpret. Some sensory descriptors could be predicted from the computer......-assisted image analysis. The present results offer new information about using sensory analysis of MR-images not only for food science but also for medical applications for analysing MR and X-ray images and for training of personnel, such as radiologists and radiographers. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  9. Radiofrequency contact currents: sensory responses and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, Robert; Tell, R.A.; Olsen, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The process of setting science-based exposure standards (or guidelines) for radiofrequency (RF) contact current exposure has been disadvantaged by a lack of relevant data. The authors first review the essential features and results of the available studies and illustrate the apparent discrepancies among them. Then, they examine the manner in which current was administered in these studies and suggest as to how the physical relationship of a contacting finger to the current electrode may play a role in affecting sensory thresholds specific to those configurations. A major factor in this analysis relates to whether current density is uniformly distributed across the contact area or whether an electrode's 'edge effects' enhance currents with a net effect of decreasing apparent thresholds, when expressed as the bulk current entering a subject. For an exposure with a clear hazard potential, thresholds of human sensory response to RF currents require further investigation. (authors)

  10. Sensory Experience Memory in Resource Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Gordon J

    2017-01-01

    A sensory experience memory (SEM) is an emotional memory that may be either connected to an intellectual memory or it may have become dissociated from its corresponding intellectual memory. Sensory experience memories are the cause of a number of pathologies, including PTSD, panic disorder, and anxiety. When a personality state that holds a negative SEM assumes the conscious, the client may display negative emotional reactions that appear unwarranted. SEMs can also play a central role in therapy to resolve pathology. Resource therapy (RT) incorporates the understanding of SEMs in both diagnosis and treatment. RT will be used in this article to illustrate the importance of working with SEMs, but therapists can translate the use of SEMs to other therapeutic modalities.

  11. Sensory differentiation of commercially produced spaghetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestorić Mladenka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the performance of trained and untrained panel in evaluating the texture of nine commercially produced wheat spaghetti. Several sensory methods were applied in order to investigate the performance of different panel groups. In order to avoid the loss of information obtained by non-parametric methods, data were scaled according to contingency tables. This analysis showed that significant differences existed between the two panels for the given products. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the used panels cannot be a good alternative to each other in providing sensory texture profiling of commercial spaghetti, except in the case when the properties of spaghetti were evaluated using the control sample.

  12. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory loss amongst old family members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    and their close family. Our tentative findings point towards a prominence of different insecurities and discomforts in social life that directly links to the decreased sensory abilities. Experiences of being ‘lost’, ‘set afloat’ and disconnected in everyday life interactions are broadly described by all...... on the old people suffering a decline in sensory abilities, but also on family members as individual loss becomes collective loss in the context of family and kinship. The paper presentation takes its point of departure in rough pieces of empirical material (e.g. film-clips, sound......-clips/montage and ethnographic description) and through exposition of tentative analysis and research findings we aim to initiate a discussion around central themes of the work....

  14. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyao; Cai, Zhipeng; Li, Jianzhong

    2017-03-10

    With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted.

  15. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyao Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs, wireless sensor networks (WSNs and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted.

  16. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Earland

    Full Text Available This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  17. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  18. On sensory loss amongst old family members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel; Rasmussen, Jon Dag

    family. Our tentative findings point towards a prominence of different insecurities and discomforts in social life that directly links to the decreased sensory abilities. Experiences of being ‘lost’, ‘set afloat’ and disconnected in everyday life interactions are broadly described by all of the followed...... exposition of tentative analysis and research findings we aim to initiate a discussion around central themes of the work....

  19. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  20. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system...

  1. The sensory basis of the epistemic gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Jakab, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal character of conscious experience has long been regarded as the major problem for physicalist accounts of consciousness. In recent years, defenders of physicalism have typically been relying on the so-called Phenomenal Concept Strategy (PCS) to avoid dualism. In this paper, we argue...... in terms of the features of the sensory-perceptual representations underlying conscious experiences, namely that some, but not all, of these states are representationally unstructured....

