WorldWideScience

Sample records for replace oil imports

  1. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2010-01-01

    @@ The so-called imported oil dependence degree commonly refers to the proportion of oil imported to China's oil consumption,which hit 56% in 2009 and has exceeded 50% in 2007.In the past two years,the net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 8.8% and rose to218.38 million tons.

  2. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil increased by 8.4% in China in 2007, hitting the record of 183.48 million tons (Fig.l).The net imports of crude oil and other oil products including paraffin wax, oil coke, and asphalt increased and balanced out the decrease of the net imports of product oil and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  3. Is physiological glucocorticoid replacement important in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John; Blair, Joanne; Ross, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm with low concentrations at night, rising in the early hours of the morning, peaking on waking and declining over the day to low concentrations in the evening. Loss of this circadian rhythm, as seen in jetlag and shift work, is associated with fatigue in the short term and diabetes and obesity in the medium to long term. Patients with adrenal insufficiency on current glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone have unphysiological cortisol concentrations being low on waking and high after each dose of hydrocortisone. Patients with adrenal insufficiency complain of fatigue, a poor quality of life and there is evidence of poor health outcomes including obesity potentially related to glucocorticoid replacement. New technologies are being developed that deliver more physiological glucocorticoid replacement including hydrocortisone by subcutaneous pump, Plenadren, a once-daily modified-release hydrocortisone and Chronocort, a delayed and sustained absorption hydrocortisone formulation that replicates the overnight profile of cortisol. In this review, we summarise the evidence regarding physiological glucocorticoid replacement with a focus on relevance to paediatrics. PMID:27582458

  4. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2009-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 9.5% in 2008 and rose to 200.67 million tons from 183.28 million tons in 2007 (Fig.1,Fig.2).The net imports of crude oil reached 175.16 million tons,up by 9.9%.According to the statistics of State Customs Administration,the net imports of oil products,including gasoline,kerosene,diesel and fuel oil increased by 19.4% and rose to 21.84 million tons.

  5. CSR Important to Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Corporations are human endeavors, and all human endeavors should benefit our society and reflect our morals. They should provide more than just investor return. The nature of oil industry demands that oil companies be socially responsible in addition to operating in an ethical and environmentally friendly manner. At a time of rising energy prices and global concern over our energy future, however, oil companies should give even greater emphasis to this part of their approach to corporate social responsibility(CSR).

  6. China Depends More on Imported Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qian

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's oil imports will continue to see solid growth in 2010,with more than half of the country's total oil consumption coming from abroad.It is inevitable for the country-the world's second largest oil consumer-to see a robust increase of imports,as domestic production cannot keep up with rising demand.

  7. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  8. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Fatih Demirbas, M. [Sila Science, University Mah., Mekan Sok No. 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops. (author)

  9. Importing coconut oil from Vietnam to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this Bachelor’s thesis is to clarify the coconut oil production chain and importing process for it into Finland and some others EU countries. The benefits of coconut oil products for food industry are included, which is popular in Finland because of its healthy advantages. Moreover, the benefit of using coconut oil as beauty products is mentioned as one good point which is now trendy in Asia but not yet popular in Europe. In this thesis, the knowledge and information is ...

  10. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  11. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  12. Oil-import contracts, prices discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeljkovic, D.

    1986-01-01

    The author accuses Yugoslavia of a sluggish response to changing world oil markets that will repeat the situation of 1973, when Yugoslavia's failure to raise oil prices led to increased consumption. Reviewing the composition of imports and their sources, the author suggests that Yugoslavia cannot be buying on the spot market at such low prices. Instead, intergovernmental agreements set prices which are independent of the market, and these contracts remain in effect until new ones are concluded. The high value of the dollar relative to the dinar and the high cost of refining are other components of the current price problem.

  13. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Replacing fossil oil with fresh oil - with what and for what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Green, Allan G; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2011-07-01

    Industrial chemicals and materials are currently derived mainly from fossil-based raw materials, which are declining in availability, increasing in price and are a major source of undesirable greenhouse gas emissions. Plant oils have the potential to provide functionally equivalent, renewable and environmentally friendly replacements for these finite fossil-based raw materials, provided that their composition can be matched to end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current and growing industrial demands. Replacement of 40% of the fossil oil used in the chemical industry with renewable plant oils, whilst ensuring that growing demand for food oils is also met, will require a trebling of global plant oil production from current levels of around 139 MT to over 400 MT annually. Realisation of this potential will rely on application of plant biotechnology to (i) tailor plant oils to have high purity (preferably >90%) of single desirable fatty acids, (ii) introduce unusual fatty acids that have specialty end-use functionalities and (iii) increase plant oil production capacity by increased oil content in current oil crops, and conversion of other high biomass crops into oil accumulating crops. This review outlines recent progress and future challenges in each of these areas.Practical applications: The research reviewed in this paper aims to develop metabolic engineering technologies to radically increase the yield and alter the fatty acid composition of plant oils and enable the development of new and more productive oil crops that can serve as renewable sources of industrial feedstocks currently provided by non-renewable and polluting fossil-based resources. As a result of recent and anticipated research developments we can expect to see significant enhancements in quality and productivity of oil crops over the coming decades. This should generate the technologies needed to support increasing plant oil production into the future

  15. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy, K.; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  16. Suspension of oil supply and import of oil from the overseas oil development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The import of oil from the overseas oil development is not only reducing the probability and the scale of supply suspension but also enhancing the competitive power of oil industry by securing crude oil stably and economically. Therefore, the import of oil from the overseas oil development is desperately required to meet the opening of domestic oil market. Since the overseas oil development program has started in 1981, the government subsidy from special energy accounting is $0.6 billion occupying 25% of total investment with $2.4 billion. In spite of such a government subsidy, the import amount of development in 1997 is 13.6 million barrel, which is only 1.6% of domestic crude oil consumption. With the goal of supplying 10% of domestically consumed crude oil with self-developed crude oil by 2010, the government is considering a support plan to secure oil for the energy security, because enterprises are lowering its priority of investment on the overseas oil development program as a result of IMF crisis and restructuring. This study estimates the amount of government subsidy through the positive analysis, by selecting an aftermath supporting program as an alternative. (author). 28 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Topsoil replacement and organic amendments for oil wellsite reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larney, F.J.; Akinremi, O.O. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Lemke, R.L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK (Canada). Semi-arid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-31

    The oil and gas industry lease about 350,000 hectares of land in Alberta for wellsites, plant sites, and rights-of-way for pipelines. An increasing number of these sites are being abandoned and reclaimed. The criteria for land reclamation for wellsites and associated facilities is that changes to land capability caused by a project should be measured against the original off-site capability. For wellsites constructed before 1983, 60 per cent of the original depth of topsoils must be replaced in order to return the soil to normal farming operations and its original productivity. Amendments may include manure, soil, peat, straw, or compost. The Conservation and Reclamation Inspector of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) gives the final judgement call of a reclaimed wellsite. This study involved 3 test sites in which different depths of topsoil replacement with and without organic amendments were examined. The objective was to specify amounts of topsoils replacement and to give credence to reclamation criteria.The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen for each amendment treatment was examined. The addition of nutrients depended on the type of amendment at each site. The highest rate of total nitrogen addition was with manure at a site in Strathmore. Compost supplied 696 kg of nitrogen per hectare at all 3 sites. Plant-based amendments supplied less nitrogen. Manure also supplied the highest amount of carbon, followed by compost, straw and alfalfa. Compost supplied the highest level of phosphorous, followed by manure, and straw. 14 refs., 7 figs., 116 tabs.

  18. Sinopec and CNOOC Join Hands for Oil Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec and CNOOC, two of China's big-three oil companies, have set up a joint venture to import crude oil.The joint venture makes CNOOC the fifth largest crude oil importer in China. Following the move, CNOOC is also likely to gain government approval to build a large refinery and market oil products this year, company executives said.

  19. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  20. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marbuah, George

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  1. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök, Vel

    2015-01-01

    Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (poil level decreased (poil to the sucuks had a significant effect (poil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits.

  2. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  3. Sinopec to Further Replace and Reduce Oil Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lijun

    2001-01-01

    @@ Sinopec is a big energy consumer as well as a major energy supplier. According to the 1999 data, the 6 oilfields under the group company consumed a total of 1.1503 million tons of crude oil,the self-consumption rate being 3.33%, and its refining enterprises, 5.26 million tons offuel oil, accounting for 62.91% of their fuel oil output totaling 8.36 million tons. The refinery-consumed fuel oil here is referred to as heavy oil. It is consumed separately by enterprises' self-supply power plants, totaling 557,000 tons; power stations,totaling 949,000 tons; boilers,totaling 1,248 million tons;fertilizer and chemical plants,totaling 1.517 million tons; and others totaling 547,000 tons.

  4. Importance of oil substitution from the viewpoint of energy economics and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilli, P.V. (Gesellschaft fuer neue Technologien in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft (GTE), Vienna, Austria)

    1984-04-01

    The author explains how oil substitution - the accelerated systematic replacement of oil products by more long-term available energy sources - is the most urgent task of energy policy because of the limit of oil stocks and the oil dependence within Europe, in particular, on oil supplies from politically unstable regions. A study made by the Oil Substitution Task Force has shown that this task must be performed initially in the sectors of the economy which are not major oil consumers, whereas oil substitution will be introduced later in the oil-specific sectors. The author examines the ways in which oil products have already been replaced in the Austrian economy.

  5. China's Fuel Oil Imports Continues to Hit Record High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China, the world's second-largest oil consumer, has managed to set a new full-year record for fuel oil imports in just 10 months, a clear sign of its appetite for refined oil products will continue unabated next year. According to data issued in late-November by China's General Administration of Customs, the country imported 2.1 million metric tons of fuel oil in October, up 26 percent from the same month last year, bringing total imports in the first 10 months to 24.76million tons.

  6. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

  7. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  8. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (pfat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (preplacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  9. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic......Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil...

  10. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  11. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  12. Monola oil versus canola oil as a fish oil replacer in rainbow trout feeds: effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, G M; Moretti, V M; Hermon, K; Caprino, F; Busetto, M L; Bellagamba, F; Rankin, T; Keast, R S J; Francis, D S

    2013-11-15

    Monola oil, a high oleic acid canola cultivar, and canola oil were evaluated as replacers of fish oil at three levels of inclusion (60%, 75% and 90%) in rainbow trout diets. After a 27-week grow-out cycle, the diet-induced effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality were assessed. Overall, no effects were noted for growth, feed utilisation or fish biometry, and the fatty acid composition of fish fillets mirrored that of the diets. Dietary treatments affected fillet lipid oxidation (free malondialdehyde), pigmentation and flavour volatile compounds, but only minor effects on sensorial attributes were detected. Ultimately, both oils were demonstrated to possess, to differing extents, suitable qualities to adequately replace fish oil from the perspective of fish performance and final product quality. However, further research is required to alleviate on-going issues associated with the loss of health promoting attributes (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) of final farmed products.

  13. China Expands Import Equipment of Marine Oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The oil price has been soaring continuously while the oil consumption in China has been increasingly rising, China is expanding the import of marine petroleum exploitation equipment greatly to produce more oil from oceans. According to the statistics from Tianjin Port, one of the largest international trade ports in China, 39 generating electricity sets for offshore oil exploitation have been imported and passed through the custom formalities in the first 7 months this year.The total value of them is US$ 4.407 million, an increase of 44.4% compared to the corresponding period last year, in addition, this port has also imported other offshore exploration and development equipment valued at US$ 120 million. Most of them are from the US with a value of US$ 57.25 million, anincrease of 54.9% over last year.

  14. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Moreno Vaca; Priscila Maldonado Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27)A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T...

  15. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing various percentage of POFA ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively by weight of cement. All the mixes were cast in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing until the testing date. The compressive strength test is conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390 (2009 at 7 and 28 days. From the results, it was observed that the combination of appropriate POFA content would enhance the compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Specimen produced using 20% POFA as partial cement replacement exhibit higher value of compressive strength than that of control OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. However, mixes consisting POFA up to 50% is also suitable for structural application.

  16. Crude Imports Triggers Investment Fever of Oil Wharves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's record high crude import of 80 million tons in 2003 has triggered a fever of oil wharf construction along the country's eastern coastal regions. Reportedly, the coastal harbor cities, such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nantong, Ningbo,Zhoushan, Maoming and Zhanjiang, have stepped up the efforts for construction of wharves, the large-scale berths for oil products in particular, so as to stimulate the rapid development of the local petrochemical and commodity flow industries.

  17. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  18. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  19. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  20. Improving Light Oil Yield,an Important Way to the Sustainable Development of Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2004-01-01

    Oil resources are non- renewable and the utilization of oil resources should be sustainable and rational. Oil processing industry must, to the maximum extent, produce liquid transportation fuel and chemical feedstocks, which can hardly be replaced by other forms of energy. Restructuring oil refineries in China,developing hydrocracking technologies and improving light oil yield are the significant means to achieve the sustainable development of petroleum processing industry.

  1. Effect of replacing beef fat with hazelnut oil on quality characteristics of sucuk - A Turkish fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Turp, G; Serdaroğlu, M

    2008-04-01

    Turkish fermented sausages (sucuk) were produced by replacing 15, 30 and 50% of beef fat with hazelnut oil incorporated as pre-emulsified with simplesse(®) 100 (whey protein powder) Each treatment was formulated to contain 20% total fat and beef fat was the only fat material used in the control (C) group. After 12 days of fermentation and ripening, all sucuk samples had TBA values within acceptable limits (replacement had a significant effect on redness values of the samples. Cholesterol content decreased progressively as the percentage of hazelnut oil increased in the formulation. Replacement of 50% beef fat with 50% hazelnut oil significantly increased MUFA, PUFA and MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios. The use of hazelnut oil resulted in significant decreases in the slice appearance, texture and taste scores. However there was no significant difference in the overall acceptability score of samples, except those in which hazelnut oil replaced 15% beef fat, which had the highest score.

  2. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  3. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  4. China's Oil & Gas Imports and Exports in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2012-01-01

    Average oil price in international market exceeded 110 US dollars and hit historic high in 2011, but China's crude oil imports still rose to 273.78 million tons. Net imports of crude oil, refined oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and other oil products created another historic high. Oil dependency, i.e. the proportion of net oil imports to domestic consumption went on rising and rose to about 59.8% in 2011. Net imports of refined oil rose by 46% remarkably, indicating that the growth of processing capacity of domestic refineries lagged behind consumption of oil products.

  5. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  6. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with olive oil on the sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Utrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six assays of low-fat venison salchichon were produced using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat added. The control contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other assays, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed significant differences for most of the attributes studied. The replacement of 35% or more of pork meat by olive oil, prompted a decrease in odour intensity, spicy odour, hardness and an increase of fat mouthfeel, together with the olive oil perception. By contrast, the replacement of 25% of pork meat by olive oil yielded a salchichon not greatly different to the control. Consumers accepted all assays, but preferred those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. From a sensory standpoint, therefore, it is recommended that the replacement of pork meat by olive oil in this product should not exceed 25%.

  7. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  8. Lipid composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  9. Chemical composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  10. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  11. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morais, Sofia; Silva, Tomé; Cordeiro, Odete; Rodrigues, Pedro; Guy, Derrick R; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    ...) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated...

  12. Divisia Decomposition Method and Its Application to Changes of Net Oil Import Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华; 徐照祎; 王策

    2014-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country’s econ-omy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net oil import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized coun-tries and five newly industrialized countries during 1971-2010 is decomposed into five factors:oil price, oil intensity, oil self-sufficiency, domestic price level and exchange rate. The result shows that the dominating factors are oil price and oil intensity;moreover, the newly industrialized countries have higher net oil import intensity than industrialized countries.

  13. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  14. The replacement of fish oil with refined coconut oil in the diet of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maxia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred rainbow trout (242.9 ± 6.9 g were randomly assigned to 12 fibreglass tanks (25 fish/tank. The fish were fed, for 231 days (feeding level: 0.74 % average bw, four experimental diets, containing increasing levels of coconut oil: diet A 0 %, diet B 6 %; diet C 12 % and diet D 13 %, as replacements of herring oil and cod liver oil. Weight gains of fish were > 3 g d-1 and FCR lower than 1.5, for all treatments. No significant difference was observed in the main car- cass traits and whole body composition, but whole fish energy content significantly increased in fish fed diet D (10.68 KJ g-1. Different dietary fatty acid profiles had significant effects on the rainbow trout muscle contents of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, total n-3, and the main ratios: SFA/USFA; DHA/EPA; DHA/AA, n-3/n-6, but not on total fatty acids content of the muscle.

  15. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Moreno Vaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN 1338:12.

  16. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  17. China's Oil Import and Export Rise in First Half of 1997

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Junshan; Shi Yusheng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Based on the great increase of China's oil import and export in 1996, China witnessed continuous increase in oil import in the first half of this year, especially for kerosene and diesel oil. Besides, China's oil export also increased by a big margin,especially for gasoline.

  18. China's Fuel Oil Output Drops But Import Jumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fuel oil is one of the varieties in the oil products highly marketed in China. The price of fuel oil has been entirely deregulated on the basis of marketing since China's Planning Commission released the new oil prizing methods on October 15, 2001, basically linking the domestic price to the international market.

  19. Performance of High-Strength Concrete Using Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Swaroopa Rani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in material technology has led to development of concrete with higher strengths. Presence of high cementitious materials contents in high strength concrete mixes increases heat of hydration that causes higher shrinkage and leading it to potential of cracking. However, use of supplementary cementitious materials leads to control in heat of hydration which further avoids higher shrinkage. Materials such as fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag are largely been used as supplementary cementitious materials in High strength concrete mixes. In the present study use of palm oil fuel ash (POFA as partial cement replacement in high strength concrete mixes is evaluated with an experimental study. High strength concrete mix of M60 grade is taken as a reference and the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength where performed for 7, 28 and 56 days and analyzed it with results for partial replacement mixes of POFA 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% & 25%. It has been observed that concrete with 15% replacement of POFA gave the highest strength.

  20. The importance of the global oils and fats supply and the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James; Fitton, Claire

    2010-06-01

    This article highlights the importance of the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide for food. On top of this food demand, the demand for vegetable oils for biofuels, which now absorb over 10% of world oil and fat supplies, has rapidly increased.

  1. Risks and opportunities from key importers pushing for sustainability: the case of Indonesian palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jafari, Yaghoob; Othman, Jamal; Witzke, Peter; Jusoh, Sufian

    2017-01-01

    Growing concerns in the major importing countries on the socio-environmental sustainability of oil palm farming may affect the import demand of palm oil and hence the economy of the exporting countries...

  2. Effect of the partial replacement of pork backfat by microencapsulated fish oil or mixed fish and olive oil on the quality of frankfurter type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Rubén; Pateiro, Mirian; Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-01-01

    Frankfurter sausages were reformulated to produce better lipid compositions by replacing the pork backfat by healthy oils. Sausages in, three different batches were manufactured: control (CO) with 100% of pork backfat, and modified sausages where the pork backfat was replaced with 50% by microencapsulated fish oil (ME) and by unencapsulated olive and fish oil mixture (OM). The ME treatments showed the lowest pH, fat and energy values and the highest protein and carbohydrates levels. The fat replacement by oils significantly (P < 0.05) affected to color parameters, since the ME batches presented the highest L* and b* values, whereas the OM treatments showed the highest values of a* values. As expected, the replacement of backfat by oils also greatly modified the fatty acids profile, since the OM group had the highest MUFA and n-3 PUFA contents. The microencapsulation process significantly (P < 0.001) increased the lipid oxidation. The ME batch presented the highest TBARS values and volatile compounds derivate from lipid oxidation, while the OM treatment showed the same lipid oxidation rate as CO group.

  3. Panorama of China's Oil and LPG Imports and Exports in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Crude oil China's dependence on oil imports (namely the proportion of the net imports to the domestic demand)slightly declined in 2001 in spite of the long-term upward trend. The net oil imports of the country including crude and oil products dropped to 64.9million tons in 2001 from 69.6 million tons in the previous year, a 6.7 percent decline.

  4. Properties and Storage Stability of O/W Emulsion Replaced with Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupongsak Sasikan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties and changes of an o/w emulsion(mayonnaise as affected by the replacement of long-chain fatty acid oil with medium-chain fatty acid oil were studied. Different ratios of coconut oil (CNO and rice bran oil (RBO (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60 (v/v were blended as the oil base for the study. The highest replacement of RBO with CNO in an o/w emulsion that could be achieved with minimal change of sensory properties was 30%. The Emulsion Stability Index and oil-phase crystallisation temperatures of mayonnaise with RBO alone and with 30% CNO replacement did not change when stored at 30±2°C for 4 weeks. The droplet size of the mayonnaise containing only RBO increased, possibly due to droplet coalescence. In contrast, the droplet size of the mayonnaise with CNO:RBO=30:70 did not change during storage.

  5. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  6. Fish oil replacement in current aquaculture feed: is cholesterol a hidden treasure for fish nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Lewis, Michael; Hamid, Noor Khalidah Abdul; Hermon, Karen; Donald, John A; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations.

  7. beta-Oxidation capacity of red and white muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of increasing dietary rapeseed oil and olive oil to replace capelin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubhaug, Ingunn; Frøyland, Livar; Torstensen, Bente E

    2005-01-01

    Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed six diets in which capelin oil was replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% rapeseed oil (RO; low-erucic acid) or 50% olive oil (OO). The experimental diets were fed to single groups of Atlantic salmon for 42 wk, whereas the 100% capelin oil (0% RO) diet was fed in duplicate. The beta-oxidation capacity of palmitoyl-CoA was determined, using a method optimized for salmon tissues, at the start of the experiment, after 21 wk (October), and after 42 wk (March) in red and white muscle and in liver. Red muscle showed the highest specific beta-oxidation capacity, but when expressed as total beta-oxidation capacity for the whole tissue, white muscle was the most important tissue for the beta-oxidation of FA. From the initial to the final sampling, the beta-oxidation capacity of white muscle increased significantly, whereas the beta-oxidation capacity in liver decreased significantly. After 22 wk, white muscle exhibited an increased beta-oxidation capacity when the dietary RO content was raised from 25 to 75%, with similar effects in red muscle and liver after 42 wk of feeding. The present results also show that the beta-oxidation capacity increased with an increase in fish size.

  8. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been tested in the context of dynamic panel data (GMM approach. The results confirm this relationship in each group of countries except that the turning point in the case of oil importing countries is much higher than oil exporting countries. This firstly suggests that oil dependence in oil importing countries is more than oil exporting countries and secondly indicates that the industry sector of oil importing countries have advanced technology and high scale and capacity so that they can take benefits of oil products consumption without decrease in efficiency.

  9. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  10. Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Laakso, T; Vanhanen, H; Laakso, I; Kohtamäki, H; Viikari, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of zero erucic acid rapeseed oil and olive oil on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol were studied in margarine users (n = 46). The replacement of margarine on bread by these oils accounted, on average, for 16% of the total fat and 7% of the total energy intake. Fatty acid analysis of total plasma indicated a dose-dependent rise in alpha-linolenic (alpha-LLA) and oleic acid (OA) levels during rapeseed and olive oil substitutions, respectively. Rapeseed oil substitution increased the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.4%- units, on average) in plasma phospholipids. A slight decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 4.5%, p acids, but also in the relationships with serum lipids, since the changes in alpha-LLA, rather than in OA, were associated with those in LDL-C and the HDL-C/TC ratio. No competitive action of polyunsaturated acids comparable to rapeseed oil was found during olive oil substitution. In contrast to the rapeseed oil diet, the reduced proportion of linoleic acid (LA) in plasma phospholipids was not restored; this may be unfavorable if the habitual intake of LA is low. However, the effects on LDL-C levels were beneficial: the concentration decreased by 5.9% (p olive oil substitution.

  11. Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nadège; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources on mechanisms involved in lipid deposition, two groups of rainbow trout were fed from first-feeding to the commercial size of 1 kg (for 62 weeks) with two diets differing only by lipid source: 100% fish oil or 100% blend of vegetable oils (55% rapeseed oil, 30% palm oil, 15% linseed oil). The activities and levels of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in liver and of lipoprotein lipase in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were determined. Transport of lipid was studied by determining lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein classes. We also examined the clearance of LDL by assaying the level of LDL receptor gene expression in several tissues. Total replacement of dietary fish oil by the blend of vegetable oils did not affect growth of rainbow trout and did not modify muscle lipid content. Hepatic lipogenesis and lipid uptake in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were also not modified by dietary treatments. Diets containing the blend of vegetable oils induced a decrease in plasma cholesterol and LDL. In trout fed the vegetable oils diet, expression of LDL receptor gene in the liver was down-regulated.

  12. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  13. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  14. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...

  15. Energy consumption in development countries - effects on economics and compulsory adaptation of oil importers and consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1983-09-01

    Energy supply of developing countries is mainly based on mineral oil products and traditional energy carriers. The oil-importing developing countries were hard hit in their development efforts by the two oil-price surges of 1973/74 and, especially, of 1979/80. Any adaptation measures taken by the oil-importing countries of the third world should aim at tapping their own energy reserves, at a mature energy policy concerning concepts and instruments and at restructuring the strong dependence on oil of their consumption structures.

  16. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  17. Imported Oil and U.S. National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries PDVSA Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. PNA Palestinian National Authority RDF Rapid Deployment Force RDTE...7.5 billion in 1998 to $25.1 billion in 2006; $38.6 billion if social spending by Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), Ven- ezuela’s state-owned oil...agreements were signed, encompassing industrial cooperation, transport, agriculture, and sports. In addition, PDVSA and the Cuban state oil com- pany

  18. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... location and construction schedule. Information Solicited Interested persons may submit information... incidental to construction associated with the replacement of the Elliott Bay Seawall in Seattle, Washington... Elliott Bay Seawall. Construction activities, namely vibratory and impact pile installation and...

  19. Oil Imports Raise Fresh Security Concerns--BP: China Becomes Second Largest Oil Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has outpaced Japan to become the second largest oil consuming country in the world, chief economic analyst of BP Davis said when he recently briefed about the annual global energy statistics.China's oil demand rose 15.8 percent to 5.36 million barrels per day in 2002, exceeding the daily oil consumption of 5.34 million barrels by Japan. The United States is the largest oil consuming country in the world with the daily oil demand for 19.7 million tons.

  20. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  1. Explaining German imports of olive oil: evidence from a gravity model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this study the case of olive oil imports of Germany is examined since olive oil is a traditional Mediterranean commodity and Germany is the biggest importer in the EU. A gravity model has been employed so as to analyse those factors that explain the German imports of olive oil that were identified in a preceding analysis of the German olive oil supply chain. The results of two random-effects models corrected for serial correlation and heteroskedasticity suggest that being a Mediterranean P...

  2. Effects of replacing pork backfat with emulsified vegetable oil on fatty acid composition and quality of UK-style sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuming-Bediako, N; Jaspal, M H; Hallett, K; Bayntun, J; Baker, A; Sheard, P R

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower oil were used to replace pork backfat in UK-style sausages by incorporating the oils as pre-formed emulsions. Replacing the pork backfat emulsion with rapeseed emulsion at total fat content of about 12%, reduced total saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition from 38% to 14% (4.5 to 1.8 g/100 g), increased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) composition from 45% to 59% and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition from 15% to 25%. Partial replacement of pork backfat with rapeseed at a fat content of about 20% reduced SFA from 38% to 24% (7.2 to 4.8 g/100 g). There were no significant differences in eating quality and overall liking other than slight differences in the attributes 'firmness' and 'particle size'. Improvement in the fatty acid composition was achieved without adversely affecting colour shelf life or lipid oxidation. The study suggests that a substantial reduction in SFA can be achieved by incorporating 'healthy' oils in UK-style sausages without adversely affecting eating quality or shelf life.

  3. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  4. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Sofia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO. Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins, apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and

  5. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  6. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  7. Scientific and Technological Innovation Is an Important Approach to Ensuring China's Oil Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid and continual growth of national economy, the gap between oil demand and supply keeps widening in China, therefore China will increasingly depend on imported oil. However, the world's oil and gas resources are unevenly distributed; global world's oil prices remain high; and over 70 percent of China's imported oil has to be shipped through the Malacca Strait. There are various ways to ensure China's oil security today, and the practical and feasible strategic option is to increase the discovery and production of domestic oil, raise energy efficiency and develop petroleum substitutes. Scientific and technological innovation is crucial both in new oil reserves discovery and production,energy conservation, and in the development of petroleum substitutes, establishment of a strategic oil reserve system and for environment protection. This indicates that China should take effective measures in investment strategy, fiscal policies, financing instruments, intellectual property protection, fostering talents and professionals, so as to establish its own scientific and technological innovation system in the petroleum industry and be better able to ensure oil security.

  8. Economy-wide impacts of interfuel substitution: substitution of electricity for imported oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Lukachinski, J.

    1976-06-01

    An Energy Input-Output Model is applied to analysis of the long-run effects (to 1985) of higher oil prices in the U.S. economy. Two questions are examined. First, what are the effects of sustained, higher international oil prices. Second, what are the effects of substituting domestic-coal-produced electricity for high-priced foreign oil. Variables examined include capital investment, personal consumption expenditures, exports and imports, labor force, and energy production.

  9. Utilization of tuna roe and using inulin as oil replacer for producing value added omega-3 mayonnaise product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanrawee Hunsakul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fishery industry has been important for Thailand’s economy for more than 30 years. For example, Thailand isthe world’s largest canned tuna producer and exporter. However, onlyordinary meat or white meatis usedfor raw materialin canned tuna products. Whileroe, viscera, head and dark meataresold at cheap prices,with theseby-products being usedto feed plant or local human food,its nutritive values withfat,protein and minerals arestill high. It is well known that tuna is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, including Eicosapentaenoicacid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA.People around the world pay more attention to eatingsaladsconsisting of fruits and vegetables, in addition todressing. Generally, mayonnaise, a kind of salad dressing, consists of chicken egg yolk(12-15% and soybean oil (30-65%. Both of these ingredients contain very high saturated fatty acid contents. Therefore, because normal mayonnaise is high in fat content and low in polyunsaturated fatty acid, this product is not ideal for people on a diet or those who are trying to control their weight. Objective: To increase omega-3 through tuna roe substitution and to replace fat content using inulin gel. Methods: Tuna roe was prepared by soaking in galangalsolutionextracted with 95% ethanol for removal fishy/rancidity odor. Inulin powder 45 g was suspended in 55 ml of water before being brought to heat at temperature 80oC for 30min to form a gel and stored at 4oC. Treatment ofmakingomega-3 mayonnaise product was started using 100% tuna roe substitution for egg yolk. Thereafter, inulin gel was added to replace vegetable oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Basic mayonnaise containing egg yolk and 0% inulin gel (100% soy bean oil was used asthecontrol sample. Color and emulsion stability testswere monitored for physical quality. pH value, peroxide value (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were used for chemical qualityanalyses. Total viable

  10. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  11. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-06

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material.

  12. Wear behaviour of UHMWPE reinforced by carbon nanofiller and paraffin oil for joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Samy; Visco, Annamaria; Galtieri, Giovanna; Nocita, Davide; Espro, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The majority of artificial joints incorporate biomedical grade Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE), whose wear is considered most important in controlling service time of the whole joint. The aim of this work was to improve wear resistance of UHMWPE through the addition of 0.5-2.0wt% of Carbon Nano Filler (CNF) and 2% wt of Paraffin Oil (PO) using ball milling (BM) and extrusion techniques (EX). The wear tests on these nanocomposites were conducted by a pin on disc in dry (air) and wet media (simulated synovial fluid or artificial lubricant, and bovine synovial fluid or natural lubricant). Mechanical tests (tensile and hardness), physical analysis (calorimetric, density, wet ability, roughness) and morphological observations were also performed. The experimental results showed that natural lubricant provides the greatest reduction in wear rate while the largest one occurred in air. Furthermore, the BM mixed nanocomposites with a filler load of 1.0% exhibited the best wear resistance among all the samples with an improvement of 42%, 64% and 83% in air, artificial and natural lubricant, respectively. This is due to its higher ductility and thermal features, and lower wet ability in the two lubricants.

  13. Ultrafiltration rate is an important determinant of microcirculatory alterations during chronic renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerke; Pranskunas, Andrius; Skarupskiene, Inga; Pilvinis, Vidas; Hemmelder, Marc H; Ince, Can; Boerma, E Christiaan

    2017-02-20

    Hemodialysis (HD) with ultrafiltration (UF) in chronic renal replacement therapy is associated with hemodynamic instability, morbidity and mortality. Sublingual Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging during HD revealed reductions in microcirculatory blood flow (MFI). This study aims to determine underlying mechanisms. The study was performed in the Medical Centre Leeuwarden and the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Patients underwent 4-h HD session with linear UF. Nine patients were subject to combinations of HD and UF: 4 h of HD followed by 1 h isolated UF and 4 h HD with blood-volume-monitoring based UF. Primary endpoint: difference in MFI before and after intervention. During all sessions monitoring included blood pressure, heartrate and SDF-imaging. NCT01396980. Baseline characteristics were not different between the two centres as within the HD/UF modalities. MFI was not different before and after HD with UF. Total UF did not differ between modalities. Median MFI decreased significantly during isolated UF [2.8 (2.5-2.9) to 2.5 (2.2-2.8), p = 0.03]. Baseline MFI of each UF session was correlated with MFI after the intervention (r s = 0.52, p = 0.006). During HD with UF or isolated HD we observed no changes in MFI. This indicates that non-flow mediated mechanisms are of unimportance. During isolated UF we observed a reduction in MFI in conjunction with a negative intravascular fluid balance. The correlation between MFI before and after intervention suggests that volume status at baseline is a factor in microvascular alterations. In conclusion we observed a significant decrease of sublingual MFI, related to UF rate during chronic renal replacement therapy.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL WITH MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM OIL ON FATTENING CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKET VALUE OF BROILER CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group in broiler diets on fattening characteristics and carcass quality. During 42 days of fattening, MTO group achieved insignificantly higher live weight(2.21 kg: 2.19 kg; P>0.05, significantly better feed conversion (1.80 kg: 1.83 kg; P = 0.034 and production number (292.33:285.33; P = 0.013 compared to the SO broiler group. Carcass weight and portion of main parts did not statistically significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05. Market value of carcass cuts and breast fillets was higher in MTO group than in SO group. Lipids of breast and thigh muscles in the SO group contained significantly higher concent.

  15. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    F. Mat Yahaya; Muthusamy, K.; Sulaiman, N.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0) with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen) and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20) has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm) containing various content of POFA as partial c...

  16. Efficacy of three citrus oil formulations against solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the red imported fire ant1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Vogt; Thormas G. Shelton; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L1 water),...

  17. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  18. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen: can it be safely replaced with isoeugenyl acetate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arnau, E G

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used at...

  19. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology.

  20. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mat Yahaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0 with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20 has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm containing various content of POFA as partial cement replacement were prepared, continuously water cured and subjected to compressive strength test at 28 days. At the second stage of study, control specimen (P0 and high strength concrete mix containing 20% POFA (P20 were prepared in form of cylinders with reinforcement bar buried in the middle for corrosion resistance test. Specimens were subjected to half cell potential technique following the procedures outlined in ASTM C876 (1994. Incorporation of POFA as partial cement replacement has contributed to densification of microstructure making the concrete denser thus exhibit higher resistance towards corrosion as compared to plain concrete.

  2. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen: can it be safely replaced with isoeugenyl acetate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arnau, E G

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used...... at a level of 0.2% in consumer products. In May 1998, IFRA recommended that isoeugenol should not be used at a level that exceeds 0.02% in consumer products, but did not provide guidance on allergen substitution. An alternative to isoeugenol, based on aroma and absence of guidelines on use, is isoeugenyl...

  3. Linseed oil gelled emulsion: A successful fat replacer in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Marta; Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2016-11-01

    Different levels of animal fat replacement by a high omega-3 content carrageenan gelled emulsion in dry fermented sausages were studied in order to improve their fatty acid composition. Percentages of fat replacement were 26.3% (SUB1), 32.8% (SUB2) and 39.5% (SUB3). α-linolenic acid (ALA) content increased up to 1.81, 2.19 and 2.39g/100g (SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 products) as compared to the Control (0.35g/100g), implying an increment in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (up to 10.3%) and reductions in omega-6/ omega-3 ratio (75, 82 and 84%, respectively). Peroxides and TBARs values were not affected (P>0.05) by the fat modification and a slight low formation of volatile aldehydes derived from lipid oxidation was detected. Fat replacement did not cause relevant modifications on the instrumental color properties and no sensory differences (P>0.05) were found between Control and SUB2 products (32.8%) for taste and juiciness, pointing out the viability of this formulation for human consumption.

  4. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  5. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (preplacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (psausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (pfat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  6. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  7. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  8. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Davidson, Eric P.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard) with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid com...

  9. Textural, physicochemical and sensory properties compensation of fat replacing in pork liver pâté incorporating emulsified canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Irigoyen, E E; Severiano-Pérez, P; Rodriguez-Huezo, M E; Totosaus, A

    2012-08-01

    Saturated animal fat was replaced in pork pâté with pre-emulsified canola in a 3% sodium caseinate/0.5% xanthan gum solution in order to obtain a stable oily phase. Fat was replaced with different proportions of emulsified canola oil. The inclusion of emulsified oil in pâté enhanced cocking yield and moisture but increased fluids release. Nonetheless, total fat content remained practically constant, meaning no detrimental effect on caloric content. Replacing 50% of lard with emulsified oil did not affect color of the samples. Texture was improved since emulsified oil addition resulted in softer and more spreadable pâté. Samples with 50% of emulsified oil were more stable to lipid oxidation at 8 days of storage, with lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and volatile compounds resulting from oxidation reactions. Emulsified canola can be employed to replace fat until 50% in pâté or liver sausage with good functional properties, improving texture and reducing lipids rancidity.

  10. Effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of replacing partially hydrogenated fish oil with vegetable fat in margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Jordal, O; Seljeflot, I; Kierulf, P; Kirkhus, B; Ledsaak, O; Pedersen, J I

    1998-09-01

    We have compared the effects on lipoproteins and haemostatic variables of two hard margarines with similar functional properties, one traditional margarine containing partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO), and one experimental margarine based on vegetable oil (VO). Both were all-purpose cooking margarines with nearly identical functional properties. Trans fatty acids from PHFO in the traditional margarine were replaced mostly by saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids of vegetable origin in the new formulation. Both test margarines contained approximately the same amount of cis polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sixteen female normolipidaemic students consumed each diet with the two test margarines for 14 d in random order (crossover design). The amount of fat was 31% energy in the PHFO diet and 32% energy in the VO diet. The test margarines provided approximately 26% energy in both diets. In the PHFO diet 7.8% of the energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 9.2% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) while in the VO diet, 1.1% energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 13.3% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0). The natural content of cholesterol in PHFO was deliberately not balanced by addition of cholesterol to the VO diet, thus the PHFO diet contained 215 mg and the VO diet 86 mg cholesterol per 8.5 MJ. LDL-cholesterol concentration was 19% higher in subjects on the PHFO diet compared with the VO diet (P oils in margarine without appreciable loss of functional properties but with significant improvement in the effects on plasma lipoproteins.

  11. China’s Oil Security Pipe Dream: The Reality, and Strategic Consequences, of Seaborne Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    its oil imports from possible interdiction during a confl ict. A robust internal debate is being waged within China at multiple levels and across a...BTC) Pipeline is one of the great engineering endeavours of the new millenni - um.” See “Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline,” BP Caspian, www.bp.com/; and

  12. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  13. Effect of replacing pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil on lipid fraction and sensory quality of Chorizo de Pamplona - a traditional Spanish fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguerza, E; Gimeno, O; Ansorena, D; Bloukas, J G; Astiasarán, I

    2001-11-01

    Six treatments of Chorizo de Pamplona, traditional Spanish fermented sausage, were manufactured under usual commercial conditions by replacing 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of pork backfat by pre-emulsified olive oil with soy protein isolate. Sausages with 20-30% replacing level had higher (Psausages with 15-30% replacing level, and linoleic acid increased in sausages with 10-25%. Sausages with 10-25% of substitution had lower total SFA-stearic and higher (Psausages with 20-25% replacing level, and up to 22% in sausages with 30% replacing level. Sausages with 10-25% of substitution were acceptable from the sensorial point of view. The texture and colour instrumental measures were comparable with that of commercial products. No increments in hexanal content were observed. It is concluded that up to 25% of pork backfat can be replaced with pre-emulsified olive oil in the production of Chorizo de Pamplona fermented sausages. Higher replacing levels of pork backfat did not show nutritional advantages in relation to the fatty acid profile and were unacceptable due to considerable dripping of fat during ripening.

  14. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with an olive oil organogel on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-08-01

    A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% of the pork meat were replaced by olive oil introduced in the form of an organogel (olive oil emulsified with soy protein and water). All types were satisfactory in terms of physicochemical characteristics (pH, a(w), moisture loss) and instrumental colour throughout ripening, and displayed acceptable levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Higher proportions of olive oil prompted an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content (mainly C18:1). All six types of salchichon were judged acceptable by consumers, the highest scores being given to those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Coppey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid composition, serum lipid and adiponectin levels, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity and innervation of the hindpaw. Results. Diabetic rats were insulin resistant and menhaden oil did not improve whole animal glucose utilization. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels but serum levels of adiponectin were significantly increased and hepatic steatosis was significantly improved. Diabetic rats were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles were decreased in the hindpaw and these endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil. Conclusions. We found that enrichment of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil improved a number of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  18. Comparison of Piascledine (Avocado and Soybean Oil) and Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopausal-Induced Hot Flashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; dadjo, yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone. PMID:24250433

  19. The impacts on U.S. energy markets and the economy of reducing oil imports. Service report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) has responded to a request from Representative John Kasich by requesting that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) use the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to estimate the cost to the U.S. economy of reducing oil imports. The analysis summarized by this paper focuses on two approaches toward a target reduction in oil imports: (1) a set of cases with alternative world crude oil price trajectories, and (2) two cases which investigates the use of an oil import fee.

  20. Indonesia Rejoining OPEC: Dynamics of the Oil Importer and Exporter Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Badaruddin, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of Indonesia's full membership to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) triggered discussion surrounding global petroleum governance. The country which decided to suspend its full membership at the end of 2008, currently labelled as net oil importer. However, in OPEC terms Indonesia never really left, instead of the organization termed it as a "suspension". Departing from the abovementioned context and perspectives, purpose of this essay is to answer the qu...

  1. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ho Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON, 20% canola oil (CA and 20% flaxseed oil (FL. The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05. The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05. CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05. However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05 because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05; furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05 among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05 over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05. The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  2. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  3. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the

  4. Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of avocado, sunflower and olive oils used as back-fat replacers, on the fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, volatiles profile and color and texture properties of cooked pork patties. The vegetable oils modified the fatty acid profiles of the patties by lowering the percentages of SFA (from 36.96% to ~25.30%) and reducing the atherogenic index (from 0.41 to ~0.24). Vegetable oils had higher amounts of antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols (10.8-53.9 mg/100 g) than back-fat (5.9 mg/100 g). Consistently, patties manufactured with the oils had significantly lower amounts of lipid and protein oxidation products than control patties. Avocado oil contributed with specific aroma-active terpenes to patties and had a significant impact on particular color and texture parameters. The results from this study highlight the technological applications of the vegetable oils as food ingredients in the design of healthier meat commodities.

  5. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies.