  2. The influence of carbohydrate-based fat replacers with and without emulsifiers on the quality characteristics of lowfat cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A H

    1998-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristics of cakes prepared with either the carbohydrate-based fat replacers N-Flate, Paselli MD 10 and Litesse (0, 25, 50 and 75% of fat weight) or fat replacers plus emulsifier (mono- and diglycerides; 0 and 3% of flour weight) were studied. Specific gravity of the batter was significantly (p Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25 and 50% levels had higher volumes, specific volume and standing heights than those of the control. Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25, 50 and 75% levels were more compressible than the control. Cakes prepared with Paselli MD 10 had the highest volumes, specific volume, standing heights and compressibilities. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers improved cake volumes, standing heights and compressibilities. Cakes prepared with fat replacers exhibited higher crust and crumb color values compared to the control. Cakes prepared with 25 or 50% fat replacers had higher mean scores for flavor, softness and eating quality than the control. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers did not affect the crust color, crumb color and flavor, but significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved softness and eating quality.

  3. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated) excitatory and inhibitory stimulation. Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronal synchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals) and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers) of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, our results indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindling can even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  4. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  5. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  6. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  7. Motor and sensory alalia: diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alalia is a speech disorder that develops due to organic brain damage in children with normal hearing and intelligence during the first three year of life. Systemic speech underdevelopment in alalia is characterized by violations in the phonetic, phonemic, lexical, and grammatical structure. Patients with alalia can also have non-speech related impairments, including motor (impaired movement and coordination, sensory (impaired sensitivity and perception, and psychopathological disorders. There are three types of alalia: motor, sensory, and mixed. Children with motor alalia have expressive language disorders, speech praxis, poor speech fluency, impaired articulation, and other focal neurological symptoms; however, they understand speech directed to them. Patients with motor alalia are often left-handed. Regional slowing and epileptiform activity are often detected on their electroencephalogram.  Children with sensory alalia are characterized by poor speech understanding (despite normal hearing resulting in secondary underdevelopment of their own speech. These patients have problems with the analysis of sounds, including speech sounds (impaired speech gnosis, which prevents the development of association between the sound image and the object. Therefore, the child hears, but does not understand the speech directed at him/her (auditory agnosia. Differential diagnosis of alalia is challenging and may require several months of observation. It also implies the exclusion of hearing loss and mental disorders.

  8. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  9. Analysis of sensory processing in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Martinez, Cláudia Maria Simões; Tudella, Eloisa

    2016-12-01

    Premature birth suggests condition of biological vulnerability, predisposing to neurological injuries, requiring hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, which, while contributing to increase the survival rates, expose infants to sensory stimuli harmful to the immature organism. To evaluate the sensory processing at 4 and 6months' corrected age. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 30 infants divided into an experimental group composed of preterm infants (n=15), and a control group composed of full-term infants (n=15). The infants were assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants. The preterm infants showed poor performance in the total score of the test in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and reactivity to vestibular stimulation. When groups were compared, significant differences in the total score (p=0.0113) and in the reactivity to tactile deep pressure (psensory processing. These changes were most evident in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Complete functional characterization of sensory neurons by system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C-K; David, Stephen V; Gallant, Jack L

    2006-01-01

    System identification is a growing approach to sensory neurophysiology that facilitates the development of quantitative functional models of sensory processing. This approach provides a clear set of guidelines for combining experimental data with other knowledge about sensory function to obtain a description that optimally predicts the way that neurons process sensory information. This prediction paradigm provides an objective method for evaluating and comparing computational models. In this chapter we review many of the system identification algorithms that have been used in sensory neurophysiology, and we show how they can be viewed as variants of a single statistical inference problem. We then review many of the practical issues that arise when applying these methods to neurophysiological experiments: stimulus selection, behavioral control, model visualization, and validation. Finally we discuss several problems to which system identification has been applied recently, including one important long-term goal of sensory neuroscience: developing models of sensory systems that accurately predict neuronal responses under completely natural conditions.

  11. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  12. The impact of working memory on interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云安; 张国梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the roles of working memory in interpreting process. First of all, it gives a brief introduction to interpreting. Secondly, the paper exemplifies the role of working memory in interpreting. The result reveals that the working memory capacity of interpreters is not adsolutely proportional to the quality of interpreting in the real interpreting conditions. The performance of an interpreter with well-equipped working memory capacity will comprehensively influenced by various elements.

  13. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  14. Characterization of Sensory Differences in Mixing and Premium Rums Through the Use of Descriptive Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Chelsea M; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel. Of the finalized terms, only 5 did not exist previously on the rum flavor wheel. Twenty attributes were found to be significantly different among rums. The majority of rums showed similar aroma profiles with the exception of 2 rums, which were characterized by higher perceived intensities of brown sugar, caramel, vanilla, and chocolate aroma, caramel, maple, and vanilla aroma-by-mouth and caramel aftertaste. These results demonstrate the previously developed rum flavor wheel can be used to adequately describe the flavor profile of rum. Additionally, results of this study document the sensory differences among premium rums and may be used to correlate with analytical data to better understand how changes in chemical composition of the product affect sensory perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. What is Sensory about Multi-Sensory Enhancement of Vision by Sounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pérez-Bellido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can auditory input influence the sensory processing of visual information? Many studies have reported cross-modal enhancement in visual tasks, but the nature of such gain is still unclear. Some authors argue for ‘high-order’ expectancy or attention effects, whereas others propose ‘low-order’ stimulus-driven multisensory integration. The present study applies a psychophysical analysis of reaction time distributions in order to disentangle sensory changes from other kind of high-order (not sensory-specific effects. Observers performed a speeded simple detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrasts, with and without accompanying sounds. The data were adjusted using chronometric functions in order to separate changes is sensory evidence from changes in decision or motor times. The results supported the existence of a stimulus unspecific auditory-induced enhancement in RTs across all types of visual stimuli, probably mediated by higher-order effects (eg, reduction of temporal uncertainty. Critically, we also singled out a sensory gain that was selective to low spatial frequency stimuli, highlighting the role of the magno-cellular visual pathway in multisensory integration for fast detection. The present findings help clarify previous mixed findings in the area, and introduce a novel form to evaluate cross-modal enhancement.

  16. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  17. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea ( L. Hull Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40% common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01. Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01. All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01. Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  18. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  19. Marcella: the transition from explosive sensoriality to the ability to think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Antonino

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses an analytic case in which it was necessary to first address the patient's need for containment of her protoemotions--her sensoriality--before the analysis could proceed along more standard lines, with interpretation of the transference, work on displacement and aspects of her childhood history, and so forth. Prior to treatment, the patient had resorted to a sort of affective autism in order not to experience dangerously overwhelming emotions, and her emotional lethargy in sessions at first engendered similar feelings in the analyst, making progress impossible until a container was established for her projective identifications.

  20. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  1. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  2. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  3. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  4. Cardiac imaging: working towards fully-automated machine analysis & interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J; Dey, Damini; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Motwani, Manish; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging plays a critical role in managing patients with cardiovascular disease. Although subjective visual interpretation remains the clinical mainstay, quantitative analysis facilitates objective, evidence-based management, and advances in clinical research. This has driven developments in computing and software tools aimed at achieving fully automated image processing and quantitative analysis. In parallel, machine learning techniques have been used to rapidly integrate large amounts of clinical and quantitative imaging data to provide highly personalized individual patient-based conclusions. Areas covered: This review summarizes recent advances in automated quantitative imaging in cardiology and describes the latest techniques which incorporate machine learning principles. The review focuses on the cardiac imaging techniques which are in wide clinical use. It also discusses key issues and obstacles for these tools to become utilized in mainstream clinical practice. Expert commentary: Fully-automated processing and high-level computer interpretation of cardiac imaging are becoming a reality. Application of machine learning to the vast amounts of quantitative data generated per scan and integration with clinical data also facilitates a move to more patient-specific interpretation. These developments are unlikely to replace interpreting physicians but will provide them with highly accurate tools to detect disease, risk-stratify, and optimize patient-specific treatment. However, with each technological advance, we move further from human dependence and closer to fully-automated machine interpretation.