  6. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin pumpkin

  7. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  8. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  9. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  10. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-11

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  11. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Andarwulan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1; (ii cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2; and (iii cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3. The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT, where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  12. Research on Chinese Crude Oil Import Efficiency%中国原油进口效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆方

    2012-01-01

    Chinese crude oil import scale is increasing and imports of crude efficiency becomes more and more important. China itself is a crude oil production country which provides the solid foundation for improving the efficiency of oil imports. In recent years China's oil import efficiency according to the price of imports and international oil price on the interstate data of quantitative analysis is low; but if China's crude oil inherent rigid demand from the rapid growth of the internal is taken into account China's crude imports efficiency isn 't too low; China's import efficiency of crude oil has not been extended and improved with import development. China's crude low efficiency imports will bring the domestic economy much damage. In order to improve the efficiency of China's oil imports, we need to improve the ability to predict oil prices in the international trend, perfect supporting measures and trading mechanism.%中国原油进口规模不断增大,原油进口效率变得日益重要。中国是原油生产大国,为提高原油进口效率提供了坚实基础。从近几年中国原油进口量、进口价格和国际油价波动的月际数据量化分析的结果看,中国原油进口效率总体上是比较低的。如果将由中国原油需求快速增长所产生的内在刚性压力考虑在内,中国原油进1:7效率表现得不是太低,但是中国原油进口效率没有随着原油进口历史延伸而得到改善。中国原油进口效率过低会对国内经济造成很大损失。为了提高原油进口效率,中国需要在提高国际油价走势预测能力、完善相应配套措施和交易机制等方面做出努力。

  13. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josquin, Nicole M; Linssen, Jozef P H; Houben, Jacques H

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the chemical composition. The fat content was not significantly different between products (p>0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 8.49 in controls to 0.90-2.47 in modified products. Lipid oxidation parameters (propanal and hexanal) showed much higher values for sausages with pure fish oil than for products with encapsulated oil. For the latter, lipid oxidation was similar to controls. Products with encapsulated or pre-emulsified oil were significantly firmer than products from other treatments in physical and sensory analysis (pfermented sausages with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil and the application of commercial encapsulated fish oil seems to be the best in retaining overall quality.

  14. Emergency use of cardiopulmonary bypass in complicated transcatheter aortic valve replacement: importance of a heart team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Eric E; Idrees, Jay; Mick, Stephanie; Kapadia, Samir; Tuzcu, Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Lytle, Bruce W

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) expands options for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis but is complex with life-threatening complications. We describe indications for use of salvage cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and assess outcomes. From 2006 to 2011, 303 patients underwent TAVR, and 12 (4%) required emergency CPB. Approach was transapical (9) and transfemoral (3). Mean age was 82±9 years, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 11 and mean gradient was 46±9 mm Hg. Access for CPB was femoral under fluoroscopy. Principal indication for CPB was hemodynamic instability with or without ischemic changes. These resulted from aortic insufficiency (n=5), valve embolization (n=3), coronary malperfusion (n=2), bleeding requiring pericardiocentesis (n=1), and bleeding from ventricular apex (n=1). Additional procedures included valve-in-valve TAVR (n=5), surgical valve replacement (n=3), and coronary intervention (n=2). Additional circulatory support was used in 7 cases: intra-aortic balloon pump (5) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (3). There were 2 hospital deaths. Mean postoperative gradient was 12±9 mm Hg, and median stay was 16 days. There were no myocardial infarctions or renal failure. One patient had stroke with arm weakness, 2 required tracheostomy, and 2 underwent reoperations for bleeding. Median follow-up was 19 months, and there were 5 late deaths. Complications during TAVR can be life threatening and may necessitate additional procedures. Expeditious use of CPB support provided by a multidisciplinary heart team optimizes rescue after myocardial collapse. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The importance of silicone oil removal in prophylaxis of the late complications of internal tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołek-Czernik, A; Nawrocki, J; Pikulski, Z; Bogorodzki, B

    1998-01-01

    To present the functional and anatomical results after silicone oil removal. Covers 32 patients (34 eyes), age 29-77 years. Silicone oil removal was performed between February 1993 and December 1994. The indication for silicone oil tamponade was: PDVR (17/34), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (12/34), trauma (4/34) and vitreous haemorrhage (1/34). The conditions of silicone oil removal were complete retinal attachment within at least 3 months, visual acuity not worse than 1/50, no proliferations, laser photocoagulation of peripheral retina. In postoperative period retina was attached in 30 cases (88%). Retinal detachment was observed in 4 cases (12%). Visual acuity remains unchanged in 27 cases. We found that silicone oil removal leads in the majority of eyes to a stabilisation of visual acuity and reduces the progress of silicone oil-related complications.

  16. Estimating Core Inflation - The Role of Oil Price Shocks and Imported Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde Christiane

    1997-01-01

    This paper calculates core inflation, by imposing long run restrictions on a structural vector autoregression (VAR) model containing the growth rate of output, inflation and oil prices. Core inflation is identified as that component in inflation that has no long run effect on output. No restrictions are placed on the response of output and inflation to the oil price shocks. The analysis is applied to Norway and the United Kingdom, both oil producing OECD countries. A model that ...

  17. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  18. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  19. Toward a Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Replacement: Water and Oil Repellency of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Films Modified with Perfluoropolyether-Based Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tugba; Wei, Liying; Nitta, Naoki; Yushin, Gleb; Brown, Philip J; Luzinov, Igor

    2017-07-19

    Original perfluoropolyethers (PFPE)-based oligomeric polyesters (FOPs) of different macromolecular architecture were synthesized via polycondensation as low surface energy additives to engineering thermoplastics. The oligomers do not contain long-chain perfluoroalkyl segments, which are known to yield environmentally unsafe perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids. To improve the compatibility of the materials with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) we introduced isophthalate segments into the polyesters and targeted the synthesis of lower molecular weight oligomeric macromolecules. The surface properties such as morphology, composition, and wettability of PET/FOP films fabricated from solution were investigated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. It was demonstrated that FOPs, when added to PET film, readily migrate to the film surface and bring significant water and oil repellency to the thermoplastic boundary. We have established that the wettability of PET/FOP films depends on three main parameters: (i) end-groups of fluorinated polyesters, (ii) the concentration of fluorinated polyesters in the films, and (iii) equilibration via annealing. The most effective water/oil repellency FOP has two C4F9-PFPE-tails. The addition of this oligomeric polyester to PET allows (even at relatively low concentrations) reaching a level of oil repellency and surface energy comparable to that of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE/Teflon). Therefore, the materials can be considered suitable replacements for additives containing long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances.

  20. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  1. The migration fractionation: an important mechanism in the formation of condensate and waxy oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fault-initiated pressure release within reservoirs and the injection of external excessive dry gas may result in occurrence of oil and gas phases. Because of different partitioning coefficients of compounds in two phase flow, lower-molecular-weight components are easier to dissolve in gas phase, yielding condensates, while higher-molecular-weight components are retained in the oil phase, yielding waxy oil cumulations. The fractionation process causes extensive compositional variability in aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios, molecular compound distributions and carbon isotope ratios that are traditionally considered to be related to the source organic matter or the thermal maturity.

  2. HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio P. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.

  3. HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio P. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.

  4. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  5. Greenhouse effect: the electric power to replace the petrol and the gas oil; Effet de serre: l'electricite pour remplacer l'essence et le gazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SalaUN, A.

    2001-07-01

    Facing the climatic consequences of the greenhouse effect, produced mainly by the carbon dioxide emissions, it is necessary to decrease the use of fossil fuels. The electric power can replace the fossil fuels in most of stationary facilities. This paper shows how the electric power could be used to replace the petrol and the gas oil, directly (electric vehicle) or indirectly with the hydrogen. (A.L.B.)

  6. Vital Importance of Unconventional Oil-gas Resources in China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lijie; Zeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first World Heavy Oil Conference (WHOC)was held in Beijing on November 12, 2006. Present at the conference were more than 600 delegates from over 40 countries and regions worldwide. Themed as "Heavy Oil - The Future of Global Energy?", the 1st WHOC aims to discuss the strategies and measures to promote the development of global heavy oil industry..The WHOC is initiated and proposed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and Alberta government of Canada. Approved by the state council of China, the 1st WHOC was jointly hosted by CNPC, Sinopec, CNOOC,Sinochem, three government departments of Canada and Indonesia, and several national petroleum corporations,such as PDVSA, Petrobras, Statoil, IOC, and Shell.

  7. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil on the digestive enzymes activity and intestinal morphology in Meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antunes Magalhães

    2014-07-01

    The results were analyzed by three way factorial. Amylase activity was bigger in FO when compared with VO (Table 1. The same result was observed in chymotrypsin activity. On the other hand, lipase activity was higher in VO. Regarding the levels of lipids, diets with 17% had higher amylase activity than diets with 12%. The inverse was observed in chymotrypsin activity. In relation to lipase activity, no differences were observed on the two levels of lipids studied. No differences in digestive enzymes activities were observed when diets were supplemented with selenium. Epithelium architecture of the posterior intestine was slightly affected by dietary treatments. Higher levels of lipids seem to induce enterocyte vacuolization, and vacuoles seem to be larger when a blend of vegetable oils was used instead of fish oil. No clear role can be attributed to selenium regarding intestinal morphology. In conclusion, our study showed that the source and levels of lipid in diets for meagre have influence in activity of digestible enzymes like amylase, lipase and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, levels of selenium do not cause an alteration in studied digestible enzymes.

  8. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  9. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  10. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  11. Establishing the importance of oil-membrane interactions on the transmembrane diffusion of physicochemically diverse compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Omaima N; Martin, Gary P; Kirton, Stewart B; Sallam, Al-Sayed; Murnane, Darragh

    2016-06-15

    The diffusion process through a non-porous barrier membrane depends on the properties of the drug, vehicle and membrane. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a series of oily vehicles might have the potential to interact to varying degrees with synthetic membranes and to determine whether any such interaction might affect the permeation of co-formulated permeants: methylparaben (MP); butylparaben (BP) or caffeine (CF). The oils (isopropyl myristate (IPM), isohexadecane (IHD), hexadecane (HD), oleic acid (OA) and liquid paraffin (LP)) and membranes (silicone, high density polyethylene and polyurethane) employed in the study were selected such that they displayed a range of different structural, and physicochemical properties. Diffusion studies showed that many of the vehicles were not inert and did interact with the membranes resulting in a modification of the permeants' flux when corrected for membrane thickness (e.g. normalized flux of MP increased from 1.25±0.13μgcm(-1)h(-1) in LP to 17.94±0.25μgcm(-1)h(-1)in IPM). The oils were sorbed differently to membranes (range of weight gain: 2.2±0.2% for polyurethane with LP to 105.6±1.1% for silicone with IHD). Membrane interaction was apparently dependent upon the physicochemical properties including; size, shape, flexibility and the Hansen solubility parameter values of both the membranes and oils. Sorbed oils resulted in modified permeant diffusion through the membranes. No simple correlation was found to exist between the Hansen solubility parameters of the oils or swelling of the membrane and the normalized fluxes of the three compounds investigated. More sophisticated modelling would appear to be required to delineate and quantify the key molecular parameters of membrane, permeant and vehicle compatibility and their interactions of relevance to membrane permeation.

  12. Goodbye spreadsheets : no matter your oil and gas project, PetroVR can replace unwieldy in-house spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2009-03-15

    This article described Caesar Systems' newest version of the Petroleum Ventures and Risk (PetroVR) decision software that is now commercially available for the oil and gas industry. PetroVR is field-proven to enable exploration and production project teams to simulate reservoir-to-market business opportunities. The software helps operators gather project information, build a development model and calculate cost and production profiles. It automates key activities that technical teams once performed manually with ordinary spreadsheets. With PetroVR, project evaluations that previously took weeks or months to complete can now be performed in a matter of hours or days with more accuracy. Although PetroVR contains sophisticated modeling capabilities, it has a user friendly interface. 3 figs.

  13. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  14. Fish oils in parenteral nutrition: Why could these be important for gastrointestinal oncology?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynnette; R; Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    By the time a gastroenterology patient is moved to parenteral nutrition, he or she is usually in poor health. All parenteral nutrition formulae contain essen-tial nutrients, avoiding components that could cause an adverse reaction. The lipid component is often provided by a soy extract, containing all the fatty acids considered to be essential in the diet. Several trials have considered parenteral nutrition formulas with added fish oils, high in the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA). Given the range of biological functions associated with such compounds, especially in reducing inflammatory symptoms, this move would appear rational. However, while data from such trials are often positive, there has been variability among results. Some of this variability could be caused by environmental contaminants in the fish, and/or oxidation of the lipids because of poor storage. The situation is complicated by a recent report that fish oils may counter the effects of platinum chemotherapy. However, this effect associated with a minor component, hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid. It is suggested that pure DHA and EPA would be beneficial additions to parenteral nutrition, reducing the probability of carcinogenesis and enhancing rational disease management. However, the jury is still out on fish oils more generally.

  15. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S. [Sao Paulo State Gas Co. and Mackenzie Univ. (Brazil); Assuncao, J.V. de [Mackenzie Univ. and Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  16. Marketing strategy research for Hubei cereals, oil and foodstuff import and export corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ya

    2012-01-01

    China is not only a country with a large population, but also a big country of cereals and oil production, processing and consumption. China’s processing ability is the largest and the relative enterprises are the most in the world. Since China has joined the WTO (World Trade Organization), the market has been more open. Domestic economy has increasingly become an entirety with the other parts of the world. On one hand, the economic power has gradually caught up with some advanced countries. ...

  17. Gasoils de substitution à partir d'esters d'huiles végétales: une opportunité pour certains pays ? Replacement Gas Oils from Vegetable Oil Esters: an Opportunity for Some Countries ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les procédés IFP de fabrication d'esters méthylique ou éthylique à partir d'huiles végétales offrent le double avantage d'assurer une production valorisable à la fois en tant que substitut du gasoil, notamment pour certains pays en voie de développement, et comme matière première chimique pour l'industrie. Le point clé de l'économie de la transformation réside dans la valorisation du sous produit principal qu'est la glycérine; l'intérêt de lui trouver de nouveaux débouchés est la conclusion immédiate qui ressort de toutes les études à caractère économique entreprises sur le sujet. IFP processes for manufacturing methyl or ethyl esters from vegetable oils have the double advantage of upgrading production both as a replacement for gas oil, particularly for some developing countries, and as a chemical raw material for industry. The key point in the economics of processing lies in the upgrading of the main byproduct, which is glycerine. The advantage of finding new outlets for it is the immediate conclusions shown by all the economic studies undertaken on this subject.

  18. Importance of Size and Distribution of Ni Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenji; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-07-22

    Improved synthetic approaches for preparing small-sized Ni nanoparticles (d=3 nm) supported on HBEA zeolite have been explored and compared with the traditional impregnation method. The formation of surface nickel silicate/aluminate involved in the two precipitation processes are inferred to lead to the stronger interaction between the metal and the support. The lower Brønsted acid concentrations of these two Ni/HBEA catalysts compared with the parent zeolite caused by the partial exchange of Brønsted acid sites by Ni2+ cations do not influence the hydrodeoxygenation rates, but alter the product selectivity. Higher initial rates and higher stability have been achieved with these optimized catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid and microalgae oil. Small metal particles facilitate high initial catalytic activity in the fresh sample and size uniformity ensures high catalyst stability.

  19. Effects of replacing beef fat with pre-emulsified pumpkin seed oil on some quality characteristics of model system chicken meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Nacak, B.; Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tepe, M.; Baykara, I.; Kökmen, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of adding pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in water emulsion to model system chicken meat emulsions (MSME) on product quality and oxidative stability were investigated. MSME were produced by replacing 25% (P25) and 50% (P50) of beef fat with PSO-in-water emulsion (PSO/W) while control treatment was prepared with only beef fat. Addition of PSO/W to the formulation resulted in significant differences in chemical composition and pH values of both raw and cooked MSME treatments. The use of PSO/W produced significant improvements to emulsion stability, oxidative stability and cooking yield of MSME. It was determined that the use of PSO/W formulation results in decreased total expressible fluid values and increased cooking yields of the emulsions. It was observed that the highest cooking yield and the lowest total expressible fluid were found in the sample containing 50% PSO/W. It should be a feasible strategy to produce fat-reduced meat products with healthier lipid profiles by using PSO/W.

  20. The Importance of Target Market Selection for More Profitable Olive Oil Exports by Turkey: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa METE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quotas and taxes implemented by EU to Turkey were examined and it was observed that these policies have negative effects on Turkey’s olive oil exports. Due to the restrictive policies and low profitability in the entry to the EU market, it was determined that Turkey should be directed to the markets that have higher profitability compared with the exports to EU countries. These detections were carried out in accordance with the information obtained from International Trade Center (ITC and Market Access Database (MAD. As a result of the detections it has been found that exports to the EU countries are more profitable and the entry to the market is easier than to the US. As a result of the researches in ITC and MAD databases, actual companies in oil imports in the US market have been determined and it has shown by examining a bill of loading sample that the firms that make olive oils exports in Turkey easily enter new target markets if they know the usage of the databases

  1. 国产密炼机替换进口密炼机的方法%Domestic Mixer for Replacing Imported Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明著; 王洪民; 曲常文; 郭红燃; 周仁忠; 赵成龙

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the principles of replacement of imported mixer by domestic product with examples. The new design includes mixing volume, rotor design, motor, size and additional parts. The mixing volume, rotor design and motor type determine the capacity of the new mixer. It’s important that the additional parts match the main equipment and the height of feeding entrance matches the height of original feed conveyor. The installation precision of rotor, gear box and motor has to be improved to ensure the stable operation.%用实例介绍国产密炼机替换进口密炼机的方法,从密炼机容积、转子、电机、尺寸、附属装置等方面考虑替换方案。新密炼机容积、转子、电机与产能匹配,附属装置与主机匹配,加料门高度与原加料输送带高度匹配,提高转子与减速机、减速机与电机之间的安装精度,保证各部件运行稳定,满足用户需求。

  2. Diet × genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sofia; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Torstensen, Bente E; Taggart, John B; Guy, Derrick R; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, β-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated.

  3. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  4. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  5. Preliminary assessment of the importance of turbulent coagulation in the Kuwaiti oil fires. Final report, April 1992-June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlberg, I.

    1993-06-01

    This study provides a mathematical determination of the spatial distribution of aerosols due to turbulent shear coagulation and turbulent inertial coagulation, as applied to the conditions of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF) of 1991. Using an approximation from a forest fire for the normalized size distribution of aerosols, the downstream particle concentration is found by the concurrent solution of the coagulations' kinetics combined with turbulent atmospheric diffusion. The result shows the explicit dependence of the concentration on the following principal parameters: turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent diffusion constant, average wind speed, mass ejection from a well, Kolmorogov time scale for turbulence, and Kolmorogov length scale for turbulence. For very large values of turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent inertial coagulation is more effective than turbulent shear coagulation in particle growth. The spatial dependence of concentration attributed to turbulent coagulation may vary considerably. Depending on the choice of parameters, the importance of turbulent coagulation in particle transport processes may extend from less than a kilometer to tens of kilometers. Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF), Particle transport, Turbulent inertial coagulation, Turbulent shear coagulation.

  6. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  7. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokulakrishnan J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm ×30 cm ×45 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results: Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of

  8. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly

  9. Comparison on the Fatty Acid Composition of Fish Oil, Microalgae and Plant Oil and the Strategy Analysis of Fish Oil Replacement%鱼油与微藻和植物油脂肪酸成分比较及其替代策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春晓; 乔洪金; 王际英; 张利民; 宋志东; 李宝山

    2016-01-01

    .Under the premise to meet the requirement of essential fatty acids, two strategies of fish oil replacement were presented:Using 38.0% linseed oil plus 27.7%Nannochloropsis sp.oil and 34.3%Schizochytrium sp.oil can obtain the similarn-3/n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid ratio to fish oil,which was better able to meet the nutritional require-ments of fish and selected as preferred strategy;Using 38.0% soybean oil with 27.7%Nannochloropsis sp.oil and 34.3%Schizochytrium sp.oil can get the main categories of fatty acids similar to fish oil,which was relatively cheaper than linseed oil group and used as alterna-tive strategy.[Conclusion]Fish oil replacement with high EPA and DHA content microalgae plus plant oil is theoretically feasibility.

  10. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p

  11. The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prices,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges%The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prioes,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateo Radnic

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ .EDIBLE OIL CONSUMPTION IN CHINA According to the data of Edible Oil Consumption in China,this market has constantly growth over the last years, doublingits size in only 8 years.For the past year 2010, the market sizereaches over 29 thousand tons.

  12. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  13. DNA-SIP identifies sulfate-reducing Clostridia as important toluene degraders in tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winderl, C.; Penning, H.; von Netzer, F.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Lueders, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Global groundwater resources are constantly challenged by a multitude of contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Especially in anaerobic habitats, a large diversity of unrecognized microbial populations may be responsible for their degradation. Still, our present understanding of the respective microbiota and their ecophysiology is almost exclusively based on a small number of cultured organisms, mostly within the Proteobacteria. Here, by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), we directly identified the most active sulfate-reducing toluene degraders in a diverse sedimentary microbial community originating from a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer at a former coal gasification plant. On incubation of fresh sediments with {sup 13}C{sub 7}-toluene, the production of both sulfide and (CS{sub 2}){sup 13}CO{sub 2} was clearly coupled to the {sup 13}Clabeling of DNA of microbes related to Desulfosporosinus spp. within the Peptococcaceae (Clostridia). The screening of labeled DNA fractions also suggested a novel benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) sequence type previously only detected in the environment to be tentatively affiliated with these degraders. However, carbon flow from the contaminant into degrader DNA was only similar to 50%, pointing toward high ratios of heterotrophic CS{sub 2}-fixation during assimilation of acetyl-CoA originating from the contaminant by these degraders. These findings demonstrate that the importance of non-proteobacterial populations in anaerobic aromatics degradation, as well as their specific ecophysiology in the subsurface may still be largely ungrasped.

  14. The dilemma for lipid productivity in green microalgae: importance of substrate provision in improving oil yield without sacrificing growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kenneth Wei Min; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns over climate change have resulted in more emphasis on research into renewable biofuels from microalgae. Unlike plants, green microalgae have higher biomass productivity, will not compete with food and agriculture, and do not require fertile land for cultivation. However, microalgae biofuels currently suffer from high capital and operating costs due to low yields and costly extraction methods. Microalgae grown under optimal conditions produce large amounts of biomass but with low neutral lipid content, while microalgae grown in nutrient starvation accumulate high levels of neutral lipids but are slow growing. Producing lipids while maintaining high growth rates is vital for biofuel production because high biomass productivity increases yield per harvest volume while high lipid content decreases the cost of extraction per unit product. Therefore, there is a need for metabolic engineering of microalgae to constitutively produce high amounts of lipids without sacrificing growth. Substrate availability is a rate-limiting step in balancing growth and fatty acid (FA) production because both biomass and FA synthesis pathways compete for the same substrates, namely acetyl-CoA and NADPH. In this review, we discuss the efforts made for improving biofuel production in plants and microorganisms, the challenges faced in achieving lipid productivity, and the important role of precursor supply for FA synthesis. The main focus is placed on the enzymes which catalyzed the reactions supplying acetyl-CoA and NADPH.