  5. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Emma L; Spence, Charles; Davis, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  6. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR: understanding the triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  7. Transformation priming helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Braun, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Retinal input is riddled with abrupt transients due to self-motion, changes in illumination, object-motion, etc. Our visual system must correctly interpret each of these changes to keep visual perception consistent and sensitive. This poses an enormous challenge, as many transients are highly ambiguous in that they are consistent with many alternative physical transformations. Here we investigated inter-trial effects in three situations with sudden and ambiguous transients, each presenting two alternative appearances (rotation-reversing structure-from-motion, polarity-reversing shape-from-shading, and streaming-bouncing object collisions). In every situation, we observed priming of transformations as the outcome perceived in earlier trials tended to repeat in subsequent trials and this repetition was contingent on perceptual experience. The observed priming was specific to transformations and did not originate in priming of perceptual states preceding a transient. Moreover, transformation priming was independent of attention and specific to low level stimulus attributes. In summary, we show how "transformation priors" and experience-driven updating of such priors helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs. We discuss how dynamic transformation priors can be instantiated as "transition energies" in an "energy landscape" model of the visual perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Image analysis enhancement and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary practical and mathematical background are provided for the analysis of an electron microscope image in order to extract the maximum amount of structural information. Instrumental methods of image enhancement are described, including the use of the energy-selecting electron microscope and the scanning transmission electron microscope. The problems of image interpretation are considered with particular reference to the limitations imposed by radiation damage and specimen thickness. A brief survey is given of the methods for producing a three-dimensional structure from a series of two-dimensional projections, although emphasis is really given on the analysis, processing and interpretation of the two-dimensional projection of a structure. (Auth.)

  9. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  10. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits

  11. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Bröring

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children.This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems.Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation or with prematurity as a risk factor.Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies.Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.

  12. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  13. Epigenetic influences on sensory regeneration: histone deacetylases regulate supporting cell proliferation in the avian utricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L; Speck, Judith D; Warchol, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    The sensory hair cells of the cochlea and vestibular organs are essential for normal hearing and balance function. The mammalian ear possesses a very limited ability to regenerate hair cells and their loss can lead to permanent sensory impairment. In contrast, hair cells in the avian ear are quickly regenerated after acoustic trauma or ototoxic injury. The very different regenerative abilities of the avian vs. mammalian ear can be attributed to differences in injury-evoked expression of genes that either promote or inhibit the production of new hair cells. Gene expression is regulated both by the binding of cis-regulatory molecules to promoter regions as well as through structural modifications of chromatin (e.g., methylation and acetylation). This study examined effects of histone deacetylases (HDACs), whose main function is to modify histone acetylation, on the regulation of regenerative proliferation in the chick utricle. Cultures of regenerating utricles and dissociated cells from the utricular sensory epithelia were treated with the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A, sodium butyrate, and MS-275. All of these molecules prevent the enzymatic removal of acetyl groups from histones, thus maintaining nuclear chromatin in a "relaxed" (open) configuration. Treatment with all inhibitors resulted in comparable decreases in supporting cell proliferation. We also observed that treatment with the HDAC1-, 2-, and 3-specific inhibitor MS-275 was sufficient to reduce proliferation and that two class I HDACs--HDAC1 and HDAC2--were expressed in the sensory epithelium of the utricle. These results suggest that inhibition of specific type I HDACs is sufficient to prevent cell cycle entry in supporting cells. Notably, treatment with HDAC inhibitors did not affect the differentiation of replacement hair cells. We conclude that histone deacetylation is a positive regulator of regenerative proliferation but is not critical for avian hair cell differentiation.

  14. Neural Correlates of Sensory Substitution in Vestibular Pathways Following Complete Vestibular Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution is the term typically used in reference to sensory prosthetic devices designed to replace input from one defective modality with input from another modality. Such devices allow an alternative encoding of sensory information that is no longer directly provided by the defective modality in a purposeful and goal-directed manner. The behavioral recovery that follows complete vestibular loss is impressive and has long been thought to take advantage of a natural form of sensory substitution in which head motion information is no longer provided by vestibular inputs, but instead by extra-vestibular inputs such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of this behavioral recovery after complete vestibular loss in alert behaving monkeys (Macaca mulata). We show for the first time that extra-vestibular inputs substitute for the vestibular inputs to stabilize gaze at the level of single neurons in the VOR premotor circuitry. The summed weighting of neck proprioceptive and efference copy information was sufficient to explain simultaneously observed behavioral improvements in gaze stability. Furthermore, by altering correspondence between intended and actual head movement we revealed a four-fold increase in the weight of neck motor efference copy signals consistent with the enhanced behavioral recovery observed when head movements are voluntary versus unexpected. Thus, taken together our results provide direct evidence that the substitution by extra-vestibular inputs in vestibular pathways provides a neural correlate for the improvements in gaze stability that are observed following the total loss of vestibular inputs. PMID:23077054

  15. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  16. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  17. Replacing Fortran Namelists with JSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining a log of input parameters for a climate model is very important to understanding potential causes for answer changes during the development stages. Additionally, since modern Fortran is now interoperable with C, a more modern approach to software infrastructure to include code written in C is necessary. Merging these two separate facets of climate modeling requires a quality control for monitoring changes to input parameters and model defaults that can work with both Fortran and C. JSON will soon replace namelists as the preferred key/value pair input in the GFDL model. By adding a JSON parser written in C into the model, the input can be used by all functions and subroutines in the model, errors can be handled by the model instead of by the internal namelist parser, and the values can be output into a single file that is easily parsable by readily available tools. Input JSON files can handle all of the functionality of a namelist while being portable between C and Fortran. Fortran wrappers using unlimited polymorphism are crucial to allow for simple and compact code which avoids the need for many subroutines contained in an interface. Errors can be handled with more detail by providing information about location of syntax errors or typos. The output JSON provides a ground truth for values that the model actually uses by providing not only the values loaded through the input JSON, but also any default values that were not included. This kind of quality control on model input is crucial for maintaining reproducibility and understanding any answer changes resulting from changes in the input.

  18. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  19. Quantum theory needs no 'Interpretation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.; Peres, Asher

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to stress the fact that Quantum Theory does not need an interpretation other than being an algorithm for computing probabilities associated with macroscopic phenomena and measurements. It does not ''describ'' reality, and the wave function is not objective entity, it only gives the evolution of our probabilities for the outcomes potential experiments. (AIP) (c)

  20. An Authentic Interpretation of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Antić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic interpretation of laws is a legal institute whereby a legislator gives the authentic meaning to a specific legal norm in case of its incorrect or diversified interpretation in practice. It has the same legal force as the law. Retroactivity and influence on pending cases are its inherent characteristics. Due to these characteristics and their relation to the principles of the rule of law, legal certainty and separation of powers, it is subjected to severe criticism not only by legal theory but also legal practice. The author analyses the institute of authentic interpretation from historical and comparative point of view and through the Croatian normative regulation, practice of the Croatian Parliament and academic debate, including opinions in favour as well as against it. On these grounds the author concludes that higher quality of law making procedure could make the authentic interpretation dispensable. On the other hand, should this institute be kept in the legal order it is essential to receive more effective constitutional control.