  15. Quality characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork fat replaced by sunflower seed oils and dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-03-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics.

  16. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  17. 2011年中国原油进出口贸易回顾%A Review of China’s Crude Oil Export & Import Trade in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊睿

    2012-01-01

    The article reviews and analyzes China's crude oil export import trade situation in 2011.Its main characteristics were as follows:although import growth rate slowed down,the reliance of crude oil on import enhanced;import amount from important regions and important countries was huge;the rising margin of import unit-price was lower than the rising margin of international oil price and import cost increased;trade approaches were diversified and import management was strict;and export kept reducing.%回顾并分析了2011年中国原油进出口贸易情况,其主要特点为:进口增速虽趋缓,但依存度提高;重点地区和重点国家进口量可观;进口单价涨幅低于国际油价涨幅,进口成本增加;贸易途径多元化,进口管理严格;出口保持下降等。

  18. Xinjiang--Large-scale Oil Industrial Base on Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Record-high daily oil production The daily crude production reached 61,000 tons in Northwest China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region on June 6with the dail production value rising to 110 million yuan,setting a record high for the production and output value of a single day in the regional oil and gas industrial history.Xinjiang is rich in the oil and gas resources. With the oil reserves estimated at 20.9 billion tons, this region is regarded as the important strategic replacement base for China's onshore oil industry.

  19. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  20. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is the way an oil spill response is reported in the media important for the final perception of the clean-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E

    2016-03-15

    This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the final perception of the overall oil spill response. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill response, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of response with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife response can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception.

  2. 亚麻油替代鱼油对鲤鱼生长性能、肝胰脏脂质代谢及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Replacement of Fish Oil by Linseed Oil on Growth Performance, Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Ability in Hepatopancreas of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜; 陈文燕; 林仕梅; 高启平; 罗莉

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effects of replacement of different levels of fish oil by linsee d oil on growth performance, body composition and indices of lipid metabolism and antioxidant in hepatopancreas of common carp, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets ( crude protein content was 35%, and gross ener-gy was 15 MJ/kg) were formulated by replacing 0 ( control group) , 25%, 50%, 75%and 100% fish meal with linseed oil on bsa is of a practical diet, respectively.Common carp with the initial body weight of (5.81 ±0.03) g in five groups were fed five experimental diets for 8 weeks in the room circulation farming system.The results showed as follows: with the increase of linseed oil to replace fish oil level, the specific growth rate ( SGR) of carp showed a trend of first increase and then decrease, while the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was just the opposite.The highest SGR was found in 25%group, and significantly higher than that in 75% and 100% groups (P0 .05 ) .The whole fish crude protein content in control group was significantly higher than that in other groups ( P0 .05 ) .With the increase of linseed oil to replace fish oil level, the hepatopancreas lipoprotein lipase ( LPL ) activity and total anti-oxidant capability ( T-AOC ) were gradually reduced and the hepatopancreas malate dehydrogenase ( MDH) activity was gradually increased, but no significant differences were found in those indices between control group and 25%group (P>0.05).Re-placement of different levels of fish oil by linseed oil had no significant effect on hepatopancreas superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) activity (P>0.05).Thus, replacement of different levels of fish oil by linseed oil have dif-ferent effects on growth performance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant ability in hepatopancreas of common carp.Replacement of 25%fish oil by linseed oil, the growth of common carp shows the best effect;total re-placement of fish oil by linseed oil can hinder the growth of common carp, and

  3. In vitro effects of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria of clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Parrish, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species. Citrus essential oils were tested against a variety of Mycobacterium species and strains using the BACTEC radiometric growth system. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPT) was further tested using the Wayne model of in vitro latency. Exposure of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG to 0.025 % cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPT) resulted in a 3-log decrease in viable counts versus corresponding controls. Inhibition of various clinical isolates of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus ranged from 2.5 to 5.2-logs. Some species/strains were completely inhibited in the presence of CPT including one isolate each of the following: the M. avium complex, M. chelonae and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. CPT also inhibited the growth of BCG more than 99 % in an in vitro model of latency which mimics anaerobic dormancy thought to occur in vivo. The activity of CPT against drug-resistant strains of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus suggest that the mechanism of action for CPT is different than that of currently available drugs. Inhibition of latently adapted bacilli offers promise for treatment of latent infections of MTB. These results suggest that the antimycobacterial properties of CPT warrant further study to elucidate the specific mechanism of action and clarify the spectrum of activity.

  4. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  5. 论油气储运设施安全的重要性%On the Importance of safety of oil & gas storage and transportation facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建华

    2012-01-01

    油气储运设施是连接石油工业产、运、销各环节的纽带,其安全重要性日益凸显.介绍了油气储存和运输设施的分类依据及主要类型;从储运介质的易燃易爆和毒害性、油气储运设施易构成重大危险源两个方面论述了油气储运设施安全的重要性;通过总结近年发生的大连"7.16"爆炸事故、大型储罐火灾事故及油气管道泄漏事故的教训,指出第三方破坏是导致管道发生泄漏事故的主要原因,而打孔盗油又是其中的重要因素:提出了在工程立项、设计、施工及运行管理的各个阶段加强安全管理的具体措施.%Facilities in the field of oil & gas storage and transportation is a link to connect production, transportation and marketing of petroleum industry, and its significant has become more and more obvious. This paper introduces the classification basis and main types of oil & gas storage and transportation facilities and discusses the importance of safety in oil & gas storage and transportation facilities from two aspects, that is, flammable, explosive and poisonous for the medium stored and transported, and the dangerous source formed easily from the facilities of oil & gas storage and transportation. Lessons from research and investigation on the 7.16 Explosion of Dalian Oil tankfarm, fires of large-scale tanks and leakage of oil and gas pipelines in recent years reveal that the third-party damage is the main reason of leakage of pipelines, in which oil stealing is an important factor. Based on the results, special measures in strengthening safety management in different phases of project approval, design, construction and operation management are proposed.

  6. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  7. 'Pioneer' - A controlled air-water heat pump for the replacement of oil-fired and electric heating systems; Geregelte Waermepumpe Pioneer. Geregelte Luft-Wasser-Waermepumpe fuer Sanierungen von Oel- und Elektroheizungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckh, P. von; Borer, M.; Borer, T. [Fachhochschule beider Basel FHBB, Dept. Industrie, Abtlg. Maschinenbau, Muttenz (Switzerland); Eggenberger, H.J. [Solartis GmbH, WP-Versuchslabor EICH, Fuellinsdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involved the development of an air-water heat pump system that could replace existing oil-fired and electric heating systems. The system features variable-frequency compressor and ventilator drives and was tested on a special test bed that provided appropriately prepared primary air. The measurements and optimisations made included the definition of optimal parameters for ventilator and de-icing system, measurement of performance coefficients and noise emissions as well as on the suitability of the system for hot-water generation. The authors quote figures that show that the performance of the variable-speed system is much better than systems running in stop-and-go mode.

  8. Replacement of dietary saturated fat by PUFA-rich pumpkin seed oil attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis development, with additional health effects of virgin over refined oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P.M.; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Duyvenvoorde, Van Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  9. Replacement of dietary saturated fat by PUFA-rich pumpkin seed oil attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis development, with additional health effects of virgin over refined oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P.M.; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Duyvenvoorde, Van Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  10. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  11. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely det

  12. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely det

  13. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  14. The geo-strategic importance of the Indian ocean in the context of the world oil crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascu, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously growing demand of energy and the natural limitation of the energy resources makes today’s military, economic and diplomatic strategies of every nature to be shaped by the top priority objective: the uninterrupted access to energy resources. If nowadays 40% of the world’s consumer goods are transited across the Malacca Strait and 40% of the sea-transported oil transits the Hormuz Strait, the estimates made until 2030 indicate an increase of the energy needs by 45% globally, of which more than half will be due to India and China’s needs, implicitly leading to an intensification of the traffic across the Indian Ocean.

  15. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Baracco, Yanina; Lecot, Javier; Zaritzky, Noemi; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI. This chocolate also showed less fracturability and improved thermal properties. DSC studies revealed increased values of onset and peak temperatures and enthalpy of melting of the polymorphic form V, at higher storage temperatures, achieving greater stability against degradation processes.

  16. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  17. Seeking China Capital for Investment in Iran Oil Refining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2009-01-01

    @@ Influenced by the financial crisis.the overall bilateral trade volume between China and Iran decreased by 39% in the first quarter of 2009;however,the volume of Iran's exported crude oil to China has increased by 88% compared with the same period last year up to May of 2009,totaling 308.8 million tons.Iran,as the world's No.5 crude exporter,replaced Saudi Arabia as China's largest oil supplier.At the same time,China,as the world's No.2 oil consumer,now imports half of the crude oil it consumes,and has become Iran's third largest customer.

  18. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  19. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  20. The importance of atmospheric base cation deposition for preventing soil acidification in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Shaun A; Whitfield, Colin J; Fenn, Mark E

    2014-09-15

    Industrial activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada have resulted in greatly elevated emissions of SO2 and N (NO(x) and NH3) and there are concerns over possible widespread ecosystem acidification. Acid sensitive soils in the region are common and have very low base cation weathering rates: the median base cation weathering rate estimated for 63 sites using PROFILE was just 17 mmol cm(-2) yr(-1). Deposition of S and N in throughfall was approximately twice as high as deposition measured with open collectors and could be as high as 360 mmol cm(-2) yr(-1) within 20 km of the main industrial center, although deposition declined logarithmically with distance from the industrial activities. Base cation deposition however, mostly exceeded the combined inputs of S and N in bulk deposition and throughfall, particularly during the summer months. The potential for soil acidification at a site close (deposition at the site, soil base saturation and soil solution pH and molar Ca:Al ratio were predicted to increase in the future assuming acid and base cation deposition constant at current rates. This work shows that despite extremely low soil base cation weathering rates in the region, the risk of soil acidification is mitigated to a large extent by high base cation deposition, which in contrast to S emissions is derived from fugitive dust sources in the mines, and is poorly quantified for regional modeling studies.

  1. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  2. Substituição total do milho por sorgo e óleo de abatedouro avícola em dietas para frangos de corte Total replacement of corn by sorghum and slaughterhouse poultry oil in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Régia Ramos de Albuquerque Rocha

    2008-01-01

    pigmentos.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of total replacement of corn by sorghum and crecent levels of slaugherhouse poultry oil (PO on performance and carcass characteristics and yield of broilers. A total of 260 chicks one day-old, males, Cobb strain, was allotted to the following treatments: a corn based reference ration, and four sorghum based diets with the inclusion levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of PO according to the growing phases (from 1 to 7 days, 8 to 21 days, 22 to 33 days and 34 to 42 days. The experimental desing was in radomized blocks, with two blocks, where the parameter for blocks was the sense of the hangar, two replicates per block, with 13 birds per pen and five treatments. The inclusion of PO in the sorghum based diet linearly increased feed intake (FI, except during the first phase, and showed a linear effect on weight gain, that increased in the phases from 1 to 7 days, 22 to 33 days, and 1 to 42 days. Feed conversion (FC and viability did not showed differences in the studied phases. The absolute weight at slaughter broilers lineally increased with the addition PO in the diet. The weights and yield hot carcass, cold carcass, freezing 24 hours carcass, prime cuts, edible visceras, abdominal fat was not influenced by the diets. Carcass pigmentation did not show difference by the addition of PO in the sorghum based diet. The sorghum could totally replacement corn, from the day 8, because did not negatively affect performance and carcass yield. The addition of up to 7.5% of PO in the sorghum based diet provide carcass production with yield similar to those fed corn soybean meal based diets, but the addition of pigments is important.

  3. Industrial Test of Blending the Third Side-draw VGO from Imported Crude Oil and Shengli Crude Oil to Produce HVIⅡ6 Lubricating Base Oil%掺炼胜利进口原油减三线生产HVIⅡ6基础油的工业试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗军; 温传忠; 吴艳萍; 李慧

    2015-01-01

    Based on crude oil separately-feeding-separately-refining, the new technology which integrated high-pres-sure hydrogenation refining to three kinds of traditional processes was applied in SINOPEC Jinan Company. The furfural refi-ning raw materials was broadened by blending the third side-draw VGO from imported crude oil and Shengli crude oil, so as to the quality grade of lubricating base oil was improved and HVIⅡ6 lubricating base oil and 62 # paraffin were produced. Through production tracking analysis, various suitable raw materials,product control indicators and operating conditions were found, and then the lubricant processing programs were optimized and the profits per ton of crude oil were maximized.%在原油分输分炼的基础上,通过掺炼胜利进口原油的减三线蜡油拓宽糠醛精制原料,应用高压加氢和"老三套"结合的工艺,生产优质HVIⅡ6润滑油基础油和62 #石蜡. 通过生产跟踪分析,摸索各装置合适的原料和产品控制指标以及操作条件,从而达到优化润滑油加工方案,实现吨油利润最大化的目的.

  4. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  5. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  6. 饲料中植物油替代鱼油对大西洋鲑肝细胞油酸跨膜吸收的影响%OLEIC ACID TRANS-MEMBRANE UPTAKE IN HEPATOCYTES OF ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALARL.) AND EFFECT OF REPLACING DIETARY FISH OIL WITH VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继术; Bente E. Torstensen; Ingunn Stubhaug

    2014-01-01

    Taking [1-14C] OA (oleic acid;18:1n-9) as the indicator, the uptake of OA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocyte with different membrane fatty acid composition induced by dietary fish oil (FO) and vegetable oil (VO) diets was determined to investigate the effect of replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oil on fatty acid uptake and to pro-vide the probability of replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oil in Atlantic salmon diet. Atlantic salmon post smolt was fed diets containing either 100% FO or VO for 5 months to produce hepatocytes with typical FO and VO fatty acid composition, then OA uptake in isolated hepatocytes were studied by incubating with [1-14C] OA and 37.5 µmol/L OA (1/30, mol/mol, 0.3 µCi/flask) for 2h and by calculating the radioactivity in the cells. Meanwhile total RNA of the other same batch of FO and VO hepatocytes were extracted and the relative expression of FATP (fatty acid transport protein) and FAT/CD36 (fatty acid translocase) were determined by RT-PCR. The result showed that OA uptake in FO and VO was (0.924±0.258) nmol/(h·million cells) cells and (0.888±0.179) nmol/(h·million cells) respectively and there was no significant different between them (P>0.05). The relative expression ofFATP andFAT/CD36 were not significantly di-fferent between FO and VO hepatocytes too. The results indicate that by the same OA uptake between FO and VO hepatocytes, replacing dietary FO with VO was available in Atlantic salmon diet.%以[1-14C]油酸(oleic acid;18:1n-9, OA)为指示剂,研究了不同饲料油源饲喂下大西洋鲑肝细胞膜脂肪酸组成受到改变时该细胞对OA吸收的状况,以探讨植物油(Vegetable oil, VO)替代鱼油(Fish oil, FO)对大西洋鲑肝细胞脂肪酸跨膜吸收的影响,为大西洋鲑饲料中植物油替代鱼油的可行性提供理论依据。试验先以鱼油和大豆油为油源配制两种全价配合饲料,分别饲喂大西洋鲑幼鲑5个月,使其产生不同的脂肪酸组

  7. Use of metabolic control analysis to give quantitative information on control of lipid biosynthesis in the important oil crop, Elaeis guineensis (oilpalm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Umi S; Salas, Joaquin J; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2009-10-01

    * Oil crops are a very important commodity. Although many genes and enzymes involved in lipid accumulation have been identified, much less is known of regulation of the overall process. To address the latter we have applied metabolic control analysis to lipid synthesis in the important crop, oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis). * Top-down metabolic control analysis (TDCA) was applied to callus cultures capable of accumulating appreciable triacylglycerol. The biosynthetic pathway was divided into two blocks, connected by the intermediate acyl-CoAs. Block A comprised enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and Block B comprised enzymes of lipid assembly. * Double manipulation TDCA used diflufenican and bromooctanoate to inhibit Block A and Block B, respectively, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.61 and 0.39. Monte Carlo simulations provided extra information from previously-reported single manipulation TDCA data, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.65 and 0.35 for A and B. * These experiments are the first time that double manipulation TDCA has been applied to lipid biosynthesis in any organism. The data show that approaching two-thirds of the total control of carbon flux to lipids in oilpalm cultures lies with the fatty acid synthesis block of reactions. This quantitative information will assist future, informed, genetic manipulation of oilpalm.

  8. [Ascending aorta replacement late after aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasunari; Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junji

    2013-07-01

    Replacement of the asceding aorta is indicated in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement( AVR), if the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 5.0 cm. If the diameter of the asceding aorta is from 4.0 to 5.0 cm, it was arguable whether replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed. Nine patients who underwent reoperative ascending aorta replacement after AVR were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation on the asending aorta replacement was performed 11.8±7.2 years (range 1y5m~23y3m) after AVR. Mean patient age was 69.9±6.3 (range 60~81). In 2 cases, reoperations were performed early year after AVR. Although ascending aorta was dilated at the 1st operation, replacement wasn't performed for the age and minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). In 3 cases, reoperations were performed more than 10 years later. On these cases, ascending aorta aneurysm and dissection occurred with no pain and were pointed out by computed tomography(CT) or ultrasonic cardiogram(UCG). We think that patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta should undergo AVR and aorta replacement at the 1st operation regardness of age. It is important that patients who underwent AVR should undergo a regular checkup on the ascending aorta.

  9. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  10. Juglans regia and J. nigra, two trees important in traditional medicine: A comparison of leaf essential oil compositions and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Maharjan, Samjhana; Setzer, William N

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Juglans regia, collected from Kathmandu, Nepal, and Juglans nigra from Huntsville, Alabama, USA, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 69 compounds were identified in the J. regia oil, accounting for 99.0% of the eluting components of the oil while three different samples of J. nigra were analyzed identifying a total of 99.3%, 99.4% and 99.7% of the oils. The leaf essential oil of J. regia was dominated by the aromatic compounds eugenol (27.5%) and methyl salicylate (16.2%), and the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (21.4%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (8.2%). The essential oils from three different samples of. J. nigra contained (E)-caryophyllene (17.3%-20.4%) and germacrene D (7.1%-22.5%) with smaller amounts of juglone (1.0%-8.8%), alpha-hydrojuglone (1.0-9.5%), and delta-cadinene (3.8%-8.7%). J. regia leaf oil, devoid of juglone, showed allelopathic activity, while J. nigra leaf oil was less phytotoxic. The presence of eugenol and methyl salicylate in the leaves of J. regia are consistent with the traditional uses of this plant to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fungal infections.

  11. Effects of Dietary Fish Oil Replacement by Microalgae in Microdiets on Growth Performance, Survival and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Juveniles%微粒饲料中以微藻粉替代鱼油对牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)稚鱼生长存活和脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔洪金; 王际英; 张利民; 孙春晓; 李宝山; 丛超; 宋志东; 柳旭东

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if algal products rich in DHA or EPA are able to completely replace fish oil in microdiets for marine fish juveniles, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. To address the problem, an 11-d feeding experiment was carried out on 18-day old juveniles. The experimental subjects were fed with five groups of isolipidic and isoenergetic microdiets that were control group with fish oil (FO), 50% replacement group by mixed Schizochytrium sp., Nannochloropsis sp. and olive oil (M50), 100% replacement group (M100), 100% replacement group by Schizochytrium sp. and olive oil (S100), and 100% replacement group by Nannochloropsis sp. and olive oil (N100). The results showed that there were no significant effects of fish oil replacement with microalgae on growth. The groups containing Schizochytrium sp. (M50, M100 and S100) had higher survival rates than FO and N100 groups. No changes in the major fatty acid compositions of juveniles were observed with the replacement of fish oil by microalgae. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the percentage content of C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:2n-6, C20:0, C18:3n-3, C22:0, C20:4n-3, EPA, C22:5n-6 and DHA in juveniles were significantly and positively correlative to those in diets (P<0.05). The same correlations were also observed for total saturated, monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and DHA/EPA ratio. In conclusion, fish oil replacement with microalgae as lipid sources can fully satisfy the growth and development in juvenile flounder, and fatty acids in microalgae can be effectively digested and absorbed. Furthermore, the addition of microalgae in diets enhanced the DHA content and DHA/EPA ratio in juveniles, and hence improved the survival. Therefore, the fish oil replacement with microalgae in the culture of Japanese flounder juveniles is feasible. This study will be helpful and suggestive for screening new lipid sources to replace strained fish oil resource.%以18

  12. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  13. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  14. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  15. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  16. 中国主要食用油进出口实证分析%On Empirical Analysis of China’s Maj or Edible Oil Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康历姮; 李阳阳; 唐章林

    2016-01-01

    由于耕地资源稀缺,机械化生产水平较低,科技研发落后和因政府投入不够导致的种植成本较高,中国的油料作物在产量、单产和出油率上与发达国家相比存在比较劣势。这使得中国每年需大量进口来自巴西、阿根廷、美国、加拿大等国的油籽和食用油。中国食用油的进口量远远大于出口量,进出口状况呈现出极不平衡的趋势。通过对食用油进出口数量、进出口金额、主要几种食用油进出口数量、贸易市场结构及贸易竞争力的分析,得到中国在食用油进出口方面存在的问题并给予一定政策性的建议。%Because of scarcity of the arable land resources,low level of mechanized production and R & D and the insufficient governmental investment leading to the higher planting costs,Chinese oil crops existed comparative disadvantage on output,per unit yield and oil extraction rate comparing with developed coun-tries.It made that China imports a large of oilseeds and edible oil from Brazil,Argentina,United States, Canada and other countries each year.The import of edible oil was far greater than export in China and the situation presented an extremely uneven trend.It could be got the problems of edible oil import and export in China and gave some policy advice through the analyses of edible oil import and export volume,import and export amount,several maj or oil import and export volume,trade structures of the market and trade competitiveness.

  17. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion tha

  18. WHEN IMPORTERS TURN TO EXPORTING OIL AND GAS — THE SHALE GAS HYPE AND CERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL CHANGES LIE AHEAD IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kneissl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East, the world’s only major source of low-cost oil, will remain at the core of the long-term prospects of the world oil market. The IEA went too far referring to the “shale hydrocarbon revolution born in the USA”. For the time being, the global energy landscape has not been turned upside down. It is China’s soaring energy consumption rather than the US’ rising production that will fundamentally shift the world energy order. Some analysts claim that the Sino-Russian relationship will truly shift global energy boundaries: pipelines are turning east. Global oil prices may fall if and when significant volumes of additional Iranian oil return to the market. A new petroleum frontier in the Eastern Mediterranean complicates the manifold conflicts, but opens up new chances for cooperation. There are huge opportunities created by the discovery of gas in the Eastern Mediterranean — not least for countries that are short of both money and energy. Developing these opportunities will require cooperation, and could be both a lucrative and politically rewarding confidence-building measure. 

  19. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  20. 豆油替代鱼油对中华条颈龟血脂代谢及相关酶活的影响%Effects of Partial Replacement of Fish Oil by Soybean Oil on Serum Lipid Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities in Chinese Striped-necked Turtle Mauremys sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘正元; 盛成; 洪美玲; 史海涛

    2015-01-01

    为缓解国际鱼油资源短缺,本研究从血脂代谢角度去评价豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中的适宜比例。选取体质量(1557±307) g的4龄雌性成体中华条颈龟,根据日粮中豆油与鱼油的添加比例不同随机分成四组,0S∶3F组(豆油∶鱼油0∶3),1S∶2F组(豆油∶鱼油1∶2),2S∶1F组(豆油∶鱼油2∶1)和3S∶0F组(豆油∶鱼油3∶0);外源油的添加量占日粮1%。每周投喂2次,连续投喂8个月。从每组中随机取6只中华条颈龟,冷冻麻醉处死,解剖。检测血液中甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量,肝脏组织中脂蛋白脂酶、肝脂酶和激素敏感性脂肪酶活性以及肠道胰脂肪酶活性,结果如下:(1)随着豆油替代比例的升高,只有1S∶2F组和3S∶0F组总胆固醇显著高于0S∶3F组,并且3S∶0F组低密度脂蛋白含量显著高于0S∶3F(P<0.05)。(2)总脂酶活力在2S∶1F组达到最高,显著高于0S∶3F组(P<0.05);2S∶1F组的激素敏感性脂肪酶活力与其余组相比,更接近于0S∶3F;胰脂肪酶的活力在2S∶1F与0S∶3F之间差异不显著,但均显著低于其余两组。综合上述两方面指标来看,豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中总体可行,较适宜的比例组为2S∶1F。%In order to study the effects of partial replacement of fish oil by soybean oil on serum lipid metabolism and the activity of correlated lipases . Four‐year old female Chinese striped‐necked turtle Mauremys sinensis [body weight(1557 ± 307) g] were randomly divided into four groups according to and fed the diets containing various proportions of fish oil (F) and soybean oil (S) including 0S∶3F (S∶F , 0∶3) ,1S∶2F (S∶F ,1∶2) ,2S∶1F(S∶ F ,2∶1) and 3S∶0F (S∶ F ,3∶0) for eight months .Six turtles were randomly selected from each group and determined for the content of

  1. An Empirical Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Crude Oil Import in China%影响中国原油进口量主要因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明华; 郑琳; 史莹赫

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, as the rapid development of China’ s economy, demand for crude oil is also increasing constantly. But due to the shortage of do-mestic crude oil supply, China’ s crude oil import scale is huge and growing continuously, the dependence on foreign trades is rising year by year. This paper builds the econometric model by the method of OLS multivariate regression with the related data from 1990 to 2013, to find out the main factors which influ-ence China’ s crude oil import. The result shows that:the global crude oil production, China’ s GDP and coal consumption are the main factors. Finally this paper puts forward relevant recommendations.%近年来,随着中国经济迅速发展,对原油的需求量不断加大,由于国内原油供给不足,中国原油进口数量持续增长,进口规模巨大,对外依存度逐年攀升,面临较大安全隐患。以1990~2013年相关数据为样本,采用OLS多元回归方法对影响中国原油进口贸易的因素进行实证分析。结果表明:世界原油产量、中国国内生产总值以及中国煤炭消费量是影响中国原油进口量的主要因素。据此,提出了相关建议。

  2. 国际原油价格与我国原油进口量关系研究--基于系统思考与格兰杰因果检验%Study on the Relation between International Crude Oil Prices and China's Oil Imports--An Analysis based on System Thinking and Granger Causality Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力菠; 谢丽琨

    2013-01-01

    Over the past nearly 20 years, China's crude oil imports climbed, while overall growth on the international price of cr-ude oil, so China's crude imports pushed Gao Guoji appeared on the international crude oil prices. Therefore, using system thinking method to build the international crude oil prices affect the causal feedback model, system analysis of the influencing factors of international crude oil prices and the causal feedback loop and feedback mechanisms, to identify the key influence factors and the dominant feedback structure. Granger causality test model was established to further the international crude oil price and China's crude oil imports the actual data analysis, quantitative research is the change between the two and mutual influence relations. Results show that the international crude oil prices and China's crude imports between the long-term stable equilibrium relationship, and there are from the international price of crude oil to one-way causal relationship of China's crude oil imports, not easy to attribute the cause of the international crude oil prices higher for the increase of China's crude oil imports. Finally put forward the corresponding strategies to respond to the long-term and short-term.%  过去近20年来,中国原油进口量不断攀升,同时国际原油价格总体上也呈增长态势。于是国际上出现了中国进口原油推高国际原油价格的说法。为此,利用系统思考方法构建了国际原油价格影响的因果反馈模型,系统分析了国际原油价格的诸多影响因素及其因果反馈环路及反馈机制,识别了关键影响因素及主导反馈结构;进一步建立了格兰杰因果检验模型对国际原油价格与中国原油进口量的实际数据进行分析,研究两者之间的变动和相互影响关系。结果表明,国际原油价格和我国原油进口量之间呈现长期稳定的均衡关系,且存在着从国际原油价格到我国原油进口

  3. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  4. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  5. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  6. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to D

  7. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  8. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  9. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  10. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  11. Comparison of Domestic and Imported Sesames and Their Oil Processing Properties%国产芝麻和进口芝麻及加工芝麻油品质对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 陈刘杨; 汪学德; 胡小东

    2011-01-01

    对国产芝麻样品和进口芝麻样品及其相应压榨芝麻油的组分和品质进行对比分析.结果表明:进口芝麻较国产芝麻的子粒稍大且略显饱满;国产芝麻和进口芝麻的粗脂肪含量略有差异,国产芝麻的粗蛋白含量高,草酸和灰分含量低;国产芝麻较进口芝麻压榨芝麻油的色泽无明显差别,但磷脂含量、酸价、皂化值、过氧化值较低;国产芝麻油的抗氧化成分含量和氧化稳定性均好于进口芝麻油;国产芝麻油和进口芝麻油的脂肪酸组成基本一致,均在芝麻油国标范围内;进口芝麻压榨芝麻油的香味稍逊色于国产芝麻油.%The composition and quality of domestic and imported sesames and their oil processing properties were compared. The results showed that the kernels of imported sesames were larger and more plump than the domestic varieties. The fat content of domestic and imported sesames had no significant difference, but the protein content of domestic sesames was higher than the imported ones. The imported sesames were rich in ash and oxalic acid. The phospholipid, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value of domestic sesames was lower than imported sesames. Antioxidant components content and oxidative stability of domestic sesame oils were higher than imported kind. Fatty acids composition of sesame oil from different cultivated areas had no significant difference. The favor of domestic sesame oil was better than the imported variety.

  12. 裂殖壶菌替代鱼油对海鲈生长和抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of replacement of fish oil by Schizochytriumon growth performance and antioxidant ability in blood serum of sea bass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜; 陈效儒; 马霞; 金雄华

    2016-01-01

    在一种实用饲料配方的基础上,用裂殖壶菌粉等DHA含量替代0%(对照组)、50%和100%的鱼油,并补充豆油,配制成3种等氮、等脂的试验饲料,在室内循环养殖系统中饲喂3组海鲈[初重(40.5±2.9) g]85 d,以研究裂殖壶菌粉替代鱼油对海鲈生长性能、肌肉常规组成及抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明:增重率以100%组最低,且显著低于0%组和50%组(P0.05);各组间饲料系数没有显著差异(P>0.05)。鱼体肌肉粗脂肪含量以100%组最高,且显著高于0%组和50%组(P0.05)。总抗氧化水平以50%组最高,且显著高于100%组(P0.05);丙二醛含量以50%组最低,显著低于100%组(P0.05)。由此可见,在本试验配方的基础下,裂殖壶菌粉能够替代50%的鱼油而不影响生长,但完全替代鱼油会造成鱼体生长受阻,并危及鱼体健康。%In order to study the effects of replacement of different levels of fish oil by Schizochytrium on growth performance, muscel composition and antioxidant in blood serum of sea bass, three isonitrog⁃enous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated by replacing 0%(control group), 50% and 100% fish meal with Schizochytrium on basis of a practical diet, respectively. Sea bass with the initial body weight of (40.5±2.9 ) g in three groups were fed three experimental diets for 85 days in the room circulation farming system. The results showed as follows: the lowest specific growth rate (SGR) were found in 100% group(P0.05). Crude lipid content in muscle of the 100% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups(P<0.05); while no significant difference between 0% and 50% group. The serum total antioxi⁃dant capacity(T-AOC) in 50% group was the highest(P<0.05), and significantly higher than 100%group(P<0.05). The contents of serum malondialdehyde(MDA) in 100%group was the hihgher than oth⁃er groups(P<0.05). Thus, replacement of different levels of fish

  13. Review of China's Petroleum Imports & Exports in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2006-01-01

    @@ After having increased greatly for three consecutive years, the net import of crude oil dropped by 5.2% in 2005 in China.The price inversion between the prices of major product oil in Chinese market with the international market leads to a great decrease of imported fuel and diesel oil and an increase of gasoline and diesel exportation. Except crude oil, the net import volumes of oil products including product oil, LPG and other oil products dropped obviously last year.

  14. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  16. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  17. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  18. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  19. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  20. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  1. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadellaEfeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%. There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity, instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had the quality parameters required by the Brazilian legislation. There was a pH decrease during storage due to the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Products containing vegetable oils showed higher levels of lightness (L* and yellowness (b* and lower levels of redness (a*. TBARS values remained under the perceptible threshold by the consumers and microstructure characteristics were similar to those observed in other kinds of cooked meat sausages. Thus, the use of canola, linseed, olive or soybean oils is a viable alternative as a substitute for pork backfat in elaboration of mortadella.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de diferentes óleos vegetais como substituto da gordura animal em mortadela. Para isso, foram utilizados os óleos de canola, linhaça, oliva e soja em dois níveis de substituição (50 e 100%. Foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, pH e Atividade de água, cor instrumental, características microbiológicas, oxidação lipídica (TBARS e microestrutura durante armazenamento em temperatura ambiente por 60 dias. Os produtos apresentaram os parâmetros de qualidade exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Houve uma queda nos valores de pH durante o armazenamento devido ao crescimento de bactérias láticas. Os produtos contendo óleos vegetais apresentaram teores de luminosidade (L* e amarelo (b* superiores e teor de vermelho (a* inferior ao controle. Os valores de TBARS mantiveram

  2. Global energy crunch. How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories. (author)

  3. Global energy crunch: How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.friedrichs@qeh.ox.ac.u [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories.

  4. The Cost-profit Analysis of Increasing Domestic Oil Supply--Based on Reducing Oil Import Dependent Effect%我国石油供给扩张的成本-收益分析--基于降低石油进口依赖效应视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 林仲豪

    2014-01-01

    石油进口依赖给我国经济带来了巨大成本支出和经济风险,提高我国国内石油供给量是降低石油进口依赖路径之一。基于降低石油进口依赖效应,从我国国内石油供给的财富转移收益、潜在 GDP 收益和宏观经济调整收益三个角度以及从直接生产成本、环境成本和使用者成本三项成本来对提高我国国内石油供给的经济可行性进行论证,结论显示整体趋势上,提高国内石油供给的总收益大于其总成本,并且其净收益呈现上升态势,是有利可图的,这种优势在国际油价高企的时候表现得更为突出,但是收益-成本弹性却呈现下降态势,即整体上成本的相对增长幅度要快于收益的增长幅度。%Oil import dependence has brought tremendous costs and economic risk for China. Increasing China's oil supply is one way of reducing oil import dependence. Based on the reducing the oil import dependence effect, the article analyses the economic viability of increasing domestic oil supply from three points of view, that is, profits of wealth transfer, potential GDP profits and macroeconomic adjustment profits, and from another three consideration of costs, namely, direct production costs, environmental costs and user costs. The result shows that the profits of increasing our domestic oil supply are more than the costs from the overall trend, and the net profit is increasing, especially as the high oil price. But, the elasticity of profit-cost is falling, which shows the relatively growth rate of overall costs is faster than growth rate of profits.

  5. Study on the Importance of Beforehand Waste Management for Ocean Oil Leakage%海洋漏油中预先废物管理策略重要性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜乾; 王培鸿; 冉玉兰; 郑军; 周夏伊; 杨竣捷

    2015-01-01

    近年来,海洋油气污染事件频发。海洋油污染之来源包括:石油钻探及炼化过程泄漏、船舶运输过程泄漏、废水处理海洋放流、天然渗漏以及其他经河川流入海洋的泄漏。海洋漏油处理中存在一个主要问题:污水处理过程中产生的废物达到实际泄露量的10倍以上,直到清理程序完成和废油已经堆积时才意识到这个问题。污液处理和处理后的管理是海洋漏油被称作“经济危机”的主要原因。通过分析一些海洋漏油事故的废物处理方法和管理程序,描述了预先废物管理体系,它是漏油清理策略中的重要组成部分,最后还提出了一些建议和经验。%In recent years, ocean pollution caused by oil and gas happens frequently. The origin of pollution includes leakage of oil drilling and refining process, leakage of shipment and transportation, release of wastewater treatment process, natural leakage and other leakage through rivers to ocean. The treatment of ocean oil leak has one main problem: the waste from polluted water treatment is 10 times higher than its actual leakage volume. However this problem has been always noticed. Polluted fluid treatment and treated waste management are the main reason to cause that the ocean oil leakage is called “ economic crisis ’’.In this pare, treatment methods of the waste from the ocean oil leak were analyzed as well as the management process, and beforehand waste management system as an important part of oil leak treatment strategy was described. At last, some countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.

  6. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  10. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  11. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  12. Potential Mixture of POFA and SCBA as Cement Replacement in Concrete – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is an important material used in all kind of building construction and ordinary Portland cement (OPC is one of an important element in the production of concrete. However, the production of cement causes a problem because of high CO2 emission to atmosphere. The manufacture of 1 tonnes of cement would produce approximately released 1 tonnes of CO2. So, the need to search another material that can replace a cement with same properties and environmental friendly are crucial. The suitable material to replace cement has to be a pozzolanic materials. This is because pozzolanic materials has cementitious properties and high silica content. Palm oil fuel ash (POFA and sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA are the material that suitable to replace cement because of high silica content. The use of POFA and SCBA in concrete has been studied by many researcher and it has been proved to improve the mechanical strength of the concrete either in normal concrete, high strength concrete or lightweight concrete. This paper would discuss the overview of the previous study on the cement replacement by POFA and SCBA and the potential of the both materials to be mix together to improve its properties. The chemical element which will be the focus point is SiO4, MgO, CaO and SO3, while the physical and mechanical properties such as workability, specific gravity, compressive strength and tensile strength will also be reviewed.

  13. Identification of potential for heat pumps for space heating of houses as replacement for oil-fired boilers; Afdaekning af potentiale for varmepumper til opvarmning af helaarshuse til erstatning for oliefyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-15

    The analysis was intended to document and describe the realistic potential for conversion of oil-fired single-family houses to individual heat pumps of the type liquid / water and air / water. The assessment is based on a ''here and now'' condition and evaluates the potential from domestic economic factors. It is an overall analysis, and it has not been possible to analyze in detail the individual heat pump installation. The result of the analysis shows that for 75% of the houses it is not economically viable for the households to convert to a heat pump under the assumed conditions. In 25% of the houses with oil burner (and without access to public supply) it is considered economically viable to convert to a heat pump. About 1/3 of these houses can immediately install a heat pump, while 2/3 of the houses require substantial preparatory steps either in the form of investments in the building envelope and / or in the heat distribution the system. (LN)

  14. Calorimetry for Fast Authentication of Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiuli, Marco; Bussolino, Gian Carlo; Ferrari, Carlo; Matteoli, Enrico; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Salvetti, Giuseppe; Tombari, Elpidio

    2009-06-01

    There are little data in the literature on how to authenticate edible oils through calorimetry techniques. However, oil melting curves can be used to represent correlations between calorimetric results and oil quality. A calorimetric method has been developed for studying the solid-liquid phase transitions of olive oil and seed oils, in which melting peak behavior is correlated to the type, quality, and composition of the oil. Good reproducible thermograms were obtained by defining precise protocols for use in testing, which take into account the specific characteristics of a particular oil. This approach does not replace classical analytical methods; nevertheless, it is believed that calorimetric tests could be a useful preliminary stage for quality testing. The calorimetric technique allows the detection of the adulterant (seed oils or refined olive oil), oil origin, and possible photo-oxidation degradation processes, before more complex and expensive procedures and analyses are applied.

  15. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  17. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  18. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  19. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  20. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  1. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  2. Impact of price collapse of international crude oil on the import waste plastics industry%浅谈国际原油价格暴跌对进口废塑料行业的影响及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢经; 张国庆; 刘建东

    2015-01-01

    作为资源的重要补充,近年来国内塑料加工行业对进口废塑料的需求市场不断扩大,但作为原油的下游产品,因原油价格波动带来的经营影响和环保风险不容忽视。为有效规避风险,提升行业竞争力,在源头控制、行业转型、通关便利等方面提供可行性建议。%As an important supplement to the resources, in recent years the domestic plastic processing industry demand for imports of waste plastics market continues to expand, but as the downstream product of crude oil, crude oil price fluctuations caused by the effect of management and environmental risk can not be ignored. To evade the risk effectively and enhance the competitiveness of the industry, the feasible suggestions about source control, industry restructure and customs clearance facility were provided.

  3. Analysis and forecast on trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi%广西进出口食用植物油贸易分析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振彬

    2013-01-01

    Recently,some edible lipin processing plants were settled in Guangxi coastal areas,and the trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi has changed with these plants. Stastics on the trade of import-export edible vegetable oil in Guangxi from 2005 to 2012 were from the software CIQ2000,and the trade situation was analysed and forecasted in this paper.%  近年来,陆续有大型食用油脂加工企业落户广西沿海,广西的食用植物油进出口贸易也随着这些企业的发展而变化。文章通过CIQ2000系统对2005-2012年广西食用植物油进出口贸易进行统计,对进出口贸易情况进行分析,并对未来几年广西食用植物油进出口贸易形势进行展望。

  4. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  5. Environmental Assessment and (FONSI) Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    An analysis is presented of the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. The report first covers the background and need for action, along with the alternative actions…

  6. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  7. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  8. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  9. Business cycles in oil economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  10. Crude Oil Stockpiling Needed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The two oil crises in the 1970's had badly disturbed the economy and the way of life of those oil importing countries, which began to realize the importance of oil stockpiling. With the rapid development of economy, China could no longer satisfy itself soly with the domesticallyproduced oil.

  11. 固定化MM-7修复石油污染土壤影响因素重要性%Importance of the influence factors on the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil by immobilized MM-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀霞; 刘永博; 徐娜娜; 白雪晶; 孔甜甜; 李进辉; 张腾

    2012-01-01

    针对石油污染土壤修复,利用实验室已筛选的高效石油降解混合菌MM-7,以天然有机材料YJ-05为载体,吸附法制备固定化微生物。并将游离与固定化微生物应用于室内花盆模拟修复石油污染土壤,对C/N/P、微生物投加量、石油含量、氧化剂和表面活性剂设计五因素四水平正交实验,探讨不同修复时期各影响因素的重要性顺序。实验结果表明,不同微生物在不同降解时期,各影响因素的重要性会发生变化;经过21 d的修复,固定化MM-7对石油烃类的降解率为27.12%,修复过程中,接种量一直是最重要的影响因素,在降解初期表面活性剂影响较大,降解中后期土壤石油含量变为重要影响因子。%MM-7,a group of mixed bacteria selected from effective bacterium strains under the laboratory condition was employed to produce immobilized microorganism with YJ-05,a natural organic carrier in adsorption.Then the immobilized microorganism and free bacteria were used to simulate the remediation of oil contaminated soil to investigate the order of importance of 5 factors in different restoring stages with the method of orthogonality,in which the ratio of C,N,P,the amount of bacteria added,the amount of oil,oxidant and surfactant were considered.The results indicated that the order of importance of factors changed in different degradation stages and different kinds of microorganisms.21-day experiment showed that the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation retains 27.12%,the amount of bacteria was the most important factor,the amount of surfactant followed in the early stage,and the amount of oil also influenced a lot in the middle and last stage.

  12. Comparison of delivery of imported vegetable oils by weight surveys on ship tanks and on shore tanks%进口植物油船舱计量与岸罐计量交接比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 俞晔; 金俊; 金青哲

    2014-01-01

    我国进口植物油大都通过远洋货轮散装运输,船舱计量和岸罐计量是进口植物油最常见的两种静态容器交接计量方式。通过对进口植物油船舱计量和岸罐计量结果数据的对比分析,发现进口植物油船舱计量结果和岸罐计量结果差异很大,主要体现在两者植物油体积和密度计量差异上;就影响容器计量准确性的因素而言,船舱计量远较岸罐计量多,因此以岸罐计量交接对国内买方承受的短重风险小,可避免短重欺诈风险;探讨了两种计量方式的误差缘由,并提出了改进措施与建议。%Imported vegetable oils in our country are mostly transported in bulk by ocean-going freighter, and the static container delivery of imported vegetable oils by weight surveys on ship tanks and on shore tanks are the two most common methods. The comparative analysis of these two measurement methods of the imported vegetable oils showed that the two methods had great differences,which mainly reflected on the measurement of volume and density. In terms of the factors affecting the accuracy of weight survey by volume,the factors of ship tank were far more than those of shore tank. Therefore,in avoid of the shortage fraud,the domestic buyer should take the measurement method of shore tanks. In addition,the reasons of the differences between these two measurement methods were discussed,and the improvement measures and suggestions were presented.

  13. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  15. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has created the necessity of replacement of antibiotic with other products like prebiotics, probiotics, organic acid botanicals, and herbal essential oils. Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices, and are used as natural alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry feed as these have antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Beside, other beneficial effects of EOs include appetite stimulation, improvement of enzyme secretion related to food digestion, and immune response activation. Recently, use of EOs in broiler chickens has drawn attentions. EOs are generally used as blend with a carrier oil or combination with other plant oils in the feed to enhance the productive performance of birds. Conclusively, EOs can be used in poultry feed, but there are still questions concerning their action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage in poultry, which are to be explored in detail. This mini-review describes the expanding horizons in the research on EOs in poultry nutrition.

  16. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  17. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  18. Sorption of oil in the polyurethane from oil or castor oil; Sorcao de oleo no poliuretano derivado do petroleo ou do oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentino, Wagner M.; Goulart, Shane A.S.; Mulinari, Daniella R. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: wagner-can@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The oil outpouring has caused serious environmental problems. To minimize this damage polyurethane foams have been used. In this work, the use of polyurethane from oil and castor oil, in different polyol/diisocyanate mass ratios, to absorb oil was evaluated. Results revealed that the proportion of polyol and diisocyanate influenced in the sorption capacity and the polyurethane from castor oil presented greater sorption capacity. Of this way, can say that the polyurethane from oil can be replaced by castor oil, contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  19. Simultaneous determination by HPLC of 6 components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections with replacement method of chemical reference substance%HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 马双成; 张启明; 田颂九

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To establish and validate an HPLC method with single marker to simultaneously determine six components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.Methods:The relative correction factors(RCF)of the five components(curdione,curcumol,curzerene,furanodiene,β-elemene)were measured by HPLC under different conditions with germacrone as standard reference.Assay of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections was determined by replacement method of chemical reference substance and the conventional HPLC method with the above SIX components as the index components.The analysis was performed on a Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 m)column;The mobile phase was composed of methanol-water with a linear gradient elution:The flow rate Was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the temperature of colulun was 30 ℃;The UV detection wavelength was set at 215 nm.Results:The quantitative results of the new method were almost consistent with the results of conventional HPLC method.Conclusion:For the first time,the replacement method of chemical reference substance is adopted in HPLC simultaneous determination of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.The new method is economical and practical which is highly effective and accurate for quality control of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.%目的:建立HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分含量.方法:本文采用HPLC方法,在不同条件下测定(牛龙)牛儿酮与其他5种成分(莪术二酮、莪术醇、莪术烯、呋喃二烯及β-榄香烯)间的相对校正因子(RCF).以上述6种成分为指标,分别利用替代对照品法和常规含量测定方法对莪术油及其注射液进行含量测定.色谱条件:采用Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-水,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min~(-1),柱温30℃,检测波长215 nm.结果:以替代对照品法测得的结果与常规含量测定方法结果一致.结论:本试验在

  20. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  1. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  2. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  3. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of palm products would be, since sustainable and 3-MCPD/glycidolester-reduced palm based specialty oils are also available on the market.

  4. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  8. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  9. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  10. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  11. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  12. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  13. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  14. 密立根油滴实验中水平调节的重要性%Importance of level adjustment in the Millikan oil-drop experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文艺; 姜建刚; 伍丹; 解迎革; 杜光源; 张社奇; 王国栋

    2016-01-01

    从理论上研究了密立根油滴实验仪水平调节的原因及重要性。仅有电极板倾斜或油滴仪整体倾斜时,油滴每次上升都有横向移动,5次上升横向漂移大于油滴仪的测量窗口宽度,实验无法完成。因此在密立根油滴实验中,仪器水平调节不但决定测量结果误差,而且决定实验能否完成。%Some theoretical study on the importance and necessity of level adjustment operation in Millikan oil‐drop experiment were carried out .The leaning of the plate electrode or the whole instru‐ment would cause lateral movement every time when the oil‐drop rose .The oil‐drop would run out of the window after five times of lateral movement ,leading to a failure of the experiment .The level ad‐justment of the instrument not only determined the measurement precision , but also determined w hether the experiment could be completed or not .

  15. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market in 2012%Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of 2012, the apparent consumption of crude oil and oil grew in China, and the growth rate went up again, the demand and growth rate of processed oil products fluctuated and declined, the processed crude oil and growth rate declined, the net imports of crude oil and oil rose by a large margin and growth rate rose again, the degree of crude oil and oil dependence on foreign trade reached 58.0% and 59.4% respectively,

  16. Importance of the planning activities, cutting, handling and analysis of the nuclei of oil well drilling; Importancia de las actividades de planificacion, corte, manejo y analisis de los nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique A; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In the geologic formation where the oil deposits are located, diverse types of rocks perform functions as structural elements, storage containers for hydrocarbon water and calorific energy, as well as impermeable barriers and transport means of the energy and the fluids. Among the most important properties that are used to describe these functions are the porosity, the permeability, the compressibility of the pores volume, the formation resistivity factor, the saturation exponent, the velocity of acoustic waves P and S, the relative permeability, the capillary pressures, the elastic constants and other mechanical properties, the thermal expansion, coefficient, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity and the specific heat. The execution of an ample variety of activities related to the stages of exploration, location, evaluation and development of the oil deposits, depends strongly on having a good knowledge of the magnitude and the spatial variability of these properties. The technical feasibility as well as the economics in developing a prospectus of oil deposit, depends on that the intervening rocks exhibit a suitable combination of their properties, thus constituting a confining and storing geologic structure of hydrocarbons that is feasible to be developed technically, at the same time of having the economic potential of yielding an economic benefit. In this context, from the experience platform on the subject existing in the Laboratorio de Yacimientos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. The present article approaches the relevance which have the activities of cutting, handling and laboratory analysis of the oil well drilling nuclei, for the geologic evaluation of the formation, in relation to the characterization, the evaluation and the advantage of the oil deposits. [Spanish] En las formaciones geologicas donde se encuentran emplazados los yacimientos petroleros, diversos tipos de rocas desempenan funciones como elementos estructurales

  17. Food-grade double emulsions as effective fat replacers in meat systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2017-01-01

    Double emulsions were used to not only replace 7 and 11% of animal fat in meat products, but also as a way to enhance the product colour. The coarse emulsion containing native beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% whey protein isolate as outer water phase was

  18. Substituição parcial ou total de óleo de canola por lecitina de soja em rações para larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, pisces, Pimelodidae Partial or total replacement of canola oil by soybean lecithin in diets for South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen larvae , pisces, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oclecio Uliana

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em um sistema para criação de larvas com recirculação de água termoregulada. O objetivo foi avaliar a substituição de óleo de canola por lecitina de soja na alimentação de larvas de jundiá durante os primeiros 21 dias de vida. No experimento, testaram-se sete tratamentos com três repetições, usando-se diferentes proporções de óleo de canola (0 a 5% e lecitina de soja (0 a 4%, incorporadas em uma ração preparada com fígado bovino e levedura de cana. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos no tratamento com 2% de lecitina de soja. Com ele, as larvas de jundiá apresentaram 80,25% de sobrevivência, peso médio individual de 184,89mg e 28,03mm de comprimento total, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos no experimento, conclui-se que a lecitina de soja em nível de 2% é mais eficiente que a lecitina usada em combinação com óleo de canola na nutrição de larvas de jundiá.This report was carried out at the Animal Sciences Department - Fish Culture Sector of the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, in a system for larvae raising with thermoregulation and recirculation of water, in order to assess the replacement of canola oil for soy lecithin in the feeding of south american catfish (Rhamdia quelen larvae during their 21 days of life. In the experiment, seven treatments with three replications were tested by using different proportions of canola oil (0-5% and soybean lecithin (0-4%, added to a diet prepared with beef liver and sugar canne yeast. The best results were obtained in treatment containing 2% of soy lecithin, in which catfish larvae presented 80.25% survival rate, 184.89mg average individual weight and 28.03mm total length, what significantly differs from the other treatments. According to the results obtained in the experiment, it is

  19. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  20. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  1. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  2. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  3. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  4. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  5. Durability testing modified compression ignition engines fueled with straight plant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basinger, M.; Lackner, K.S. [Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York City 10027 (United States); Reding, T. [Mechanical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York City (United States); Rodriguez-Sanchez, F.S. [Mali Biocarburant, Bamako (Mali); Modi, V. [Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York City 10027 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Many short-run studies point to the potential for direct fueling of compression ignition engines with plant oil fuels. There is a much smaller body of work that examines the potential for these fuels in long-run tests that illuminate engine endurance and longevity issues. Generally, longevity studies involving direct fueling of engines with straight plant oils have shown significant impact to the life of the engine, though test results vary widely depending on the oil, engine type, test conditions, and measurement approach. This study utilizes a previously designed modification kit to investigate the longevity implications of directly fueling straight plant oil in an indirect injection (IDI) listeroid type, slow speed stationary engine common in agro-processing applications in developing countries. Specifically this study focuses on the lubrication oil by developing a model to characterize the engine wear and estimate lube oil change frequency. The model is extended to an analysis of the piston rings. Cylinder liner wear, emissions, engine performance, and a visual investigation of several critical engine components are also studied. The 500 hour test with waste vegetable oil fuel resulted in several important findings. The engine break-in period was identified as taking between 200 and 300 h. Emissions analysis supported the break-in definition as smoke opacity and carbon monoxide values fell from 9% and 600 ppm (respectively) during the first few hundred hours, to 5% and 400 ppm in the final 200 h. Lubrication oil viscosity was found to be the limiting degradation factor in the lube oil, requiring oil to be changed every 110 h. Piston ring mass loss was found to correlate very closely with chromium buildup in the lubrication oil and the mathematical model that was developed was used to estimate that piston ring inspection and replacement should occur after 1000 h. Cylinder ovalisation was found to be most sever at top dead center (TDC) at 53 microns of averaged

  6. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  7. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  8. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  9. Panorama of China's Petroleum Imports and Exports in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Year 2004 can be entitled as a breaking-record year.China's economy continued to develop at a high rate.When prices of crude oil and oil products were roaring to the highest level in the world's history, China's oil import also hit a record high with the total import of crude oil exceeding 120 million tons for the first time,and the total import of oil products exceeding 37 million tons.

  10. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  11. The influence of solution composition and grain boundaries on the replacement of calcite by dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraila Martinez, Teresita de Jesus; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Dolomite formation is a mineral replacement reaction that affects extensive rock volumes and comprises a large fraction of oil and gas reservoirs [1,2]. The most accepted hypothesis is the 'dolomitization' of limestone by Mg-rich fluids [3]. The objective of this research is to study the replacement mechanism of calcite by dolomite, the role of grain boundaries, highlighted by Etschmann et al. (2014), and the possible influence of solutions in dolomite formation under the presence of ions that are normally in crustal aqueous fluids. To accomplish this purpose, we performed hydrothermal experiments using Carrara marble cubes of ~1.5 mm size and 7-9 mg weight as starting material, reacted with 1M (Mg,Ca)Cl2 aqueous solutions, with Mg/Ca ratios of 3 and 5 at 200°C, for different reaction times. Additional experiments were performed adding 1mM of Na2SO4, NaCl or NaF to the previous solutions. After the reaction, the product phases were identified using Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and the textural evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples reacted with aqueous solutions resulted in the replacements of the calcite rock into magnesite and dolomite. The amount and type of reaction strongly depends on the Mg/Ca ratio. Samples reacted with a Mg/Ca ratio of 5 resulted in an almost complete replacement reaction and more favorable for magnesite formation than for dolomite. When the Mg/Ca ratio was 3 dolomite formed but the replacement was located in the core of the sample. We show that grain boundaries are very important for the infiltration of solution and the progress of a replacement reaction, acting as fluid pathways. Solution composition controls the nature of the replacement product. Acknowledgment: This work is funded within a Marie Curie EU Initial Training Network- CO2-React. 1. Etschmann B., Brugger J., Pearce M.A., Ta C., Brautigan D., Jung M., Pring A. (2014). Grain boundaries as

  12. International oil law; Le droit international du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkzad, B

    1997-07-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  13. Oil strategies benefits over different driving cycles using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Hanna; Chalet, David; Cormerais, Mickaël; Hetet, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    95 g/km is the allowed quantity of CO2 emission normalized to NEDC to be set in 2020. In addition, NEDC will be replaced by more severe driving cycles and will be united worldwide. To respond to those criteria, automotive industries are working on every possible field. Thermal management has been proved to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. Cold start is a primordial reason of overconsumption, as the engine highest efficiency is at its optimal temperature. At cold start, the engine's oil is at its lowest temperature and thus its higher viscosity level. A high viscosity oil generates more friction, which is one of the most important heat losses in the engine. In this paper, hot oil storage is studied. Numerical simulations on GT-suite model were done. The model consists of a 4-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine using a storage volume of 1 liter of hot oil. Ambient temperature variation were taken into consideration as well as different driving cycles. Furthermore, different configurations of the thermal strategy (multifunction oil sump) were proposed and evaluated. Lubricant temperature and viscosity profiles are presented in the article as well as fuel consumption savings for different configurations, driving cycles and ambient temperatures.

  14. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  15. 添加胡萝卜、燕麦及葵花籽油替代猪背膘对低脂乳化肠品质的影响%Effect of adding carrots, oats sunflower oil on the quality of and replacing pork back fat with low-fat Emulsion-type sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 杜萍; 黄蔡伦; 王鹏; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    研究了添加胡萝卜、燕麦及用葵花籽油替代部分猪背膘对低脂乳化肠(脂肪添加量7%)质构特性、持水特性、色泽及感官品质的影响。单因素实验结果表明,添加胡萝1、10%、燕麦1%及葵花籽油替代动物脂肪50%可较好的改善低脂乳化肠的品质,乳化肠硬度、咀嚼性及弹性与对照组C(脂肪添加量20%)相比差异不显著(p〉0.05),持水特性及色泽也得到明显改善(p〈0.05).产品的感官评分与对照组C相比更令人满意。在单因素实验的基础上采用两因素(胡萝卜添加量、植物油替代率)三水平设计,进一步优化配方,结果表明,添加胡萝卜12.5%、燕麦1%及用葵花籽油替代猪背膘45%为最优配方,按照此配方生产出的低脂乳化肠恢复到对照组C的质构特性,产品的弹性及感官品质甚至优于对照组C..%The effect of adding carrots,oats and replacing pork back fat with sunflower oil on the textural properties, water-holding characteristics, color and sensory quality of low-fat (7% fat) Emulsion-type sausage were researched. The single factor experiment result showed that,adding 10% carrots,1% oats and 50% sunflower oil instead of animal fat could improve the quality of low-fat sausage well,there were not significant differences(p〉0.05) between the low-fat sausages and high-fat formula C(20% fat) on hardness,chewiness and flexibility,the water-holding characteristics were improved as well,the color and sensory quality of the products were more satisfactory compared with C. In order to optimize the formulation further,conduct two factors (carrot,vegetable oil) and three level completely random experiment based on the single factor experiment,the result showed that,adding 12.5% carrots, 1% oats and 45% sunflower oil instead of animal fats was the best formula,the low-fat Emulsion-type sausage produced by it,the textural properties reverted to

  16. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  17. 基于供给安全的我国石油进口来源地风险评价%Evaluation on Risk of China's Oil Import Source Based on Supply Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 陈俊华

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, energy security has become an important part of our national economic security. China has imported petroleum from many countries, so this paper establishes an evaluation index system according to the standpoint of energy security, which carries out quantitative evaluation on China’s 25 sources of petroleum import, results indicate that the average security degree of China's petroleum import sources is generally low, and those import sources with security level over the edge or of a high level concentrated in Africa, while those with low security level more concentrated in the Middle East and Latin America, and based on these aspects, and we propose such positive energy diplomacy as multiple sources of oil imports, the positive development of energy diplomacy, transportation mode diversification, improve maritime transport channel support measures to safe guard China's energy import safety.%随着我国经济的飞速发展,能源安全已经成为国家经济安全中的重要部分之一。我国石油进口来源地众多,本文从能源安全的角度建立了评估指标体系,对我国主要的25个石油进口来源地进行了量化评价,结果发现我国石油进口来源地平均安全度整体偏低,处于较安全等级的边缘、高安全度的进口来源地集中在非洲、安全度低的进口来源国多集中在中东和拉美地区,并在此基础上提出了石油进口来源多元化、积极发展能源外交、运输方式多样化、提高海上运输通道保障力等对策保障我国能源进口安全。

  18. China's Petroleum Imports and Exports in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2011-01-01

    @@ Net imports of crude oil, product oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and other oil products rose by 16.2% and hit a historic high of 253.7 million tons in 2010.Among these, net imports of crude oil reached 236.3 million tons, 93% of the total, and the growth rate was as high as 19.0% (see Fig.1).As the demand for oil products maintained a robust growth and the scale of oil refineries was expanded further, China's processing quantity of crude oil rose by 50 million tons in 2010, 13.4% higher than the figure in 2009.Sales of oil products were brisk, in particular diesel demand was increased suddenly in the fourth quarter of 2009.Therefore, China's apparent need (production + net imports) of seven kinds of main oil products including gasoline, kerosene, diesel, lubricant oil, fuel oil, LPG and chemical light oil was increased by 11.6% in 2010 (Table 1 and Table 2).

  19. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  20. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  1. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  2. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  3. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  4. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  5. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  6. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  7. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  9. The Effects of Dehulling on Physicochemical Properties of Seed Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varieties did not differ significantly in most of the properties except for ... Key words: Sunflower cultivar, seed oil, oil yield, dehulling, animal feed. ... cell, based on the expression (5R + Y) where R ..... Imported Edible Vegetable Oils and Fat.

  10. Peak oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, W. H. [W. H. Ziegler, Av. des Mousquines 40bis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campbell, C. J. [Stabbal Hill, Ballydehob, County Cork (Ireland); Zagar, J.J. [Four Blues, Schull, County Cork (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  11. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  12. Colostro fermentado, associado ao óleo de soja e promotor de crescimento, em substituição ao leite, na alimentação de bezerros mestiços leiteiros Effects of replacing milk with fermented colostrum, with or without soy oil and growth promoter for crossbred dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de 40 bezerros F1 Holandês x Gir com peso médio de 36 kg, provenientes de rebanhos leiteiros alimentados com leite integral ou colostro fermentado, associado ou não com óleo de soja, com ou sem promotor de crescimento (Zeranol. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, a circunferência torácica, altura de cernelha dos animais, o consumo de leite ou de colostro fermentado e o consumo de ração concentrada, entre o 15º e 60º dia de idade. A utilização de Zeranol não promoveu diferença no consumo de ração concentrada quando se utilizou leite integral. Os animais que receberam colostro fermentado mais promotor de crescimento apresentaram consumo de ração concentrada 44,23% maior que aqueles sem promotor de crescimento e 132% superior ao dos animais alimentados com leite integral e Zeranol. Para ganho de peso, não houve efeito entre as associações de óleo de soja e Zeranol. Os bezerros do tratamento com leite e Zeranol apresentaram maior altura de cernelha (-85,70 cm. A utilização de óleo de soja ou de Zeranol não influenciou a circunferência torácica (média de 88,19 cm. Os bezerros submetidos aos dois tipos de dieta líquida apresentaram taxa de crescimento constante e semelhante, demonstrando que o colostro fermentado é capaz de promover ganhos de peso da mesma magnitude que o leite integral.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of replacing milk with whole milk or fermented colostrum, supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without growth promoter (Zeranol on performance of 40 F1 Holstein x Gir calves averaging 36 kg. Weight gain, thoracic circumference, withers height and milk or fermented colostrums intake, and concentrated ration intake were the variables investigated from age 15 to 60 days. No significant difference on feed intake was observed when whole milk and Zeranol were fed. Feed intake of animals fed fermented colostrum with Zeranol increased by 44.23% than those

  13. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk.

  14. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  15. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  16. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  17. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  18. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2006, growth of oil supply in China slowed down and the growth rate of actual consumption was kept stable. Oil imports and apparent consumption increased rapidly, and the oil price went up to the historical records. In the future, growth of oil supply in China will still be restrained and oil import will remain a relatively high growth rate in the latter half of 2006.Compared to actual consumption, which will still be stabilized, the growth rate of apparent consumption will be higher. The oil price will linger at high-level.

  19. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  20. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Papaderakis; Ioanna Mintsouli; Jenia Georgieva; Sotiris Sotiropoulos

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases) hydrogen evolution too...

  1. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  2. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers.

  4. Balancing functional and nutritional quality of oils and fats: Current requirements and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bremt Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats play an important role in the structure, aroma and stability of a wide variety of food products, as well as in their nutritional properties. For Puratos, a producer of ingredients for bakery, patisserie and chocolate sector, functionality and taste are of utmost importance, but the company also wants to contribute to the balanced diet of consumers. Vegetable oils and fats are used in margarines and releasing agents, vegetable creams, compound chocolate, fillings and emulsifiers. Each application requires an oil or fat with specific physicochemical properties in order to ensure the optimal structure, stability and taste of the end product. Traditionally, (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils deliver important functional characteristics concerning crystallization behaviour, directly linked with the workability, melting properties, stability and mouth feel of the food product. However, due to negative nutritional implications, trans fats are to be replaced by healthier alternatives, preferably not by saturated fats. Consumers – and in some regions, legal instances – demand transfree or hydro-free products while not compromising on taste. Alternative fats and oils will be discussed concerning their functional and nutritional properties.

  5. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  6. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  7. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  8. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  9. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  10. Utilization of oleogels as a replacement for solid fat in aerated baked goods: Physicochemical, rheological, and tomographic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil-carnauba wax oleogels were evaluated as a replacement for shortening in a baked cake system. The use of oleogels produced cake batters with a lower pseudoplastic property and also contributed to their viscous nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels at up to 50% was effective in m...

  11. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  12. Oil Risks and Firm Attributes in Oil Share Prices: Empirical Evidence from Bursa Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Safian, Dayana

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the oil risks and firm attributes that could affect the share prices of oil and gas companies in Malaysia. Most of the studies conducted in regards to the oil and gas sector takes into account the contributing factors such as the condition of oil futures in NYMEX and focuses on prominent oil exporting and importing countries. In contrast, this paper empirically assesses the dynamics of global, national and company level factors that could influence the share p...

  13. Getting Over the Barrel- Achieving Independence from Foreign Oil in 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-03

    vegetable oil , animal fat, corn, soybeans, jatropha seed oil , palm oil , switch grass and even algae. Biofuel production techniques and technologies...hydrogen, nuclear, wind and solar) that can replace oil . Increase Biofuel Production. Biofuels can be produced from a wide array of sources: sugar cane...reducing oil dependency. However, these fuels are extremely viable; Brazil produced over 5 million gallons of sugar-cane based biofuel in 2007.55 The

  14. China's Two Oil Giants Halt Oil Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ CNPC, China's largest oil producer, and Sinopec, the nation's largest refiner expressed they would increase their oil processing and halt oil products exports in the third quarter to ensure domestic supply. Vice president of CNPC Wang Yilin said on June 2 that CNPC would stop oil products export and increase the imports to secure the domestic market supplies. Meanwhile, Sinopec President Wang Tianpu also said that Sinopec would raise production, halt exports and adjust product structure to ensure domestic supply, especially for the reconstruction after the earthquake, the summer harvest and the Olympic Games.

  15. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  16. Dietary Oil Source and Selenium Supplementation Modulate Fads2 and Elovl5 Transcriptional Levels in Liver and Brain of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brito, Francisca; Magnoni, Leonardo J; Fonseca, Sthelio Braga; Peixoto, Maria João; Castro, L Filipe C; Cunha, Isabel; de Almeida Ozório, Rodrigo Otávio; Magalhães, Fernando Antunes; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is taking on increasing importance in the aquaculture industry. In view of the limited supply of fish oil (FO) as a feed ingredient, the study of the capacity to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from alternative dietary oil sources is important. We analyzed changes in fatty acid (FA) desaturase 2 (fads2) and FA elongase 5 (elovl5) mRNA levels in livers and brains in response to FO replacement with a blend of vegetable oils (VO) and selenium (Se) supplementation. Fish were fed for 60 days with either a diet containing FO or a diet including VO, each supplemented or not with organic Se. Results showed that fads2 and elovl5 transcription was higher in liver when fish were fed VO diets. The brain mRNA levels of both genes were not affected by the dietary replacement of FO by VO. FA composition in the liver and skeletal muscle was altered by FO replacement, particularly by decreasing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. The α-linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid contents increased in both liver and brain of fish fed VO diets. The effect of Se supplementation on lipid metabolism was evident only in fish fed FO, showing a decrease in the transcription of hepatic fads2. Results indicate that the total replacement of FO by VO in diets modulates the expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in meagre, affecting the FA profile of the fish flesh.

  17. Stability Emulsion and Sensory Characteristics Low Fat Mayonnaise Using Kefir as Emulsifier Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mayonnaise is a kind of semi solid oil in water (o/w emulsion which containing pasteurized egg yolk as an emulsifier. The consumers have demanded that the use of egg yolk be reduced. Kefir was used to develop a low fat mayonnaise as emulsifier replacer to egg yolk. The objective of this research was to observe the emulsion stability, sensory characteristics of low fat mayonnaise prepare during kefir as emulsifier replacer. The research method was using experimental design. The result showed that formulation of low fat mayonnaise by using Rice bran oil 40%, kefir 20% produces the optimal low fat mayonnaise in emulsion stability and accepted by the panelist.

  18. Knee Replacement: What you can Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves function lessen with each additional surgery. Artificial knees can wear out Another risk of knee replacement ... replacement surgery to last about two hours. After knee replacement surgery After surgery, you're wheeled to ...

  19. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed a total of 28 compounds, representing 97.1 % of the EO. The major constituents were carvacrol (48.2 %) and thymol (16.6 %). The EO was toxic effect to the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae, with LC50 of 61.65, 67.13, 72.45, and 78.87 μg/ml, respectively. Complete ovicidal activity was observed at 160, 200, 240, and 280 μg/ml, respectively. Against adult mosquitoes, LD50 were 122.38, 134.39, 144.53, and 158.87 μg/ml, respectively. In repellency assays, the EOs tested at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration of O. scabrum gave 100 % protection from mosquito bites up to 210, 180, 150, and 120 min, respectively. From an eco-toxicological point of view, the EO was tested on three non-target mosquito predators, Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri, with LC50 ranging from 4162 to 12,425 μg/ml. Overall, the EO from O. scabrum may be considered as a low-cost and eco-friendly source of phytochemicals to develop novel repellents against Culicidae.

  1. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  2. COSCO Calls for Boost of China's Oil Fleet Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dalian Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO Dalian)said recently that China should strengthen its maritime oil transport capacity to ensure the security of China's oil supply. Meng Qinglin, Managing Director of COSCO Dalian, said at the 2006 China Oil and Gas Summit that with the rise of China's oil imports, the weak maritime oil transport capacity has become a major threat to China's oil supply security.

  3. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  4. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  5. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  6. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J

    2017-09-15

    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  11. Oil Products Quality Improvement by Adsorption Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulash K. Syrmanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum takes the leading place in fuel and energy sector. It is a basis of fuel and energy balance of advanced countries economics. Light oil proven reserves reducing is a general trend of modern oil industry development. Almost the entire increase in reserves is due to viscous heavy sour oil [1-2]. Nowadays quality of the most important oil products is a crucial problem in refinery industry. The problem of oil products quality is connected with their using and operation in engines and machines. Requirements increasing to stability and effective technics maintenance leads to oil products running abilities significant hardening. In order to protect the environment, the task to obtain oil products with improved environmental properties was assigned. Properties of the oil determine the direction and condition of its processing and directly affect the quality of the oil products [3-4].

  12. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  13. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  14. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  15. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  16. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  17. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  18. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  19. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  20. Several important issues about current oil and gas exploration in China%关于中国当前油气勘探的几个重要问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾承造

    2012-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand for oil and gas is widening, yet exploration situation is severe in China. From the current situation of oil and gas exploration, this paper focuses on the analysis of global oil and gas exploration trend, current challenges of China's oil and gas exploration, basic problems of unconventional oil and gas exploration, as well as current oil and gas exploration theory and key issues. Global oil and gas exploration area is no longer limited by the degree of exploration, and gradually follows the trend of shifting to deep water, deep formation, unconventional, arctic area and other newly developed areas. China's key oil and gas bearing basins gradually enter the intensive oil and gas exploration, featuring that exploration depth increases, target reservoirs are more subtle, physical properties of reservoir are worse and technical difficulties of oil and gas exploration development engineering are gradually greater. Overseas oil and gas exploration development strategy of China's energy enterprises is faced with a number of challenges such as difficult block acquisition, political risk increase, higher requirements for exploration technology and so on. Geological theory and resource assessment of unconventional oil and gas and other core technologies require more researches. Borehole, fracturing and other key development technologies need to strengthen field test research. Under the guidance of new geological theory for oil and gas exploration, the paper highlights to explain 9 bottleneck problems, such as the whole process model of organic hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation in the actual geological conditions, the evaluation on petroleum resource potential in the basins undergoing the tectonic transformation, pore throat structure and hydrocarbon percolation mechanism for the low permeability-tight reservoirs, hydrocarbon formation conditions and exploration direction of the large-size lithostratigraphic

  1. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  2. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  3. 49 CFR 551.49 - May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent? 551... Foreign Manufacturers and Importers Designation of An Agent for Service of Process § 551.49 May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent? (a) Yes, a foreign manufacturer may replace its agent in the same way...

  4. Study of corrosive effect of oil in super duplex stainless steels; Estudo do efeito corrosivo do petroleo em acos super duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, E.F.; Azambuja, V.M. [IFES, Coordenadoria de Metalurgia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Santos, D.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The super duplex stainless steel was exposed in an environment at 75 degree C with oil for days, weeks and month to observe the change in mass. The corrosion leads to loss of weight of material which could harm the economy of a company, as this will have to stop production to replace the corroded part. Hence the great importance of studies on ways to mitigate the corrosion. There was a chemical attack by the reagent Behara and testing to study the quality of the protective coating after the tests with oil by electrochemical impedance. (author)

  5. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  6. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  7. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  8. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzherbert, E.B.; Struebig, M.J.; Morel, A.; Danielsen, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Phalan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Oil palm plantations support substantially less biodiversity than natural forest or even other tree crops. Because regions with favorable conditions for oil palm plantations tend to be areas of critical importance for biodiversity, the rising international demand for vegetable oils and biofuels could prompt further wide-scale tropical deforestation and large losses of bi...

  9. China Likely to Resume Oil Futures Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tianle

    2002-01-01

    @@ China is likely to resume operation of its oil futures this year, according to reports from the media about a futures conference organized by the Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) in late May. "As China has become an important oil producer and consumer,the demand for our own oil futures market emerges,which will help China oil-related enterprises hedge risks," said Li Ruisheng, vice president of PetroChina's refining and marketing company.

  10. Renal Replacement Therapy in Support of Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    was used to create viable sets; pediatric chest tubes were used as PD catheters and dialysate was made using either intravenous saline solution with...important logistic factor in performing RRT is the volume of fluid required for dialysate (for hemodi- alysis and peritoneal dialysis) or replace- ment...treatment may range on the order of 100 to 1000 L per day per patient. Both the dialysate and replacement fluid must be sterile, and no approach for

  11. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  12. Determination of Oil Life for Crane Liebherr LHM 500g Model 301 by Oil Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Salami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to choose and investigate the best oil replacement time by oil condition monitoring for crane Liebherr LHM 500G model 301 that works near the sea in marine company. This was achieved by investigating different oil sam ple analyses of crane Liebherr LHM 500G model 301. The oil analysis was initially run under regular interval during machines life. Some series of tests were then conducted under the operating hours of machine. Oil samples were regularly collected. Numerical data produced by oil analysis were compared with another sample, in order to quantify the effectiveness of the results of oil condition monitoring technique. The results from this paper have given more understanding on the dependent and independent roles of oil analysis in predicting which oil is more suitable for working machine condition. According to the results, the oil used in this crane can be used more than 130 h and the best oil running time is 160 h.

  13. Synthesize and application of the oil-soluble viscosity reducer in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhihong, Zhang; Yun, Huang [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Kai, Chao [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    When viscosity reducer is added to crude oil, it breaks its original structure and reduces oil viscosity. A polybasic copolymer oil-soluble viscosity reducer of heavy oil was synthesized by using the orthogonal method. Infrared spectra (IR) and interfacial tensions of heavy oil with or without viscosity reducer were investigated. The synthetic viscosity reducer was added to a biphasic heavy oil/water solution, and the interfacial tension between the oil and the water was measured. The interfacial tension was significantly lower than the interfacial tension of a heavy oil/water solution without the viscosity reducer. It was observed that the viscosity reducer spread from the oil phase to the oil-water interface; it could replace macromolecular active substances of the oil-water interface so that a new interfacial film could be formed, thus reducing the interfacial tension. This synthetic viscosity reducer is more efficient than commercialy available viscosity reducers; its viscosity reduction rate is up to 95.47% at 50 degree Celsius.

  14. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  15. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  16. Spillover effects of oil price shocks across stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhan Jian; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    Oil price shock can impose detrimental effects to an economy. In this study, we empirically study the spillover effects of oil price shock on determining volatilities of stock markets across the main oil importing and oil producing countries. In particular, we are interested to compare the relative impact of oil price shock on the volatilities of stock markets and how each stock market reacts to oil price shock for oil importing and oil producing countries. We focus the study in four main oil importer and four oil producers respectively using the daily data starting from January 2009 to December 2013. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied for the purpose of this study. The results of the study suggest that there exist spillover effect between crude oil price and stock returns for all the countries. The short run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is lower than oil-importing countries but the long run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is higher than oil-importing countries. In general the short run persistency is smaller and the long run persistency is very high. The results hold for volatility of oil price and stock returns and also spillover volatility in all countries.

  17. Analysis of China's Petroleum Import and Export%Analysis of China's Petroleum Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kang; Lu Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has become a net importer of petroleum (including crude and refined oil). The new century has seen the country more dependent upon imported oil at a higher price. This has drew attention both from abroad and domestic. This article tries to analyze the factors that affect the volume of import, the influence of import upon the economy development and energy security and deal with issues concerning the ever- increasing imported gas and oil in the future.

  18. Reducing US Oil Dependence Using Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Fadi; Arnaout, Georges M.

    2011-01-01

    People across the world are addicted to oil; as a result, the instability of oil prices and the shortage of oil reserves have influenced human behaviors and global businesses. Today, the United States makes up only 5% of the global population but consumes 25% of the. world total energy. Most of this energy is generated from fossil fuels in the form of electricity. The contribution of this paper is to examine the possibilities of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energies to generate electricity as well as to examine other methods to reduce oil and gas consumption. We propose a system dynamics model in an attempt to predict the future US dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy resources such as, nuclear, wind, solar, and hydro powers. Based on the findings of our model, the study expects to provide insights towards promising solutions of the oil dependency problem.

  19. Advanced Sorbents for Oil-Spill Cleanup: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Huang, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Oil sorbents play a very important part in the remediation processes of oil spills. To enhance the oil-sorption properties and simplify the oil-recovery process, various advanced oil sorbents and oil-collecting devices based on them have been proposed recently. Here, we firstly discuss the design considerations for the fabrication of oil sorbents and describe recently developed oil sorbents based on modification strategy. Then, recent advances regarding oil sorbents mainly based on carbon materials and swellable oleophilic polymers are also presented. Subsequently, some additional properties are emphasized, which are required by oil sorbents to cope with oil spills under extreme conditions or to facilitate the oil-collection processes. Furthermore, some oil-collection devices based on oil sorbents that have been developed recently are shown. Finally, an outlook and challenges for the next generation of oil-spill-remediation technology based on oil-sorbents materials are given.

  20. A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in feed. As several kilograms of plant protein are needed to obtain one kilogram of animal protein, the interest toward using plant protein in food is reinforced. The developments of the use of plant lipids, as well as proteins are a major stakes for the competitiveness of European agriculture and industry, as well as for sustainable development. Extraction of oil and proteins from rapeseed has a significant cost, in term of energy and solvent uses, and finally affects the ultimate quality of the products (protein digestibility. In order to quantitatively extract seed reserves under mild conditions, it will be necessary to limit the amount of energy needed, and avoid any use of solvents. Ideally, seeds should be processed in a bio refinery. In this paper, we will describe how oilseeds store their reserves, and roadblocks for improving actual oilseed extraction processes. A continuum of research projects aimed at answering targeted questions will be presented, with selected

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  2. Saturated fatty acids, palm oil and cardiovascular health – where do we stand today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Khosla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For  almost  sixty years dietary fat  has  been  the  focal  point  for reducing the risk  from  coronary  heart  disease (CHD.  With  evidence  based  largely on  animal  and  observational  studies documenting that  saturated fatty acids (SFA  increase LDL-C (with the latter being associated with increased CHD risk, the notion that SFA increased CHD, became etched in folklore. As a consequence,   decreasing   SFA   to   <10%   of   total   calories,   became   the corner-stone   of   global   dietary recommendations. Ironically, the fact that SFA increased the large buoyant LDL particles (as opposed to small-dense atherogenic LDL particles, or that they increased the cardio-protective HDL-C and in some instances, lowered the atherogenic Lp(a, went largely unnoticed. However a spate of studies starting in 2009 has dramatically challenged our thinking on the “widely accepted” role of SFA.  Twenty year follow up data from prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that only two classes of fatty acids affect CHD risk, namely trans monounsaturated fatty acids (resulting principally from the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA – which increase and decrease risk, respectively. These studies suggested that when  replacing/removing  SFA   from  the  diet,  the  replacement  nutrient  may  be  as important. Thus SFA replacement with PUFA may provide small benefits, but the replacement represents a dramatic shift in dietary regimen. The effects of replacing SFA with MUFA were inconclusive. If SFA are replaced with carbohydrates, then the quality of the carbohydrate (as measured by the glycemic index is also important. Earlier this year, a highly publicized study found no benefit on CHD even when SFA were replaced by PUFA, and questioned the usefulness of this public health message. The data on SFA has had a profound effect on the perceived role of

  3. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  4. Chemical enhanced recovery of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soveran, D.W.; Scoular, R.J.; Kurucz, L.; Renouf, G.; Verkoczy, B. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    A unique chemical/emulsion enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process was laboratory tested to determine its suitability for field demonstration purposes in 3 heavy oil reservoirs in the Lloydminster area of Saskatchewan. The promising chemical agents for the process were identified and optimized. The 3 reservoirs selected represented a cross-section of crude oil qualities typical for the region. The ultimate objective was to develop a process to replace waterflooding as the standard for post-primary production. Several modified core screening tests were conducted to formulate a chemical mixture for the lowest viscosity crude oil. This proved to be the best candidate among the 3 reservoirs. The mixture resulted in additional oil recovery of 26 per cent original oil in place, which is better than a typical waterflood. Two conventional core displacement tests confirmed the success of the modified core flood method. A new polymer was then used in combination with the new coreflood method to produce an additional oil recovery of 30 per cent. Laboratory studies indicate that the lowest viscosity crude oil field is a good candidate for the chemical EOR field study. Results show that the method can recover even the most highly viscous crude oil at a cost below C$10 per barrel. The field shows good potential for chemical EOR even though produced water from the reservoir formed heavy precipitate. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  6. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  7. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  8. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P.0.05), FCR or SGR (P.0.05) despite......Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific...... growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient...

  9. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-22

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content.

  10. Palm oil as a sustainable energy alternative in degraded areas of the Amazon region; O dende como alternativa energetica sustentavel em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Alberto Arruda

    2009-02-15

    Bio fuels are important tools in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG); however, to minimize the conflict with food crops, energy crops with high efficiency and capacity to absorb Co2, such as the oil palm, should be prioritized. The European Union intends to replace 10% of liquid fossil fuel demand with bio fuels by 2020. According to studies conducted by the European Commission, this will entail the annual import of more than 3 million tonnes of palm oil, the most produced and least expensive vegetable oil in the world. 87% of global production comes from Indonesia and Malaysia, where the relentless expansion of oil palm cultivation has caused extensive forest devastation, threatening biodiversity and increasing GHG emissions. The Netherlands, a large importer of oil palm products, developed a methodology (Cramer) for the certification of sustainable bio energy production, assessing economic, social, environmental aspects, as well as GHG emissions, throughout the supply chain. It sets a mandatory minimum 30% reduction of GHG emissions in the bio-energy chain for use in transport and 70% for use in heat and power generation, as compared to the chain of the fossil counterpart. This dissertation shows that oil and bio diesel (ethyl ester) from palm grown in the Amazon meets this GHG mitigation criterion when degraded areas are utilized for cultivation, but not when forests are razed for that purpose. (author)

  11. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  12. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  13. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  14. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  15. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1999-04-01

    Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important.

  16. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats.

  17. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  18. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  19. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  20. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  1. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... % and replaced by a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape in the proportion of 1:1:0.7. In the last two diets, the inclusion of fish oil was reduced by 50 and 100 %, respectively and replaced by flax seed oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. Digestibility was measured directly using a modified, flow....... The results indicate that a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape may partially replace fish meal, and flax seed oil may replace fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout without compromising growth performance and feed utilization....

  2. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  3. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  4. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  5. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  6. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  7. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  8. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  9. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation.

  10. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmia, B.; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Sidek, L. M.; Hidayah, B.

    2013-06-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  11. [Proximal and total femur replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, P H; Wirtz, D C; Dürr, H R

    2012-07-01

    Reconstruction of segmental bone defects of the proximal femur following wide tumor resection or revision arthroplasty. Aggressive benign or primary malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur; destructive metastases; massive segmental bone defects of the proximal femur; periprosthetic fractures. Local infection; very short life expectancy (acetabular bone stock. Anterolateral approach. Exposure and detachment of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius muscle from the proximal femur with a sufficient safety margin to the bone; distal transsection of the vastus lateralis/intermedius and rectus femoris muscle according to the extraosseous tumor extension; distal femur osteotomy al least 3 cm beyond the farthest point of tumor extension; in case of total femur replacement, additional lateral arthrotomy of the knee with resection of the ligaments and menisci; reaming of the medullary canal after securing the shaft with a Verbrugge clamp; trial assembly and reduction followed by the definitive implantation of the prosthesis with adjustment of the femoral neck anteversion in 5° increments; soft tissue reconstruction and fixation to an attachment tube covering the prosthesis; in case of total femur replacement, the preparation of the tibia is followed by the coupling of the tibial and femoral components. Infection prophylaxis, 20 kg partial weight bearing, continuous passive motion. A total of 20  patients with proximal femur replacement and 2 patients with total femur replacement implanted between June 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had primary malignant bone tumors, while 19 patients underwent resection for metastatic disease. The mean age at surgery was 62.0 ± 18.1 years (18-82 years). Fifteen patients with a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17.2 months (4-51 months) were studied. Among the 22 cases, periprosthetic infection occurred in 3 patients (13.6%), dislocation in 2 patients (9.1%). Evaluation of the functional

  12. Potential use of organogels to replace animal fat in comminuted meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A

    2016-12-01

    The replacement of beef fat (BF) with regular or structured canola oil [organogel produced with ethylcellulose (EC) 0.0%, 1.5% or 3.0% sorbitan monostearate (SMS)] was conducted in frankfurters. Substitution with regular oil doubled the hardness of the frankfurters relative to BF. Using an organogel prepared with 8% EC and 1.5 or 3.0% SMS resulted in a hardness value similar to that of BF, by both sensory and texture profile analysis. Without SMS addition, sensory results showed (Poil but still higher than BF. Gels prepared using higher EC concentrations (12 and 14%) yielded meat products with a higher sensory hardness than BF (Poil based frankfurters had very small fat globules compared to BF, but structuring the oil yielded larger fat globules. Color measurements indicated that oil-containing frankfurters were lighter than the ones with BF. Smokehouse yields were generally higher for canola oil and organogel containing treatments compared to the beef fat treatment. When SMS was included, fat losses increased over the canola oil treatment. The results demonstrate the possibility to use organogels to replace beef fat and depending on the formulation to manipulate textural properties to resemble traditional products but with lower saturated fat content.

  13. Research in Daqing Oil Field Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Measures%大庆油田节能减排措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛思维; 林海洋; 周立娇

    2015-01-01

    石油作为我国一种极为重要的战略性资源,需要对其进行高效的利用。文章对于如何在石油集输的过程当中有效实验节能减排这一目标,提供了集中途径。主要的方法有:使用重油以取代原油,达到能源充分利用的目的;采用热电厂产生的余热蒸汽来替代原油,以达到能源的跨行业使用,最终达到节约能源的目的;采用含硫较低的煤层气以取代原油,达到能源使用的优化以及降低有害气体排放的目标。%The oil as a kind of extremely important strategic resources in our country,the need to be efficient use.Articles about how to energy conservation and emissions reduction in oil gathering and transferring process of effective experiment that goal,provides a centralized way.Main methods are:using crude oil to replace oil,achieve the goal of energy make full use of;Using waste heat steam generated by thermal power plants to replace crude oil,in order to achieve energy used across,ultimately achieve the goal of energy saving;Using low sulfur coal bed methane to replace crude oil,optimize the energy use and reduce harmful gas emissions.

  14. Comparison between jojoba oil and other vegetable oils as a substitute to petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kinawy, O. [National Research centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-06-15

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity--temperature and shear rate--shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils' stability was studied and the corresponding parameters were also measured. Jojoba oil was found to be the best among all tested oils, whereas it gave the minimum change in viscosity gradient and hence the highest viscosity index. There was a linear relation between shear rate and shear stress of all oils before and after heat deterioration. Therefore, these oils were considered as Newtonion liquids. However, the oil viscosity, as well as the rate of viscosity variation with temperature, ({delta}{sup '}{eta}/{delta}{tau}) were affected by heat deterioration being lowered in value, in case of jojoba oil, and higher value, in case of castor oil. Jojoba oil was examined for other important properties for its use as a lubricant, such as refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, flash, fire and pour points. (author)

  15. [Imported histoplasmosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stete, Katarina; Kern, Winfried V; Rieg, Siegbert; Serr, Annerose; Maurer, Christian; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are rare in Germany, and mostly imported from endemic areas. Infections can present as localized or disseminated diseases in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent hosts. A travel history may be a major clue for diagnosing histoplasmosis. Diagnostic tools include histology, cultural and molecular detection as well as serology. Here we present four cases of patients diagnosed and treated in Freiburg between 2004 and 2013 that demonstrate the broad range of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis: an immunocompetent patient with chronic basal meningitis; a patient with HIV infection and fatal disseminated disease; a patient with pulmonary and cutaneous disease and mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy; and an immunosuppressed patient with disseminated involvement of lung, bone marrow and adrenal glands.

  16. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  17. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  18. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  19. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  20. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  1. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  2. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Kobilka, Brian K., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Weis, William I., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford University, Fairchild Building, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described in detail. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of integral membrane proteins involved in regulating virtually every aspect of human physiology. Despite their profound importance in human health and disease, structural information regarding GPCRs has been extremely limited until recently. With the advent of a variety of new biochemical and crystallographic techniques, the structural biology of GPCRs has advanced rapidly, offering key molecular insights into GPCR activation and signal transduction. To date, almost all GPCR structures have been solved using molecular-replacement techniques. Here, the unique aspects of molecular replacement as applied to individual GPCRs and to signaling complexes of these important proteins are discussed.

  3. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field...... experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  4. Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2012-06-26

    Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

  5. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  6. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Development of geothermal energy in any capacity is a positive step toward a sustainable energy future. The resource is enormous and has the capacity to supply most future demand for electrical power if technology can meet some substantial challenges. Electrical power from geothermal energy has several compelling characteristics: a small footprint, low emissions, continuous availability, and sustainability. However, a common perception of geothermal energy is that it is available only in a few isolated localities and thus cannot contribute significantly to future electrical power needs. This perception neglects the stored thermal energy available everywhere in the upper 10 km of Earth’s crust. We are investigating the potential for power production in oil-producing sedimentary basins where subsurface temperatures are sufficient for intermediate geothermal resources (90 °C -150 °C) at depths greater than 3 km. Existing estimates of geothermal energy stored at depth in sedimentary formations in the U.S. have been based only on a few aquifers and have not included the greater volume of fluids in oil-bearing formations. We reevaluated the accessible geothermal resource base for the north central US and found that including geothermal fluids in oil-producing formations increased the resource estimate by a factor of eight. Preliminary analysis of other basins indicates that the current estimate of thermal energy in the U.S. (100,000 EJ) may be of the order of 400,000 EJ. This is particularly significant due to recent technological advances leading to commercialization of scalable organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines. Until recently, ORC systems were available only on an at large scale, i.e., 10s of MW, and had efficiencies of about 10 percent. Currently there are at least five manufacturers making scalable ORC systems in the 50 kW to 1 MW range, and at least one system has an efficiency of about 17 percent and is expected to attain an efficiency in the low 20s as it

  7. Coconut oil on biochemical and morphological parameters in rats submitted to normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Oliveira Schumacher

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of replacing soybean oil with extra virgin coconut oil in normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets, on the lipid metabolism of Wistar rats. In the first stage of the experiment (30 days, 36 rats were divided into 2 groups and fed with a control or a hyperlipidic diet. Six animals from each group were then killed, and the remaining rats were redistributed into 4 new groups: 2 groups remained on the control and hyperlipidic diets, and in the diets of the other 2 groups, the soybean oil was replaced with coconut oil (30 days. At the end of the assay, the biological models were decapitated for blood collection and removal of organs and peritoneal fat. Although the diet intake differed among groups during both stages of the experiment, no differences were noted with regard to weight gain and peritoneal fat. Replacing soybean oil with coconut oil in the rat diet lowered triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein serum concentrations in both groups. Liver parameters, namely, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols, increased with the substitution of soybean oil by coconut oil in the normolipidic diet and decreased in the hyperlipidic diet. Thus, replacing soybean oil by coconut oil may improve serum and liver lipid levels in Wistar rats.

  8. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  9. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has been heralded as a "game changer" in the struggle to meet America's demand for energy. The "Pickens Plan" of Texas oil and gas pioneer T.Boone Pickens suggests that gas can replace coal for much of U.S. electricity generation, and oil for, at least, truck transportation1. Industry lobby groups such as ANGA declare "that the dream of clean, abundant, home grown energy is now reality"2. In Canada, politicians in British Columbia are racing to export the virtual bounty of shale gas via LNG to Asia (despite the fact that Canadian gas production is down 16 percent from its 2001 peak). And the EIA has forecast that the U.S. will become a net exporter of gas by 20213. Similarly, recent reports from Citigroup and Harvard suggest that an oil glut is on the horizon thanks in part to the application of fracking technology to formerly inaccessible low permeability tight oil plays. The fundamentals of well costs and declines belie this optimism. Shale gas is expensive gas. In the early days it was declared that "continuous plays" like shale gas were "manufacturing operations", and that geology didn't matter. One could drill a well anywhere, it was suggested, and expect consistent production. Unfortunately, Mother Nature always has the last word, and inevitably the vast expanses of purported potential shale gas resources contracted to "core" areas, where geological conditions were optimal. The cost to produce shale gas ranges from 4.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) to 10.00, depending on the play. Natural gas production is a story about declines which now amount to 32% per year in the U.S. So 22 billion cubic feet per day of production now has to be replaced each year to keep overall production flat. At current prices of 2.50/mcf, industry is short about 50 billion per year in cash flow to make this happen4. As a result I expect falling production and rising prices in the near to medium term. Similarly, tight oil plays in North Dakota and Texas have been heralded

  10. New Results from Sinopec's Marine Facies Oil and Gas Exploration——With great potential, China's oil and gas reserves of marine facie are important strategic oil and gas replacement area%中国石化海相油气勘探新成果及启示——中国海相层系油气资源潜力大,是重要的油气资源战略接替领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金之钧

    2007-01-01

    自20世纪50年代四川石油勘探会战以来,海相碳酸盐岩的油气勘探虽远不如陆相盆地成就显赫,但也时有发现。四川盆地1958年11月川中会战,标志着我国海相碳酸盐岩层系勘探的开始;1964年发现了威远震旦系气田,探明天然气储量达400亿m3;1989年发现五百梯石炭系气田,探明天然气储量达650亿m3;

  11. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  12. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  13. Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

  14. China's imports Up 15 Percent in 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the latest statistical figure released from China Customs, China's total imports rose 15 percent in 2002 as compared to the previous year. The spending for China's crude oil import rose 9.4 percent to 12.757 billion yuan in 2002 while the importing volume of oil products dropped 4.9 percent to 20.34

  15. The cost of standing strong for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katy

    2015-03-01

    The testimonies of these individuals largely speak for themselves. The responses point to the importance of specific institutions or research groups that focus on the development and use of alternatives, and these should, of course, be better supported. Those who find themselves outside such institutions or teams, are more likely to feel stranded and isolated. Then again, Liz did have the support of a research group dedicated to replacement, but she has still had a significant struggle to find funding. The interviews with some of these particular young researchers indeed pointed toward a tangible ‘cost’ in terms of having to steer their career on the often difficult path toward the use of non-animal based methods.

  16. OPTIMUM ORDERING POLICY FOR PREVENTIVE AGE REPLACEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN

    2009-01-01

    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  17. Characterization of Fatty Acid Profile of Argan Oil and Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Gas Chromatography and Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Rueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin argan oil is an emergent oil that is being introduced into specialized international markets as a healthy and luxury food. In order to compare the fatty acid composition of argan oil with that of the eleven other vegetable edible oils, a combination of gas chromatography as analytical technique and multivariate discriminant analysis was applied. This analysis takes into account the conjoint effect of all the variables analyzed in the discrimination between oils and also shows the contribution of each variable to oils characterization. The model correctly classified 100% oil samples. According to the fatty acid composition, argan oil showed closest similarity firstly with sesame oil and secondly with high oleic sunflower oil. Olive oil was close to avocado oil and almond oil, followed by argan oil. Thus, similarities and differences between vegetable oils based on their fatty acid profile were established by the application of multivariate discriminant analysis. This method was proven to be a useful tool to study the relationships between oils according to the fat composition and to determine the importance of the fatty acid variables on the oils classification.

  18. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  19. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  20. Role of dispersion in fuel oil bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.; Gibson, C.I.; Moore, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods of oil-seawater contact were used to measure aqueous phase concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and the resulting mortality of shrimp, PANDALUS DANAE. Oil--water entry methods included: (1) separate inflow below the water surface, (2) mixture inflow above the water surface, and (3) separate inflow above the water surface. The importance of standardizing the conditions under which oil and water are mixed prior to use in bioassay studies and the amount of dispersion that occurs during the exposure period was noted. Under the three sets of mixing conditions, identical volumes of oil and water resulted in significant differences in observed mortality and measured amounts of oil in the water column, as either total or soluble oil.

  1. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  2. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  3. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  4. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  5. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  6. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our

  7. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our st

  8. Leptin replacement improves cognitive development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto J Paz-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY: A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105 was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS, a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828.

  9. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens Propriedades antibacterianas in vitro de óleos essenciais de thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus e laurus nobilis contra cinco importantes bactérias patogênicas veiculadas por alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.Diversos óleos essenciais de plantas condimentares e medicinais possuem atividade antimicrobiana comprovada, sendo de grande interesse para a indústria de alimentos. Dessa forma, as Concentrações Mínimas Inibitórias (CMI desses óleos para diversas bactérias devem ser determinadas. As CMI variam de acordo com o óleo utilizado, dos compostos majoritários e da fisiologia da bactéria em estudo. Na presente pesquisa, os óleos essenciais das plantas Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão e Laurus nobilis (louro foram quantificados quimicamente e determinou-se a CMI sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia. coli

  11. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  12. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects.

  13. Variability of essential oil content of Mentha L. taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Neugebauerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of genus Mentha L. can be described like herbs with many possibilities to use in industry and pharmacology. The most important product is essential oil. For commercially cultivating of species Mentha L. is variability of essential oil content very important characteristic. Variability of essential oil yield of twelve different taxa were monitored for four years. Essential oils were obtained via hydro-distillation and expressed as ml/kg. The highest variability of essential oil content during monitored period showed sample Pulegium vulgare and the lowest variability of essential oil content showed Mentha spicata.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  15. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis ... observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the ... changing oil prices on stock prices and exchange rates an important guide to.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LACPREENE

    2012-08-12

    Aug 12, 2012 ... The chemical composition of C. ladanifer essential oil was characterized by high ... Analysis of essential oils was carried out by GC–MS using a .... with literature shows important qualitative and quantita- tive differences in ...

  17. Problems Associated with Declining National Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of peak oil production have focussed on the global impacts of declining production. Meanwhile, national oil production has declined in 20 countries, leading to local problems that receive little comment outside of the effected regions. Two problems deserve wider recognition: declining state revenues and fuel substitution. Most oil producing countries with large reserves adopted licensing practices that provide significant revenues to the host governments such that oil revenues generate from 40 to 80 percent of total government funds. Typically these governments allocate a fraction of this revenue to their state oil companies, utilizing the remainder for other activities. As oil revenues decline with falling production, host governments face a dilemma: either to increase state oil company budgets in order to stem the decline, or to starve the state oil company while maintaining other government programs. The declining oil revenues in these states can significantly reduce the government's ability to address important national issues. Mexico, Indonesia, and Yemen illustrate this situation in its early phases. Fuel substitution occurs whenever one fuel proves less expensive than another. The substitution of coal for wood in the eighteenth century and oil for coal in the twentieth century are classic examples. China and India appear to be at peak oil production, while their economies generate increasing demand for energy. Both countries are substituting coal and natural gas for oil with attendant environmental impacts. Coal-to-liquids projects are proposed in in both China, which will require significant water resources if they are executed. These examples suggest that forecasting the impact of peak oil at a regional level requires more than an assessment of proven-probable-possible reserves and a forecast of supply-demand scenarios. A range of government responses to declining oil income scenarios must also be considered, together with scenarios describing

  18. Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Vivian Y

    2017-07-13

    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).

  19. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  20. Polygenetic Aspect of Unit Theory Oil Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of a unified theory Oil Generation one of important moments is the consideration of the distribution of oil in the Earth's Crust. Analysis of the distribution of oil deposits in the Earth's Crust showed that oil distributed throughout the stratigraphic section from ancient to modern sediments and from a depth of 12 kilometers to the Earth's surface. The distribution of oil almost meets all stages of metamorphism of rocks. Correlation of the section of oil distribution to genetic types of ore deposits showed that each genetic type ore deposits has its analogue oil field . So it is possible to classify oil fields on 1) endogenous: the actual magmatic, post-magmatic, contact-metasomatic (skarn), hydrothermal, exhalation, carbonatite, pegmatite, 2) exogenous: weathering, oxidation, sedimentary,3) metamorphogenic: metamorphosed, metamorphic. Model of such distribution of oil deposits can be a process of successive formation of oil deposits of mantle degassing tube. Thus oil is polygenic by way of formation of deposits, but their source is united.

  1. Chimney technique for mitral valve replacement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rocafort, Álvaro; Aroca, Ángel; Polo, Luz; Rey, Juvenal; Villagrá, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Severe mitral stenosis is unusual in children, but it represents an important challenge for surgeons because of the scarcity of solutions. Several mitral percutaneous and surgical valvuloplasties are performed repetitively to delay mitral valve replacement. Most of the time these procedures show discouraging results. When mitral valve replacement is performed, the annulus may not be large enough to fit a substitute. We present, to our best knowledge, a new technique to implant a large prosthesis in a small annulus without negatively affecting the opening of the leaflets.

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Séverine Derbré; Patricia Licznar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

  3. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  4. Alternative radionuclides for using in oil exploratory tools - PIG TAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Robson da Costa; Estrada, Julio Jose da Silva, E-mail: jestrada@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Pinho, Adaugoberto Soares de; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.br, E-mail: soares@ird.gov.br, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ionizing radiations are present from prospecting to production of oil or gas, using a variety of techniques with radioactive sources. The radioactive tracer (pip tag) is a technique in which is placed a mark in different depths of the well that is being profiled. This marker is done generally with gamma emitter {sup 60}Co which activity until 74 kBq (2 {mu}Ci). The purpose of this marker is to identify places of interest of investigations or where will be blast the rock that has been identified as potential hydrocarbon deposits. Currently, these radioactive markers are obtained in the international market in the form of metallic solid sources. However, there are some difficulties in the importation of material, ranging from the permission by the regulatory organization (CNEN) to the customs costs, through the attendance criteria set out in international and national standards related to the transport of radioactive material. These import processes, therefore, involve high costs and delays in having the products. This work aims to develop a methodology that makes possible the preparation of alternative radioactive sources in the country in order to supply the growing demand for this market in a shorter time and with less cost. For this purpose, are being evaluated not only the appropriate support for the markers as well as the possibility of replacement {sup 60}Co by other radionuclides that can perform the same functional properly. This replacement will be based on technical parameters such as energy, half-life, and activity and emission intensity, according to the characteristics of each radionuclide to be evaluated. The production of radioactive markers will be made at the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), while the field tests had been performed in an industry located in the region of Macae-RJ, which is specialized in marking and profiling of wells oil in deep waters. (author)

  5. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  6. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  7. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, J. A. T.; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions....

  8. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  9. Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra

    Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.

  10. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  11. Pt-based Bi-metallic Monolith Catalysts for Partial Upgrading of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Manganaro, James [Anasyn LLC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables LLC, Dexter, MI (United States); Farrauto, Robert [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Valicor’s proprietary wet extraction process in conjunction with thermochemical pre-treatment was performed on algal biomass from two different algae strains, Nannochloropsis Salina (N.S.) and Chlorella to produce algae oils. Polar lipids such as phospholipids were hydrolyzed, and metals and metalloids, known catalyst poisons, were separated into the aqueous phase, creating an attractive “pre-refined” oil for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) upgrading by Stevens. Oil content and oil extraction efficiency of approximately 30 and 90% respectively were achieved. At Stevens, we formulated a Pt-based bi-metallic catalyst which was demonstrated to be effective in the hydro-treating of the algae oils to produce ‘green’ diesel. The bi-metallic catalyst was wash-coated on a monolith, and in conjunction with a high throughput high pressure (pilot plant) reactor system, was used in hydrotreating algae oils from N.S. and Chlorella. Mixtures of these algae oils and refinery light atmospheric gas oil (LAGO) supplied by our petroleum refiner partner, Marathon Petroleum Corporation, were co-processed in the pilot plant reactor system using the Pt-based bi-metallic monolith catalyst. A 26 wt% N.S. algae oil/74 wt % LAGO mixture hydrotreated in the reactor system was subjected to the ASTM D975 Diesel Fuel Specification Test and it met all the important requirements, including a cetane index of 50.5. An elemental oxygen analysis performed by an independent and reputable lab reported an oxygen content of trace to none found. The successful co-processing of a mixture of algae oil and LAGO will enable integration of algae oil as a refinery feedstock which is one of the goals of DOE-BETO. We have presented experimental data that show that our precious metal-based catalysts consume less hydrogen than the conventional hydrotreating catalyst NiMo Precious metal catalysts favor the hydrodecarbonylation/hydrodecarboxylation route of HDO over the dehydration route preferred by base metal

  12. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  13. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this five-year project are: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the second year of this project we have tested the generality of the proposed mechanisms by which crude oil components can alter wetting. Using these mechanisms, we have begun a program of characterizing crude oils with respect to their wettability altering potential. Wettability assessment has been improved by replacing glass with mica as a standard surface material and crude oils have been used to alter wetting in simple square glass capillary tubes in which the subsequent imbibition of water can be followed visually.

  14. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  15. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  16. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  17. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Prateek; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of compressed sensing where the goal is to recover almost all the sparse vectors using a small number of fixed linear measurements. For this problem, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding operator that leads to a general family of iterative algorithms. While one extreme of the family yields well known hard thresholding algorithms like ITI (Iterative Thresholding with Inversion) and HTP (Hard Thresholding Pursuit), the other end of the spectrum leads to a novel algorithm that we call Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement (OMPR). OMPR, like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, adds exactly one coordinate to the support at each iteration, based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the Restricted Isometry Property (a condition on the measurement matrix). In contrast, OMP is kn...

  18. [Animal experiment, can we replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrisson, H

    2017-09-01

    Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions. The application of 3Rs - replacement, reduction, and refinement - expressed in 1959 by Russel and Burch is an ethical guide to improve the welfare of animals in research. The alternative methods do not allow, in the present state of the knowledge, to answer all the scientific questions in biology and medicine research. They are, most of the time, complementary methods of the in vivo methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE CACHE REPLACEMENT POLICIES FOR MULTICORE PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lentz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicore processors have become ubiquitous, both in general-purpose and special-purpose applications. With the number of transistors in a chip continuing to increase, the number of cores in a processor is also expected to increase. Cache replacement policy is an important design parameter of a cache hierarchy. As most of the processor designs have become multicore, there is a need to study cache replacement policies for multi-core systems. Previous studies have focused on the shared levels of the multicore cache hierarchy. In this study, we focus on the top level of the hierarchy, which bears the brunt of the memory requests emanating from each processor core. We measure the miss rates of various cache replacement policies, as the number of cores is steadily increased from 1 to 16. The study was done by modifying the publicly available SESC simulator, which models in detail a multicore processor with a multilevel cache hierarchy. Our experimental results show that for the private L1 caches, the LRU (Least Recently Used replacement policy outperforms all of the other replacement policies. This is in contrast to what was observed in previous studies for the shared L2 cache. The results presented in this paper are useful for hardware designers to optimize their cache designs or the program codes.

  20. Face-specific Replacement of Calcite by Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, M.; Milke, R.; Neusser, G.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silica, composed of nanoscale spheres, is an important biomineral, alteration product of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface, and precursor material for stable silicate minerals. Despite constant progress in silica sphere synthesis, fundamental knowledge of natural silica particle interaction and ordering processes leading to colloidal crystals is absent so far. To understand the formation pathways of silica spheres in a geologic environment, we investigated silicified Cretaceous mollusk shell pseudomorphs from Coober Pedy (South Australia) using focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM tomography, petrographic microscopy, µ-XRD, and EMPA. The shells consist of replaced calcite crystals (product, the advancement of synchronized dissolution and precipitation fronts along lattice planes is essential. We assume that the volume-preserving replacement process proceeds via a face-specific dissolution-precipitation mechanism with intermediate subparticle aggregation and subsequent layer-by-layer deposition of spheres along a planar surface. Porosity created during the replacement reaction allows permanent fluid access to the propagating reaction interface. Fluid pH and ionic strength remain constant throughout the replacement process, permitting continuous silica nanoparticle formation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation. Our study provides a natural example of the transformation of an atomic crystal to an amorphous, mesoscale ordered material; thus, links the research fields of natural colloidal crystal formation, carbonate-silica replacement, and crystallization by oriented particle aggregation (CPA).