  1. Copenhagen interpretation versus Bohm's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objections raised against Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory are reexamined, and arguments are presented in favour of this theory. Bohm's QED is modified such as to include Dirac particles. It is pointed out that the electric field may be chosen as the 'actual' field instead of the magnetic field. Finally, the theory is reformulated in terms of an arbitrary actual field. (Author)

  2. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  3. An interpretation of signature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)

  4. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  5. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  6. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  7. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  9. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  10. Language: From Sensory Mapping to Cognitive Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard H. Bichakjian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper places embodiment in an evolutionary perspective and endeavors to show that as incipient speakers began forging a linguistic system, they molded their grammatical distinctions and syntactic functions on their perception of the outside world, but that in the course of evolution, these perceptually-tinkered features were gradually replaced with mental constructs, specifically conceived to serve linguistic purposes and serve them with increased potentiality and greater efficiency. The shift from perceptual to conceptual implements is perhaps most conspicuously visible in writing, where open-ended figurative hieroglyphs were replaced with a small set of abstract letters, but the process is pervasive. In syntax, the phenomenal notion of agency, so deeply anchored in our activities, and the entire grammatical system built thereupon were replaced with a model where agency is irrelevant and syntax is structured on the purely mental constructs of subject and object. The paper continues with further cases of disembodiment.

  11. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with “hyperdexterity” witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being “secondary” level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis. PMID:23882194

  12. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWhyatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely characterised as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2 to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with hyperdexterity witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardised assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being secondary level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential route of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  13. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  14. Divided multimodal attention sensory trace and context coding strategies in spatially congruent auditory and visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Tómas; Thorvaldsson, Tómas Páll; Kristjánsson, Arni

    2014-01-01

    Previous research involving both unimodal and multimodal studies suggests that single-response change detection is a capacity-free process while a discriminatory up or down identification is capacity-limited. The trace/context model assumes that this reflects different memory strategies rather than inherent differences between identification and detection. To perform such tasks, one of two strategies is used, a sensory trace or a context coding strategy, and if one is blocked, people will automatically use the other. A drawback to most preceding studies is that stimuli are presented at separate locations, creating the possibility of a spatial confound, which invites alternative interpretations of the results. We describe a series of experiments, investigating divided multimodal attention, without the spatial confound. The results challenge the trace/context model. Our critical experiment involved a gap before a change in volume and brightness, which according to the trace/context model blocks the sensory trace strategy, simultaneously with a roaming pedestal, which should block the context coding strategy. The results clearly show that people can use strategies other than sensory trace and context coding in the tasks and conditions of these experiments, necessitating changes to the trace/context model.

  15. Does chronic idiopathic dizziness reflect an impairment of sensory predictions of self-motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern K Pomper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1986 states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth-pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion („Filehne illusion in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness.

  16. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  17. Auditory sensory ("echoic") memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, R D; Cowan, N; Ritter, W; Javitt, D C

    1995-10-01

    Studies of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia have focused largely on prefrontal components. This study investigated the integrity of auditory sensory ("echoic") memory, a component that shows little dependence on prefrontal functioning. Echoic memory was investigated in 20 schizophrenic subjects and 20 age- and IQ-matched normal comparison subjects with the use of nondelayed and delayed tone matching. Schizophrenic subjects were markedly impaired in their ability to match two tones after an extremely brief delay between them (300 msec) but were unimpaired when there was no delay between tones. Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia affects brain regions outside the prefrontal cortex as well as within.

  18. [Temperature and sensorial qualities of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisais, J; Durand, M P

    2001-01-01

    The pleasure of food-intake was emphasized by Brillat-Savarin in XIXo century. Beside pathogen bacterias, bad flavours caused by bacterial growth or enzymatic effects may happen in refrigerators with a mismanaged temperature. We have to distinguish between food-conservation and food-intake temperature. The ideal room-temperature to appreciate a meal is about 22 degrees C with a damp of 60%. Relating to the four main flavours, salt and sweet are at their best at 18 degrees, bitter and sour at 8 degrees. All what is written before can be applied either in the case of sensorial analysis and meal.

  19. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    Life in the ocean is shaped by the trade-off between a need to encounter other organisms for feeding or mating, and to avoid encounters with predators. Avoiding or achieving encounters necessitates an efficient means of collecting the maximum possible information from the surroundings through...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  20. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory