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Sample records for repetitive stress injuries

  1. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  2. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  3. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Klemenhagen

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

  4. Over bewegen, stress en mogelijke mechanismen achter de muisarm en andere vormen van repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galen, G.P. van; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Bloemsaat, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this review article on Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI) it is argued that mouse arms, cashier arms, writers cramp and many other forms of labour related complaints of pain and dysfunction of the upper extremities have a common ground in poor muscle stiffness regulation. After presenting an overvi

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon from the kneecap attaches to the shinbone. Patellofemoral syndrome. This is a softening or breaking down of kneecap cartilage. Squatting, kneeling, and climbing stairs and hills can aggravate pain around the knee. Shin splints. This term refers ...

  6. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're due for a break.) Try an ergonomic ("ergonomic" means specially designed for comfort) keyboard that has ... that allow for a good grip on the handle. Wear appropriate safety gear for your sport, such ...

  7. Spierbelasting en RSI [Muscle load and repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Visser, B.; Huysmans, M.A.; Speklé, E.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of theories concerning the development of RSI (repetitive strain injury), related to muscle disorders. Movement is a noisy process. The level of noise is affected by factors such as fatigue and psychosocial stress. In order for precision movements to be made in such

  8. An educational approach to an epidemic of repetitive motion injuries among office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halunen, L.J.

    1988-09-23

    Among office workers, repetitive motion injuries such as tendonitis, muscle fatigue, and nerve irritation (caused by poor posture and arm/hand positioning while performing repetitive tasks) are a fairly new phenomenon. Office workers and their managers are not prepared to respond properly to the identification and treatment of these injuries. We found an unusually high incidence within one department at a large research facility--the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory--and developed an educational approach to reduce the frequency and severity of these injuries. Our approach was to inform the workers and managers about the origins and severity of repetitive motion injuries and their effect on the work force. Classes in ergonomic adjustment of video workstations were scheduled for all personnel who had jobs that required heavy keyboard use. The individual's responsibility in reporting any symptoms of repetitive motion injury was emphasized. We stressed to management the seriousness of the problem, the desirability of obtaining improved equipment workers may need, or the possibility of arranging a lighter workload for those showing symptoms of repetitive motion injuries. We followed these classes and briefings with additional videotaped material and written guidelines, pamphlets, and articles for further study and discussion. Early results indicate that informed workers in a supportive environment detect symptoms earlier, and therefore recover more quickly; managers who understand the problem and are able to respond positively gain better labor relations as well as lower injury rates. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  10. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  11. Clinical specificity of acute versus chronic self-injury: measurement and evaluation of repetitive non-suicidal self-injury.

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    Manca, Maura; Presaghi, Fabio; Cerutti, Rita

    2014-01-30

    Overall, previous studies on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in the general population have stressed the importance of differentiating between occasional and repetitive NSSI, examining different severity levels (e.g., frequency and variety of methods), as well as investigating the diverse psychopathological correlates of NSSI. However, existing NSSI measures have not been explicitly developed by to comply with the NSSI diagnostic criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The purpose of this study is to develop a measure of repetitive NSSI by considering its essential features, as described in the proposed DSM-5 as well as in other clinically relevant aspects emerging from case reports. Two independent samples of participants (N1=383 young adults and 251 adolescents; N2=953 adolescents) belonging to the general population were involved in the present study. The questionnaire showed satisfactory fit statistics and reliably discriminated between occasional and repetitive self-injurers (Area Under Curve, AUC=0.755). The pattern of correlations with psychopathological measures confirmed a more clinically-compromised profile for repetitive rather than occasional self-injurers.

  12. Topic Repetitiveness after Traumatic Brain Injury: An Emergent, Jointly Managed Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Parker, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Topic repetitiveness is a common component of pragmatic impairment and a powerful contributor to social exclusion. Despite this, description, characterization and intervention remain underdeveloped. This article explores the nature of repetitiveness in traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case study of one individual after TBI provides the basis for a…

  13. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS...

  14. The sensory consequences of repetitive strain injury in musicians: focal dystonia of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N; Hamati, D; Melnick, M; Wilson, F; McKenzie, A

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals with repetitive strain injury (RSI) develop focal dystonia of the hand (FDh), a disorder of motor control manifested in a specific context during skilled, hand movements. This descriptive study was designed to determine if musicians with FDh had reduced tactile discrimination. Ten healthy adults and ten patients with FDh participated in the study. From the standardized Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, five subtests were selected to measure tactile discrimination. The Paired Wilcoxon Test was used to analyze, meaningful, planned pairwise differences by side and by group. The two groups performed similarly on the three tests measuring tactile motor perception (Finger Identification, Localization and Kinesthesia). However, those with FDh performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison group on two tactile perceptual tasks: (1) Graphesthesia, right affected (P < 0.003) and left unaffected (p < 0.005); and (2) Manual Form Perception (stereognosis) on the right affected (P < 0.002) and left unaffected (P < 0.002). It is possible that the somatosensory differences as measured by tactile discrimination tasks represent some degradation of the hand representation following prolonged, repetitive, near simultaneous sensory stimulation of adjacent digits. Tactile discrimination should be tested in patients with RSI to detect potential risks for developing FDh. Effective treatment of patients with RSI including FDh may need to target the somatosensory deficits in order to restore stress-free motor movements.

  15. The accumulation of brain injury leads to severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Bai, Ruojing; Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Chen, Fanglian; Lei, Ping

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with long-term neurobehavioral sequela. The evidences have revealed that TBI is a risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative disease and both the single and repetitive brain injury can lead to the neurodegeneration. But whether the effects of accumulation play an important role in the neurodegenerative disease is still unknown. We utilized the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop the animal models of repetitive mild TBI and single mild TBI in order to detect the neurobehavioral changes. The results of neurobehavioral test revealed that the repetitive mild TBI led to more severe behavioral injuries than the single TBI. There were more activated microglia cells and astrocytes in the repetitive mild TBI group than the single TBI group. In consistent with this, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher and the expression of IL-10 was lower in the repetitive mild TBI group compared with the single TBI group. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the repetitive TBI group detected by ELISA and western blot. But the levels of total tau (Tau-5) and P-tau (ser202) seem no different between the two groups in most time point. In conclusion, repetitive mild TBI could lead to more severe neurobehavioral impairments and the effects of accumulation may be associated with the increased inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  17. Movement repetitions in physical and occupational therapy during spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, D; Eng, J J; Miller, W C; Krassioukov, A V; Verrier, M C

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week before discharge. PT and OT time, upper- and lower-extremity repetitions and changes in these outcomes over the course of rehabilitation stay. We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, the median upper-extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower-extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon-signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Repetitions of upper- and lower-extremity movements are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the course of inpatient rehabilitation stay.

  18. Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in Patients From Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a worldwide problem, especially in countries with high incidence of road traffic accidents such as Iran. Patients with a single occurrence of TBI have been shown to be at increased risk to sustain future TBI. Objectives The aim of this study was to present the incidence and characteristics of repeated TBI (RTBI in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods During one year, all admitted TBI patients with prior TBI history were enrolled into the study. In each patient, data such as age, gender, past medical history, injury cause, anatomic site of injury, TBI severity, clinical findings and CT scan findings were collected. Results RTBI comprised 2.5% of TBI cases (41 of 1629. The incidence of RTBI per 100,000 individuals per years was 9.7. The main cause of RTBI was road traffic accident (68.3%; 9.7 % of cases had preexisting seizure/epilepsy disorder; 36.6% of patients with RTBI had pervious ICU admission due to severe TBI. Ten patients had Glasgow coma scale (GCS ≤ 13 (24.4%. Seizure was seen in seven patients (17.1%. Thirty-nine percent of patients with RTBI had associated injuries. Eleven patients had abnormal CT scan findings (26.9%. Conclusions Considering the high incidence of trauma in developing countries, RTBI may also be more common compared with that of developed countries. This mandates a newer approach to preventive strategies, particularly in those with a previous experience of head injury.

  19. Too Much of a Good Thing: Prevention of Computer-Related Repetitive Strain Injuries among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examines computer use and repetitive strain injury (RSI) among children and young adults, emphasizing body-awareness training that teaches people to notice and feel body components; understand principles of relaxation, balance, and movement efficiency; and use economical and strain-free ways of accomplishing movements. Outlines elements of safety…

  20. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  1. Sensory dysfunction associated with repetitive strain injuries of tendinitis and focal hand dystonia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N; Wilson, F; Merzenich, M; Melnick, M; Scott, P; Oakes, A; McKenzie, A

    1996-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries are reaching epidemic levels among workers who perform heavy schedules of rapid alternating movements (eg., computer programmers, data entry workers) or repetitive, sustained, coordinated movements (eg., editors, writers, salespeople). The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with repetitive strain injury demonstrated degraded sensory motor performance with their hands. Sixty age-matched adults were recruited, with 15 each assigned to a healthy adult control group, a healthy musician control group, a tendinitis group, or a focal dystonia group. Four sensory motor subtests from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test were given to the subjects according to a standardized protocol. Using multiple one-factor analyses of variance in the parametric or nonparametric mode followed by post hoc pairwise testing, no significant differences were found between the healthy controls and the musician controls. On the test of kinesthesia, using the left hand, subjects with tendinitis performed significantly worse than controls and subjects with focal dystonia. Compared with controls, subjects with focal dystonia did significantly worse on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 1 and part 2). Subjects with focal dystonia also did significantly worse than subjects with tendinitis when using the left hand on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 2). When treating patients with repetitive strain injury, discriminative sensory motor skills must be carefully assessed and may need to be addressed as part of an effective treatment program.

  2. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Lan; Guo, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Wu, Shi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen's method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  3. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-lan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen′s method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  4. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

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    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  5. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Radouil Tzekov; Clint Dawson; Megan Orlando; Benoit Mouzon; Jon Reed; James Evans; Gogce Crynen; Michael Mullan; Fiona Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue w...

  6. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-03-09

    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinnitus after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

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    Kreuzer, Peter Michael; Landgrebe, Michael; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is a frequent symptom of traumatic brain injury, which is difficult to treat. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown beneficial effects in some forms of tinnitus. However, traumatic brain injury in the past has been considered as a relative contraindication for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the increased risk of seizures. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient suffering from severe tinnitus after traumatic brain injury with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse, who received 5 treatment series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (1 Hz stimulation protocol over left primary auditory cortex, 10 sessions of 2000 stimuli each, stimulation intensity 110% resting motor threshold). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was tolerated without any side effects and tinnitus complaints (measured by a validated tinnitus questionnaire and numeric rating scales) were improved in a replicable way throughout 5 courses of transcranial magnetic stimulation up to now.

  8. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

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    Jeffrey M. Gidday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s therapeutic window – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances postischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious, but practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease.

  9. Acute reduction of microglia does not alter axonal injury in a mouse model of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury.

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    Bennett, Rachel E; Brody, David L

    2014-10-01

    The pathological processes that lead to long-term consequences of multiple concussions are unclear. Primary mechanical damage to axons during concussion is likely to contribute to dysfunction. Secondary damage has been hypothesized to be induced or exacerbated by inflammation. The main inflammatory cells in the brain are microglia, a type of macrophage. This research sought to determine the contribution of microglia to axon degeneration after repetitive closed-skull traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) using CD11b-TK (thymidine kinase) mice, a valganciclovir-inducible model of macrophage depletion. Low-dose (1 mg/mL) valganciclovir was found to reduce the microglial population in the corpus callosum and external capsule by 35% after rcTBI in CD11b-TK mice. At both acute (7 days) and subacute (21 days) time points after rcTBI, reduction of the microglial population did not alter the extent of axon injury as visualized by silver staining. Further reduction of the microglial population by 56%, using an intermediate dose (10 mg/mL), also did not alter the extent of silver staining, amyloid precursor protein accumulation, neurofilament labeling, or axon injury evident by electron microscopy at 7 days postinjury. Longer treatment of CD11b-TK mice with intermediate dose and treatment for 14 days with high-dose (50 mg/mL) valganciclovir were both found to be toxic in this injury model. Altogether, these data are most consistent with the idea that microglia do not contribute to acute axon degeneration after multiple concussive injuries. The possibility of longer-term effects on axon structure or function cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, alternative strategies directly targeting injury to axons may be a more beneficial approach to concussion treatment than targeting secondary processes of microglial-driven inflammation.

  10. Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury induces ventriculomegaly and cortical thinning in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddeyne, Corey; Nichols, Joshua; Wu, Chen; Anderson, Trent

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) most frequently occurs in pediatric patients and remains a leading cause of childhood death and disability. Mild TBI (mTBI) accounts for nearly 75% of all TBI cases, yet its neuropathophysiology is still poorly understood. While even a single mTBI injury can lead to persistent deficits, repeat injuries increase the severity and duration of both acute symptoms and long-term deficits. In this study, to model pediatric repetitive mTBI (rmTBI) we subjected unrestrained juvenile animals (postnatal day 20) to repeat weight-drop impacts. Animals were anesthetized and subjected to sham injury or rmTBI once per day for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 14 days after injury revealed marked cortical atrophy and ventriculomegaly in rmTBI animals. Specifically, beneath the impact zone the thickness of the cortex was reduced by up to 46% and the area of the ventricles increased by up to 970%. Immunostaining with the neuron-specific marker NeuN revealed an overall loss of neurons within the motor cortex but no change in neuronal density. Examination of intrinsic and synaptic properties of layer II/III pyramidal neurons revealed no significant difference between sham-injured and rmTBI animals at rest or under convulsant challenge with the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Overall, our findings indicate that the neuropathological changes reported after pediatric rmTBI can be effectively modeled by repeat weight drop in juvenile animals. Developing a better understanding of how rmTBI alters the pediatric brain may help improve patient care and direct "return to game" decision making in adolescents.

  11. Comorbid psychopathology and stress mediate the relationship between autistic traits and repetitive behaviours in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D; Rojahn, J

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. A battery of questionnaires including measures of autistic traits, repetitive behaviours, stress, executive dysfunctions and comorbid psychopathology were administered to a sample of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities (n = 43). We found that when taken as set dimensions of comorbidity, dysexecutive functioning and stress mediated or explained the effects of autistic symptoms on repetitive behaviour. The total model explained 60% of the variation in repetitive behaviours (R = 0.60; F = 13.64, P autism, while executive functioning did not contribute to that relationship. © 2013 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Group training with healthy computing practices to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Erik; Gibney, Katherine H; Wilson, Vietta E

    2004-12-01

    This pilot study investigated whether group training, in which participants become role models and coaches, would reduce discomfort as compared to a nontreatment Control Group. Sixteen experimental participants participated in 6 weekly 2-hr group sessions of a Healthy Computing program whereas 12 control participants received no training. None of the participants reported symptoms to their supervisors nor were they receiving medical treatment for repetitive strain injury prior to the program. The program included training in ergonomic principles, psychophysiological awareness and control, sEMG practice at the workstation, and coaching coworkers. Using two-tailed t tests to analyze the data, the Experimental Group reported (1) a significant overall reduction in most body symptoms as compared to the Control Group and (2) a significant increase in positive work-style habits, such as taking breaks at the computer, as compared to the Control Group. This study suggests that employees could possibly improve health and work style patterns based on a holistic training program delivered in a group format followed by individual practice.

  13. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Perez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of rehabilitation strategies after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to enhance the recovery of function. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is to strengthen the efficacy of the residual neuronal pathways. Noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in patients with motor disorders as a tool to modulate activity of corticospinal, cortical, and subcortical pathways to promote functional recovery. This article reviews a series of studies published during the last decade that used rTMS in the acute and chronic stages of paraplegia and tetraplegia in humans with complete and incomplete SCI. In the studies, rTMS has been applied over the arm and leg representations of the primary motor cortex to target 3 main consequences of SCI: sensory and motor function impairments, spasticity, and neuropathic pain. Although some studies demonstrated that consecutive sessions of rTMS improve aspects of particular functions, other studies did not show similar effects. We discuss how rTMS parameters and postinjury reorganization in the corticospinal tract, motor cortical, and spinal cord circuits might be critical factors in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using rTMS in patients with SCI. The available data highlight the limited information on the use of rTMS after SCI and the need to further understand the pathophysiology of neuronal structures affected by rTMS to maximize the potential beneficial effects of this technique in humans with SCI.

  14. Low sensitivity of three-phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI is subjective and solely based on clinical signs and physical examination. The aim of this paper was to assess the usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS in diagnosing RSI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (mean age 31.2 years; 47 males with clinical suspicion of RSI in the upper limbs were studied. A total of 127 joints with suspicion of RSI were studied. The shoulders, elbows and wrists were analyzed semi-quantitatively, using the shafts of the humeri and ulnae as references. The results were compared with a control group of 40 normal individuals. The patients’ signs and symptoms were used as the "gold standard" for calculating the probabilities. RESULTS: From visual analysis, abnormalities were observed in the flow phase for four joints, in the blood pool phase for 11 joints and in the delayed images for 26 joints. Visual analysis of the joints of the control group did not show any abnormalities. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that most of the patients’ joint ratios were normal. The exceptions were the wrists of patients with left-sided RSI (p = 0.0216. However, the sensitivity (9% and accuracy (41% were very low. CONCLUSION: TPBS with semi-quantitative analysis has very low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of RSI abnormalities in the upper limbs.

  15. Caregiver stress in traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Aims\\ud Many patients experience physical, behavioural, cognitive and emotional problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI). They may require continuing care for many years, most of which is provided by informal caregivers, such as spouses, parents, or other family members. The caregiving role is associated with a range of adverse effects including anxiety, depression, poor physical health and lowered quality of life. This article explores issues around caregiver stress; highlighting inte...

  16. Incidence investigation and analysis of hepatic stress injury after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quanchu; ZHANG Yafei; CHENG Zhengxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of hepatic stress injury after trauma.Methods 4677 patients with severe trauma in 153th Hospital of PLA from Jan.2004 to Jul.2005 were enrolled in this study to investigate the incidence of hepatic stress injury,and furthermore,in combination with medical information,the possible pathogenesis was analyzed.Results The main manifestation of hepatic stress injury was the elevated ALT or AST levels (387 cases,8.3% ).The incidence of hepatic stress injury after hand injury,burn injury,head injury,bone injury,abdominal injury,and thoracic injury were 16.6%,6.9%,5.6%,5.0%,3.8% and 2.0%,respectively,and among which,the incidence of hepatic stress injury after hand injury was statistically highest (P <0.01 ).Conclusion The total incidence of hepatic stress injury after trauma was 8.3%.Intestinal endotoxemia might be one of the beginning components of hepatic stress injury after trauma.

  17. Effects of repetitive stress during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on chronic Chagas' disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2009-03-01

    The effect of repetitive stress during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) on the chronic phase of ensuing Chagas' disease was the focus of this investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in Wistar rats the influence of repetitive stress during the acute phase of infection (7 days) with the Y strain of T. cruzi on the chronic phase of the infection (at 180 days). Exposure to ether vapor for 1 min twice a day was used as a stressor. Repetitive stress enhanced the number of circulating parasites and cardiac tissue disorganization, from a moderate to a severe diffuse mononuclear inflammatory process and the presence of amastigote burden in the cardiac fibers. Immunological parameters revealed that repetitive stress triggered a reduced concanavalin A induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro with major effects on the late chronic phase. Serum interleukin-12 concentration decreased in both stressed and infected rats in the early phase of infection although it was higher on 180 days post-infection. These results suggest that repetitive stress can markedly impair the host's immune system and enhance the pathological process during the chronic phase of Chagas' disease.

  18. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  19. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  20. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  1. Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a juvenile rat model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart were induced in juvenile rats. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO was applied 1 hour/day × 3 days at 2 atmosphere absolute consecutively, starting at 1 day after initial mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Neuropathology was assessed by multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and tissue immunohistochemistry. After repetitive mTBI, there were increases in T2-weighted imaging-defined cortical lesions and susceptibility weighted imaging-defined cortical microhemorrhages, correlated with brain tissue gliosis at the site of impact. HBO treatment significantly decreased the MRI-identified abnormalities and tissue histopathology. Our findings suggest that HBO treatment improves the cumulative tissue damage in juvenile brain following rmTBI. Such therapy regimens could be considered in adolescent athletes at the risk of repeated concussions exposures.

  2. Stress injury of the rib in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heincelman, Carrie [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brown, Seth; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Rib stress injuries are uncommonly reported but have been documented among athletes, most notably rowers. There have only been two prior case reports of rib stress injuries in swimmers, both of which were young females. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was either not obtained or the imaging characteristics were incompletely described. We present a case of an isolated third rib stress injury in a collegiate male swimmer diagnosed via MR imaging. We briefly discuss the possible etiologies for rib stress injuries, their MR appearance, as well as their treatment. (orig.)

  3. Blast Exposure Induces Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Related Traits in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Shaughness, Michael C.; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M.; Ahlers, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety ...

  4. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3...

  5. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3...

  6. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  7. Anesthetic ketamine counteracts repetitive mechanical stress-induced learning and memory impairment in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Ren, Bingxu; Zhang, Jiannan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, had an influence on learning and memory in developing mice. Fifty Kunming mice aged 21 days were randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10 for each) to receive intraperitoneal injection of equal volume of saline (S group) or ketamine (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 consecutive days, or to be left untreated (C group). A step-down passive avoidance test was performed to evaluate learning and memory in these mice on days 8 and 9. Additionally, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was determined. Rats receiving saline or sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (25 mg/kg) showed significantly decreased abilities of learning and memory and reduced expression of BDNF, compared to the normal controls (P learning and memory and expression of BDNF were found for anesthetic doses of ketamine (50 or 100 mg/kg)-treated rats and controls (P > 0.05). Repetitive mechanical stress impairs learning and memory performance in developing mice, which may be associated with decreased BDNF expression. The stress-induced learning and memory impairment can be prevented by anesthetic doses of ketamine.

  8. Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Peter H.; Vásquez, Natalia; Craggs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI). If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex. PMID:24904326

  9. Tendinosis-like histologic and molecular changes of the Achilles tendon to repetitive stress: a pilot study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Soon; Hwang, Ji Hye; Lee, Yong Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan

    2011-11-01

    Tendinopathy (pain and tendon degeneration) is associated with repetitive use and mechanical overload. However, the etiology of tendinopathy remains unclear. Clarification of histologic and molecular changes of tendon to repetitive stress could provide better understanding of Achilles tendon disorders related to repetitive stress. We asked whether repetitive stress simulating overuse of the Achilles tendon induced (1) histologic changes in rats similar to tendinosis (increased cellularity of fibrocytes, increased disorganization of collagen fiber, and increased roundness of the nucleus of the fibrocyte), (2) increased collagen Type III occurrence, and (3) increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We used an exercise protocol simulating repetitive, jerky, eccentric contraction of the triceps surae in 15 rats. We conducted the exercise for 2 hours per day, three times per week using the right rear legs only and the left legs as internal controls. We harvested Achilles tendons after either 2, 4, or 6 weeks of exercise, and evaluated changes in tendon thickness, fibrocyte count, collagen fiber arrangement, collagen fiber type, and occurrence of iNOS. Exercised Achilles tendons showed increased cellularity of fibrocytes at 4 and 6 weeks of exercise, and disorganized collagen fiber arrangement at 6 weeks of exercise. There was a trend for Type III collagen occurrence being greater in experimental groups. Expression of iNOS increased after 2 and 4 weeks of exercise when compared with that of the controls, but decreased after 6 weeks. These observations suggest repetitive, synchronized, passive, and jerky exercise induced by electrical stimulation can lead to the tendinosis-like changes in the Achilles tendons in rats with imbalance between synthesis and degeneration after 4 weeks of exercise. This newly designed exercise protocol may be used to design an animal model of Achilles tendon overuse. With this model, therapeutic interventions of tendinopathy

  10. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Athena K. Ramos; Gustavo Carlo; Kathleen Grant; Natalia Trinidad; Antonia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD) = 12.53; 93.0% m...

  11. Mantram repetition for stress management in veterans and employees: a critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jill E; Oman, Doug; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Becker, Sheryl; Gershwin, Madeline; Kelly, Ann

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study assessing the usefulness of a mantram repetition programme. Complementary/alternative therapies are becoming commonplace, but more research is needed to assess their benefits. A 5-week programme teaching a 'mind-body-spiritual' technique of silently repeating a mantram - a word or phrase with spiritual meaning - to manage stress was developed. A mantram was chosen by individuals, who were taught to repeat it silently throughout the day or night to interrupt unwanted thoughts and elicit the relaxation response. Participants who attended a 5-week course were invited to participate in the study. Of those who consented, a randomly selected subset (n = 66) was contacted approximately 3 months after the course for a telephone interview using the critical incident interviewing technique. Participants were asked whether the intervention was helpful or not, and if helpful, to identify situations where it was applied. Interviews were transcribed and incidents were identified and categorized to create a taxonomy of uses. The data were collected in 2001-2002. Participants included 30 veterans, mostly males (97%), and 36 hospital employees, mostly females (86%). Mean age was 56 years (sd = 12.94). Fifty-five participants (83.3%) practiced the technique and reported 147 incidents where the programme was helpful. Outcomes were organized into a taxonomy of incidents using four major categories that included managing: (a) emotions other than stress (51%); (b) stress (23.8%); (c) insomnia (12.9%); and (d) unwanted thoughts (12.3%). A group of raters reviewed the categories for inter-rater reliability. The majority of participants from two distinct samples reported that the mantram programme was helpful in a variety of situations. The critical incident interviewing method was found to be practical, efficient, and thorough in collecting and analyzing data. Such qualitative methods contribute to understanding the benefits of mind-body complementary therapies.

  12. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  13. Differential effects of high-temperature stress on nuclear topology and transcription of repetitive noncoding and coding rye sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, D; Brazão, J; Viegas, W; Silva, M

    2013-01-01

    The plant stress response has been extensively characterized at the biochemical and physiological levels. However, knowledge concerning repetitive sequence genome fraction modulation during extreme temperature conditions is scarce. We studied high-temperature effects on subtelomeric repetitive sequences (pSc200) and 45S rDNA in rye seedlings submitted to 40°C during 4 h. Chromatin organization patterns were evaluated through fluorescent in situ hybridization and transcription levels were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, the nucleolar dynamics were evaluated through fibrillarin immunodetection in interphase nuclei. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that the pSc200 sequence organization is not affected by high-temperature stress (HTS) and proved for the first time that this noncoding subtelomeric sequence is stably transcribed. Conversely, it was demonstrated that HTS treatment induces marked rDNA chromatin decondensation along with nucleolar enlargement and a significant increase in ribosomal gene transcription. The role of noncoding and coding repetitive rye sequences in the plant stress response that are suggested by their clearly distinct behaviors is discussed. While the heterochromatic conformation of pSc200 sequences seems to be involved in the stabilization of the interphase chromatin architecture under stress conditions, the dynamic modulation of nucleolar and rDNA topology and transcription suggest their role in plant stress response pathways.

  14. Responses to Mantram Repetition Program from Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E. Bormann, PhD, RN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes ways in which a Mantram Repetition Program (MRP was used for managing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 65 outpatient Veterans with PTSD. The MRP consisted of six weekly group sessions (90 min/wk on how to (1 choose and use a mantram, (2 slow down thoughts and behaviors, and (3 develop one-pointed attention for emotional self-regulation. Critical incident research technique interviews were conducted at 3 mo postintervention as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. The setting was an academic-affiliated Department of Veterans Affairs hospital in southern California. Categorization and comparison of the types and frequency of incidents (i.e., triggering events were collected. Participants reported a total of 268 triggering events. Content analysis of the outcomes resulted in 12 discreet categories, including relaxing and calming down, letting go of negative feelings, thinking clearly and rationally, diverting attention away from triggering events, focusing attention, refining mantram skills, dealing with sleep disturbances, coming back from flashbacks, slowing down, communicating thoughts and feelings more effectively, feeling in touch spiritually, and letting go of physical pain. The study shows that the MRP was helpful in managing a wide range of emotional reactions in Veterans with PTSD.

  15. The Impact of Intermittent and Repetitive Cold Stress Exposure on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Instability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiang Dai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome caused by the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent arterial thrombosis increases as the weather gets colder. However, the association between cold stress and atherosclerotic plaque rupture is currently unknown. Methods: An atherosclerotic plaque model was established in rabbits by balloon injury and a high-fat diet with or without cold stress (4°C, 1 hour per day, 20 weeks at the onset of modeling. Additionally, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL was applied to induce the formation of macrophage foam cells in vitro. Results: Serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines (ox-LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-8 were significantly higher in cold stress-exposed rabbits than in controls (PConclusions: Cold stress may enhance the instability of atherosclerotic plaques through activating ERS and enhancing cell apoptosis. Up-regulated CHOP levels mediated by PERK and ATF6 and the activated IRE1-XBP1-JNK pathway contributed to the apoptosis of foam cells.

  16. Preliminary guidelines for safe and effective use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dylan M; McKnight, Curtis A; Patel, Riddhi N; Kalnin, Andrew J; Mysiw, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects with TBI, particularly the risk of seizures. These risks can be minimized by careful selection of the rTMS protocol and exclusion criteria. In this article, we identify guidelines for safe use of rTMS in subjects with TBI based on a review of the literature and illustrate their application with a case study. Our subject is a 48-year-old man who sustained a severe TBI 5 years prior to beginning rTMS for the treatment of post-TBI depression. After a 4-week baseline period, we administered daily sessions of low-frequency stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 6 weeks. After stimulation, we performed monthly assessments for 3 months. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was our primary outcome measure. The stimulation was well tolerated and the patient reported no side effects. After 6 weeks of stimulation, the patient's depression was slightly improved, and these improvements continued through follow-up. At the end of follow-up, the patient's HAMD score was 49% of the average baseline score.

  17. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouil Tzekov

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL, tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A, microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B, collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3 and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1, APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the

  18. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzekov, Radouil; Dawson, Clint; Orlando, Megan; Mouzon, Benoit; Reed, Jon; Evans, James; Crynen, Gogce; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL), tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B), collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3) and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1), APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the involvement of

  19. Psychosocial Stress and Sport Injuries in Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Blas Redondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived social stress and its relation to sports injuries in tennis players. Sixty-three male tennis players, with a mean age of 31.62 years (SD = 8.93, Sports Clubs belonging to the Province of Alicante (Spain completed instruments of psychosocial stress and injuries sustained during the previous year the assessment. The results indicate that life events experienced was related to some of the injuries suffered by players. Relationships were found between the degree of psychological stress experienced and the negative evaluation of this strain, the type (lesions on wrists, ankles and sprains, and severity of injuries (minor injuries.

  20. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  1. Oral verrucous carcinoma complicating a repetitive injury by the dental prosthesis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Laila; Omor, Youssef; Mouden, Karima; Mahdi, Youssef; Elkacemi, Hanan; Elmajjaoui, Sanaa; Latib, Rachida; Kebdani, Tayeb; Boujida, Mohamed Najib; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an unusual, well differentiated, and low-grade type of squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by benign histology and cytology but markedly invasive clinical behavior. They have a predilection for squamous mucosae, particularly those of the head and neck region. Many factors have been associated with its pathogenesis, including the presence of previous skin lesions; VC arising from a prosthesis injury is rare. Here we reported a case of VC of oral cavity a particularly very aggressive, arising from prosthesis injury. Regardless of the treatment modality, given new insights into the possible aggressivity of this tumor, radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy may be a more appropriate primary treatment compared with the significant local morbidity associated with surgery.

  2. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  3. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  4. Parental response to child injury: examination of parental posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories following child accidental injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Brocque, Robyne M; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Trajectory analyses were used to empirically differentiate patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents following child accidental injury and explore the relationship between parent and child recovery patterns. Parent (n = 189...

  5. Looking beyond the physical injury : Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents after pediatric traffic injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, APJ; Kassam-Adams, N; Cnaan, A; Sherman-Slate, E; Gallagher, PR; Winston, FK

    1999-01-01

    Background. Traffic crashes are the leading health threat to children in the United States, resulting in nearly 1 million injuries annually. The psychological consequences of these injuries are primarily unknown. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder

  6. Examining habituation and sensitization across repetitive laboratory stress inductions using the MAST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Meyer, T; van Ruitenbeek, P; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Reliably eliciting acute stress repeatedly over time is of indispensable value for research into stress vulnerability and for developing interventions aimed at increasing stress resiliency. Here, we evaluated whether the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST), a potent stress protocol that combines phy

  7. Examining habituation and sensitization across repetitive laboratory stress inductions using the MAST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Ruitenbeek, P. van; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliably eliciting acute stress repeatedly over time is of indispensable value for research into stress vulnerability and for developing interventions aimed at increasing stress resiliency. Here, we evaluated whether the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST), a potent stress protocol that combines phy

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, diabetes mellitus, and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liu; Xie, Hong; Liu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Unfolded and misfolded protein accumulation interferes with the ER function and triggers ER stress response. Thus, ER stress response, also called unfolded protein response (UPR), is an adaptive process that controls the protein amount in the ER lumen and the downstream protein demand. In normal conditions, the role of ER stress is to maintain ER homeostasis, restore ER function, and protect stressed cells from apoptosis, by coordinating gene expression, protein synthesis, and accelerating protein degradation through several molecular pathways. However, prolonged ER stress response plays a paradoxical role, which leads to cell damage, apoptosis, and concomitant tissue injuries. A number of tissue alterations are involved with diabetes mellitus progress and its comorbidities via ER stress. However, certain pharmacological agents affecting ER stress have been identified. In this review, we summarized the relationship between ER stress and insulin resistance development. Moreover, we aim to explain how ER stress influences type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. In addition, we reviewed the literature on ER stress and UPR in three kinds of tissue injuries induced by T2DM. Finally, a retrospective analysis of the effects of anti-diabetes medications on ER stress is presented.

  9. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3......) metabolite accumulation, (4) oxygenation, and (5) pain development. Among 812 female employees (age 30-60 years) at 7 companies with high prevalence of neck/shoulder complaints, clinical examination identified 43 MYA and 19 CON. At rest, during PEG, and STR the trapezius muscle was measured using (1) EMG...

  10. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Behavioral Recovery during Early Stage of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chung, Pil-Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yul; Chun, Min Ho

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.

  11. Acute central cord syndrome: injury mechanisms and stress features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Feng; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-09-01

    Numerical techniques were used to study the mechanisms of acute central cord syndrome. To analyze the features of stress distribution in the cervical cord under different injury conditions using finite element model of the cervical cord and to improve the understanding of the possible pathogenesis of acute central cord syndrome. Acute central cord spinal injury was initially attributed to hemorrhagic damage to the central portion of the spinal cord, but recent histopathologic studies showed that it was predominantly a white matter injury. The precise anatomic location of neuronal injury and the etiology of the clinical manifestation were poorly understood. Cervical cord injury was simulated using a finite element model of the cervical enlargement described previously, with the model loaded under 3 traumatic postures: neutral, flexion, and extension. Five traumatic conditions were simulated and analyzed: hyperextension with the pinch force directed to the anterior (A) or posterior (B); flexion injuries (C), vertical compression with the pinch force directed to the anterior (D) or posterior (E). After simulation, several representative cross-sections of each traumatic pattern were selected. In each cross-section, the average von Mises stress of 9 regions, such as anterior funiculus, lateral part of the lateral funiculus, medial part of the lateral funiculus, lateral part of the posterior funiculus, medial part of the posterior funiculus, anterior horn, the bottom of anterior horn, the cervix cornu posterioris, the caput cornu posterioris, and the apex cornu posterioris was recorded. High localized stress occurred at the portion under compression injury and the level above it. High localized stress tended to occur at the lateral part of the anterior horn motor neurons innervating the hand muscles in traumatic conditions A and D. Under conditions A, D, and E, the average localized stress at the anterior and posterior horn of the gray matter was higher than that at the

  12. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena K. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.

  13. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  14. LER - lesão por esforços repetitivos: um conceito falho e prejudicial RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury: a questionable and harmful concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TEOTONIO DE OLIVEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de que movimentos repetitivos ou posturas prolongadas causam lesões não tem suporte científico. Os sintomas dolorosos e sensitivos apresentados pelos pacientes são melhor explicados como um fenômeno psicológico e psicossocial, como insatisfação e desadaptação no trabalho e desejo de obter benefícios. O conceito de lesões por esforços repetitivos é iatrogênico e de custo elevado para a sociedade, devendo ser abandonado.The hypothesis that repetitive movements and postures cause musculoskeletal injury is not supported by scientific data. The sensory and pain symptoms are better explained as of psychological and psychosocial nature, such as job insatisfaction or disajustment, with financial gains objectives. The repetitive strain injury concept is iatrogenic and costly to society, and must be abandonned.

  15. [Work, exclusion, pain, suffering, and gender relations: a survey of female workers treated for repetitive strain injury at a public health clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ilidio Roda

    2006-06-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study based on patient records from a public health clinic and focusing on four therapeutic groups from 1995 to 1997. The study aimed to reconstruct the life and work history of women with repetitive strain injury (RSI) in relation to family, friends, company, workmates, health services, and impacts on daily life. The results corroborate the data in the scientific literature pointing to greater frequency of RSI among women, and allow us to list the needs related to the resulting biopsychosocial distress, suggesting the need for new research and intervention aimed at producing preventive and therapeutic technologies for such injuries.

  16. Thermal injury and ozone stress affect soybean lipoxygenases expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of thermal injury (cold and heat shock) and ozone treatment on lipoxygenases 1 (LOX-1) and 2 (LOX-2) of soybean seedlings have been investigated. Cold stress led to a decrease of the specific activities of both isoenzymes, attributable at least in part to a down-regulation of gene expres

  17. Electroacupuncture regulates the stress-injury-repair chain of events after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation after stroke is the main cause of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cascading events after injury can lead to cell death. Heat shock protein 70 and other endogenous injury-signaling molecules are released by damaged cells, which can lead to systemic stress reactions. Protecting the brain through repair begins with the stress-injury-repair signaling chain. This study aimed to verify whether acupuncture acts through this chain to facilitate effective treatment of ischemic stroke. Rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established by Zea Longa's method, and injury sites were identified by assessing neurological function, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Electroacupuncture at acupoints Baihui (DU20 and Zusanli (ST36 was performed in the model rats with dilatational waves, delivered for 20 minutes a day at 2–100 Hz and an amplitude of 2 mA. We analyzed the blood serum from the rats and found that inflammatory cytokines affected the levels of adrenotrophin and heat shock protein 70, each of which followed a similar bimodal curve. Specifically, electroacupuncture lowered the peak levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and heat shock protein 70. Thus, electroacupuncture was able to inhibit excessive stress, reduce inflammation, and promote the repair of neurons, which facilitated healing of ischemic stroke.

  18. The role of oxidative stress in alcoholic liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. The main source of free oxygen species is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, which can be induced by ethanol. Role of cytochrome P4502E1 in ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species produced by this enzyme are more important in intracellular oxidative damage compared to species derived from activated phagocytes. Free radicals lead to lipid peroxidation, enzymatic inactivation and protein oxidation. Role of mitochondria in alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is increased, and glutathione content is decreased in chronically ethanolfed animals. Oxidative stress in mitochondria leads to mitochondrial DNA damage and has a dual effect on apoptosis. Role of Kupffer cells in alcohol-induced liver injury. Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with increased release of endotoxin from gut lumen into portal circulation. Endotoxin activates Kupffer cells, which then release proinflammatory cytokines and oxidants. Role of neutrophils in alcohol-induced liver injury. Alcoholic liver injury leads to the accumulation of neutrophils, which release reactive oxygen species and lysosomal enzymes and contribute to hepatocyte damage and necrosis. Role of nitric oxide in alcohol-induced oxidative stress. High amounts of nitric oxide contribute to the oxidative damage, mainly by generating peroxynitrites. Role of antioxidants in ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with reduced liver glutathione and α-tocopherol level and with reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion. Oxidative stress in alcoholic liver disease is a consequence of increased production of oxidants and decreased antioxidant defense in the liver.

  19. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David W; Rue, John-Paul H; Wilckens, John H; Frassica, Frank J

    2004-09-01

    Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes with training-induced stress fracture injury verified by plain radiographs and/or nuclear bone scan. The control group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes who remained without injury during plebe summer training but who were matched with the 31 injured plebes for the Initial Strength Test (1-mi run time, means: women, 7.9 min; men, 6.4 min) and body mass index (means: women, 23.4; men, 23.8). We found that the subjects lost significant body weight (mean, 2.63 +/- 0.54 kg) between Day 1 and the date of their diagnosis of a stress fracture (mean, Day 35) and that they continued to lose weight until the date of their DEXA scan (mean, Day 49). Among female plebes, there was no evidence of the female athlete triad (eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, or low bone density). Thigh girth was significantly smaller in female subjects than in female controls and trended to be lower in male subjects than in male controls. Total body bone mineral content was significantly lower in the male subjects than in male controls. Bone mineral density of the distal tibia and femoral neck were not significantly different between the groups. DEXA-derived structural geometric properties were not different between subjects and controls. Because, on average, tibias were significantly longer in male subjects than in male controls, the mean bone strength index in male subjects was significantly lower than that of male controls. We conclude that significant, acute weight loss combined with regular daily physical training among

  20. Erognomic education on housework for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI): a conceptual representation of therapists' clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O' Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2017-09-18

    Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed with line by line, focused and axial coding with constant data comparison throughout data collection. Therapists made clinical decisions based on their perceptions of their clients' behavior change in three stages: (i) listen; (ii) try; and (iii) persevere, bearing significant similarities to the transtheoretical theory of change. The study also showed that therapists may not have considered the full range of meanings that their clients attach to housework when interacting with them, a gap that needs to be addressed. The present study indicates the importance of therapists' understanding of the meanings that their clients attach to housework. Further research needs to address how to achieve this in a time-pressured clinical environment. Implications for Rehabilitation This study used qualitative research to demonstrate the process of translating therapists' tacit knowledge into an explicit form. It elucidates the following major implications for practice when therapists conduct ergonomic education to facilitate behavior change in housework for female homemakers with upper limb RSI:The conceptual framework of clinical reasoning constructed from the results can be used to increase therapists' awareness of how they make clinical decisions during an intervention. This framework can also be used for training new therapists. It is

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of Noncoding Repetitive RNAs Transcribed in Stressed Human CellsD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgardsdottir, Rut; Chiodi, Ilaria; Giordano, Manuela; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Thermal and chemical stresses induce the formation in human cells of novel and transient nuclear structures called nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). These contain heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and a specific subset of pre-mRNA processing factors. Nuclear stress bodies are assembled on specific pericentromeric heterochromatic domains containing satellite III (SatIII) DNA. In response to stress, these domains change their epigenetic status from heterochromatin to euchromatin and are transcribed in poly-adenylated RNAs that remain associated with nSBs. In this article, we describe the cloning, sequencing, and functional characterization of these transcripts. They are composed of SatIII repeats and originate from the transcription of multiple sites within the SatIII arrays. Interestingly, the level of SatIII RNAs can be down-regulated both by antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of SatIII RNA by siRNAs requires the activity of Argonaute 2, a component of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Down-regulation of satellite III RNAs significantly affects the recruitment of RNA processing factors to nSBs without altering the association of HSF-1 with these structures nor the presence of acetylated histones within nSBs. Thus, satellite III RNAs have a major role in the formation of nSBs. PMID:15788562

  2. Navicular Stress Fracture Outcomes in Athletes: Analysis of 62 Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Behan, Shontal A; Valerio, Dallas L; Frosch, Dominick L

    The optimal treatment modalities for navicular stress fractures in athletes is currently unknown for this season-ending injury. The present study evaluated factors that might be significant and affect healing outcomes, specifically focusing on the return to activity (RTA) time and a decreased desired activity (DDA) after treatment in athletes. Such considerations included previous navicular stress fractures, patient demographic data and type of sport, and initiation time of treatment. The data from 59 patients with 62 fractures were prospectively analyzed from May 2005 through July 2016. The results showed a significant correlation between a previous navicular stress fracture and decreased desired activity. The average duration of symptoms before receiving definitive treatment was 8.8 months. Computed tomography as the initial imaging modality correlated positively with a correct diagnosis (1.00). In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging, when used initially, was only 71% accurate. Runners constituted most of the cohort at 38 (61.3%). Ten other athletes were involved in jumping sports. Of the 62 injuries, 21 (33.9%) were in elite or professional athletes, all of whom were able to RTA, with 1 patient, a 38-year-old world record holding runner, having a DDA. Seven refractures (11.2%) occurred an average >5 years after the initial injury, predominantly in those aged <21 years, none with previous surgery. Eight patients (12.9%) developed postinjury arthrosis, including 1 with DDA. Patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation had a RTA of 4.56 months compared with those who had undergone nonoperative treatment, who had an average RTA of 3.97 months. Seven patients (11.2%) underwent screw removal and required a longer RTA. Overall, of the 62 injuries, the patients with 57 of the injuries (91.9%) were able to RTA at their preinjury level. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality, stress, and injuries in professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L H; Hamilton, W G; Meltzer, J D; Marshall, P; Molnar, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-nine soloist and principal dancers (mean age, 29.08 years) from America's two most celebrated ballet companies were administered questionnaires measuring personality (API), occupational stress (OES), strain (PSQ), and coping mechanisms (PRQ), and injury patterns. The results revealed that male dancers demonstrated significantly more negative personality traits and psychological distress than female dancers or men in the general population. In addition, physical stress and personality traits, characteristic of the "overachiever," distinguished injured dancers. It is suggested that classical ballet's emphasis on the ballerina may be at odds with a masculine identity in male dancers. Furthermore, the qualities that lead to success in this profession may contribute to injuries if carried to an extreme.

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia,endoplasmic reticulum stress,and alcoholic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ji; Neil Kaplowitz

    2004-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamins or other factors (B6, B12, folic acid,betaine) and genetic disorders for the metabolism of the non-protein amino acid-homocysteine (Hcy) lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy). Hhcy is an integral component of several disorders including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, diabetes and alcoholic liver disease. Hhcy unleashes mediators of inflammation such as NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, increases production of intracellular superoxide anion causing oxidative stress and reducing intracellular level of nitric oxide (NO), and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which can explain many processes of Hcy-promoted cell injury such as apoptosis,fat accumulation, and inflammation. Animal models have played an important role in determining the biological effects of Hhcy. ER stress may also be involved in other liver diseases such as α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency and hepatitis C and/or B virus infection. Future research should evaluate the possible potentiative effects of alcohol and hepatic virus infection on ER stress-induced liver injury, study potentially beneficial effects of lowering Hcy and preventing ER stress in alcoholic humans,and examine polymorphism of Hcy metabolizing enzymes as potential risk-factors for the development of Hhcy and liver disease.

  5. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  6. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  7. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) can have serious effects on rowing training and performance and accordingly represent an important topic for sports medicine practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this review is to outline the definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, injury management and injury prevention strategies for RSF in rowers. To this end, nine relevant books, 140 journal articles, the proceedings of five conferences and two unpublished presentations were reviewed after searches of electronic databases using the keywords 'rowing', 'rib', 'stress fracture', 'injury', 'mechanics' and 'kinetics'. The review showed that RSF is an incomplete fracture occurring from an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and the rate of bone formation. RSF occurs in 8.1-16.4% of elite rowers, 2% of university rowers and 1% of junior elite rowers. Approximately 86% of rowing RSF cases with known locations occur in ribs four to eight, mostly along the anterolateral/lateral rib cage. Elite rowers are more likely to experience RSF than nonelite rowers. Injury occurrence is equal among sweep rowers and scullers, but the regional location of the injury differs. The mechanism of injury is multifactorial with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors contributing. Posterior-directed resultant forces arising from the forward directed force vector through the arms to the oar handle in combination with the force vector induced by the scapula retractors during mid-drive, or repetitive stress from the external obliques and rectus abdominis in the 'finish' position, may be responsible for RSF. Joint hypomobility, vertebral malalignment or low bone mineral density may be associated with RSF. Case studies have shown increased risk associated with amenorrhoea, low bone density or poor technique, in combination with increases in training volume. Training volume alone may have less effect on injury than other factors. Large differences in seat and handle

  8. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Curtis, Christine; Grant, Frederick D; Micheli, Lyle; Treves, S Ted

    2010-03-03

    The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may be the earliest sign of disease. Repetitive bone stress causes bone remodeling and may result in spondylolysis, a non-displaced fracture of the pars interarticularis. A fracture of the pars interarticularis may ultimately become unstable leading to spondylolisthesis. Results in the literature support the use of bone scintigraphy to diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected spondylolysis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides more contrast than planar bone scintigraphy, increases the sensitivity and improves anatomic localization of skeletal lesions without exposing the patient to additional radiation. It also provides an opportunity for better correlation with other imaging modalities, when necessary. As such, the addition of SPECT to standard planar bone scintigraphy can result in a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for efficient patient care. It is our expectation that by improving our ability to correctly diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected injury of the posterior elements, the long-term cost of managing this condition will be lowered.

  9. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Frederick D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may be the earliest sign of disease. Repetitive bone stress causes bone remodeling and may result in spondylolysis, a non-displaced fracture of the pars interarticularis. A fracture of the pars interarticularis may ultimately become unstable leading to spondylolisthesis. Results in the literature support the use of bone scintigraphy to diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected spondylolysis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT provides more contrast than planar bone scintigraphy, increases the sensitivity and improves anatomic localization of skeletal lesions without exposing the patient to additional radiation. It also provides an opportunity for better correlation with other imaging modalities, when necessary. As such, the addition of SPECT to standard planar bone scintigraphy can result in a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for efficient patient care. It is our expectation that by improving our ability to correctly diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected injury of the posterior elements, the long-term cost of managing this condition will be lowered.

  10. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and posttraumatic stress disorder...stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury . *Address all correspondence to Hilary J. Aralis, MS; Naval Health Research Center, Warfighter...both diagnoses. See Figure 1 for sampling details. Figure 1. Flow diagram outlining selection of final blast traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and no TBI

  11. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  12. A Military Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Because of sports injuries, automobile...head injury will be studied in the WRAIR PCI model using longitudinal and multi-modal designs to fully characterize the neuromotor, cognitive, emotional ...timeframe, the cumulative effects of which can produce long-lasting effects including physical, mental, emotional and cognitive impairments and may place our

  13. Blast exposure induces post-traumatic stress disorder-related traits in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M; Ahlers, Stephen T

    2012-11-01

    Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety of PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present many months after the blast exposure, including increased anxiety, enhanced contextual fear conditioning, and an altered response in a predator scent assay. We also found elevation in the amygdala of the protein stathmin 1, which is known to influence the generation of fear responses. Because the blast overpressure injuries occurred while animals were under general anesthesia, our results suggest that a blast-related mTBI exposure can, in the absence of any psychological stressor, induce PTSD-related traits that are chronic and persistent. These studies have implications for understanding the relationship of PTSD to mTBI in the population of veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  14. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-06-01

    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats.

  15. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves open field locomotor recovery after low but not high thoracic spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Nyssen, Yves; Scholtes, Felix; Multon, Sylvie; Rinkin, Charline; Weber, Géraldine; Bouhy, Delphine; Brook, Gary; Franzen, Rachelle; Schoenen, Jean

    2004-01-15

    Electromagnetic fields are able to promote axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used routinely in neuropsychiatric conditions and as an atraumatic method to activate descending motor pathways. After spinal cord injury, these pathways are disconnected from the spinal locomotor generator, resulting in most of the functional deficit. We have applied daily 10 Hz rTMS for 8 weeks immediately after an incomplete high (T4-5; n = 5) or low (T10-11; n = 6) thoracic closed spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats, using 6 high- and 6 low-lesioned non-stimulated animals as controls. Functional recovery of hindlimbs was assessed using the BBB locomotor rating scale. In the control group, the BBB score was significantly better from the 7th week post-injury in animals lesioned at T4-5 compared to those lesioned at T10-11. rTMS significantly improved locomotor recovery in T10-11-injured rats, but not in rats with a high thoracic injury. In rTMS-treated rats, there was significant positive correlation between final BBB score and grey matter density of serotonergic fibres in the spinal segment just caudal to the lesion. We propose that low thoracic lesions produce a greater functional deficit because they interfere with the locomotor centre and that rTMS is beneficial in such lesions because it activates this central pattern generator, presumably via descending serotonin pathways. The benefits of rTMS shown here suggest strongly that this non-invasive intervention strategy merits consideration for clinical trials in human paraplegics with low spinal cord lesions.

  17. Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries. Data were collected from 608 male workers (508 at-risk general workers and 100 with injuries in the last year). Job stress was assessed by the Belkic occupational stress index. The prevalence of job stress was 21.3%. The main occupational stressors were time pressure (78.5%), mode of payment and evaluation (56.4%), and interaction with people and machines (41.3%). The risk of injury among those with job stress was significantly higher than those without job stress (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20-3.30). Job stress was responsible for 11.9% of all occupational injuries in this group.

  18. LER - Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: uma reflexão sobre os aspectos psicossociais Repetitive Strain Injury: a reflection on psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elena Rodrigues Gravina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de contribuir para a compreensão dos fenômenos que envolvem as LER e sua relação com o mundo do trabalho, refletindo sobre a multiplicidade dos fatores, dando ênfase à dimensão psicossocial a partir de depoimentos de pessoas com LER. A opção foi pela metodologia qualitativa e, pelas características da pesquisa, o instrumental escolhido foi o estudo de caso. Foram realizadas entrevistas com quatro bancárias com diagnóstico de LER e que estavam afastadas do trabalho. As entrevistas foram realizadas individualmente utilizando-se um roteiro semi estruturado, em data e horários previamente marcados e tiveram a duração media de duas horas cada uma. As pessoas apresentaram: descrédito no adoecimento; insatisfação e revolta por não poder mais fazer coisas importantes para a vida pessoal; dificuldades em mostrar a doença e fazer com que os outros acreditem nela; falta de reconhecimento pelo trabalho realizado; perda de identidade; ansiedade pelo desconhecido; estado de estresse e esgotamento muito acentuado; limitações impostas pela doença. Em conclusão pode ser apresentado: interferência da organização do trabalho e das relações de trabalho no adoecimento; o sofrimento físico que antecede e precede o adoecimento; onipresença da dor e as limitações impostas em nível físico e mental que impossibilitam projetos de vida; dificuldades no diagnóstico e tratamento; comprometimento da vida pessoal e familiar.The aim of this study was contributing to the understanding of the phenomena that involves the Repetitive Straisn Injury (RSI and its relation with the work arena. It was carried out through the reflection on the multiplicity of factors and emphasis on the psychosocial dimension based on the statements of people affected by RSI. The qualitative method was used and the case study tool was chosen based on the characteristics of the research clerks on leave for RSI diagnosis were interviwed

  19. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  20. Evaluation of anterior talofibular ligament injury with stress radiography, ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oae, Kazunori; Uchio, Yuji [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Shimane, Izumo (Japan); Takao, Masato [Teikyo University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo, Itabashi-ku (Japan); Ochi, Mitsuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hiroshima, Minami-ku (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of stress radiography (stress X-P), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury. Thirty-four patients with ankle sprain were involved. In all patients, Stress X-P, US, MR imaging, and arthroscopy were performed. The arthroscopic results were considered to be the gold standard. The imaging results were compared with the arthroscopic results, and the accuracy calculated. Arthroscopic findings showed ATFL injury in 30 out of 34 cases. The diagnosis of ATFL injury with stress X-P, US, MR imaging were made with an accuracy of 67, 91 and 97%. US and MR imaging demonstrated the same location of the injury as arthroscopy in 63 and 93%. We have clarified the diagnostic value of stress X-P, US, and MR imaging in diagnosis of ATFL injury. We obtained satisfactory results with US and MR imaging. (orig.)

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Koenigs, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of "organic" neurologic damage and psychological distress after a traumatic brain injury poses a significant challenge to researchers and clinicians. Establishing a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been particularly contentious, reflecting difficulties in establishing a unique diagnosis for conditions with overlapping and sometimes contradictory symptom profiles. However, each disorder is linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes, underscoring the need to better understand how neurologic and psychiatric risk factors interact following trauma. Here, we present data showing that individuals with a TBI are more likely to develop PTSD, and that individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop persistent cognitive sequelae related to TBI. Further, we describe neurobiological models of PTSD, highlighting how patterns of neurologic damage typical in TBI may promote or protect against the development of PTSD in brain-injured populations. These data highlight the unique course of PTSD following a TBI and have important diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment implications for individuals with a dual diagnosis.

  2. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Arti; Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Milner, Stephen; Bhat, Satyanarayan

    2008-02-01

    A severe burn is associated with release of inflammatory mediators which ultimately cause local and distant pathophysiological effects. Mediators including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are increased in affected tissue, which are implicated in pathophysiological events observed in burn patients. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of oxidative stress in burns, in order to develop therapeutic strategies. All peer-reviewed, original and review articles published in the English language literature relevant to the topic of oxidative stress in burns in animals and human subjects were selected for this review and the possible roles of ROS and RNS in the pathophysiology of burns are discussed. Both increased xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation appear to be the oxidant sources in burns. Free radicals have been found to have beneficial effects on antimicrobial action and wound healing. However following a burn, there is an enormous production of ROS which is harmful and implicated in inflammation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, immunosuppression, infection and sepsis, tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Thus clinical response to burn is dependent on the balance between production of free radicals and its detoxification. Supplementation of antioxidants in human and animal models has proven benefit in decreasing distant organ failure suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that oxidative damage is one of the mechanisms responsible for the local and distant pathophysiological events observed after burn, and therefore anti-oxidant therapy might be beneficial in minimizing injury in burned patients.

  3. Systems microscopy to unravel cellular stress response signalling in drug induced liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological insults are met by cellular adaptive stress response pathway activation. We find that activation of adaptive stress responses occur well before the typical ultimate outcome of chemical cell injury. To increase our understanding of chemically-induced adaptive stress response pathway act

  4. Psychological stress as a modulator of functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioui eMaldonado Bouchard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence indicating that the social environment triggers changes to the psychological stress response and glucocorticoid receptor function. Considerable literature links the subsequent changes in stress resiliency to physical health. Here, converging evidence for the modulatory role of chronic psychological stress in the recovery process following spinal cord injury (SCI is presented. Despite the considerable advances in spinal cord injury research, we are still unable to identify the causes of variability in patients’ recovery following injury. We propose that individuals’ past and present life experiences (in the form of stress exposure may significantly modulate patients’ outcome post SCI. We propose a theoretical model to explain the negative impact of chronic psychological stress on physical and psychological recovery. The stress experienced in life prior to SCI and also as a result of the traumatic injury, could compromise glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and function, and contribute to high levels of inflammation and apoptosis post SCI, decreasing the tissue remaining at the injury site and undermining recovery of function. Both stress induced glucocorticoid resistance and stress induced epigenetic changes to the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate the NF-кB regulated inflammatory pathways and the Bcl-2 regulated apoptosis pathways. This model not only contributes to the theoretical understanding of the recovery process following injury, but also provides concrete testable hypotheses for future studies.

  5. Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post-Traumatic Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0366 TITLE: Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post-Traumatic...Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post- Traumatic Headache 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0366 5c...geared to either or both. The goal of this proposal is to determine the respective roles of traumatic brain injury and combat-related stress in

  6. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions.

  7. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R Ljubisavljevic

    Full Text Available Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS and intermittent (iTBS theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS. The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss

  8. Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Gudex, Claire; Andersen, Kjeld; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-09-05

    Sports injuries in athletes can lead to negative emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, confusion, and sadness. Severe injuries can be understood as a stressful life event with increased levels of psychological distress, but injury assessment and rehabilitation typically focuses on somatic symptoms. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and emotional stress, and measure self-rated health in regular exercisers presenting to a sports medicine clinic with musculoskeletal injury. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counselling. A cross-sectional survey study. A sports medicine clinic for injuries of the foot, knee, or shoulder. Regular exercisers with present injuries (n=694) and exercisers without injuries (n=494). Regular exercisers were defined as those undertaking moderate exercise at least once a week. A questionnaire survey completed on paper by patients in a sports medicine clinic and a web-based version completed by online sports communities. Participants completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), and questions on sociodemographics, exercise habits, and injury history. Symptoms of depression were reported by 12% of injured exercisers and 5% of non-injured controls (psports medicine clinic for musculoskeletal injury, and supplemental clinical psychological interview for suspected depression or stress-related psychopathology.

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    resulting from repetitive, cumulative microtrauma (e.g., tendonitis, stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome )" (DoD Injury Surveillance and 10...chronic injuries such as low back pain and repetitive trauma disorders among the US military and civilian populations are a function of physical and...sufficient biomechanical stress on their lumbar region to cause enough physical pain to warrant a medical visit. Sub-hypothesis 3 It was not anticipated

  10. Enhanced neurofibrillary tangle formation, cerebral atrophy, and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Yasumasa; Uryu, Kunihiro; Higuchi, Makoto; Longhi, Luca; Hoover, Rachel; Fujimoto, Scott; McIntosh, Tracy; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2005-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and repetitive TBI (rTBI) may culminate in dementia pugilistica (DP), a syndrome characterized by progressive dementia, parkinsonism, and the hallmark brain lesions of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by abnormal tau filaments and senile plaques (SPs) composed of Abeta fibrils. Previous study showed that mild rTBI (mrTBI) accelerated the deposition of Abeta in the brains of transgenic (Tg) mice (Tg2576) that over-express human Abeta precursor proteins with the familial AD Swedish mutations (APP695swe) and model of AD-like amyloidosis. Here, we report studies of the effects of mrTBI on AD-like tau pathologies in Tg mice expressing the shortest human tau isoform (T44) subjected to mrTBI, causing brain concussion without structural brain damage to simulate injuries linked to DP. Twelve-month-old Tg T44 (n = 18) and wild-type (WT; n = 24) mice were subjected to mrTBI (four times a day, 1 day per week, for 4 weeks; n = 24) or sham treatment (n = 18). Histopathological analysis of mice at 9 months after mrTBI revealed that one of the Tg T44 mice showed extensive telencephalic NFT and cerebral atrophy. Although statistical analysis of neurobehavioral tests at 6 months after mrTBI did not show any significant difference in any of groups of mice, the Tg T44 mouse with extensive NFT had an exceptionally low neurobehavioral score. The reasons for the augmentation of tau pathologies in only one T44 tau Tg mouse subjected to mrTBI remain to be elucidated.

  11. Acute and Stress-related Injuries of Bone and Cartilage: Pertinent Anatomy, Basic Biomechanics, and Imaging Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathria, Mini N; Chung, Christine B; Resnick, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Bone or cartilage, or both, are frequently injured related to either a single episode of trauma or repetitive overuse. The resulting structural damage is varied, governed by the complex macroscopic and microscopic composition of these tissues. Furthermore, the biomechanical properties of both cartilage and bone are not uniform, influenced by the precise age and activity level of the person and the specific anatomic location within the skeleton. Of the various histologic components that are found in cartilage and bone, the collagen fibers and bundles are most influential in transmitting the forces that are applied to them, explaining in large part the location and direction of the resulting internal stresses that develop within these tissues. Therefore, thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of normal bone and cartilage serves as a prerequisite to a full understanding of both the manner in which these tissues adapt to physiologic stresses and the patterns of tissue failure that develop under abnormal conditions. Such knowledge forms the basis for more accurate assessment of the diverse imaging features that are encountered following acute traumatic and stress-related injuries to the skeleton. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  12. Fatigue stress injuries of the pelvic bones and proximal femur: evaluation with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, Martti J. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 Helsinki (Finland); Research Institute of Military Medicine, Mannerheimintie 164, 00300 Helsinki (Finland); Pihlajamaki, Harri K. [Department of Surgery, Central Military Hospital, Mannerheimintie 164, 00300 Helsinki (Finland); Ahovuo, Juhani A. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the distribution as well as male/female differences in patients with hip or pelvic pain based on MRI results. Three hundred forty consecutive conscripts (45 women, 295 men; age range 18-29 years; mean age 20.7 years) suffering from stress-related hip, buttock or groin pain took part in the study. All 340 patients underwent MR imaging. Radiographic data were available for 215 patients. Two radiologists interpreted the images by consensus. In MRI 174 stress injuries were diagnosed in 137 patients (32 women, 105 men). The incidence of bone stress injuries in women was significantly higher than that in men (p<0.0001). One hundred five of the injuries (60%) were related to the proximal femur, 70 (67%) to the neck, 34 (32%) to the proximal shaft, and one (1%) to the head. Sixty-nine of the 174 stress injuries (40%) concerned the pelvic bones: sacrum 28 (41%); inferior pubic ramus 34 (49%); superior pubic ramus 3 (4%); iliac bone 3 (4%); and acetabulum 1 (1%). In 31 of the 174 cases (18%) symptoms were contralateral to MR findings. Thirty-three of the 137 patients (24%) had multiple bone stress injuries, 29 had two bone stress injuries and 4 patients had three. The sensitivity of radiography was 37%, specificity 79%, accuracy 60%, positive predictive value 59% and negative predictive value 61%. The kappa value for agreement between radiography and MRI was poor (0.17, p=0.0008). Patients suffering from stress-related hip pain MRI revealed bone stress injuries in 40%; of these, 60% were located in the proximal femur and 40% in the pelvic bones. For accurate diagnosis of bone stress injuries, and to ensure appropriate treatment, the entire pelvis and both proximal femurs should be studied simultaneously by means of MRI. (orig.)

  13. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  14. Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, Fanny; Côté, Isabelle; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Neuropathic pain often follows spinal cord injury (SCI). To compare the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over different motor cortex targets (hand vs leg area) versus sham stimulation on neuropathic pain and local neurophysiological changes in patients with SCI. A total of 16 patients with complete or incomplete motor SCI and chronic neuropathic pain participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized study. Three single sessions of sham or active rTMS (10 Hz, total of 2000 stimuli) were applied in random order over the hand or leg area with a minimal 2-week interval. THE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: were the numeric rating scale for pain sensation and parameters derived from motor mapping of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, including maximal amplitude of evoked response as well as map area, volume, and location. rTMS applied to either the hand or the leg area, but not sham stimulation, induced a significant but equivalent reduction in pain for the first 48 hours postintervention (P stimulation of the hand area (P = .04) but not for the other conditions. rTMS applied over the hand or leg motor cortex decreased neuropathic pain regardless of any change in cortical excitability, suggesting that the analgesic effect is not associated with local changes at the motor cortex level itself.

  15. Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries...

  16. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  17. The Role of Posttraumatic Stress in Acute Postconcussive Symptoms following Blast Injury in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-21

    Hovda DA, Giza CC: The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury . Clin Sports Med 2011; 30: 33–48. 7 World Health Organisation, ICD-10...following blast injury in combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard Bryant /Monty Baker, Jim...personnel are managed in the acute aftermath of a blast injury . Management of PCS needs to recognize the role of acute posttraumatic stress responses in

  18. Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury: A Behavioral, Proteomics, and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) can both result in lasting neurobehavioral abnormalities. Post- traumatic stress disorder and blast...factor on the battlefield INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) is one of the leading causes of death and chronic disability worldwide (Bruns and...ulcer devel- opment. Brain Res. Bull. 25, 691–695. Jaffee, M. S., and Meyer, K. S. (2009). A brief overview of traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and

  19. Stress-induced Salter-Harris I growth plate injury of the proximal tibia: first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, M; Butt, S; Mansour, R; Muthukumar, T; Cassar-Pullicino, V N; Roberts, A

    2005-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic Salter-Harris I injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis. To our knowledge such an injury has not been described in the English language literature. The radiological appearance can mimic chronic infection. The possibility of chronic athletic stress-related change should be considered in such scenarios to avoid a misdiagnosis.

  20. Stress-induced Salter-Harris I growth plate injury of the proximal tibia: first report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, M.; Butt, S.; Mansour, R.; Muthukumar, T.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Roberts, A. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic Salter-Harris I injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis. To our knowledge such an injury has not been described in the English language literature. The radiological appearance can mimic chronic infection. The possibility of chronic athletic stress-related change should be considered in such scenarios to avoid a misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Monitoring percieves stress, recovery and non-traumatic lower extremity injuries in competitive runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R.T.A.; Brink, M.S.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Runners often sustain lower extremity injuries (19-79%) (van Gent et al, 2007). In a theoretical model it has been described that a disturbance in perceived stress and recovery can increase the risk of sustaining an injury (Williams & Andersen, 1998). Therefore, the purpose of this stud

  2. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury ...... be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals....

  3. Oxidative Stress and Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salatti Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury is directly related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, endothelial cell injury, increased vascular permeability, and the activation of neutrophils and platelets, cytokines, and the complement system. Several studies have confirmed the destructiveness of the toxic oxygen metabolites produced and their role in the pathophysiology of different processes, such as oxygen poisoning, inflammation, and ischemic injury. Due to the different degrees of tissue damage resulting from the process of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, several studies in animal models have focused on the prevention of IR injury and methods of lung protection. Lung IR injury has clinical relevance in the setting of lung transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass, for which the consequences of IR injury may be devastating in critically ill patients.

  4. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  5. Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanyong Zhang; Dankai Wu; Jincheng Wang; Yongming Wang; Guoxiang Wang; Maoguang Yang; Xiaoyu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differential y expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initial y improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradual y decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6–12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induc-tion. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons.

  6. The link between injury-induced stress and regenerative phenomena: A cellular and genetic synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Piril; Monaghan, James R

    2015-04-01

    Injury is an inescapable phenomenon of life that affects animals at every physiological level. Yet, some animals respond to injury by rebuilding the damaged tissues whereas others are limited to scarring. Elucidating how a tissue insult from wounding leads to a regenerative response at the genetic level is essential to make regenerative advantages translational. It has become clear that animals with regenerative abilities recycle developmental programs after injury, reactivating genes that have lied dormant throughout adulthood. The question that is critical to our understanding of regeneration is how a specific set of developmentally important genes can be reactivated only after an acute tissue insult. Here, we review how injury-induced cellular stresses such as hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress may contribute to the genomic and epigenetic changes that promote regeneration in animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.

  7. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Liu, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ai-Wu; Gu, Ning

    2016-08-09

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL), one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone1) (NQO1). However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  8. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL, one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone1 (NQO1. However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  9. Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Dyhanne C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.

  10. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely.

  11. Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric injury patients: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Willie; Olff, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that about a quarter to a third of children with traffic-related injuries develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early symptoms of PTSD have been found to predict poor mental and physical outcome in studies of medically injured children. However, these symptoms are rarely recognized by physicians who provide emergency care for these children. In addition, there is insufficient knowledge about predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in this specific pediatric population. Early identification of those children at particular risk is needed to target preventive interventions appropriately. After some introducing remarks on the classification and the nature of posttraumatic stress reactions, current research findings on psychological and biological correlates of PTSD in pediatric injury patients are presented. The particular focus in this paper is on the neurobiological mechanisms that influence psychological responses to extreme stress and the development of PTSD. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD in pediatric injury patients, both in terms of neurobiology and treatment is needed.

  12. Stress as a diagnostic challenge for postconcussive symptoms: sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury or physiological stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, B; Berry, Z M; Bennett, T; Phillips, H L; Gouvier, W D

    2001-08-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding whether persistent postconcussive symptoms (PCS) are injury-specific, in a subgroup of individuals after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The following findings have contributed to this controversy: (1) The base rate of PCS in mild TBI is comparable to uninjured controls; and (2) The severity of PCS covary with daily stress levels (Gouvier, Cubic, Jones, Brantley, & Cutlip, 1992). We examined this relationship further by evaluating the effects of experimental conditions of stress or relaxation on individuals with TBI and uninjured control subjects, with low and high PCS endorsement. We evaluated psychophysiological parameters, neuropsychological performance, and changes in PCS and stress perception. In our study, subjects with TBI increased PCS after engaging in cognitively challenging tasks, and demonstrated significant autonomic changes in the stress condition. Symptomatic TBI subjects exposed to high stress had increases in PCS complaints, decreased speed of information processing, and subtle memory deficits. Our results suggest that PCS are injury-specific and that individuals with a history of TBI are susceptible to the effects of stress. Relaxation training including breathing retraining may be an effective means of decreasing PCS and cognitive complaints in subjects with mild TBI.

  13. [Fencing injuries and stress injuries in modern fencing sport- a questionnaire evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, C; Rosenbaum, D

    2008-12-01

    Overload injuries and trauma caused by athletic activities in elite and non-elite fencers may be related to a variety of risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sport specific pattern of injuries in junior and adult elite fencers and potential causative factors for the specific injuries. Questionnaires were distributed in fencing clubs and competitions. A total of 180 athletes participated with 107 being elite fencers (55 male, 52 female) and 73 advanced fencers (77 male, 26 female). Injuries and pain could be ascertained in 167 fencers (92.8 %), and could be related to their activities in competitive fencing.

  14. Use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Watanabe, Laine M; Moreno, Tamara J; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Pelvic stress injuries are a relatively uncommon form of injury that require high index of clinician suspicion and usually MRI for definitive diagnosis. We present a case report of a 21-year-old female elite runner who was diagnosed with pelvic stress injury and used an antigravity treadmill during rehabilitation. She was able to return to pain-free ground running at 8 weeks after running at 95% body weight on the antigravity treadmill. Ten weeks from time of diagnosis, she competed at her conference championships and advanced to the NCAA Championships in the 10,000-meters. She competed in both races without residual pain. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report on use of an antigravity treadmill in rehabilitation of bone-related injuries. Our findings suggest that use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury may result in appropriate bone loading and healing during progression to ground running and faster return to competition. Future research may identify appropriate protocols for recovery from overuse lower extremity injuries and other uses for this technology, including neuromuscular recovery and injury prevention.

  15. Daily sesame oil supplementation mitigates ketoconazole-induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Chuan-Teng; Chien, Se-Ping; Chen, Ying-Chien; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2016-11-01

    Ketoconazole (KCZ) is the most commonly used systemic antifungal drug. However, long-term treatment of KCZ induces hepatic injury. Oxidative stress is involved in KCZ-induced hepatic injury. Oxidative stress plays an important role in apoptosis-associated hepatic damage. Sesame oil is rich in potent antioxidants and antifungal constituents. It attenuates hepatic injury by inhibiting oxidative stress. Thus, sesame oil may protect against KCZ-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and hepatic damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of sesame oil as a nutritional supplement on KCZ-induced hepatic injury in mice. KCZ (300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gastric intubation; 30 min later, sesame oil (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 ml/kg/day; p.o.) was administered to mice for 14 days. Blood and liver tissue were collected. Hepatic injury was evaluated by serum biochemistry and histology. Oxidative stress was evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity, p47-phox, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level. Apoptosis was evaluated by p53, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and Cyto-C expression. Osteopontin was measured to assess liver healing. Sesame oil attenuated hepatic injury; it also decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in KCZ-treated mice. Sesame oil may be used as a nutritional supplement with existing antifungal therapies to neutralize the adverse hepatotoxic nature of antifungal drugs by attenuating hepatic apoptosis through redox system to protect and heal liver injury in KCZ-treated mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging for stress injuries of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Hironori; Nishizawa, Kazuharu; Sasaki, Taisuke; Toh, Satoshi

    2002-03-01

    To compare findings of radiography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in stress injuries of bone and evaluate changes of these findings with time correlated with clinical symptoms. Prospective study. A primary care hospital outpatient orthopedic clinic. All 31 patients with stress injuries of bone who visited our clinic from July 1996 to June 2000. Radiography, scintigraphy, MRI, and clinical examinations were performed on the same day or at least within 1 week of each other, and the findings were compared. If symptoms of stress injury of bone continued, these examinations were repeated at intervals of 2 months until symptoms disappeared. These radiologic findings were assessed by an independent radiologist who was blinded to the clinical symptoms of the patients. Correlation accuracy of MRI and scintigraphy findings with clinical symptoms. Even with negative initial radiographic findings, all initial scintigraphy and MRI indicated stress injury of bone. There were no patients with positive/negative examinations. Grade of scintigraphy and MRI were closely correlated, and these findings also correlated with the degree of clinical symptoms. Compared with scintigraphy, MRI showed more diagnostic information, such as fracture line and periosteal edema. Areas of increased activity in scintigraphy were consistent with the grades of MRI, especially high signal intensity areas of STIR (short tau inversion recovery) image. From these observations, MRI is less invasive, provides more information than scintigraphy, and is recommended for initial diagnosis and assessment stages of stress injury of bone.

  17. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  18. The Relationship of Stressors and Stress on Injury Incident of Construction Workers in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Ali Khairul Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Workers (CWs are the main source of manpower that is necessary to every construction project. Non conducive and hazardous working environment at construction site will affect the physiological health of the construction labour. This study is conducted to explore the impact of job stress and emotional stress to the CWs that potentially lead to injuries incident in Penang. Twelve stressors were identified through factor analysis. Then, the stressors are classified into five main categories. Questionnaires were developed according to the stressstressor relationship. The correlation between factors of injury incident (stressor and stress shows that lack of autonomy and inappropriate safety equipment lead to the emotional stress among the CWs with 0.287 and 0.204 respectively. In addition, poor physical environment causes the job stress among CWs with the correlation of 0.270.

  19. Role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in lung injury induced by gut hypoxic stress and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-qiang XIONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic stress of the gut may induce impairment of gut barrier function, ensuing translocation of gutderived factors which can damage the function of remote organs, especially the development of acute lung injury (ALI. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary injury caused by hypoxia, while inflammation involved in the pathogenesis of HAPE has been gradually recognized. It has been also recognized that the cleavage and maturation of proinflammatory cytokines mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Further investigation on the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in lung injury induced by gut hypoxic stress is of an important clinical significance for further improvement in the treatment of hypoxic inflammatory diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.14

  20. Posture stress on firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) associated with repetitive reaching, bending, lifting, and pulling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Stader, Sally

    2010-01-01

    These ergonomic evaluations analyze the threat of musculoskeletal injuries primarily due to awkward and extreme postures across two post-fire tasks and a patient care task. The participants were firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in an urban U.S. fire department. Ergonomic tools used for the evaluation included the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and anthropometric measurements of equipment and persons. High to very high risks were found for lifting the hose above the shoulder to drain it of excess water and for rolling the hoses on the ground. Extreme risk was found for lifting the hose from chest height to above the shoulders during hose drainage. High risk was found for EMT patient care tasks that require reaching for overhead equipment or seated tasks that require horizontal bending and twisting. The risk was high enough for these tasks to warrant modification and changes. The recommendations given included creating new mechanical and technical devices, modifying existing devises, and making workers aware of associated risks to reduce the threat of injury.

  1. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  2. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imagin...

  3. On-Duty Nonfatal Injury that Lead to Work Absences Among Police Officers and Level of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christine; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Harlow, Siobán; Bingham, C Raymond; McCullagh, Marjorie; Park, Sung Kyun; Violanti, John

    2017-08-14

    We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury. The average number of injuries per officer was three (range 1 to 12). There was a significant linear trend in mean perceived stress across injury count even after adjusting for age, rank, and sex (P = 0.025). Findings suggest that work-related injury is common and repeated work-related injuries are psychologically distressing in U.S. police officers.

  4. Angiogenin Mediates Cell-Autonomous Translational Control under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mami, Iadh; Bouvier, Nicolas; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Rabant, Marion; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Li, Shuping; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Chevet, Eric; Hu, Guo-Fu; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and aging, but the molecular bases underlying the biologic outcomes on the evolution of renal disease remain mostly unknown. Angiogenin (ANG) is a ribonuclease that promotes cellular adaptation under stress but its contribution to ER stress signaling remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the ANG-mediated contribution to the signaling and biologic outcomes of ER stress in kidney injury. ANG expression was significantly higher in samples from injured human kidneys than in samples from normal human kidneys, and in mouse and rat kidneys, ANG expression was specifically induced under ER stress. In human renal epithelial cells, ER stress induced ANG expression in a manner dependent on the activity of transcription factor XBP1, and ANG promoted cellular adaptation to ER stress through induction of stress granules and inhibition of translation. Moreover, the severity of renal lesions induced by ER stress was dramatically greater in ANG knockout mice (Ang(-/-)) mice than in wild-type mice. These results indicate that ANG is a critical mediator of tissue adaptation to kidney injury and reveal a physiologically relevant ER stress-mediated adaptive translational control mechanism.

  5. A systems biology approach to heat stress, heat injury, and heat stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jonathan D.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-05-01

    Heat illness is a major source of injury for military populations in both deployed and training settings. Developing tools to help leaders enhance unit performance while reducing the risk of injury is of paramount importance to the military. Here, we review our recent systems biology approaches to heat stress in order to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) realistic thermoregulation model, identify the molecular basis and mediators of injury, and characterize associated biomarkers. We discuss the implications of our work, future directions, and the type of tools necessary to enhance force health protection in the future.

  6. Effects of phonophoresis with gold nanoparticles on oxidative stress parameters in a traumatic muscle injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Victor, Eduardo Ghisi; Notoya, Frederico de Souza; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Silva, Luciano da; Cantú, Roberto Benavides; Martínez, Virginia Hidolina Collins; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic pulsed ultrasound with gold nanoparticles on oxidative stress parameters after traumatic muscle injury in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n = 6 each): sham (uninjured muscle); muscle injury without treatment; muscle injury and treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (15 mg/kg); muscle injury and treatment with gold nanoparticles (27 µg); muscle injury and treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide + gold nanoparticles (Plus); muscle injury and therapeutic pulsed ultrasound; muscle injury and therapeutic pulsed ultrasound + dimethyl sulfoxide; muscle injury and therapeutic pulsed ultrasound + gold nanoparticles; and muscle injury and therapeutic pulsed ultrasound + Plus. Gastrocnemius injury was induced by a single-impact blunt trauma. Therapeutic pulsed ultrasound (6-min application, frequency 1.0 MHz, intensity 0.8 W/cm(2)) was used 2, 12, 24, and 48 h after trauma. Mitochondrial superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. The increase in the superoxide production and TBARS and carbonyl levels observed in the control group after muscle damage were reduced in animals exposed to therapeutic pulsed ultrasound plus nanoparticles. Similarly, antioxidants enzymes showed a decreased activity with the same treatment. Our work suggest that therapeutic pulsed ultrasound + dimethyl sulfoxide + gold nanoparticles has beneficial effects on the muscle healing process by inducing a decrease in oxidative stress parameters and most likely decreasing the deleterious effects of the inflammatory response.

  7. Molecular Evidence of Stress-Induced Acute Heart Injury in a Mouse Model Simulating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-25

    cause transitory heart injury. Through a detailed longitudinal transcriptomic study [mRNAs and microRNAs ( miRNAs )] of the heart tissues in the PTSD...that some genetic factors may also affect the susceptibility to stress-related tissue injuries in the heart. The dynamical mRNA and miRNA profiling...we conducted a detailed transcriptome study, including miRNA and mRNA analyses, on the C57BL/6j heart tissues . We also conducted limited

  8. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  10. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  11. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  12. Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Recovery and Injury in Heat-stressed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    mitochondrial dys- function and disruption in energetics are key features in animals with heat-stress-induced heart injury. Mito - chondrial dysfunction...sociated with hypoxia in cardiomyocytes [81,82]. HSPA5 retargets to mitochondria and contributes to the mito - chondrial unfolded protein response [83

  13. Impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Hesse, E.; Janssen, T.; Wodzig, W.; Scheffer, P.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that (anti)oxidative imbalance is associated with the increased cardiovascular risk in SCI, while exercise can reverse this status. The aim of the study is to compare baseline levels of oxidative stress

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  15. Dysarthria Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Speaking Rate and Emphatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…

  16. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of ac

  17. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  18. Repetition of large stress drop earthquakes on Wairarapa fault, New Zealand, revealed by LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, E.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Beaupretre, S.; Vitard, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have acquired high-resolution LiDAR topographic data over most of the onland trace of the 120 km-long Wairarapa strike-slip fault, New Zealand. The Wairarapa fault broke in a large earthquake in 1855, and this historical earthquake is suggested to have produced up to 18 m of lateral slip at the ground surface. This would make this earthquake a remarkable event having produced a stress drop much higher than commonly observed on other earthquakes worldwide. The LiDAR data allowed us examining the ground surface morphology along the fault at vegetation. In doing so, we identified more than 900 alluvial features of various natures and sizes that are clearly laterally offset by the fault. We measured the about 670 clearest lateral offsets, along with their uncertainties. Most offsets are lower than 100 m. Each measurement was weighted by a quality factor that quantifies the confidence level in the correlation of the paired markers. Since the slips are expected to vary along the fault, we analyzed the measurements in short, 3-5 km-long fault segments. The PDF statistical analysis of the cumulative offsets per segment reveals that the alluvial morphology has well recorded, at every step along the fault, no more than a few (3-6), well distinct cumulative slips, all lower than 80 m. Plotted along the entire fault, the statistically defined cumulative slip values document four, fairly continuous slip profiles that we attribute to the four most recent large earthquakes on the Wairarapa fault. The four slip profiles have a roughly triangular and asymmetric envelope shape that is similar to the coseismic slip distributions described for most large earthquakes worldwide. The four slip profiles have their maximum slip at the same place, in the northeastern third of the fault trace. The maximum slips vary from one event to another in the range 7-15 m; the most recent 1855 earthquake produced a maximum coseismic slip of 15 × 2 m at the ground surface. Our results thus confirm

  19. Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Bhavya B; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S; Kaushal, Gur P

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya B Chandrika

    Full Text Available We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  3. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK horses with overt clinical signs and plasma CK >100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p stress in renal injury associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in horses. It is suggested that exaggeration of oxidative stress associated with increased muscle membrane leakage plays a key role in acute kidney injury in Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  4. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Jia, Pengyu; Jia, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is in controversy and the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. In the present study, we firstly detected the effects of hypercholesterolemia on MIRI and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in this process. The infarct size was determined by TTC staining, and apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL method. The marker proteins of ER stress response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia significantly increased the myocardial infarct size, the release of myocardium enzyme and the ratio of apoptosis, but did not affect the recovery of cardiac function. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia also remarkably up-regulated the expressions of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 and calreticulin) and critical molecules in ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway (CHOP, caspase 12, phospho-JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia enhanced myocardial vulnerability/sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion injury involved in aggravation the ER stress and activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway and it gave us a new insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with hypercholesterolemia-induced exaggerated MIRI and also provided a novel target for preventing MIRI in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Qian-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Ni, Hao; Liu, Ming-Yie; Mo, Fan-E

    2013-10-01

    Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H₂O₂. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H₂O₂ and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults.

  6. Cellular and subcellular oxidative stress parameters following severe spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant P. Visavadiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study undertook a comprehensive assessment of the acute biochemical oxidative stress parameters in both cellular and, notably, mitochondrial isolates following severe upper lumbar contusion spinal cord injury (SCI in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. At 24 h post-injury, spinal cord tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fractions were isolated concurrently and assessed for glutathione (GSH content and production of nitric oxide (NO•, in addition to the presence of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, protein carbonyl (PC, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Moreover, we assessed production of superoxide (O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in mitochondrial fractions. Quantitative biochemical analyses showed that compared to sham, SCI significantly lowered GSH content accompanied by increased NO• production in both cellular and mitochondrial fractions. SCI also resulted in increased O2•- and H2O2 levels in mitochondrial fractions. Western blot analysis further showed that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS mediated PC and 3-NT production were significantly higher in both fractions after SCI. Conversely, neither 4-HNE levels nor LPO formation were increased at 24 h after injury in either tissue homogenate or mitochondrial fractions. These results indicate that by 24 h post-injury ROS-induced protein oxidation is more prominent compared to lipid oxidation, indicating a critical temporal distinction in secondary pathophysiology that is critical in designing therapeutic approaches to mitigate consequences of oxidative stress.

  7. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: Preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tony, G., E-mail: drgtony@gmail.com [Stafford General Hospital, Weston Road, Stafford, Staffordshire ST16 3SA (United Kingdom); Charran, A., E-mail: amandacharran@yahoo.com [Hillingdon Hospital, Pield Heath Rd, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3NN (United Kingdom); Tins, B., E-mail: bernhard.tins@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Lalam, R., E-mail: radhesh.lalam@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Tyrrell, P.N.M., E-mail: prudencia.tyrrell@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Singh, J., E-mail: jaspreet.singh@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cool, P., E-mail: paul.cool@rjah.nhs.uk [Orthopaedic Oncology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Kiely, N., E-mail: nigel.kiely@rjah.nhs.uk [Paediatric Orthopaedics, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N., E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Purely intra-epiphyseal stress injuries of the proximal tibial epiphysis are described for the first time. • The variation in the MRI findings of these injuries depending on the stage of maturation is demonstrated. • We postulate a patho-mechanism to explain the variations in site and appearance of stress injuries in this region. - Abstract: Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families.

  8. Making Sense of Oxidative Stress in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Mediator or Distracter in Brain Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eZhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to cognitive impairment, metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Identifying the mechanisms by which this prevalent disorder influences health outcomes is now of utmost importance. As the prevalence of this disorder steadily increases, therapies are needed to prevent or reverse sleep apnea morbidities now more than ever before. Oxidative stress is implicated in cardiovascular morbidities of sleep apnea. What role oxidative stress plays in neural injury and cognitive impairments has been difficult to understand without readily accessible tissue to biopsy in persons with and without sleep apnea. An improved understanding of the role oxidative stress plays in neural injury in sleep apnea may be developed by integrating information gained examining neural tissue in animal models of sleep apnea with key features of redox biochemistry and clinical sleep apnea studies where extra-neuronal oxidative stress characterizations have been performed. Collectively, this information sets the stage for developing and testing novel therapeutic approaches to treat and prevent, not only central nervous system injury and dysfunction in sleep apnea, but also the cardiovascular and potentially metabolic conditions associated with this prevalent, disabling disorder.

  9. Calcium overload injury of rats' enterocyte IEC-6 by heat stress in vitro

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    Yan GENG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of gradient heat stress on calcium overload of rats' enterocyte IEC-6 and calcium overload-related cell injury in vitro. Methods Thermal gradient was set in culturing IEC-6 cells in vitro. After thermal stimulation, Fluo-3Am probe with fluorescence microscope or flow cytometry was used to detect the change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of IEC-6 cells. Phase contrast microscope was used to observe the morphological change in IEC-6. Coomassie blue dying method was employed to test the change in IEC-6 cytoskeleton. CCK-8 assay was used to assess cellular viability. Adhesion assay was applied to test the change in basilar membrane adhesiveness of IEC-6 cells. Results Compared with normal control group, cells of heat stress groups showed a thermal-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (P<0.01. Cells of heat stress groups were rounded in shape, the pseudopod was shorter, and cell space was enlarged. These phenomena were more obvious in 45℃ culture than in that of 43℃. Coomassie blue dying showed that the cytoskeleton of cells in heat stress groups became thickened and disordered, and stress fibers appeared. These phenomena were also more obvious in 45℃ culture than in that of 43℃. A thermal-dependant decline of cell viability in heat stress groups was observed via CCK-8 assay (P<0.01, and a thermal-dependant decline of basilar membrane adhesiveness in heat stress groups was observed via adhesion assay (P<0.01. Conclusion Heat stress may cause calcium overload of IEC-6 cells, and thus resulting in a series of calcium overload-related cell injury. Further investigation of the effect and mechanism of heat stress on calcium overload of intestinal mucosa endothelial cells may help further understand the mechanism of the pathogenesis of heat stroke.

  10. Different frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Xie, Qinglian; Zheng, Zhong; Zou, Ke; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective for treating PTSD, but whether different frequencies have different effects remains controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to address this question. We searched the literature for studies written in English or Chinese in 9 electronic databases from the databases' inception to August 1, 2016. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists of identified studies and from personal reference collections. Eighteen articles were included, and 11 were suitable for the meta-analysis (Combined sample size was 377 (217 in active rTMS groups, 160 in sham-controlled groups)). Low-frequency (LF) rTMS resulted in a significant reduction in the PTSD total score and the depression score (1. PTSD total score: pooled SMD, 0.92; CI, 0.11-1.72; 2. Depression: pooled SMD, 0.54; CI, 0.08-1.00). High-frequency (HF) rTMS showed the following results: 1. PTSD total score: pooled SMD, 3.24; CI, 2.24-4.25; 2. re-experiencing: pooled SMD, -1.77; CI, -2.49-(-1.04); 3. Avoidance: pooled SMD, -1.57; CI, -2.50-(-0.84); 4. hyperarousal: pooled SMD, -1.32; CI, -2.17-(-0.47); 5. depression: pooled SMD, 1.92; CI, 0.80-3.03; and 6. Anxiety: pooled SMD, 2.67; CI, 1.82-3.52. Therefore, both HF and LF rTMS can alleviate PTSD symptoms. Although the evidence is extremely limited, LF rTMS can reduce overall PTSD and depression symptoms. HF rTMS can improve the main and related symptoms of PTSD. However, additional research is needed to substantiate these findings.

  11. The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychosocial consequences of burn injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Judith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Leahy, Nicole; Yurt, Roger; Difede, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries are unique in their medical and psychological impact, yet there has been little exploration of psychiatric treatment for this population. This uncontrolled pilot study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a treatment protocol designed to address posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, coping with scarring, and community integration among adult burn survivors. A 14-session, manualized treatment protocol was created using cognitive-behavioral interventions including imaginal exposure, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, modeling, and in vivo exposure. Responses were measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Index, Community Integration Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and Burn Specific Health Scale. Nine of 10 enrolled patients (60% women; mean = 42 years old) completed treatment. Burn size was 0.5% to 65%; mechanism of injury included flame (4), scald (5), and contact (1) burns. Mean acute hospitalization was 30.1 days (range = 13-87); mean time from injury to treatment was 3.2 months (range = 1-7). Baseline mean posttraumatic stress score was 68 on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (severe); scores decreased by 36% to a mean of 45.3 at posttreatment, with a large effect size. Baseline self-reported depression was 21 (moderate) on the Beck Depression Index, decreasing by 47% to a mean of 12 posttreatment (nonclinical). Change in community reintegration score was significant and large, and body image showed significant improvement. The protocol showed promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, self-image, and community reintegration following burn injury. These findings suggest that coping may improve with treatment and symptoms should not be dismissed as unavoidable consequences of burn injury.

  12. Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits protect cells from oxidative stress injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Rita; Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Barone, Amalia; Monti, Daria Maria; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid 'Zebrino' was analysed. Carotenoid content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed. Lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared with tomato extracts. These results were probably due to the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury and Remodeling: Revisited

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    Gino A. Kurian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and reductive stress are dual dynamic phases experienced by the cells undergoing adaptation towards endogenous or exogenous noxious stimulus. The former arises due to the imbalance between the reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defenses, while the latter is due to the aberrant increase in the reducing equivalents. Mitochondrial malfunction is the common denominator arising from the aberrant functioning of the rheostat that maintains the homeostasis between oxidative and reductive stress. Recent experimental evidences suggest that the maladaptation during oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of major cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review we have discussed the role of oxidative and reductive stress pathways in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM. Furthermore, we have provided impetus for the development of subcellular organelle targeted antioxidant drug therapy for thwarting the deterioration of the failing myocardium in the aforementioned cardiovascular conditions.

  14. Effects of methods of confinement during transportation of market pigs on their behavior, stress and injury

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    Pongchan Na-Lampang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of transport market pigs in individual crates vs. in groups ontheir behavior, stress and injury. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for groups and individual crates treatment, respectively. During loading, the group pigs had higher frequencies of climbing, slipping and turning around than the crate pigs. During transport, the group pigs engaged in fightingand agonistic interactions. There were no differences (P>0.05 between the two treatments in rectal temperature, respiratoryrate and saliva cortisol level. Pigs kept in crates had lower (P<0.05 skin bruise scores but higher proportion of nonambulatorypigs than those kept in groups. In conclusion, transport in crates caused less agitation behaviors and injuries than transportin groups, but there was no differences in stress indicators.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  16. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by caffeine ameliorates hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Jing, Xigang; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Afolayan, Adeleye J; Wu, Tzong-Jin; Konduri, Girija G

    2017-05-01

    Rodent pups exposed to hyperoxia develop lung changes similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. Oxidative stress from hyperoxia can injure developing lungs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Early caffeine treatment decreases the rate of BPD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury through its chemical chaperone property. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were raised either in 90 (hyperoxia) or 21% (normoxia) oxygen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to postnatal day 10 (P10) and then recovered in 21% oxygen until P21. Caffeine (20 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally daily starting from P2. Lungs were inflation-fixed for histology or snap-frozen for immunoblots. Blood caffeine levels were measured in treated pups at euthanasia and were found to be 18.4 ± 4.9 μg/ml. Hyperoxia impaired alveolar formation and increased ER stress markers and downstream effectors; caffeine treatment attenuated these changes at P10. Caffeine also attenuated the hyperoxia-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth impairment is mediated, in part, by ER stress. Early caffeine treatment protects developing lungs from hyperoxia-induced injury by attenuating ER stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Sex-dependent effects of chronic psychosocial stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah; Fry, Megan E; Lawson, Joseph D; Stoner, Lauren E; Johnson, Brandon L; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience many debilitating symptoms, including intrusive memories, persistent anxiety and avoidance of trauma-related cues. PTSD also results in numerous physiological complications, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, characterization of PTSD-induced cardiovascular alterations is lacking, especially in preclinical models of the disorder. Thus, we examined the impact of a psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to psychosocial stress or control conditions for 31 days. Stressed rats were given two cat exposures, separated by a period of 10 days, and were subjected to daily social instability throughout the paradigm. Control rats were handled daily for the duration of the experiment. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) on day 32, and hearts were isolated on day 33 and subjected to 20 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Stressed male and female rats gained less body weight relative to controls, but only stressed males exhibited increased anxiety on the EPM. Male, but not female, rats exposed to psychosocial stress exhibited significantly larger infarcts and attenuated post-ischemic recovery of contractile function compared to controls. Our data demonstrate that predator stress combined with daily social instability sex-dependently increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Thus, this manipulation may be useful for studying potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular alterations in PTSD, as well as sex differences in the cardiovascular stress response.

  18. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and community integration a long time after whiplash injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Marie Stålnacke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress and depression may play an important role in the recovery after whiplash injuries. Difficulties in psychosocial functioning with limitations in everyday life may dominate for some time after the injury. Our study therefore investigates the relationships between pain, post-traumatic stress, depression, and community integration. A set of questionnaires was answered by 191 persons (88 men, 103 women five years after a whiplash injury to assess pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS, whiplash-related symptoms, post-traumatic stress (impact of event scale, IES, depression (Beck depression inventory, BDI-II, community integration (community integration questionnaire, CIQ, life satisfaction (LiSat-11. One or more depressive symptoms were reported by 74% of persons; 22% reported scores that were classified as mild to severe depression. The presence of at least one post-traumatic symptom was reported by 70% of persons, and 38% reported mild to severe stress. Total scores of community integration for women were statistically significantly higher than for men. The total VAS score was correl-ated positively to the IES (r=0.456, P less than 0.456, the BDI (r=0.646, P less than 0.001, and negatively to the CIQ (r=-0.300, P less than 0.001. These results highlight the view that a significant proportion of people experience both pain and psycho- logical difficulties for a long time after a whiplash injury. These findings should be taken into consideration in the management of subjects with chronic whiplash symptoms and may support a multi-professional rehabilitation model that integrates physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors.

  19. Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14(1):1-22. 3. Iverson GL, Brooks BL, Lovell MR, Collins MW. No cumulative...traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci . 2011;23(1):29-39. 61. Brenner LA, Betthauser LM, Homaifar BY, et al. Posttraumatic stress...4):589-595. 67. Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Bailes J, et al. Recurrent concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football players.Med

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Combat Casualties With Burns Sustaining Primary Blast and Concussive Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    in close proximity to the blast center, can result in eardrum damage (rupture of the tympanic membrane TM), lung damage (pulmonary or alveolar ...rence of psychologic deficit .12,13 The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center reports 22% of soldiers returning from OIF/OEF as having evidence of...psychologic deficit , specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).13 This in- creased risk of altered mental status, concussive symptoms, and PTSD

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation:potential treatment for co-occurring alcohol, traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy AHerrold; Sandra LKletzel; Brett CHarton; R.Andrew Chambers; Neil Jordan; Teresa Louise-Bender Pape

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and posttraumatic stress dis-order (PTSD) commonly co-occur (AUD + mTBI + PTSD). These conditions have overlapping symptoms which are, in part, relfective of overlapping neuropathology. These conditions become problematic because their co-occurrence can exacerbate symptoms. Therefore, treatments must be developed that are inclusive to all three conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimu-lation (rTMS) is non-invasive and may be an ideal treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI +PTSD. There is accumulating evidence on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, mTBI, and PTSD each alone. However, there are no published studies to date on rTMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review article advances the knowledge base for rTMS as a treatment for AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review provides background information about these co-occurring conditions as well as rTMS. The existing literature on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, TBI, and PTSD each alone is reviewed. Finally, neurobiological ifndings in support of a theoretical model are discussed to inform TMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. The peer-reviewed literature was identiifed by targeted literature searches using PubMed and supplemented by cross-referencing the bibliographies of relevant review arti-cles. The existing evidence on rTMS as a treatment for these conditions in isolation, coupled with the overlapping neuropathology and symptomology of these conditions, suggests that rTMS may be well suited for the treatment of these conditions together.

  2. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates heat stress-induced IEC-6 cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chen; He, Sha-Sha; Yin, Peng; Xu, Lei; Shi, Ya-Ran; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Lyu, An; Liu, Feng-Hua; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental stressor that adversely influences livestock during the summer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnolol protects against HS-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. An intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was subjected to HS at 42 °C, with and without magnolol pretreatment. Cell injury was detected by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay was used to assess cell proliferation and viability, including identifying effective concentrations of magnolol. Flow cytometry confirmed G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and its alleviation by magnolol. Active DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of nucleic acid 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). G1-phase cell-cycle-related gene expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and levels of G1-phase-related proteins by Western blotting. HS induced IEC-6 cell injury and decreased cell viability, as demonstrated by data from LDH and MTS assays, respectively. Based on a number of criteria, IEC-6 cells subjected to HS were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol pretreatment decreased HS-induced cell injury through relief of this cell-cycle arrest. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates HS-induced injury in IEC-6 cells. Magnolol is potentially promising as a protective strategy for HS in livestock.

  3. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  4. Monitoring percieves stress, recovery and non-traumatic lower extremity injuries in competitive runners : [24-27 juni 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R.T.A.; Brink, M.S.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Runners often sustain lower extremity injuries (19-79%) (van Gent et al, 2007). In a theoretical model it has been described that a disturbance in perceived stress and recovery can increase the risk of sustaining an injury (Williams & Andersen, 1998). Therefore, the purpose of this stud

  5. Protective effects of gallic acid against spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong Hong; Wang, Zao; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Ran

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of gallic acid in oxidative stress induced during spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to measure oxidative stress, the levels of lipid peroxide, protein carbonyl, reactive oxygen species and nitrates/nitrites were determined. In addition, the antioxidant status during SCI injury and the protective role of gallic acid were investigated by determining glutathione levels as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Adenosine triphophatase (ATPase) enzyme activities were determined to evaluate the role of gallic acid in SCI-induced deregulation of the activity of enzymes involved in ion homeostasis. The levels of inflammatory markers such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and cycloxygenase (COX)-2 were determined by western blot analysis. Treatment with gallic acid was observed to significantly mitigate SCI-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response by reducing the oxidative stress, decreasing the expression of NF-κB and COX-2 as well as increasing the antioxidant status of cells. In addition, gallic acid modulated the activity of ATPase enzymes. Thus the present study indicated that gallic acid may have a role as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against SCI.

  6. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling in skeletal muscle in pressure-induced deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Thomas K; Pei, Xiao M; Teng, Bee T; Tam, Eric W; Yung, Benjamin Y; Siu, Parco M

    2013-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of pressure-induced deep tissue injury are largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling mechanism in skeletal muscle are involved in deep tissue injury. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subject to an experimental protocol to induce deep tissue injury. Two compression cycles with a static pressure of 100 mmHg was applied to an area of 1.5 cm(2) over the mid-tibialis region of right limb of the rats. The left uncompressed limb served as intra-animal control. Muscle tissues underneath compression region were collected for examination. Our analyses indicated that pathohistological characteristics including rounding contour of myofibres and extensive nuclei accumulation were apparently shown in compressed muscles. The elevation of 8OHdG immunopositively stained nuclei indicated the presence of oxidative DNA damage. Increase in oxidative stress was revealed by showing significant elevation of 4HNE and decreases in mRNA abundance of SOD1, catalase and GPx, and protein content of SOD2 in compressed muscles relative to control muscles. Increase in nitrosative stress was demonstrated by significant elevation of nitrotyrosine and NOS2 mRNA content. The activation of tumor suppressor p53 signalling was indicated by the remarkable increases in protein contents of total p53 and serine-15 phosphorylated p53. The transcript expression of the DNA-repairing enzyme, Rad23A, was significantly suppressed in compressed muscles. Our time-course study indicated that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling were maintained in muscles receiving increasing amount of compression cycles and post-compression time. Furthermore, resveratrol was found to attenuate the histological damage, oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling in response to prolonged moderate compression. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that

  8. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  9. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  10. Collectin-11 detects stress-induced L-fucose pattern to trigger renal epithelial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Conrad A; Tran, David; Li, Ke; Wu, Weiju; Peng, Qi; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Zhou, Wuding; Sacks, Steven H

    2016-05-01

    Physiochemical stress induces tissue injury as a result of the detection of abnormal molecular patterns by sensory molecules of the innate immune system. Here, we have described how the recently discovered C-type lectin collectin-11 (CL-11, also known as CL-K1 and encoded by COLEC11) recognizes an abnormal pattern of L-fucose on postischemic renal tubule cells and activates a destructive inflammatory response. We found that intrarenal expression of CL-11 rapidly increases in the postischemic period and colocalizes with complement deposited along the basolateral surface of the proximal renal tubule in association with L-fucose, the potential binding ligand for CL-11. Mice with either generalized or kidney-specific deficiency of CL-11 were strongly protected against loss of renal function and tubule injury due to reduced complement deposition. Ex vivo renal tubule cells showed a marked capacity for CL-11 binding that was induced by cell stress under hypoxic or hypothermic conditions and prevented by specific removal of L-fucose. Further analysis revealed that cell-bound CL-11 required the lectin complement pathway-associated protease MASP-2 to trigger complement deposition. Given these results, we conclude that lectin complement pathway activation triggered by ligand-CL-11 interaction in postischemic tissue is a potent source of acute kidney injury and is amenable to sugar-specific blockade.

  11. Oxidative stress disturbs energy metabolism of mitochondria in ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Pan; Shao-Zhen He; Hong-Zhi Xu; Xiao-Juan Zhan; Xiao-Ning Yang; Hong-Min Xiao; Hua-Xiu Shi; Jian-Lin Ren

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of mitochondrial energy disorder in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury.METHODS: Wistar rats were used in this study. A gastric mucosal injury model was established by giving the rats alcohol. Gross and microscopic appearance of gastric mucosa and ultrastructure of mitochondria were evaluated. Malondiadehyde (MDA) in gastric mucosa was measured with thiobarbituric acid. Expression of ATP synthase (ATPase) subunits 6 and 8 in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: The gastric mucosal lesion index was correlated with the MDA content in gastric mucosa. As the concentration of ethanol was elevated and the exposure time to ethanol was extended, the content of MDA in gastric mucosa increased and the extent of damage aggravated. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was positively related to the ethanol concentration and exposure time. The expression of mtDNA ATPase subunits 6 and 8 mRNA declined with the increasing MDA content in gastric mucosa after gavage with ethanol.CONCLUSION: Ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury is related to oxidative stress, which disturbs energy metabolism of mitochondria and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury.

  12. Monitoring stress and recovery : New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Arends, S.; Zwerver, Hans; Post, Wendy; Lemmink, K.A.

    Objective Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of

  13. Monitoring stress and recovery : New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Arends, S.; Zwerver, Hans; Post, Wendy; Lemmink, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of injur

  14. Monitoring stress and recovery : New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Arends, S.; Zwerver, Hans; Post, Wendy; Lemmink, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of injur

  15. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: guluer@163.com [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wu, Xudong, E-mail: xudongwu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  16. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R after high (25 mM or low (5.5 mM glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  17. Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David V; Esty, Mary Lee

    2015-10-01

    Previous report suggested the beneficial effects of an adaptation of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) for the amelioration of mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. As a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, FNS falls within the bioenergy domain of complementary and alternative medicine. Rather than learning voluntary control over the production/inhibition of brain wave patterns, FNS involves offsetting stimulation of brain wave activity by means of an external energy source, specifically, the conduction of electromagnetic energy stimulation via the connecting electroencephalograph cables. Essentially, these procedures subliminally induce strategic distortion of ongoing brain wave activity to presumably facilitate resetting of more adaptive patterns of activity. Reported herein are two cases of Vietnam veterans with mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms, each treated with FNS for 25 sessions. Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades.

  18. A Military-Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and its BDPs, UCH-L1, SBDPs, and c-APP) will be evaluated following a single PCI injury in brain tissue, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum by...blocked in 5% milk , probed with rabbit anti-GFAP primary antibodies overnight, washed, probed with donkey anti-rabbit secondary antibodies for 2 hours and...neuroendocrine response, we screened serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for 29 distinct rat inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 1h, 24h and 14d

  19. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W; Korsholm, Lars; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals.

  20. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  1. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Audi, Said H; Maleki, Sepideh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Eis, Annie L; Konduri, Girija G; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD), referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR) has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2) pups, hyperoxic (90% O2) pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS), and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS). Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  2. The military's approach to traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Grimes, Jamie; Ecklund, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are common conditions. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI became prominent among US service members but the vast majority of TBI was still due to typical causes such as falls and sporting events. PTS has long been a focus of the US military mental health providers. Combat Stress Teams have been integral to forward deployed units since the beginning of the Global War on Terror. Military medical management of disease and injury follows standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) established by civilian counterparts. However, when civilian CPGs do not exist or are not applicable to the military environment, new practice standards are created. Such is the case for mild TBI. In 2009, the VA-DoD CPG for management of mild TBI/concussion was published and a system-wide clinical care program for mild TBI/concussion was introduced. This was the first large scale effort on an entire medical care system to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. In 2010, the VA-DoD CPG for management of PTSD was published. Nevertheless, both TBI and PTS are still incompletely understood. Investment in terms of money and effort has been committed by the DoD to their study. The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury are prominent examples of this effort. These are just beginnings, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always striving to provide the very best care to its military beneficiaries.

  3. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  4. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates heat stress-induced IEC-6 cell injury*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chen; He, Sha-sha; Yin, Peng; Xu, Lei; Shi, Ya-ran; Yu, Xiao-hong; Lyu, An; Liu, Feng-hua; Jiang, Lin-shu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental stressor that adversely influences livestock during the summer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnolol protects against HS-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. Materials and methods: An intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was subjected to HS at 42 °C, with and without magnolol pretreatment. Cell injury was detected by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay was used to assess cell proliferation and viability, including identifying effective concentrations of magnolol. Flow cytometry confirmed G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and its alleviation by magnolol. Active DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of nucleic acid 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). G1-phase cell-cycle-related gene expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and levels of G1-phase-related proteins by Western blotting. Results: HS induced IEC-6 cell injury and decreased cell viability, as demonstrated by data from LDH and MTS assays, respectively. Based on a number of criteria, IEC-6 cells subjected to HS were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol pretreatment decreased HS-induced cell injury through relief of this cell-cycle arrest. Conclusions: Magnolol pretreatment attenuates HS-induced injury in IEC-6 cells. Magnolol is potentially promising as a protective strategy for HS in livestock. PMID:27256675

  5. Combat posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathleen T; Tuerk, Peter; Back, Sudie E; Saladin, Michael E; Waldrop, Angela E; Myrick, Hugh

    2009-12-01

    Among both civilian and veteran populations, substance use disorders (SUDs) and anxiety disorders frequently co-occur. One of the most common comorbid anxiety disorder is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition which may develop after exposure to traumatic events, such as military combat. In comparison with the general population, rates of both SUDs and PTSD are elevated among veterans. Recent data show that soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan demonstrate high rates of co-occurring SUDs, PTSD, and traumatic brain injury. Careful assessment of these conditions is critical and may be complicated by symptom overlap. More research targeting integrated interventions for these conditions is needed to establish optimal treatments.

  6. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  7. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; Tang, H-B; Kang, J; Shan, L; Song, H; Zhu, K; Wang, J; Ju, G; Wang, Y-Z

    2015-12-17

    Microglia/macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although extensive studies have been performed on the mechanisms of microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment, how microglia/macrophages are eliminated remains unclear. In the present study, we observed a high-level expression of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key molecule in the execution of necroptosis, in microglia/macrophages after SCI in mice. In vivo PI-labeling and Necrostatin-1 treatment confirmed the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, our electronic microscopic (EM) study revealed that MLKL localized not only at the membrane but also on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), another necrosome component, was also found on the ER of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. And Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress sensor, was up-regulated in MLKL-positive microglia/macrophages after SCI, suggesting a possible link between necroptosis and ER stress. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress induced ER stress and necroptosis in microglia. Inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly blocked the OGD-induced necroptosis of microglia. In the end, our data showed that, GRP78 and phosphorylated MLKL were co-expressed by the microglia/macrophages in the injured human spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggested that microglia/macrophages undergo an ER-stress involved necroptosis after SCI, implying that ER stress and necroptosis could be manipulated for modulating inflammation post-SCI.

  8. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...

  9. Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Liver Injury Caused by Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA is widely present in the environment and has been reported to induce hepatic toxicity in animals and humans. In this study, mice were orally administered different concentrations of PFOA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Histological examination showed that the exposure to PFOA for 14 consecutive days led to serious hepatocellular injury and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, malondialdehyde formation and hydrogen peroxide generation, indicators of oxidative stress, were significantly induced by PFOA treatment in the liver of mice. Furthermore, hepatic levels of interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and C-reactive protein, markers of inflammatory response, were markedly increased by exposure to PFOA in mice. These results demonstrated that PFOA-induced hepatic toxicity may be involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice.

  10. Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Harvey, A G

    1999-05-01

    Postconcussive symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) may be exacerbated by anxiety associated with posttraumatic stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an MTBI population. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents who either sustained an MTBI (N = 46) or no TBI (N = 59) were assessed 6 months posttrauma for PTSD and postconcussive symptoms. Postconcussive symptoms were more evident in MTBI patients with PTSD than those without PTSD, and in MTBI patients than non-TBI patients. Further, postconcussive symptoms were significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. These findings indicate that postconcussive symptoms may be mediated by an interaction of neurological and psychological factors after MTBI.

  11. Efficacy of single-session abreactive ego state therapy for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne; Christensen, Ciara; French, Brian; Watkins, John G

    2013-01-01

    Using abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 36 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR and PTSD checklist (PCL) criteria were exposed to either 5-6 hours of manualized treatment or placebo in a single session. EST emphasizes repeated hypnotically activated abreactive "reliving" of the trauma experience combined with therapists' ego strength. Both the placebo and EST treatment groups showed significant reductions in PTSD checklist scores immediately posttreatment (placebo: mean 17.34 points; EST: mean 53.11 points) but only the EST patients maintained significant treatment effect at 4-week and 16- to 18-week follow-ups. Abreactive EST appears to be an effective and durable treatment for PTSD inclusive of combat stress injury and acute stress disorder.

  12. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  13. Bone stress injury of the ankle in professional ballet dancers seen on MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser Marcus P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ballet Dancers have been shown to have a relatively high incidence of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. It was our objective to examine MR imaging patterns of bone marrow edema (BME in the ankles of high performance professional ballet dancers, to evaluate clinical relevance. Methods MR Imaging was performed on 12 ankles of 11 active professional ballet dancers (6 female, 5 male; mean age 24 years, range 19 to 32. Individuals were imaged on a 0.2 T or 1.5 T MRI units. Images were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and one orthopaedic surgeon in consensus for location and pattern of bone marrow edema. In order to control for recognized sources of bone marrow edema, images were also reviewed for presence of osseous, ligamentous, tendinous and cartilage injuries. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the strength of the correlation between bone marrow edema and ankle pain. Results Bone marrow edema was seen only in the talus, and was a common finding, observed in nine of the twelve ankles imaged (75% and was associated with pain in all cases. On fluid-sensitive sequences, bone marrow edema was ill-defined and centered in the talar neck or body, although in three cases it extended to the talar dome. No apparent gender predilection was noted. No occult stress fracture could be diagnosed. A moderately strong correlation (phi = 0.77, p= 0.0054 was found between edema and pain in the study population. Conclusion Bone marrow edema seems to be a specific MRI finding in the talus of professional ballet dancers, likely related to biomechanical stress reactions, due to their frequently performed unique maneuvers. Clinically, this condition may indicate a sign of a bone stress injury of the ankle.

  14. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed.

  15. Making Sense of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Illness Perceptions Among Traumatic Injury Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Kennedy, David; Marshall, Grant N; Gaillot, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    More than 1.5 million persons in the United States sustain traumatic physical injuries each year. A significant proportion of traumatic injury survivors develop serious mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet few obtain professional mental health care. According to the commonsense model of self-regulation (Leventhal, Diefenbach, & Leventhal, 1992), illness-related perceptions can influence coping responses including the use of professional treatment. Using the commonsense model as a guiding framework, we conducted semi-structured interviews with non-treatment seeking trauma injury survivors with PTSD (N = 23). Illness perceptions regarding the following key conceptual dimensions were examined: PTSD symptoms (identity), experienced or perceived consequences of PTSD symptoms, and beliefs about the causes, controllability, and course of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed that no respondents identified their symptoms as indicative of PTSD. Common illness perceptions included believing that symptoms would be short-lived, that symptoms were reflective of poor physical health or were a natural reaction to life in a violent community, and that symptoms were functionally adaptive. Respondents also reported exerting some limited control over symptoms by relying on religious forms of coping. None of the respondents perceived professional treatment as being able to completely control symptoms. Findings indicated that respondents' conceptualizations of PTSD symptoms may have inhibited the recognition of symptoms as a serious mental health condition that warrants professional treatment.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Loredana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU. After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS. A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine. In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.

  17. Ozone-induced injury and oxidative stress in bronchiolar epithelium are associated with altered pulmonary mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Vayas, Kinal N; Massa, Christopher B; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2013-06-01

    In these studies, we analyzed the effects of ozone on bronchiolar epithelium. Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in rapid (within 3 h) and persistent (up to 72 h) histological changes in the bronchiolar epithelium, including hypercellularity, loss of cilia, and necrotizing bronchiolitis. Perivascular edema and vascular congestion were also evident, along with a decrease in Clara cell secretory protein in bronchoalveolar lavage, which was maximal 24 h post-exposure. Ozone also induced the appearance of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, Ym1, and heme oxygenase-1 in the bronchiolar epithelium. This was associated with increased expression of cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, indicating initiation of apoptosis and autophagy. A rapid and persistent increase in galectin-3, a regulator of epithelial cell apoptosis, was also observed. Following ozone exposure (3-24 h), increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and arginase-1 was noted in bronchiolar epithelium. Ozone-induced injury and oxidative stress in bronchiolar epithelium were linked to methacholine-induced alterations in pulmonary mechanics. Thus, significant increases in lung resistance and elastance, along with decreases in lung compliance and end tidal volume, were observed at higher doses of methacholine. This indicates that ozone causes an increase in effective stiffness of the lung as a consequence of changes in the conducting airways. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that bronchiolar epithelium is highly susceptible to injury and oxidative stress induced by acute exposure to ozone; moreover, this is accompanied by altered lung functioning.

  18. Stress-related growth following sport injury: Examining the applicability of the organismic valuing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, R; Podlog, L; Galli, N; Mellalieu, S D

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the applicability of organismic valuing theory (OVT) to stress-related growth (SRG) following sport injury. Specifically, the direct and indirect relationships between need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), SRG, and subjective well-being (i.e., positive affect) were examined. Previously injured athletes (n = 520), ranging from 18 to 59 years of age (Mage  = 23.3 years; standard deviation = 6.5), completed three measures: needs satisfaction scale, stress-related growth scale, and positive affect scale. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation revealed a significant positive relationship between competence and relatedness and SRG, and between SRG and positive affect. In line with OVT, SRG was also found to mediate the relationship between need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) and subjective well-being. The findings offer preliminary support for the applicability of OVT in aiding our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of SRG. Future avenues of research are discussed, together with recommended methodologies to further extend and refine knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of SRG following sport injury.

  19. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Folch-Puy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS. This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR, which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes.

  20. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  1. The Effects of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Combined Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Returning Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Pape, Theresa; Babcock-Parziale, Judith; Smith, Bridget; Schleenbaker, Randal; Shandera-Ochsner, Anne; Harp, Jordan P; High, Walter M

    2015-07-01

    United States veterans of the Iraqi (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) conflicts have frequently returned from deployment after sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and enduring stressful events resulting in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A large number of returning service members have been diagnosed with both a history of mTBI and current PTSD. Substantial literature exists on the neuropsychological factors associated with mTBI and PTSD occurring separately; far less research has explored the combined effects of PTSD and mTBI. The current study employed neuropsychological and psychological measures in a sample of 251 OIF/OEF veterans to determine whether participants with a history of mTBI and current PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than participants with mTBI only (mTBI-o), PTSD only (PTSD-o), or veteran controls (VC), when groups are comparable on intelligence quotient, education, and age. The mTBI+PTSD group performed more poorly than VC, mTBI-o, and PTSD-o groups on several neuropsychological measures. Effect size comparisons suggest small deleterious effects for mTBI-o on measures of processing speed and visual attention and small effects for PTSD-o on measures of verbal memory, with moderate effects for mTBI+PTSD on the same variables. Additionally, the mTBI+PTSD group was significantly more psychologically distressed than the PTSD-o group, and PTSD-o group was more distressed than VC and mTBI-o groups. These findings suggest that veterans with mTBI+PTSD perform significantly lower on neuropsychological and psychiatric measures than veterans with mTBI-o or PTSD-o. The results also raise the possibility of mild but persisting cognitive changes following mTBI sustained during deployment.

  2. Vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviates renal oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang; Yu, De-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that reactive oxygen species plays important roles in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effects of VitD3 pretreatment on renal oxidative stress in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.0mg/kg) to establish an animal model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. In VitD3+LPS group, mice were orally pretreated with three doses of VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 1, 24 and 48 h before LPS injection. As expected, oral pretreatment with three daily recommended doses of VitD3 markedly elevated serum 25(OH)D concentration and efficiently activated renal VDR signaling. Interestingly, LPS-induced renal GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation were markedly alleviated in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced serum and renal nitric oxide (NO) production was obviously suppressed by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced renal protein nitration, as determined by 3-nitrotyrosine residue, was obviously attenuated by VitD3 pretreatment. Further analysis showed that LPS-induced up-regulation of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) was repressed in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced up-regulation of renal p47phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were normalized by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced down-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase (sod) 1 and sod2, two antioxidant enzyme genes, was reversed in VitD3-pretreated mice. Finally, LPS-induced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL, was alleviated by VitD3 pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that VitD3 pretreatment alleviates LPS-induced renal oxidative stress through regulating oxidant and antioxidant enzyme genes.

  3. The effect of oxidative stress in myocardial cell injury in mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-nan; ZHANG Jie-xin; LIU gan; QIU Yan; YANG Di; YIN Guo-yong; ZHANG Xi-long

    2010-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is considered to be one of the most important causes of cardiovascular diseases in OSA patients. This repeated hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle is similar to hypoxia-reperfusion injury, which initiates oxidative stress. In this study, we observed cardiocytes injury induced by CIH and the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Methods Thirty ICR mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, CIH and NAC (CIH+NAC) groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of cardiocyte homogenates were measured. Serum lipids were measured by an instrument method. Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnl) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Myocardium pathological sections were observed.Results (1) The SOD activity and MDA concentration of cardiocyte homogenates in the CIH group were significantly higher than in other groups (P <0.005). The MDA concentration of the NAC group was lower than that of the control group (P <0.01). (2) The serum cTnl concentration of the CIH and NAC groups was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01). (3) Serum triglyceride levels in the NAC group were lower than in the other groups (P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein among the three groups. (4) The degeneration of myocardium, transverse striation blurred, and fabric effusion were observed in tissue sections in the CIH and NAC groups. However, normal tissue was found in the control group.Conclusion The oxidative stress induced by CIH can injure cardiocytes and the injury effect can be partially inhibited by NAC.

  4. Analysis of the Stress and Displacement Distribution of Inferior Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Injuries Repaired with Screw Fixation: A Finite Element Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghua Liu; Kun Zhang; Yan Zhuang; Zhong Li; Bin Yu; Guoxian Pei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of syndesmosis injuries have concentrated on cadaver models. However, they are unable to obtain exact data regarding the stress and displacement distribution of various tissues, and it is difficult to compare models. We investigated the biomechanical effects of inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries (ITSIs) and screw fixation on the ankle using the finite element (FE) method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A three-dimensional model of a healthy ankle complex was devel...

  5. Osteoid Osteoma of the Femoral Neck in Athletes: Two Case Reports Differentiating From Femoral Neck Stress Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Christopher B; Dembowski, Scott C; Johnson, Michael R; Combs, John J; Svoboda, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma can be a challenging and lengthy process, with reports of delayed diagnosis of greater than 2 years. In the young, athletic patient with an atraumatic onset of groin pain, an overuse injury or muscle strain is the most likely etiology. However, an overuse injury of femoral neck stress fracture must be identified because of the potentially disastrous outcome of fracture completion. The similar clinical presentation of a femoral neck stress fracture and intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck can further delay the diagnosis of the osteoid osteoma. In a patient with these differential diagnoses that do not improve with a period of nonweightbearing activity, a more intensive workup must ensue. The purpose of this case report is to describe the initial presentations, subsequent follow-up, and imaging findings leading to the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma as well as to differentiate an osteoid osteoma from femoral neck stress injuries.

  6. Hyperthermia induces injury to the intestinal mucosa in the mouse: evidence for an oxidative stress mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S R; Phillips, N A; Novosad, V L; Bakos, M P; Talbert, E E; Clanton, T L

    2012-04-01

    Loss of the intestinal barrier is critical to the clinical course of heat illness, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that conditions characteristic of mild heatstroke in mice are associated with injury to the epithelial lining of the intestinal tract and comprise a critical component of barrier dysfunction. Anesthetized mice were gavaged with 4 kDa FITC-dextran (FD-4) and exposed to increasing core temperatures, briefly reaching 42.4°C, followed by 30 min recovery. Arterial samples were collected to measure FD-4 concentration in plasma (in vivo gastrointestinal permeability). The small intestines were then removed to measure histological evidence of injury. Hyperthermia resulted in a ≈2.5-fold elevation in plasma FD-4 and was always associated with significant histological evidence of injury to the epithelial lining compared with matched controls, particularly in the duodenum. When isolated intestinal segments from control animals were exposed to ≥41.5°C, marked increases in permeability were observed within 60 min. These changes were associated with release of lactate dehydrogenase, evidence of protein oxidation via carbonyl formation and histological damage. Coincubation with N-acetylcysteine protected in vitro permeability during hyperthermia and reduced histological damage and protein oxidation. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) to block tight junction opening during 41.5°C exposure failed to reduce the permeability of in vitro segments. The results demonstrate that hyperthermia exposure in mouse intestine, at temperatures at or below those necessary to induce mild heatstroke, cause rapid and substantial injury to the intestinal lining that may be attributed, in part, to oxidative stress.

  7. Pressure Combined with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induces Deep Tissue Injury via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Pressure Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fei-Fei; Pan, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hao-Huang; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Hong-Xue; Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Chang, Hao-Teng; Jiang, Li-Ping

    2016-02-25

    Pressure ulcer is a complex and significant health problem in long-term bedridden patients, and there is currently no effective treatment or efficient prevention method. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis contributing to the deep injury of pressure ulcers are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Akt/GSK3β signaling in pressure ulcers. A model of pressure-induced deep tissue injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was established. Rats were treated with 2-h compression and subsequent 0.5-h release for various cycles. After recovery, the tissue in the compressed regions was collected for further analysis. The compressed muscle tissues showed clear cellular degenerative features. First, the expression levels of ER stress proteins GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 were generally increased compared to those in the control. Phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β were upregulated in the beginning of muscle compression, and immediately significantly decreased at the initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in compressed muscles tissue. These data show that ER stress may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of cell degeneration after pressure ulcers and that the Akt/GSK3β signal pathway may play an important role in deep tissue injury induced by pressure and ischemia/reperfusion.

  8. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  9. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  10. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%, and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal. Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  11. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  12. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  13. 信息动态%Hydrogen and oxidative stress injury-from an inert gas to a medical gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is intensive cellular oxidation caused by redundant reactive oxygen species (ROs) or free radicals. Redundant ROs causes DNA fracture, lipid peroxidation and protein inactivation, thus leading to severe cell damage. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen is a good anti-oxidant. It selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of ROs; however, it does not react with other ROs, which play physiological roles. As a result, it could protect tissues against oxidative stress injuries, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart, liver and intestine, cisplatin nephrotoxicity, sepsis and colon inflammation. As a medical gas, hydrogen may have a prospect for far-reaching clinical application.

  14. Insights for Oxidative Stress and mTOR Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury under Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM displays a high morbidity. The diabetic heart is susceptible to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R injury. Impaired activation of prosurvival pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, increased basal oxidative state, and decreased antioxidant defense and autophagy may render diabetic hearts more vulnerable to MI/R injury. Oxidative stress and mTOR signaling crucially regulate cardiometabolism, affecting MI/R injury under diabetes. Producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, uncoupling nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and disturbing the mitochondrial quality control may be three major mechanisms of oxidative stress. mTOR signaling presents both cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects on the diabetic heart, which interplays with oxidative stress directly or indirectly. Antihyperglycemic agent metformin and newly found free radicals scavengers, Sirt1 and CTRP9, may serve as promising pharmacological therapeutic targets. In this review, we will focus on the role of oxidative stress and mTOR signaling in the pathophysiology of MI/R injury in diabetes and discuss potential mechanisms and their interactions in an effort to provide some evidence for cardiometabolic targeted therapies for ischemic heart disease (IHD.

  15. Insights for Oxidative Stress and mTOR Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury under Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dajun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) displays a high morbidity. The diabetic heart is susceptible to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Impaired activation of prosurvival pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased basal oxidative state, and decreased antioxidant defense and autophagy may render diabetic hearts more vulnerable to MI/R injury. Oxidative stress and mTOR signaling crucially regulate cardiometabolism, affecting MI/R injury under diabetes. Producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), uncoupling nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and disturbing the mitochondrial quality control may be three major mechanisms of oxidative stress. mTOR signaling presents both cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects on the diabetic heart, which interplays with oxidative stress directly or indirectly. Antihyperglycemic agent metformin and newly found free radicals scavengers, Sirt1 and CTRP9, may serve as promising pharmacological therapeutic targets. In this review, we will focus on the role of oxidative stress and mTOR signaling in the pathophysiology of MI/R injury in diabetes and discuss potential mechanisms and their interactions in an effort to provide some evidence for cardiometabolic targeted therapies for ischemic heart disease (IHD).

  16. Association between Peripheral Oxidative Stress and White Matter Damage in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the disease severity correlation between oxidative stress biomarker level and deep brain microstructural changes in acute TBI remains unknown. In present study, twenty-four patients with acute TBI and 24 healthy volunteers underwent DTI. The peripheral blood oxidative biomarkers, like serum thiol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS concentrations, were also obtained. The DTI metrics of the deep brain regions, as well as the fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient, were measured and correlated with disease severity, serum thiol, and TBARS levels. We found that patients with TBI displayed lower FAs in deep brain regions with abundant WMs and further correlated with increased serum TBARS level. Our study has shown a level of anatomic detail to the relationship between white matter (WM damage and increased systemic oxidative stress in TBI which suggests common inflammatory processes that covary in both the peripheral and central reactions after TBI.

  17. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama

    2008-01-01

    outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations......Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...

  18. Biochemical observations relating to oxidant stress injury in Chernobyl clean-up workers ("liquidators") from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skesters, Andrejs; Zvagule, T; Silova, A; Rusakova, N; Larmane, L; Reste, J; Eglite, M; Rainsford, K D; Callingham, B A; Bake, M-A; Lece, A

    2010-02-01

    To establish if there is further evidence for the long-term oxidant stress injury (as reported previously--Kumerova et al. in Biol Trace Elem Res 77:1-12, 2000) in surviving Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) workers from Latvia. The overall objectives of this study have been to establish if there have been long-term systemic changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status of clean-up workers that might reflect adaptation to the progression of oxidative stress injury. Biochemical analyses of the circulating levels of endogenous oxidants and anti-oxidants were undertaken over two periods (Stage 1 in 1998-1999 and Stage 2 in 2005-2006) at approximately 6-7 years time interval, in order to establish if there have been time-dependent changes in the parameters that may be important for the health of the clean-up workers. The biochemical analyses included (a) plasma levels of the anti-oxidant, selenium, (b) blood and plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, (c) red blood cell catalase, (d) plasma total oxidant status as lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides, (e) plasma ceruloplasmin, and (f) total blood levels of zinc and copper. The circulating content of lipid peroxides, plasma oxidisability, lipid peroxides, catalase, Zn, and Cu were elevated above normal values at both the stages of this study. Glutathione peroxidase was increased above normal values at Stage 1 but not at Stage 2. The most pronounced changes between Stage 1 and Stage 2 were (a) a reduction by about (1/2) in the content of lipid peroxides and lipid peroxidation, but not in the blood oxidisability and (b) increased plasma selenium. The data show that there may be a partial improvement in the anti-oxidant/oxidant status of the Chernobyl NPP workers over the 7-year period of investigation. The NPP patients may be undergoing progressive reduction in blood oxidants accompanied by adaptation to oxidant stress injury due to the increased anti-oxidant activity measured in their plasma and blood.

  19. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  20. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Frederick D; Curtis Christine; Zukotynski Katherine; Micheli Lyle; Treves S Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may ...

  1. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  2. Symptom Complaints Following Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: Relationship to Traumatic Brain Injury Severity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    being less competent (Sawchyn, Mateer, & Suffi eld, 2005 ). Mild TBI has also been associated with greater emotional distress ( Leininger , Kreutzer...brain injury . Brain Injury , 23 , 83 – 91 . Leininger , B.E. , Kreutzer , J.S. , & Hill , M.R . ( 1991 ). Comparison of minor and severe

  3. Synergistic Interaction of Hypertension and Diabetes in Promoting Kidney Injury and the Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; do Carmo, Jussara M; Aberdein, Nicola; Zhou, Xinchun; Williams, Jan M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are major risk factors for chronic kidney injury, together accounting for >70% of end-stage renal disease. In this study, we assessed interactions of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in causing kidney dysfunction and injury and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hypertension was induced by aorta constriction (AC) between the renal arteries in 6-month-old male Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic and control Wistar rats. Fasting plasma glucose averaged 162±11 and 87±2 mg/dL in GK and Wistar rats, respectively. AC produced hypertension in the right kidney (above AC) and near normal blood pressure in the left kidney (below AC), with both kidneys exposed to the same levels of glucose, circulating hormones, and neural influences. After 8 weeks of AC, blood pressure above the AC (and in the right kidney) increased from 109±1 to 152±5 mm Hg in GK rats and from 106±4 to 141±5 mm Hg in Wistar rats. The diabetic-hypertensive right kidneys in GK-AC rats had much greater increases in albumin excretion and histological injury compared with left kidneys (diabetes mellitus only) of GK rats or right kidneys (hypertension only) of Wistar-AC rats. Marked increases in ER stress and oxidative stress indicators were observed in diabetic-hypertensive kidneys of GK-AC rats. Inhibition of ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholic acid for 6 weeks reduced blood pressure (135±4 versus 151±4 mm Hg), albumin excretion, ER and oxidative stress, and glomerular injury, while increasing glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive-diabetic kidneys. These results suggest that diabetes mellitus and hypertension interact synergistically to promote kidney dysfunction and injury via ER stress. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Partial deletion of argininosuccinate synthase protects from pyrazole plus lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung Ming; Ward, Stephen C; Nieto, Natalia

    2012-02-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Along with nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, ASS endows cells with the L-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) salvage pathway to continually supply L-arginine from L-citrulline for sustained NO· generation. Because of the relevant role of NOS in liver injury, we hypothesized that downregulation of ASS could decrease the availability of intracellular substrate for NO· synthesis by NOS-2 and, hence, decrease liver damage. Previous work demonstrated that pyrazole plus LPS caused significant liver injury involving NO· generation and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts; thus, wild-type (WT) and Ass+/- mice (Ass+/+ mice are lethal) were treated with pyrazole plus LPS, and markers of nitrosative stress, as well as liver injury, were analyzed. Partial ablation of Ass protected from pyrazole plus LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress and hepatic and circulating TNFα. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented, since pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/- mice showed decreased phosphorylation of JNK; increased MAPK phosphatase-1, which is known to deactivate JNK signaling; and lower cleaved caspase-3 than treated WT mice, and this was accompanied by less TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive staining. Lastly, hepatic neutrophil accumulation was almost absent in pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/- compared with WT mice. Partial Ass ablation prevents pyrazole plus LPS-mediated liver injury by reducing nitrosative stress, TNFα, apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration.

  5. Injury-related fear-avoidance and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in parents of children with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, M; Sveen, J

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with burns experience a range of psychological reactions and symptoms, and parents' health is known to impact children's health. So far, there is little research into potential mechanisms that maintain parents' symptoms. The aim was to investigate parental injury-related fear-avoidance, and its associations with injury severity and health measures. Parents (n=107) of children aged 0.4-18 years that sustained burns 0.1-9.0 years previously completed questionnaires on fear-avoidance, posttraumatic stress, and health of the child. Analyses showed that the average level of fear-avoidance was low and positively associated with measures of injury severity and parents' symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and negatively associated with parents' ratings of their child's health. In two separate multiple regressions with parents' symptoms of PTSD and the child's health as dependent variables, fear-avoidance made the largest contribution in both models while injury severity was non-significant. Results were not related to comorbid conditions of the child, scarring, or parent-related socio-demographic variables. In summary, injury-related fear-avoidance is more likely among parents whose children sustain more severe burns. In turn, fear-avoidance contributes significantly to parents' symptoms of PTSD and to poorer health ratings regarding the child, irrespective of injury severity or child comorbidity.

  6. Fermented Chinese Formula Shuan-Tong-Ling Protects Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling (STL, composed of fourteen medicinal herbs, was an experiential formula by Dr. Zhigang Mei for treating vascular encephalopathy, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of fermented STL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced injury in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs and the possible mechanisms. Cultured BMECs were treated with H2O2, STL, or nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor. Then, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was employed to detect cell proliferation and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal was used to examine cell senescence. Cell nuclei were observed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Additionally, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione (GSH levels were measured. Expression of SIRT1, p21, and PGC-1α was determined by western blot. Cell proliferation significantly increased with STL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. H2O2 treatment could intensify cell senescence and nuclei splitting or pyknosis. With STL treatment, the reduced ROS level was accompanied by increased SOD and GSH activity. Further assays showed upregulation of SIRT1 and PGC-1α and downregulation of p21 after STL treatment. The results revealed that STL could protect BMECs against oxidative stress injury at least partially through the SIRT1 pathway.

  7. Thymoquinone Protects against Myocardial Ischemic Injury by Mitigating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the cardioprotective activity of thymoquinone (TMQ, an active principle of the herb, Nigella sativa, which is used for the management of various diseases. The present study examined the cardioprotective effect of TMQ in isoproterenol- (ISP- induced myocardial infarction in rats. Myocardial infarction was induced by two subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg at an interval of 24 hr. TMQ (20 mg/kg was administered orally for 21 days. ISP-treated rats showed depletion of antioxidants and marker enzymes from myocardium along with lipid peroxidation and enhanced levels of proinflammatory cytokines. ISP also induced histopathological alterations in myocardium. Treatment with TMQ prevented the depletion of endogenous antioxidants and myocyte injury marker enzymes and inhibited lipid peroxidation as well as reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. TMQ pretreatment also reduced myonecrosis, edema, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and showed preservation of cardiomyocytes histoarchitecture. The present study results demonstrate that TMQ exerts cardioprotective effect by mitigating oxidative stress, augmenting endogenous antioxidants, and maintaining structural integrity. The results of the present study indicate that TMQ may serve as an excellent agent alone or as adjuvant to prevent the onset and progression of myocardial injury.

  8. Protective effects of carbenoxolone are associated with attenuation of oxidative stress in ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Zhang; Yu-Min Li; Yu-Hong Jing; Shao-Yu Wang; Yan-Feng Song; Jie Yin

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that the gap junction plays an important role in the determination of cerebral ischemia,but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.In this study,we assessed the effect of a gap-junction blocker,carbenoxolone (CBX),on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and the possible mechanisms.By using the transient cerebral ischemia model induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h,we found that pre-administration of CBX (25 mg/kg,intracerebroventricular injection,30 min before cerebral ischemic surgery) diminished the infarction size in rats.And this was associated with a decrease of reactive oxygen species generation and inhibition of the activation of astrocytes and microglia.In PC12 cells,H202 treatment induced more coupling and apoptosis,while CBX partly inhibited the opening of gap junctions and improved the cell viability.These results suggest that cerebral ischemia enhances the opening of gap junctions.Blocking the gap junction with CBX may attenuate the brain injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by partially contributing to amelioration of the oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  9. Disruption of calpain reduces lipotoxicity-induced cardiac injury by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcun; Zhang, Lulu; Ni, Rui; Cao, Ting; Zheng, Dong; Xiong, Sidong; Greer, Peter A.; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and obesity are prevalent in westernized countries. In both conditions, excessive fatty acid uptake by cardiomyocytes induces cardiac lipotoxicity, an important mechanism contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study investigated the effect of calpain disruption on cardiac lipotoxicity. Cardiac-specific capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates (male, age of 4 weeks) were fed a high fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 20 weeks. HFD increased body weight, altered blood lipid profiles and impaired glucose tolerance comparably in both capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Calpain activity, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas, collagen deposition and triglyceride were significantly increased in HFD-fed mouse hearts, and these were accompanied by myocardial dysfunction and up-regulation of hypertrophic and fibrotic collagen genes as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. These effects of HFD were attenuated by disruption of calpain in capns1 knockout mice. Mechanistically, deletion of capns1 in HFD-fed mouse hearts and disruption of calpain with calpain inhibitor-III, silencing of capn1, or deletion of capns1 in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes prevented endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, cleavage of caspase-12 and junctophilin-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress diminished palmitate-induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cardiomyocytes. In summary, disruption of calpain prevents lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and cardiac injury in mice fed a HFD. The role of calpain is mediated, at least partially, through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, calpain/endoplasmic reticulum stress may represent a new mechanism and potential therapeutic targets for cardiac lipotoxicity. PMID:27523632

  10. Thrombopoietin Protects Cardiomyocytes from Iron-Overload Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Thalassaemia accompanied with iron-overload is common in Hong Kong. Iron-overload induced cardiomyopathy is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with β-thalassaemia. Chronic iron-overload due to blood transfusion can cause cardiac failure. Decreased antioxidant defence and increased ROS production may lead to oxidative stress and cell injury. Iron-overload may lead to heart tissue damage through lipid peroxidation in response to oxidative stress, and a great diversity of toxic aldehydes are formed when lipid hydroperoxides break down in heart and plasma. Methods: Iron entry into embryonic heart H9C2 cells was determined by calcein assay using a fluorometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production in cells treated with FeCl3 or thrombopoietin (TPO was monitored by using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential of H9C2 cells were quantified by using flow cytometry. Results: We demonstrated that iron induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and that iron increased ROS production and reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Iron treatment increased the proportion of cells with JC-1 monomers, indicating a trend of drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential. TPO exerted a cardio-protective effect on iron-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that iron-overload leads to the generation of ROS and further induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via mitochondrial pathways. TPO might exert a protective effect on iron-overload induced apoptosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing the mitochondrial pathways in cardiomyocytes.

  11. Early psychological stress after forearm nerve injuries: a predictor for long-term functional outcome and return to productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Jean-Bart; Kalmijn, Sandra; Kuypers, Paul D L; Hofman, Albert; Passchier, Jan; Hovius, Steven E R

    2002-07-01

    Forearm and wrist injuries can result in a nonfunctional hand caused by loss of motor and sensory functions. Psychological stress is known to accompany traumatic hand injuries and may therefore affect functional outcome. The authors conducted a retrospective study of 107 patients diagnosed with a median, ulnar, or combined median-ulnar nerve injury (79% response rate) who completed a questionnaire package consisting of the Impact of Event Scale (IES); Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand; and a questionnaire concerning return to work and time off work. In an outpatient setting, motor and sensory recovery were examined. Ninety-four percent of those studied experienced early psychological stress. Thirty-six percent of patients reported sufficient symptoms 1 month postoperatively to be classified as in need for psychological treatment (IES score > 30 points). Combined median-ulnar nerve injuries (mean, 35.0 +/- 20.3 points [standard deviation]) were accompanied by a higher psychological stress compared with single nerve injuries (median injuries: mean, 24.2 +/- 20.6 points; ulnar injuries: mean, 22.6 +/- 19.5 points; p = 0.049 and p = 0.021 respectively). Multiple linear regression adjusting for age, gender, and severity of the trauma revealed an association between the IES score and the functional symptom score (beta = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.65), mean time off work (beta = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25-0.75), and motor recovery (grip: beta = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09-0.65; tip-pinch: beta = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.13-0.80). Patients with higher scores on the IES were found to be at increased risk for incapacity for work (odds ratio, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.60-6.91). Higher education was found to be a protecting variable for posttraumatic psychopathology (beta = -0.23; 95% CI, -6.05--0.246). This study demonstrated a high level of early posttraumatic psychological stress after forearm and wrist nerve injuries. These data provide evidence that functional outcome and work

  12. A prospective study on paediatric traffic injuries : health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Stewart, RE; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To examine children's reports of their health- related quality of life ( HRQoL) following paediatric traffic injury, to explore child and parental post- traumatic stress, and to identify children and parents with adverse outcomes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Assessments: shortly

  13. Coping with burns : The role of coping self-efficacy in the recovery from traumatic stress following burn injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Mark; Hofland, Helma; de jong, Alette; Van Loey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a three-wave prospective study among patients with burns (N = 178) to examine the prospective influence of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions on trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the first 12 months after burn injuries. Using linear growth curve modeling, we corrected

  14. Coping with burns : the role of coping self-efficacy in the recovery from traumatic stress following burn injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Mark W G; Hofland, Helma W.; De Jong, Alette E.; Van Loey, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a three-wave prospective study among patients with burns (N = 178) to examine the prospective influence of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions on trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the first 12 months after burn injuries. Using linear growth curve modeling, we corrected

  15. Associations of Work Stress, Supervisor Unfairness, and Supervisor Inability to Speak Spanish with Occupational Injury among Latino Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-06-22

    Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.

  16. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Protects Kidneys against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Sarah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species are important mediators exerting toxic effects on various organs during ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. We hypothesized that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs protect the kidney against oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli in rat during renal IR injury. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 24 were equally randomized into group 1 (sham control, group 2 (IR plus culture medium only, and group 3 (IR plus immediate intra-renal administration of 1.0 × 106 autologous ADMSCs, followed by intravenous ADMSCs at 6 h and 24 h after IR. The duration of ischemia was 1 h, followed by 72 hours of reperfusion before the animals were sacrificed. Results Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and the degree of histological abnormalities were markedly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (all p Conclusion ADMSC therapy minimized kidney damage after IR injury through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  17. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  18. Post-traumatic stress in patients with injury-related chronic pain participating in a multimodal pain rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Marie Stålnacke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie Stålnacke, Anna ÖstmanDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate post-traumatic stress, pain intensity, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain before and after participating in multimodal pain rehabilitation.Methods: Twenty-eight patients, 21 women and seven men, who participated in the multimodal rehabilitation programs (special whiplash program for whiplash injuries within 1.5 years after the trauma or ordinary program answered a set of questionnaires to assess post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], pain intensity [Visual Analogue Scale (VAS], depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD] before and after the programs.Results: Both pain intensity and post-traumatic stress decreased significantly after the rehabilitation programs in comparison with before (VAS: 57.8 ± 21.6 vs. 67.5 ± 21.9; P = 0.009, IES total score 21.8 ± 13.2 vs. 29.5 ± 12.9; P < 0.001. Patients younger than 40 years reported a statistically higher level of post-traumatic stress compared with patients older than 40 years both before (P = 0.037 and after rehabilitation (P = 0.023. No statistically significant differences were found on the HAD scores.Conclusion: The multimodal rehabilitation programs were effective in reducing both pain intensity and post-traumatic stress. The experience of higher levels of post-traumatic stress in younger persons has to be taken into account when managing patients with injury-related chronic pain.Keywords: post-traumatic, stress disorder, chronic pain, whiplash injuries

  19. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc.

  20. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  1. Edaravone attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting oxidative stress in a canine lung transplantation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-zhi; SHEN Bao-zhong; LI Ye; ZHANG Tong; XU Wan-hai; LIU Xiao-wei; LU Hong-guang

    2008-01-01

    .Conclusions Edaravone attenuates IR-induced lung injury and preserves lung function by inhibiting oxidative stress and decreasing leukocyte extravasation in a canine lung transplantation model.

  2. Influence of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibition on lung epithelial cell injury: role of oxidative stress and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Marianne E; Boshier, Piers R; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Keun, Hector C; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Kirkham, Paul A; Adcock, Ian M; Barton, Paul J; Takata, Masao; Marczin, Nandor

    2015-06-15

    Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is key to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxifying enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with toxic oxidant compounds and are associated with acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that attenuation of cellular GST enzymes would augment intracellular oxidative and metabolic stress and induce lung cell injury. Treatment of murine lung epithelial cells with GST inhibitors, ethacrynic acid (EA), and caffeic acid compromised lung epithelial cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitors also potentiated cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tert-butyl-hydroperoxide, and hypoxia and reoxygenation (HR). SiRNA-mediated attenuation of GST-π but not GST-μ expression reduced cell viability and significantly enhanced stress (H2O2/HR)-induced injury. GST inhibitors also induced intracellular oxidative stress (measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 and dichlorofluorescein fluorescence), caused alterations in overall intracellular redox status (as evidenced by NAD(+)/NADH ratios), and increased protein carbonyl formation. Furthermore, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine completely prevented EA-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Whereas EA had no effect on mitochondrial energetics, it significantly altered cellular metabolic profile. To explore the physiological impact of these cellular events, we used an ex vivo mouse-isolated perfused lung model. Supplementation of perfusate with EA markedly affected lung mechanics and significantly increased lung permeability. The results of our combined genetic, pharmacological, and metabolic studies on multiple platforms suggest the importance of GST enzymes, specifically GST-π, in the cellular and whole lung response to acute oxidative and metabolic stress. These may have important clinical implications.

  3. Acute hepatic ischemic-reperfusion injury induces a renal cortical "stress response," renal "cytoresistance," and an endotoxin hyperresponsive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Frostad, Kirsten B

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic ischemic-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is considered a risk factor for clinical acute kidney injury (AKI). However, HIRI's impact on renal tubular cell homeostasis and subsequent injury responses remain ill-defined. To explore this issue, 30-45 min of partial HIRI was induced in CD-1 mice. Sham-operated or normal mice served as controls. Renal changes and superimposed injury responses (glycerol-induced AKI; endotoxemia) were assessed 2-18 h later. HIRI induced mild azotemia (blood urea nitrogen ∼45 mg/dl) in the absence of renal histologic injury or proteinuria, implying a "prerenal" state. However, marked renal cortical, and isolated proximal tubule, cytoprotective "stress protein" gene induction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, heme oxygenase-1, hemopexin, hepcidin), and increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression resulted (protein/mRNA levels). Ischemia caused release of hepatic heme-based proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) into the circulation. This corresponded with renal cortical oxidant stress (malondialdehyde increases). That hepatic derived factors can evoke redox-sensitive "stress protein" induction was implied by the following: peritoneal dialysate from HIRI mice, soluble hepatic extract, or exogenous cytochrome c each induced the above stress protein(s) either in vivo or in cultured tubule cells. Functional significance of HIRI-induced renal "preconditioning" was indicated by the following: 1) HIRI conferred virtually complete morphologic protection against glycerol-induced AKI (in the absence of hyperbilirubinemia) and 2) HIRI-induced TLR4 upregulation led to a renal endotoxin hyperresponsive state (excess TNF-α/MCP-1 gene induction). In conclusion, HIRI can evoke "renal preconditioning," likely due, in part, to hepatic release of pro-oxidant factors (e.g., cytochrome c) into the systemic circulation. The resulting renal changes can impact subsequent AKI susceptibility and TLR4 pathway-mediated stress.

  4. ALDH2 Inhibition Potentiates High Glucose Stress-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes

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    Guodong Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily consists of 19 isozymes. They are present in various organs and involved in metabolizing aldehydes that are biologically generated. For instance, ALDH2, a cardiac mitochondrial ALDH isozyme, is known to detoxify 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a reactive aldehyde produced upon lipid peroxidation in diabetic conditions. We hypothesized that inhibition of ALDH leads to the accumulation of unmetabolized 4HNE and consequently exacerbates injury in cells subjected to high glucose stress. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines were pretreated with 10 μM disulfiram (DSF, an inhibitor of ALDH2 or vehicle (DMSO for 2 hours, and then subjected to high glucose stress {33 mM D-glucose (HG or 33 mM D-mannitol as an osmotic control (Ctrl} for 24 hrs. The decrease in ALDH2 activity with DSF pretreatment was higher in HG group when compared to Ctrl group. Increased 4HNE adduct formation with DSF pretreatment was higher in HG group compared to Ctrl group. Pretreatment with DSF leads to potentiated HG-induced cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes by lowering mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that ALDH2 activity is important in preventing high glucose induced cellular dysfunction.

  5. Mitochondrial calcium and oxidative stress as mediators of ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Chinopoulos, Christos; Fiskum, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Acute ischemic and brain injury is triggered by excitotoxic elevation of intraneuronal Ca2+ followed by reoxygenation-dependent oxidative stress, metabolic failure, and cell death. Studies performed in vitro with neurons exposed to excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate demonstrate an initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], followed by a reduction to a normal, albeit slightly elevated concentration. This reduction in cytosolic [Ca2+] is due partially to active, respiration-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration. Within minutes to an hour following the initial Ca2+ transient, most neurons undergo delayed Ca2+ deregulation characterized by a dramatic rise in cytosolic Ca2+. This prelethal secondary rise in Ca2+ is due to influx across the plasma membrane but is dependent on the initial mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and associated oxidative stress. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can stimulate the net production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of the membrane permeability transition, release of cytochrome c, respiratory inhibition, release of pyridine nucleotides, and loss of intramitochondrial glutathione necessary for detoxification of peroxides. Targets of mitochondrially derived ROS may include plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that mediate excitotoxic delayed Ca2+ deregulation.

  6. Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kei-ichi; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo

    2007-09-28

    We have recently showed that molecular hydrogen has great potential for selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, and that inhalation of hydrogen gas decreases cerebral infarction volume by reducing oxidative stress [I. Ohsawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, K.-I. Katsura, Y. Katayama, S. Asoh, S. Ohta, Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals, Nat. Med., 13 (2007) 688-694]. Here we show that the inhalation of hydrogen gas is applicable for hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, using mice. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver were completely occluded for 90min, followed by reperfusion for 180min. Inhalation of hydrogen gas (1-4%) during the last 190min suppressed hepatic cell death, and reduced levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde. In contrast, helium gas showed no protective effect, suggesting that the protective effect by hydrogen gas is specific. Thus, we propose that inhalation of hydrogen gas is a widely applicable method to reduce oxidative stress.

  7. Impact of Moderate Heat, Carvacrol, and Thymol Treatments on the Viability, Injury, and Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes

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    L. Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial safety and stability of minimally processed foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors. Since microorganisms are able to develop adaptive networks to survive under conditions of stress, food safety may be affected, and therefore understanding of stress adaptive mechanisms plays a key role in designing safe food processing conditions. In the present study, the viability and the sublethal injury of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to moderate heat (55°C and/or essential oil compounds (carvacrol and thymol, 0.3 mM treatments were studied. Synergistic effects were obtained when combining mild heat (55°C with one or both essential oil compounds, leading to inactivation kinetics values three to four times lower than when using heat alone. All the treatments applied caused some injury in the population. The injury levels ranged from around 20% of the surviving population under the mildest conditions to more than 99.99% under the most stringent conditions. Protein extracts of cells exposed to these treatments were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results obtained revealed that stressed cells exhibited differential protein expression to control cells. The proteins upregulated under these stressing conditions were implicated, among other functions, in stress response, metabolism, and protein refolding.

  8. Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND

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    Ana B. Sanchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH, seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest a shared critical role of oxidative stress, compromised neuronal energy homeostasis and autophagy in promotion and prevention of neuronal dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection, cART and psychostimulant use. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work related to neuronal stress and injury induced by HIV infection, antiretrovirals (ARVs and the highly addictive psychostimulant METH.

  9. Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana B; Kaul, Marcus

    2017-02-23

    Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest a shared critical role of oxidative stress, compromised neuronal energy homeostasis and autophagy in promotion and prevention of neuronal dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection, cART and psychostimulant use. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work related to neuronal stress and injury induced by HIV infection, antiretrovirals (ARVs) and the highly addictive psychostimulant METH.

  10. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized.

  11. Differential Sensitivity of Macrocarpa and Microcarpa Types of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Water Stress: Association of Contrasting Stress Response with Oxidative Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harsh Nayyar; Smita Singh; Satwinder Kaur; Sanjeev Kumar; Hari D. Upadhyaya

    2006-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is particularly sensitive to water stress at its reproductive phase and, under conditions of water stress, will abort flowers and pods, thus reducing yield potential. There are two types of chickpea: (i) Macrocarpa ("Kabuli"), which has large, rams head-shaped, light brown seeds; and (ii)Microcarpa ("Desi"), which has small, angular and dark-brown seeds. Relatively speaking, "Kabuli" has been reported to be more sensitive to water stress than "Desi". The underlying mechanisms associated with contrasting sensitivity to water stress at the metabolic level are not well understood. We hypothesized that one of the reasons for contrasting water stress sensitivity in the two types of chickpea may be a variation in oxidative injury. In the present study, plants of both types were water stressed at the reproductive stage for 14 d. As a result of the stress, the "Kabuli" type exhibited an 80% reduction in seed yield over control compared with a 64% reduction observed for the "Desi" type. The decrease in leaf water potential (Ψw) was faster in the "Kabuli" compared with the "Desi" type. At the end of the water stress period, Ψ was reduced to -2.9 and -3.1 MPa in the "Desi" and "Kabuli" types, respectively, without any significant difference between them. On the last day of stress, "Kabuli" experienced 20% more membrane injury than "Desi". The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were significantly greater in "Desi"compared with "Kabuli". The malondialdehyde and H2O2 content were markedly higher at the end of the water stress in "Kabuli" compared with "Desi", indicating greater oxidative stress in the former. Levels of anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, were significantly higher in "Desi" than "Kabuli".Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ significantly between the two types of chickpea,whereas on the 10th day, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione

  12. Ukrain (NSC 631570) ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury by reducing oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Akcilar, Raziye; Akcilar, Aydin; Savran, Bircan; Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zulfu; Bayat, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes severe destruction in remote organs. Lung damage is a frequently seen complication after intestinal I/R. Ukrain (NSC 631570) is a synthetic thiophosphate derivative of alkaloids from the extract of the celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) plant. We investigated the effect of Ukrain in animals with lung injury induced by intestinal I/R. Adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Ukrain, I/R, I/R with Ukrain. Before intestinal I/R was induced, Ukrain was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 7.0 mg/body weight. After 1 h ischemia and 2 h reperfusion period, lung tissues were excised. Tissue levels of total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured and oxidative stress indices (OSI) were calculated. Lung tissues were also examined histopathologically. TOS and OSI levels markedly increased and TAS levels decreased in the I/R group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). TOS and OSI levels markedly decreased and TAS levels increased in the I/R with Ukrain group compared with the group subjected to IR only (P < 0.05). Severe hemorrhage, alveolar septal thickening, and leukocyte infiltration were observed in the I/R group. In the I/R with Ukrain group, morphologic changes occurring as a result of lung damage attenuated and histopathological scores reduced compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that Ukrain pretreatment could reduce lung injury induced by intestinal I/R induced via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:26773189

  13. Ukrain (NSC 631570 ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury by reducing oxidative stress

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    Cengiz Kocak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R causes severe destruction in remote organs. Lung damage is a frequently seen complication after intestinal I/R. Ukrain (NSC 631570 is a synthetic thiophosphate derivative of alkaloids from the extract of the celandine (Chelidonium majus L. plant. We investigated the effect of Ukrain in animals with lung injury induced by intestinal I/R. Adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Ukrain, I/R, I/R with Ukrain. Before intestinal I/R was induced, Ukrain was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 7.0 mg/body weight. After 1 h ischemia and 2 h reperfusion period, lung tissues were excised. Tissue levels of total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS were measured and oxidative stress indices (OSI were calculated. Lung tissues were also examined histopathologically. TOS and OSI levels markedly increased and TAS levels decreased in the I/R group compared to the control group (P < 0.05. TOS and OSI levels markedly decreased and TAS levels increased in the I/R with Ukrain group compared with the group subjected to IR only (P < 0.05. Severe hemorrhage, alveolar septal thickening, and leukocyte infiltration were observed  in the I/R group. In the I/R with Ukrain group, morphologic changes occurring as a result of lung damage attenuated and histopathological scores reduced compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05. Our results suggest that Ukrain pretreatment could reduce lung injury induced by intestinal I/R induced via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. 

  14. Association of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in rats with pudendal nerve ligation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akira; Kita, Masafumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Egawa, Shin; Chancellor, Michael B; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) also suffer from urgency incontinence, which is one of the major symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Pudendal nerve injury has been recognized as a possible cause for both SUI and OAB. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pudendal nerve ligation (PNL) on bladder function and urinary continence in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Conscious cystometry with or without capsaicin pretreatment (125 mg/kg sc), leak point pressures (LPPs), contractile responses of bladder muscle strips to carbachol or phenylephrine, and levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and mRNA in the bladder were compared in sham and PNL rats 4 wk after the injury. Urinary frequency detected by a reduction in intercontraction intervals and voided volume was observed in PNL rats compared with sham rats, but it was not seen in PNL rats with capsaicin pretreatment that desensitizes C-fiber-afferent pathways. LPPs in PNL rats were significantly decreased compared with sham rats. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to phenylephrine, but not to carbachol, were significantly increased in PNL rats. The levels of NGF protein and mRNA in the bladder of PNL rats were significantly increased compared with sham rats. These results suggest that pudendal nerve neuropathy induced by PNL may be one of the potential risk factors for OAB, as well as SUI. Somato-visceral cross sensitization between somatic (pudendal) and visceral (bladder) sensory pathways that increases NGF expression and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated contractility in the bladder may be involved in this pathophysiological mechanism.

  15. Hyperlipidemia exacerbates cerebral injury through oxidative stress, inflammation and neuronal apoptosis in MCAO/reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Lu; Du, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Jing-Ting; Hu, Xia-Min

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies showed that hyperglycemia enhanced brain damage when subjected to transient cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the etiologic link between them has been less known. In the present study, based on an experimental rat's model of hyperlipidemia combined with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), we herein showed that hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in considerable increase in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and remarkable decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which associated with an exacerbation on neurological deficit, cerebral infarct and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of cerebral I/R rats treated with HFD diet. The data showed that serum superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxides content were significantly decreased, while malondialdehyde level was obviously increased by hyperlipidemia or cerebral I/R alone, especially by coexistence of hyperlipidemia and cerebral I/R; meantime, hyperlipidemia also enhanced cerebral I/R-induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and the levels of pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in the ischemic hemispheres. Furthermore, the combined action of hyperlipidemia and cerebral I/R resulted in a protein increase expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 compared to hyperlipidemia or cerebral I/R alone. Meanwhile, this study also showed that hyperlipidemia significantly enhanced cerebral I/R-induced transfer of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosolic and the protein expressions of Apaf-1 and caspase-3, but also decreased cerebral I/R-induced bcl-2 protein expression. The results reveal that hyperlipidemia exacerbates cerebral I/R-induced injury through the synergistic effect on CYP2E1 induction, which further induces reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative

  16. Understanding sequelae of injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury incurred during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Aaron I; Braver, Elisa R; Kang, Han K

    2008-06-15

    A cross-sectional study of military personnel following deployment to conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan ascertained histories of combat theater injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and postconcussive symptoms. Associations among injuries, PTSD, and postconcussive symptoms were explored. In February 2005, a postal survey was sent to Iraq/Afghanistan veterans who had left combat theaters by September 2004 and lived in Maryland; Washington, DC; northern Virginia; and eastern West Virginia. Immediate neurologic symptoms postinjury were used to identify mild TBI. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by using Poisson regression. About 12% of 2,235 respondents reported a history consistent with mild TBI, and 11% screened positive for PTSD. Mild TBI history was common among veterans injured by bullets/shrapnel, blasts, motor vehicle crashes, air/water transport, and falls. Factors associated with PTSD included reporting multiple injury mechanisms (prevalence ratio = 3.71 for three or more mechanisms, 95% confidence interval: 2.23, 6.19) and combat mild TBI (prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 3.28). The strongest factor associated with postconcussive symptoms was PTSD, even after overlapping symptoms were removed from the PTSD score (prevalence ratio = 3.79, 95% confidence interval: 2.57, 5.59).

  17. 5-HTTLPR × interpersonal stress interaction and nonsuicidal self-injury in general community sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Barrocas, Andrea L; Young, Jami F; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-02-28

    No research with youth has investigated whether measured genetic risk interacts with stressful environment (G⁎E) to explain engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Two independent samples of youth were used to test the a priori hypothesis that the Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) would interact with chronic interpersonal stress to predict NSSI. We tested this hypothesis with children and adolescents from United States public schools in two independent samples (N׳s=300 and 271) using identical procedures and methods. They were interviewed in person with the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview to assess NSSI engagement and with the UCLA Chronic Stress Interview to assess interpersonal stress. Buccal cells were collected for genotyping of 5-HTTLPR. For both samples, ANOVAs revealed the hypothesized G*E. Specifically, short carriers who experienced severe interpersonal stress exhibited the highest level of NSSI engagement. Replicated across two independent samples, results provide the first demonstration that youth at high genetic susceptibility (5-HTTLPR) and high environmental exposure (chronic interpersonal stress) are at heightened risk for NSSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the oxidative stress mediates the cardioprotection of bicyclol against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CUI; Zhi LI; Ling-bo QIAN; Qin GAO; Jue WANG; Meng XUE; Xiao-e LOU

    2013-01-01

    cardioprotection against IR injury,at least,via reducing oxidative stress and its subsequent mPTP opening.

  19. Xiao Yao San against Corticosterone-Induced Stress Injury via Upregulating Glucocorticoid Receptor Reaction Element Transcriptional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that uncontrollable stress can impair the synaptic plasticity and firing property of hippocampal neurons, which influenced various hippocampal-dependent tasks including memory, cognition, behavior, and mood. In this work, we had investigated the effects and mechanisms of the Chinese herbal medicine Xiao Yao San (XYS against corticosterone-induced stress injury in primary hippocampal neurons (PHN cells. We found that XYS and RU38486 could increase cell viabilities and decrease cell apoptosis by MTT, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry assays. In addition, we observed that XYS notably inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR and upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions levels of Caveolin-1, GR, BDNF, TrkB, and FKBP4. However, XYS downregulated the FKBP51 expressions. Furthermore, the results of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and double luciferase reporter gene detection indicated that FKBP4 promotes the transcriptional activity of GR reaction element (GRE by binding with GR, and FKBP51 processed the opposite action. The in vivo experiment also proved the functions of XYS. These results suggested that XYS showed an efficient neuroprotection against corticosterone-induced stress injury in PHN cells by upregulating GRE transcriptional activity, which should be developed as a potential candidate for treating stress injury in the future.

  20. Alleviation of hyperglycemia induced vascular endothelial injury by exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chun-ling; Xiong, Hai-yan; Huang, Wen; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Yun; Wang, Si-yu; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    We will investigate the effects of exenatide on vascular endothelial injury and nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro and explore the role of nitrooxidative stress in endothelium-protective action of exenatide. Healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) model, low dose of exenatide treatment, and high dose of exenatide treatment. In vitro study showed that, compared with control group, the DM rats exhibited a lowered endothelium-dependent relaxation and damaged structural integrity of thoracic aortas, and there was a significant increase in plasma nitrotyrosine concentration. These parameters were improved after treatment with either low dose or high dose of exenatide for 45 days. In vitro study showed that exendin-4 (the active ingredient of exenatide) attenuated HUVECs injury induced by high glucose, with improving cell viability and attenuating cell apoptosis. Exendin-4 also significantly alleviated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by high glucose in HUVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exenatide treatment can alleviate the vascular endothelial injury, as well as attenuating the nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia, implying that the endothelium-protective effect of exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.

  1. Pentoxifylline enhances the protective effects of hypertonic saline solution on liver ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of oxidative stress Pentoxifylline enhances the protective effects of hypertonic saline solution on liver ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinicius Rocha-Santos; Estela RR Figueira; Joel A Rocha-Filho; Ana MM Coelho; Rafael Soraes Pinheiro; Telesforo Bacchella; Marcel CC Machado; Luiz AC D'Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Liver ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury trig-gers a systemic inlfammatory response and is the main cause of organ dysfunction and adverse postoperative outcomes after liver surgery. Pentoxifylline (PTX) and hypertonic saline solution (HTS) have been identiifed to have beneifcial effects against IR injury. This study aimed to investigate if the addi-tion of PTX to HTS is superior to HTS alone for the preven-tion of liver IR injury. METHODS:Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups. Control rats underwent 60 minutes of partial liver ischemia, HTS rats were treated with 0.4 mL/kg of intravenous 7.5%NaCl 15 minutes before reperfusion, and HPTX group were treated with 7.5% NaCl plus 25 mg/kg of PTX 15 minutes be-fore reperfusion. Samples were collected after reperfusion for determination of ALT, AST, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, mitochondrial respiration, lipid peroxidation, pulmonary permeability and myeloperoxidase. RESULTS:HPTX signiifcantly decreased TNF-α 30 minutes after reperfusion. HPTX and HTS signiifcantly decreased ALT, AST, IL-6, mitochondrial dysfunction and pulmonary myelo-peroxidase 4 hours after reperfusion. Compared with HTS only, HPTX signiifcantly decreased hepatic oxidative stress 4 hours after reperfusion and pulmonary permeability 4 and 12 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSION:This study showed that PTX added the beneifcial effects of HTS on liver IR injury through decreases of hepatic oxidative stress and pulmonary permeability.

  2. Traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and pain diagnoses in OIF/OEF/OND Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David X. Cifu, MD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and pain in Veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND, Veterans who received any inpatient or outpatient care from Veterans Health Administration (VHA facilities from 2009 to 2011 were studied. A subset of Veterans was identified who were diagnosed with TBI, PTSD, and/or pain (head, neck, or back as determined by their International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes. Between fiscal years 2009 and 2011, 613,391 Veterans accessed VHA services at least once (age: 31.9 +/– 9.6 yr. TBI diagnosis in any 1 year was slightly less than 7%. When data from 3 years were pooled, 9.6% were diagnosed with TBI, 29.3% were diagnosed with PTSD, and 40.2% were diagnosed with pain. The full polytrauma triad expression (TBI, PTSD, and pain was diagnosed in 6.0%. Results show that increasing numbers of Veterans from OIF/OEF/OND accessed VHA over a 3 year period. Among those with a TBI diagnosis, the majority also had a mental health disorder, with approximately half having both PTSD and pain. While the absolute number of Veterans increased by over 40% from 2009 to 2011, the proportion of Veterans diagnosed with TBI and the high rate of comorbid PTSD and pain in this population remained relatively stable.

  3. Propofol Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting the Oxidative Stress Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI is a risk for acute renal failure and delayed graft function in renal transplantation and cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine whether propofol could attenuate renal IRI and explore related mechanism. Methods: Male rat right kidney was removed, left kidney was subjected to IRI. Propofol was intravenously injected into rats before ischemia. The kidney morphology and renal function were analyzed. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cl-caspase-3, GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 were detected by Western blot analysis. Results: IR rats with propofol pretreatment had better renal function and less tubular apoptosis than untreated IR rats. Propofol pretreated IR rats had lower Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and less cleaved caspase-3. The protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 decreased significantly in propofol pretreated IR rats. In vitro cell model showed that propofol significantly increased the viability of NRK-52E cells that were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of propofol on the expression regulation of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, GRP78, CHOP was consistent in both in vitro and in vivo models. Conclusion: Experimental results suggest that propofol prevents renal IRI via inhibiting oxidative stress.

  4. Connecting combat-related mild traumatic brain injury with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms through brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michelle E; Chou, Yi-Yu; Leaman, Suzanne; Pham, Dzung L; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic E; Coughlin, Mary; Rapp, Paul; Roy, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may share common symptom and neuropsychological profiles in military service members (SMs) following deployment; while a connection between the two conditions is plausible, the relationship between them has been difficult to discern. The intent of this report is to enhance our understanding of the relationship between findings on structural and functional brain imaging and symptoms of PTSD. Within a cohort of SMs who did not meet criteria for PTSD but were willing to complete a comprehensive assessment within 2 months of their return from combat deployment, we conducted a nested case-control analysis comparing those with combat-related mTBI to age/gender-matched controls with diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a range of psychological measures. We report degraded white matter integrity in those with a history of combat mTBI, and a positive correlation between the white matter microstructure and default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Higher clinician-administered and self-reported subthreshold PTSD symptoms were reported in those with combat mTBI. Our findings offer a potential mechanism through which mTBI may alter brain function, and in turn, contribute to PTSD symptoms.

  5. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  6. Cardiovascular response of individuals with spinal cord injury to dynamic functional electrical stimulation under orthostatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Masani, Kei; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Miyatani, Masae; Fisher, Joseph A; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we examined how effectively functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive stepping mitigated orthostatic hypotension in participants with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). While being tilted head-up to 70 (°) from the supine position, the participants underwent four 10-min conditions in a random sequence: 1) no intervention, 2) passive stepping, 3) isometric FES of leg muscles, and 4) FES of leg muscles combined with passive stepping. We found that FES and passive stepping independently mitigated a decrease in stroke volume and helped to maintain the mean blood pressure. The effects of FES on stroke volume and mean blood pressure were greater than those of passive stepping. When combined, FES and passive stepping did not interfere with each other, but they also did not synergistically increase stroke volume or mean blood pressure. Thus, the present study suggests that FES delivered to lower limbs can be used in individuals with SCI to help them withstand orthostatic stress. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether this use of FES is applicable to a larger population of individuals with SCI.

  7. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  8. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

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    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  9. A Diathesis-Stress Model of Chronic Pain and Disability following Traumatic Injury

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    Dennis C Turk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the perplexing features of pain is the wide variability in patients' responses to ostensibly the same extent of physical pathology. A range of cognitive, affective and behavioural factors are related to the perception of pain, maintenance of pain and disability, exacerbation of pain and response to treatment. Moreover, there is some evidence that individual differences and prior learning history also have a significant influence on the experience of pain and related disability. The role of these psychological factors in the maintenance of disability following traumas such as motor vehicle accidents and work-related injuries has generated considerable interest. This paper provides a brief overview of a set of predisposing factors, cognitive processes and behavioural principles that appear to be particularly important in the maintenance of disability following trauma. In particular, anxiety sensitivity, anticipation and avoidance of fear or harm, catastrophizing ideation, causal attributions for symptoms, self-efficacy and operant conditioning are discussed. Each of these factors is integrated in a diathesis-stress model that emphasizes the interaction of predisposing factors with a trauma, setting in motion a cascade of interpretive cognitive processes and reinforcement contingencies that maintain disability following the trauma. This model proposes a sequential process to explain the variation observed among people following a relatively minor trauma. The model is intended to be heuristic. It may be a useful conceptualization that can serve to guide prevention efforts and the development of treatment interventions.

  10. Alleviation of Hyperglycemia Induced Vascular Endothelial Injury by Exenatide Might Be Related to the Reduction of Nitrooxidative Stress

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    Qian Zhao

    2013-01-01

    of exenatide treatment. In vitro study showed that, compared with control group, the DM rats exhibited a lowered endothelium-dependent relaxation and damaged structural integrity of thoracic aortas, and there was a significant increase in plasma nitrotyrosine concentration. These parameters were improved after treatment with either low dose or high dose of exenatide for 45 days. In vitro study showed that exendin-4 (the active ingredient of exenatide attenuated HUVECs injury induced by high glucose, with improving cell viability and attenuating cell apoptosis. Exendin-4 also significantly alleviated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA, nitrotyrosine content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression induced by high glucose in HUVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exenatide treatment can alleviate the vascular endothelial injury, as well as attenuating the nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia, implying that the endothelium-protective effect of exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.

  11. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

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    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  12. Inhibition of GADD34, the stress-inducible regulatory subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, does not enhance functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

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    Sujata Saraswat Ohri

    Full Text Available Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR is a hallmark of various pathological diseases and/or traumatic injuries. Restoration of ER homeostasis can contribute to improvement in the functional outcome of these diseases. Using genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the PERK-CHOP arm of the ERSR, we recently demonstrated improvements in hindlimb locomotion after spinal cord injury (SCI and implicated oligodendrocyte survival as a potential mechanism. Here, we investigated the contribution of stress-inducible PPP1R15A/GADD34, an ERSR signaling effector downstream of CHOP that dephosphorylates eIF2α, in the pathogenesis of SCI. We show that although genetic ablation of GADD34 protects oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs against ER stress-mediated cell death in vitro and results in differential ERSR attenuation in vivo after SCI, there is no improvement in hindlimb locomotor function. Guanabenz, a FDA approved antihypertensive drug, was recently shown to reduce the burden of misfolded proteins in the ER by directly targeting GADD34. Guanabenz protected OPCs from ER stress-mediated cell death in vitro and attenuated the ERSR in vivo after SCI. However, guanabenz administration failed to rescue the locomotor deficits after SCI. These data suggest that deletion of GADD34 alone is not sufficient to improve functional recovery after SCI.

  13. Sulindac attenuates valproic acid-induced oxidative stress levels in primary cultured cortical neurons and ameliorates repetitive/stereotypic-like movement disorders in Wistar rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Cailing; Yuan, Guoyan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Li, Ruixi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants have neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodevelopental disorders, such as autism. In the present study, the possible neuroprotective properties of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were investigated in vitro using cultured cortical neurons with valproic acid (VPA)-induced neurotoxicity, as well as in vivo through the behavioral analysis of rats prenatally exposed to VPA as a model of autism. VPA induced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cell viability in primary cultured cortical neurons established from timed-pregnant (embryonic day 18) Wistar rat pups. However, co-incubation of the neurons with VPA and sulindac reduced oxidative stress and increased cell viability. The rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection with one of the following: VPA, sulindac, VPA and sulindac, or physiological saline, and their offspring were subjected to the open field test. During the test trials, repetitive/stereotypic-like movements for each rat were recorded and analyzed. The results revealed that treatment with both sulindac and VPA reduced the VPA-induced repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and the sulindac and VPA-treated animals responded better in the open field test compared to the VPA-treated animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of sulindac may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autism, suggesting that the upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway disrupts oxidative homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to autism.

  14. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone, a major component of smog generated through the interaction of light and anthropogenic emissions, induces adverse pulmonary, cardiovascular, and systemic health effects upon inhalation. It is generally accepted that ozone-induced lung injury is mediated by its interaction ...

  15. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    injury was through the oxidative stress, inhibition of oxidative stress after RK exposure may be urgently needed.

  16. Microparticles generated by decompression stress cause central nervous system injury manifested as neurohypophysial terminal action potential broadening

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The study goal was to use membrane voltage changes during neurohypophysial action potential (AP) propagation as an index of nerve function to evaluate the role that circulating microparticles (MPs) play in causing central nervous system injury in response to decompression stress in a murine model. Mice studied 1 h following decompression from 790 kPa air pressure for 2 h exhibit a 45% broadening of the neurohypophysial AP. Broadening did not occur if mice were injected with the MP lytic agent...

  17. Coping with burns: the role of coping self-efficacy in the recovery from traumatic stress following burn injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a three-wave prospective study among patients with burns (N = 178) to examine the prospective influence of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions on trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the first 12 months after burn injuries. Using linear growth curve modeling, we corrected for demographics, the number of surgeries during initial admittance, trait coping styles, and changing levels of health-related quality of life. CSE during initial admission was by far the stronge...

  18. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  19. Brain and Serum Androsterone is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Richard J Servatius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM. ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34, PID 35 (S35, on both days (2S, or the experimental context (CON. Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG, allopregnanolone (ALLO, and androsterone (ANDRO were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30 and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  20. Novel porcine repetitive elements

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    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  1. IL-23 Promotes Myocardial I/R Injury by Increasing the Inflammatory Responses and Oxidative Stress Reactions

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    Xiaorong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury. We hypothesized that IL-23, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, could promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into sham operated control (SO group, ischemia and reperfusion (I/R group, (IL-23 + I/R group and (anti-IL-23 + I/R group. At 4 h after reperfusion, the serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and the tissue MDA concentration and SOD activity were measured. The infarcte size was measured by TTC staining. Apoptosis in heart sections were measured by TUNEL staining. The expression of HMGB1 and IL-17A were detected by Western Blotting and the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by Elisa. Results: After 4 h reperfusion, compared with the I/R group, IL-23 significantly increased the infarct size, the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and the levels of LDH and CK (all P 0.05. All these effects were abolished by anti-IL-23 administration. Conclusion: The present study suggested that IL-23 may promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress reaction.

  2. Complement Component C1q Mediates Mitochondria-Driven Oxidative Stress in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Vadim S.; Yao, Jun; Ratner, Veniamin; Sosunov, Sergey; Fraser, Deborah A.; Botto, Marina; Baalasubramanian, Sivasankar; Morgan, B. Paul; Silverstein, Samuel; Stark, Raymond; Polin, Richard; Vannucci, Susan J.; Pinsky, David; Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury in infants is a leading cause of lifelong disability. We report a novel pathway mediating oxidative brain injury after hypoxia–ischemia in which C1q plays a central role. Neonatal mice incapable of classical or terminal complement activation because of C1q or C6 deficiency or pharmacologically inhibited assembly of membrane attack complex were subjected to hypoxia–ischemia. Only C1q−/− mice exhibited neuroprotection coupled with attenuated oxidative brain injury. This was associated with reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C1q−/− brain mitochondria and preserved activity of the respiratory chain. Compared with C1q+/+ neurons, cortical C1q−/− neurons exhibited resistance to oxygen– glucose deprivation. However, postischemic exposure to exogenous C1q increased both mitochondrial ROS production and mortality of C1q−/− neurons. This C1q toxicity was abolished by coexposure to antioxidant Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid). Thus, the C1q component of complement, accelerating mitochondrial ROS emission, exacerbates oxidative injury in the developing HI brain. The terminal complement complex is activated in the HI neonatal brain but appeared to be nonpathogenic. These findings have important implications for design of the proper therapeutic interventions against HI neonatal brain injury by highlighting a pathogenic priority of C1q-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress over the C1q deposition-triggered terminal complement activation. PMID:20147536

  3. Complement component c1q mediates mitochondria-driven oxidative stress in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Vadim S; Yao, Jun; Ratner, Veniamin; Sosunov, Sergey; Fraser, Deborah A; Botto, Marina; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Morgan, B Paul; Silverstein, Samuel; Stark, Raymond; Polin, Richard; Vannucci, Susan J; Pinsky, David; Starkov, Anatoly A

    2010-02-10

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in infants is a leading cause of lifelong disability. We report a novel pathway mediating oxidative brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia in which C1q plays a central role. Neonatal mice incapable of classical or terminal complement activation because of C1q or C6 deficiency or pharmacologically inhibited assembly of membrane attack complex were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. Only C1q(-/-) mice exhibited neuroprotection coupled with attenuated oxidative brain injury. This was associated with reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C1q(-/-) brain mitochondria and preserved activity of the respiratory chain. Compared with C1q(+/+) neurons, cortical C1q(-/-) neurons exhibited resistance to oxygen-glucose deprivation. However, postischemic exposure to exogenous C1q increased both mitochondrial ROS production and mortality of C1q(-/-) neurons. This C1q toxicity was abolished by coexposure to antioxidant Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid). Thus, the C1q component of complement, accelerating mitochondrial ROS emission, exacerbates oxidative injury in the developing HI brain. The terminal complement complex is activated in the HI neonatal brain but appeared to be nonpathogenic. These findings have important implications for design of the proper therapeutic interventions against HI neonatal brain injury by highlighting a pathogenic priority of C1q-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress over the C1q deposition-triggered terminal complement activation.

  4. Mechanisms of oxidative stress in brain ischemia injury%氧化应激在脑缺血损伤中的作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹洋; 吴伟康

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in brain injury after ischemia, which is a complex cascade. These oxidants produced by oxidative stress are directly involved in oxidative damage with cellular macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, which lead to cell death. Oxidants are also mediators in signaling involving mitochondria pathway, DNA repair enzymes, and transcription factor that may lead to apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. Antioxidangt enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase,etc) provide useful tools in dissecting the events involving oxidative stress in signaling and damage in ischemic brain injury. This review focuses on the mechanisms of oxidative stress during brain ischemia.

  5. Effects of resolvin D1 on inflammatory responses and oxidative stress of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yuan Ruixia; Yao Chengyue; Wu Qingping; Marie Christelle; Xie Wanli; Zhang Xingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of inflammatory mediators and effector cells participate together in acute lung injury,and lead to secondary injury that is due to an inflammatory cascade and secondary diffuse lung parenchyma injury.Inflammation is associated with an oxidative stress reaction,which is produced in the development of airway inflammation,and which has positive feedback on inflammation itself.Resolvin D1 can reduce the infiltration of neutrophils,regulate cytokine levels and reduce the inflammation reaction,and thereby promote the resolution of inflammation.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of resolvin D1 on an inflammatory response and oxidative stress during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury.Methods LPS (3 mg/kg) was used to induce the acute lung injury model.Pretreatment resolvin D1 (100 ng/mouse) was given to mice 30 minutes before inducing acute lung injury.Mice were observed at 6 hours,12 hours,1 day,2 days,3 days,4 days and 7 days after LPS was administrated,then they were humanely sacrificed.We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues for further analysis.Paraffin section and HE staining of the lung tissues were made for histopathology observations.Parts of the lung tissues were evaluated for wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio.tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,inter leukin (IL)-1β,IL-10 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).A lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kit was used to detect MDA.A total superoxide dismutase assay kit with WST-1 was used to analyze superoxide dismutase (SOD).We determined the apoptosis of neutrophils by Flow Cytometry.A real-time quantitative PCR Detecting System detected the expression of mRNA for heme oxygenase (HO)-1.Results Pretreatment with resolvin D1 reduced the pathological damage in the lung,decreased the recruitment of neutrophils and stimulated their apoptosis.It markedly decreased the expressions of TNF

  6. Effects of triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Lijie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Jiachen; Jiao, Xinyao; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Yanqun; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathological development of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. We found that the administration of triterpenoid attenuated alcohol-induced oxidative stress in multiple organs including liver. Moreover, the impaired liver function and histological changes resulted from alcohol consumption was improved by triterpenoid treatment. Finally, we found that pretreatment with triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis to alcohol-fed rats increased the expression level of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) while inhibited the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in liver microsomes. Further assays revealed that the microsomal activity of HO-1 was accordingly induced whereas CYP2E1 was suppressed in rats received triterpenoid intervention. Our findings suggest that triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury through ameliorating oxidative stress in rats.

  7. Protocatechuic aldehyde attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation

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    Li Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a classic chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat different types of cancers including ovarian, head and neck, testicular and uterine cervical carcinomas. However, cisplatin induces acute kidney injury by directly triggering an excessive inflammatory response, oxidative stress and programmed cell death of renal tubular epithelial cells. All of which lead to higher mortality rates in patients. In this study we examined the protective effect of protocatechuic aldehyde (PA in vitro in cisplatin-treated tubular epithelial cells and in vivo in cisplatin nephropathy. PA is a monomer of Traditional Chinese Medicine isolated from the root of S. miltiorrhiza. Results show that PA prevented cisplatin-induced decline of renal function and histological damage, which was confirmed by attenuation of KIM1 in both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PA reduced renal inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress and programmed cell death in response to cisplatin, which was further evidenced by in vitro data. Of note, PA suppressed NAPDH oxidases, including Nox2 and Nox4, in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, silencing Nox4, but not Nox2, removed the inhibitory effect of PA on cisplatin-induced renal injury, indicating that Nox4 may play a pivotal role in mediating the protective effect of PA in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Collectively, our data indicate that PA largely blocked cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation without compromising anti-tumor activity of cisplatin. These findings suggest that PA and its derivatives may serve as potential protective agents for cancer patients with cisplatin treatment.

  8. Pleurotus ostreatus opposes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepato-renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Yahya M; Azmy, Rania M; Samaka, Rehab M; Salem, Mohamed F

    2014-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity is a predominant cause of acute hepatic and renal failure. In both humans and rodents toxicity begins with a reactive metabolite that binds to proteins. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA fragmentation resulting in necrotic cell death. Pleurotus ostreatus (an edible oyster mushroom) is well recognized as a flavourful food, as well as a medicinal supplement. In the present study, we evaluated the role of Pleurotus ostreatus in the protection against APAP-induced hepato-renal toxicity. We also explored the mechanism by which Pleurotus ostreatus exerts its effects. Ninety adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (30 mice/group). Mice were offered normal diet (control and APAP groups), or diet supplemented with 10% Pleurotus ostreatus (APAP + Pleurotus ostreatus) for 10 days. Mice were either treated with vehicle (control group, single intra-peritoneal injection.), or APAP (APAP and APAP + Pleurotus ostreatus groups, single intra-peritoneal injection, 500 mg/kg), 24 hours after the last meal. APAP increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) content. APAP decreased hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) content, as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Supplementation with Pleurotus ostreatus significantly reduced APAP-induced elevated levels of ALT, AST, GDH, creatinine, BUN, KIM-1and MDA, while GSH level, and GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly increased. Our findings were further validated by histopathology; treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus significantly decreased APAP-induced cell necrosis in liver and kidney tissues. We report here that the antioxidant effect of Pleurotus ostreatus opposes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative

  9. Analysis of the stress and displacement distribution of inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries repaired with screw fixation: a finite element study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of syndesmosis injuries have concentrated on cadaver models. However, they are unable to obtain exact data regarding the stress and displacement distribution of various tissues, and it is difficult to compare models. We investigated the biomechanical effects of inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries (ITSIs and screw fixation on the ankle using the finite element (FE method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A three-dimensional model of a healthy ankle complex was developed using computed tomography (CT images. We established models of an ITSI and of screw fixation at the plane 2.5 cm above and parallel to the tibiotalar joint surface of the injured syndesmosis. Simulated loads were applied under three conditions: neutral position with single-foot standing and internal and external rotation of the ankle. ITSI reduced contact forces between the talus and fibula, helped periarticular ankle ligaments withstand more load-resisting movement, and increased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula. ITSI fixation with a syndesmotic screw reduced contact forces in all joints, decreased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula, and increased crural interosseous membrane stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Severe syndesmosis injuries cause stress and displacement distribution of the ankle to change multidirectional ankle instability and should be treated by internal fixation. Though the transverse syndesmotic screw effectively stabilizes syndesmotic diastasis, it also changes stress distribution around the ankle and decreases the joint's range of motion (ROM. Therefore, fixation should not be performed for a long period of time because it is not physiologically suitable for the ankle joint.

  10. Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Kamran; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Golnazari, Masoumeh; Karimian, SeyedMorteza

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to stress leads to physiological changes called "stress response" which are the result of the changes in the adrenomedullary hormone system, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In the present study, the effects of chronic physical and psychological stress and also the role of sympathetic system effects in stress on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries have been studied in isolated rat heart. Rat heart was isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. The daily stress was induced for one week prior to I/R induction. Sympathectomy was done chemically by injection of hydroxyl-dopamine prior to stress induction. There were no significant changes in heart rate and Coronary Flow between groups. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate product pressure (RPP) in both physical and psychological stress groups decreased significantly compared to those in control group (Pphysical and psychological stress groups. Infarct size significantly increased in both physical and psychological stress groups and control group(Pstress led to the elimination of the deleterious effects of stress as compared with stress groups (Presults show that induction of chronic physical and psychological stress prior to ischemia/reperfusion causes enhancement of myocardial injuries and it seems that increased sympathetic activity in response to stress is responsible for these adverse effects of stress on ischemic/reperfused heart.

  11. Common biochemical defects linkage between post-traumatic stress disorders, mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and penetrating TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kedar N; Bondy, Stephen C

    2015-03-02

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex mental disorder with psychological and emotional components, caused by exposure to single or repeated extreme traumatic events found in war, terrorist attacks, natural or man-caused disasters, and by violent personal assaults and accidents. Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when the brain is violently rocked back and forth within the skull following a blow to the head or neck as in contact sports, or when in close proximity to a blast pressure wave following detonation of explosives in the battlefield. Penetrating TBI occurs when an object penetrates the skull and damages the brain, and is caused by vehicle crashes, gunshot wound to the head, and exposure to solid fragments in the proximity of explosions, and other combat-related head injuries. Despite clinical studies and improved understanding of the mechanisms of cellular damage, prevention and treatment strategies for patients with PTSD and TBI remain unsatisfactory. To develop an improved plan for treating and impeding progression of PTSD and TBI, it is important to identify underlying biochemical changes that may play key role in the initiation and progression of these disorders. This review identifies three common biochemical events, namely oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and excitotoxicity that participate in the initiation and progression of these conditions. While these features are separately discussed, in many instances, they overlap. This review also addresses the goal of developing novel treatments and drug regimens, aimed at combating this triad of events common to, and underlying, injury to the brain.

  12. MitoTEMPO Prevents Oxalate Induced Injury in NRK-52E Cells via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Modulating Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major risks for urolithiasis, hyperoxaluria can be caused by genetic defect or dietary intake. And high oxalate induced renal epithelial cells injury is related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether MitoTEMPO, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, could protect against oxalate mediated injury in NRK-52E cells via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating oxidative stress. MitoSOX Red was used to determine mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and quantification of ATP synthesis were measured to evaluate mitochondrial function. The protein expression of Nox4, Nox2, and p22 was also detected to explore the effect of oxalate and MitoTEMPO on NADPH oxidase. Our results revealed that pretreatment with MitoTEMPO significantly inhibited oxalate induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) release and decreased oxalate induced mtROS generation. Further, MitoTEMPO pretreatment restored disruption of Δψm and decreased ATP synthesis mediated by oxalate. In addition, MitoTEMPO altered the protein expression of Nox4 and p22 and decreased the protein expression of IL-6 and osteopontin (OPN) induced by oxalate. We concluded that MitoTEMPO may be a new candidate to protect against oxalate induced kidney injury as well as urolithiasis.

  13. Physical Injury and Somatic Complaints: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Young Survivors of a Terror Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Ingrid; Dyb, Grete; Stensland, Synne Øien; Ekeberg, Øivind; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Diseth, Trond H

    2017-06-01

    Physically injured trauma survivors have particularly high risk for later somatic complaints and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, the potential mediating role of PTSS linking injury to later somatic complaints has been poorly investigated. In this study, survivors (N = 255) were interviewed longitudinally at 2 timepoints after the terror attack on Utøya Island, Norway, in 2011. Assessments included injury sustained during the attack, PTSS (after 4-5 months), somatic complaints (after 14-15 months), and background factors. Causal mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential mediating role of PTSS in linking injury to somatic complaints comparing 2 groups of injured survivors with noninjured survivors. For the nonhospitalized injured versus the noninjured survivors, the mediated pathway was significant (average causal mediation effect; ACME = 0.09, p = .028, proportion = 55.8%). For the hospitalized versus the noninjured survivors, the mediated pathway was not significant (ACME = 0.04, p = .453, proportion = 11.6%). PTSS may play a significant mediating role in the development of somatic complaints among nonhospitalized injured trauma survivors. Intervening health professionals should be aware of this possible pathway to somatic complaints. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Injured body, injured soul? Predicting and preventing posttraumatic stress disorder after injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury is common and may have a major impact on the survivor’s life. In the Netherlands alone, over 7 million injuries are registered yearly, caused by accidents in traffic, at home, at work, or by interpersonal violence. Besides physical recovery, survivors often deal with the

  15. The risk of developing repetitive stress injury in seamstresses, in the clothing industry, under the perspective of ergonomic work analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the sewing task with the approach of the ergonomic analysis of the work, in the seam activity in a clothing industry to identify the relationship between the use of different sewing machines and the activity of sewing pants and blouses, which brings larger risk for the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders. It was done a study of transverse and exploratory cut, in that was used a methodology control of multiple analysis of variables. The population objective was the workers that exercise the activity in the section of makings, with 93 workers, being 54,8% sewing auxiliary and 45,2% dressmakers. Most is single (75,3%), has the 2nd complete degree (58,0%) and the medium age was 25 years old. As results were observed that the machines serger, zig zag and traveti are classified as of high risk of developing work related to musculoskeletal disorders, that the postures assumed during the execution of the tasks were classified as bad or terrible, and that the workstations were just classified as reasonable. It was concluded then, that a relationship exists among the task of sewing pants and blouses, and the risk of the development of work related to musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Nonconventional interventions for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: Ketamine, repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Basant; Kluewer D'Amico, Jessica; Makani, Ramkrishna; Parikh, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    It is alarming that only 59% of those who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Many existing treatments, both pharmacological and nonpharmacological, do not directly target trauma memories that lay at the core of the PTSD pathogenesis. Notable exceptions are medications like ketamine and propranolol and trauma-focused psychotherapies like eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (developed by Shapiro) and Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness Based Extinction and Reconsolidation (TIMBER) for trauma memories (developed by Pradhan). Although the antidepressant effects of ketamine are no longer news, ketamine's effects on treatment refractory PTSD (TR-PTSD) is a recent concept. As TR-PTSD has a marked public health burden and significant limitations in terms of treatment interventions, a thorough assessment of current strategies is required. Research to bring clarity to the underlying pathophysiology and neurobiology of TR-PTSD delineating the chemical, structural, and circuitry abnormalities will take time. In the interim, in the absence of a 1-size-fits-all therapeutic approach, pragmatically parallel lines of research can be pursued using the pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments that have a strong theoretical rationale for efficacy. This article aims to review the current literature on interventions for PTSD, most notably ketamine, trans-cranial magnetic stimulation treatment, yoga and mindfulness interventions, and TIMBER. We present an outline for their future use, alone as well as in combination, with a hope of providing additional insights as well as advocating for developing more effective therapeutic intervention for this treatment-resistant and debilitating condition.

  17. RTN1-C mediates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via ER stress and mitochondria-associated apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingli; Tang, Yuewen; An, Ran; Lin, Muya; Chen, Lijian; Du, Jian

    2017-10-05

    The reticulon family has been found to induce apoptosis, inhibit axon regeneration and regulate protein trafficking. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how reticulon proteins are involved in neuronal death-promoting processes during ischemia. Here, we report that the expression of Reticulon Protein 1-C (RTN1-C) was associated with the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using a combination of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke and oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) models, we determined that the expression of RTN1-C was significantly increased during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion. RTN1-C overexpression induced apoptosis and increased the cell vulnerability to ischemic injury, whereas RTN1-C knockdown reversed ischemia-induced apoptosis and attenuated the vulnerability of OGD/R-treated neural cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RTN1-C mediated OGD/R-induced apoptosis through ER stress and mitochondria-associated pathways. RTN1-C interacted with Bcl-xL and increased its localization in the ER, thus reducing the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-xL. Most importantly, knockdown of Rtn1-c expression in vivo attenuated apoptosis in MCAO rats and reduced the extent of I/R-induced brain injury, as assessed by infarct volume and neurological score. Collectively, these data support for the first time that RTN1-C may represent a novel candidate for therapies against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  18. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the severity and location of bodily injuries on post-concussive and combat stress symptom reporting after military-related concurrent mild traumatic brain injuries and polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Louis M; Lange, Rael T; Marshall, Kathryn; Prokhorenko, Olga; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; Asmussen, Sarah B; Ivins, Brian; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained in combat frequently co-occur with significant bodily injuries. Intuitively, more extensive bodily injuries might be associated with increased symptom reporting. In 2012, however, French et al. demonstrated an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting. This study expands on that work by examining the influence of location and severity of bodily injuries on symptom reporting after mild TBI. Participants were 579 US military service members who sustained an uncomplicated mild TBI with concurrent bodily injuries and who were evaluated at two military medical centers. Bodily injury severity was quantified using a modified Injury Severity Score (ISSmod). Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C), on average, 2.5 months post-injury. There was a significant negative association between ISSmod scores and NSI (r=-0.267, pinverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting in this sample. Hypothesized explanations include underreporting of symptoms, increased peer support, disruption of fear conditioning because of acute morphine use, or delayed expression of symptoms.

  20. Pulsed ultrasound associated with gold nanoparticle gel reduces oxidative stress parameters and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in an animal model of muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eduardo G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanogold has been investigated in a wide variety of biomedical applications because of the anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TPU (Therapeutic Pulsed Ultrasound with gold nanoparticles (GNP on oxidative stress parameters and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules after traumatic muscle injury. Materials and methods Animals were divided in nine groups: sham (uninjured muscle; muscle injury without treatment; muscle injury + DMSO; muscle injury + GNP; muscle injury + DMSO + GNP; muscle injury + TPU; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO; muscle injury + TPU + GNP; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP. The ROS production was determined by concentration of superoxide anion, modulation of antioxidant defenses was determined by the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes, oxidative damage determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and protein carbonyls. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as inflammatory parameters. Results Compared to muscle injury without treatment group, the muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP gel group promoted a significant decrease in superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation levels (p Conclusions Our results suggest that TPU + DMSO + GNP gel presents beneficial effects on the muscular healing process, inducing a reduction in the production of ROS and also the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules.

  1. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent work demonstrated that circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects through the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats diminished circu...

  2. PINK1-Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy Protects Mitochondrial Integrity and Prevents Metabolic Stress-Induced Endothelial Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction, a significant feature in metabolic syndrome, triggers endothelial cell dysfunction and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitophagy, a process of autophagic turnover of damaged mitochondria, maintains mitochondrial integrity. PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and Parkin signaling is a key pathway in mitophagy control. In this study, we examined whether this pathway could protect mitochondria under metabolic stress. We found that palmitic acid (PA induced significant mitophagy and activated PINK1 and Parkin in endothelial cells. Knocking down PINK1 or Parkin reduced mitophagy, leading to impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria and intracellular accumulation of mitochondrial fragments. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin prevented PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and apoptosis. Finally, we show that PINK1 and Parkin were up-regulated in vascular wall of obese mice and diabetic mice. Our study demonstrates that PINK1-Parkin pathway is activated in response to metabolic stress. Through induction of mitophagy, this pathway protects mitochondrial integrity and prevents metabolic stress-induced endothelial injury.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats

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    Pan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. Methods. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP, serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. Results. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and •OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. Conclusions. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress.

  4. Protective Effect of Thalidomide on Liver Injury in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Fan, Li-Juan; Li, Hong-Yun; Meng, Qing-Shun; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of thalidomide on acute pancreatitis-associated liver injury in the rat and analyze its relationship with oxidative stress. The acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Thalidomide (100 mg/kg) was given daily via the intragastric route for 8 days before this injection. The levels of oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver were detected by biochemical assay. Nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein and mRNA levels in the liver were detected using western blots and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the untreated model group, liver histopathology, SOD, GSHpx, MDA levels, NF-κBp65, TNF-α, ICAM-1 protein, and mRNA levels in the liver of rats given thalidomide were improved significantly. Results demonstrate that thalidomide may exert its effects on oxidative stress to attenuate the progression of acute pancreatitis-associated liver injury in rats.

  5. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  6. Oxidative stress and modification of renal vascular permeability are associated with acute kidney injury during P. berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y; Castoldi, Angela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y.; Castoldi, Ângela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. PMID:22952850

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J; Steele, Martin R; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. A proportion of the returning soldiers also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and in some cases, this may be a consequence of TBI. Effective treatments are still being identified, and a possible therapeutic candidate is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Some clinical trials have been performed which suggest benefits with regard to survival and disease severity of TBI and/or PTSD, while several other studies do not see any improvement compared to a possibly poorly controlled sham. HBOT has been shown to reduce apoptosis, upregulate growth factors, promote antioxidant levels, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines in animal models, and hence, it is likely that HBOT could be advantageous in treating at least the secondary phase of TBI and PTSD. There is some evidence of a putative prophylactic or preconditioning benefit of HBOT exposure in animal models of brain injury, and the optimal time frame for treatment is yet to be determined. HBOT has potential side effects such as acute cerebral toxicity and more reactive oxygen species with long-term use, and therefore, optimizing exposure duration to maximize the reward and decrease the detrimental effects of HBOT is necessary. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of HBOT as well as suggests future directions including prophylactic use and chronic treatment. PMID:27799776

  9. Appearance-related residual injury, posttraumatic stress, and body image: Associations within a sample of female victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Resnick, Heidi S; Kokoska, Mimi S; Etzel, Julie C

    2007-12-01

    One third of women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) receive some form of injury. After acute injuries have healed, a victim's physical appearance may be altered with residual changes including marks or scars. This study included 56 female victims of IPV (31 with appearance-related residual injury and a comparison group of 25 with no appearance-related residual injury) and examined the associations between violence-related experiences, body image distress, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Appearance-related residual injury status moderated the relationship between body image distress and symptoms of PTSD. In addition, within the appearance-related residual injury group, body image distress emerged a unique predictor of PTSD explaining incremental variance beyond that explained by severity of psychological maltreatment.

  10. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Janneh, O. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70, Pembroke Place, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3GF (United Kingdom); Maddock, H.L., E-mail: h.maddock@coventry.ac.uk [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  11. Stress plays provoking role in hypertension-related stroke: injuries of blood-brain barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Shirokov, A.; Gekalyuk, A.; Abakumov, M.; Navolokin, N.; Abdurashitov, A.; Pavlov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Fedorova, V.; Razubaeva, V.; Saranceva, E.; Li, P.; Huang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Luo, Q.; Tuchin, V.; Kurths, J.

    2017-02-01

    Chronic hypertension itself does not cause stroke but significantly decreases the resistant to stroke induced by stress due to exhausting of adaptive capacity of cerebral endothelium and decrease resistance of blood-brain barrier to stress.

  12. Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in aesthetic athletes (dancers, gymnasts, and figure skaters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Luke, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Young aesthetic athletes require special understanding of the athletic biomechanical demands peculiar to each sport. The performance of these activities may impart specific biomechanical stresses and subsequent injury patterns. The clinician must understand these aspects as well as the spinal changes that occur with growth when many of these injuries often occur. Further, athletes, parents, coaches, and healthcare providers must be sensitive to the overall aspects of the athlete, including nutrition, overtraining, adequate recovery, proper technique, and limiting repetition of difficult maneuvers to minimize injuries.

  13. Hyperthermia induces injury to the intestinal mucosa in the mouse: evidence for an oxidative stress mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver, S R; Phillips, N A; Novosad, V L; Bakos, M P; Talbert, E E; Clanton, T L

    2012-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that conditions characteristic of mild heatstroke in mice are associated with injury to the epithelial lining of the intestinal tract and comprise a critical component of barrier dysfunction...

  14. Heat stress impairs mitochondria functions and induces oxidative injury in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Jiao, H; Song, Z; Zhao, J; Wang, X; Lin, H

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the linkage of oxidative stress occurring in mitochondria, skeletal muscles, and plasma in heat stress-challenged broilers. At d 35, 24 broilers were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: rearing at high temperature (32 ± 1°C; heat stress group) or normal temperature (21 ± 1.2°C; control) for 7 d. The oxidative damage of lipid, DNA, and protein and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were measured, respectively, in plasma, skeletal muscles (breast and thigh muscles), and skeletal muscle mitochondria. The result showed that heat exposure increased (P stress in breast and thigh muscles. In skeletal muscle mitochondria, heat stress increased (P stress (P 0.05). Heat stress increased SOD (P stressed broilers, indicating that urate could serve as an antioxidant to enhance the antioxidative capacity during stress in a concentration-dependent manner. The activities of respiratory chain complexes I and III were estimated in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Mitochondrial complex I activity was suppressed (P stressed broiler. The fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle was not influenced by heat stress. In conclusion, suppressed mitochondrial complex I activity is associated with oxidative stress induced by heat exposure, which, in turn, is linked with the oxidative damages in muscle tissues and plasma.

  15. Effect of restraint stress on depression-like behaviors in rats after transient focal cerebral ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Restraint stress is a typical psychophysiological stressor. Simulating the early passion and difficulty in walking of patients after attack of stroke meets onset features.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of restraint stress on depression-like behaviors in rats after transient focal cerebral ischemic injury, and to investigate the feasibility for its being as modeling method of depression model after stroke.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Aerospace Medicine of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 240 - 270 g, provided by the Experimental Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA were used in the current study.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Faculty of Aerospace Medicine of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between August 2005 and August 2006. ①Experiment intervention: The rats were randomized into middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO) +stress group, simple MCAO group, sham-operation + stress group and simple sham-operation group, with 12 rats in each group.Rats in the first two groups were developed into cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models by suture-occluded method. Rats in the MCAO+stress group were modeled and restraint stress scheme was performed. At week 5 after modeling, the rats were placed in self-made restraining tubes, 2 hours/time, once a day, for 2 successive weeks. The common carotid artery, external and internal carotid arteries of rats in the latter two groups were exposed. The stress way of sham-operation+ stress group was the same as that of MCAO+ stress group. ②The neurological status grading and motor performance evaluation (screen test, rota-rod test and balance beam test) were conducted in rats with simple sham-operation group and MCAO group before, 1st and 28th days after modeling. Depression-like behavior

  16. Stressful Life Events as a Predictor for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Southern Chinese Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yang, Wei; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Ma, Ying; Liu, Hui-Yan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Wang, Pei-Xi; Du, Yu-Kai; Yu, Yi-Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Stressful life events have been implicated in the etiology of kinds of psychopathology related to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI); however, few studies have examined the association between NSSI and stressful life events directly in Chinese school adolescents. In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence rate of NSSI and examine its association with stressful life events in Southern Chinese adolescents. A total sample of 4405 students with age ranged from 10 to 22 years was randomly selected from 12 schools in 3 cities of Guangdong Province, China. NSSI, stressful life events, self-esteem, emotional management, and coping methods were measured by structured questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of NSSI with stressful life events. Results showed the 1 year self-reported NSSI was 29.2%, with 22.6% engaged in "minor" NSSI (including hitting self, pulling hair, biting self, inserting objects under nails or skin, picking at a wound) and 6.6% in "moderate/sever" NSSI (including cutting/carving, burning, self-tattooing, scraping, and erasing skin). Self-hitting (15.9%), pulling hair out (10.9%), and self-inserting objects under nails or skin picking areas to dram blood (18.3%) were the most frequent types of NSSI among adolescents. Results also showed that "Minor NSSI" was associated with stressful life events on interpersonal, loss and health adaption, and "moderate/severe NSSI" was associated with life events on interpersonal, health adaption in Southern Chinese adolescents, even after adjusted for sex, age, residence, self-esteem, coping style, and emotional management. Results further suggested stressful life events were significantly associated with less risk of NSSI in those who had good emotional management ability.

  17. CORRELATION OF MRI GRADING OF BONE STRESS INJURIES WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS AND RETURN TO PLAY: A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN COLLEGIATE TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Kennedy, Gannon; Barrack, Michelle T.; Abdelkerim, Ashraf; Goolsby, Marci A.; Arends, Julie C.; Seeger, Leanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time. Purpose To examine the relationships between MRI grading of bone stress injury with clinical risk factors and time to return to sport in collegiate track and field athletes. Study Design Prospective cohort over 5 years. Methods Two hundred and eleven male and female collegiate track and field and cross-country athletes were followed prospectively through their competitive seasons. All athletes had a pre-participation history, physical exam, and anthropometric measurements obtained annually. An additional questionnaire was completed regarding nutritional behaviors, menstrual patterns and prior injuries, as well as a 3-day diet record. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was obtained at baseline and each year of participation in the study. Athletes with clinical evidence of bone stress injuries had plain radiographs. If radiographs were negative, MRI was obtained. Bone stress injuries were evaluated by two independent radiologists utilizing an MRI grading system. MRI grading and risk factors were evaluated to identify predictors of time to return to sport. Results Thirty-four (12 males, 22 females) of the 211 collegiate athletes sustained 61 bone stress injuries during the 5-year study period. The average prospective assessment for participants was 2.1 years. MRI grade and total body bone mineral density (BMD) emerged as significant and independent predictors of time to return to sport in the multiple regression model. Specifically, the higher the MRI grade, the longer the recovery time (psport. Conclusions Higher MRI grade, lower BMD, and skeletal sites of predominant trabecular bone structure were independently associated with delayed recovery of bone stress injuries in track and field athletes. Knowledge of these risk factors, as well as nutritional and

  18. Effects of acute restraint-induced stress on glucocorticoid receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Vincelli, J; Tio, D L; Hovda, D A

    2012-05-17

    We have previously reported that experimental mild traumatic brain injury results in increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, as determined by analyzing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation following restraint-induced stress. This is the same time period when rehabilitative exercise has proven to be ineffective after a mild fluid-percussion injury (FPI). Here we evaluated effects of stress on neuroplasticity. Adult male rats underwent either an FPI or sham injury. Additional rats were only exposed to anesthesia. Rats were exposed to 30 min of restraint stress, followed by tail vein blood collection at post-injury days (PID) 1, 7, and 14. The response to dexamethasone (DEX) was also evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was collected 120 min after stress onset. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors was determined by Western blot analysis. Results indicated injury-dependent changes in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors that were influenced by the presence of dexamethasone. Control and FPI rats responded differentially to DEX in that GR increases after receiving the lower dose of DEX were longer lasting in the FPI group. A suppression of MR was found at PID 1 in vehicle-treated FPI and Sham groups. Decreases in the precursor form of BDNF were observed in different FPI groups at PIDs 7 and 14. These findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, after a mild FPI, has an impact on hippocampal neuroplasticity.

  19. Residual injury, appearance-related concerns, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression within a treatment-seeking veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M; Bosch, Jeane

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the associations among injury-related appearance changes experienced during deployment/combat, symptom severity of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, and body image distress within a treatment-seeking veteran population (n = 91). Thirty-three percent of the sample reported having an appearance-related residual injury experienced during combat or deployment (n = 30). A subsample, who completed the body image distress measure (n = 69), was divided into two groups: those with an appearance-related residual injury (n = 22) and those without an appearance-related residual injury (n = 47). Correlational analyses revealed significant, positive correlations between body image distress and depression symptom severity. Results also showed a trend relationship between body image distress and post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity for those with an appearance-related residual injury although correlations were nonsignificant among these constructs for those without an appearance-related residual injury. Multiple regression analyses revealed that body image distress was a unique predictor of depression symptom severity, controlling for residual injury status. Implications of these findings for exploring the psychological impact of residual injury were discussed.

  20. Increased ANG II sensitivity following recovery from acute kidney injury: role of oxidant stress in skeletal muscle resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shane A; Pechman, Kimberly R; Leonard, Ellen C; Friedrich, Jessica L; Bian, Jing-Tan; Beal, Alisa G; Basile, David P

    2010-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) results in prolonged impairment of peripheral (i.e., nonrenal) vascular function since skeletal muscle resistance arteries derived from rats 5 wk post-I/R injury, show enhanced responses to ANG II stimulation but not other constrictors. Because vascular superoxide increases ANG II sensitivity, we hypothesized that peripheral responsiveness following recovery from AKI was attributable to vascular oxidant stress. Gracilis arteries (GA) isolated from post-I/R rats (approximately 5 wk recovery) showed significantly greater superoxide levels relative to sham-operated controls, as detected by dihydroeithidium, which was further augmented by acute ANG II stimulation in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide measured by dichlorofluorescein was not affected by ANG II. GA derived from postischemic animals manifested significantly greater constrictor responses in vitro to ANG II than GA from sham-operated controls. The addition of the superoxide scavenging reagent Tempol (10(-5) M) normalized the response to values similar to sham-operated controls. Apocynin (10(-6) M) and endothelial denudation nearly abrogated all ANG II-stimulated constrictor activity in GA from post-AKI rats, suggesting an important role for an endothelial-derived source of peripheral oxidative stress. Apocynin treatment in vivo abrogated GA oxidant stress and attenuated ANG II-induced pressor responses post-AKI. Interestingly, gene expression studies in GA vessels indicated a paradoxical reduction in NADPH oxidase subunit and AT(1)-receptor genes and no effect on several antioxidant genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AKI alters peripheral vascular responses by increasing oxidant stress, likely in the endothelium, via an undefined mechanism.

  1. Angiotensin-(1–7 inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress to relieve lung injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in lung tissues and can lead to metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the effects of angiotensin1–7 [Ang-(1–7] on lung injury in rats induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–200 g to normoxia control (NC, CIH-untreated (uCIH, Ang-(1–7-treated normoxia control (N-A, and Ang-(1–7-treated CIH (CIH-A groups. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in lung tissues, and expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4 and Nox subunits (p22phox, and p47phox was determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Pulmonary pathological changes were more evident in the uCIH group than in the other groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunohistochemical staining showed that inflammatory factor concentrations in serum and lung tissues in the uCIH group were significantly higher than those in the NC and N-A groups. Expression of inflammatory factors was significantly higher in the CIH-A group than in the NC and N-A groups, but was lower than in the uCIH group (P<0.01. Oxidative stress was markedly higher in the uCIH group than in the NC and N-A groups. Expression of Nox4 and its subunits was also increased in the uCIH group. These changes were attenuated upon Ang-(1–7 treatment. In summary, treatment with Ang-(1-7 reversed signs of CIH-induced lung injury via inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  3. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective: We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations: MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin-Ciocalteu; GAE

  4. Repetitive loading damages healing ligaments more than sustained loading demonstrated by reduction in modulus and residual strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Gail M; Bailey, Soraya J

    2012-10-11

    Healing ligaments have decreased strength compared to normal ligaments, leaving healing ligaments vulnerable to damage accumulation during normal daily activities at functional stresses. Rabbit medial collateral ligament gap scars after 14 weeks of healing were exposed to long-term creep and fatigue loading over a range of functional stresses. In addition to the 58 healing ligaments that underwent in vitro creep and fatigue testing, seven healing ligaments underwent only monotonic failure tests for comparison with residual strength tests that followed creep and fatigue testing. When exposed to repetitive loading during fatigue testing, healing ligaments exhibited modulus reduction earlier than when exposed to sustained loading during creep testing that was occasionally interrupted with unloading/reloading cycles to measure modulus. In other words, after the same loading duration, repetitive loading was more damaging than sustained loading. At modulus reduction, the increase in strain during fatigue was greater than or similar to that during creep. Healing ligaments that were damaged during long-term loading exhibited decreased strength and increased toe-region strain during subsequent residual strength tests. Normal daily activities that result in repetitive loading of a ligament healing from an injury will likely cause damage to accumulate faster than activities that result in sustained loading.

  5. Correlation of MRI grading of bone stress injuries with clinical risk factors and return to play: a 5-year prospective study in collegiate track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Kennedy, Gannon; Barrack, Michelle T; Abdelkerim, Ashraf; Goolsby, Marci A; Arends, Julie C; Seeger, Leanne L

    2013-08-01

    Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time. To examine the relationships between MRI grading of bone stress injuries with clinical risk factors and time to return to sport in collegiate track and field athletes. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. A total of 211 male and female collegiate track and field and cross-country athletes were followed prospectively through their competitive seasons. All athletes had preparticipation history, physical examination, and anthropometric measurements obtained annually. An additional questionnaire was completed regarding nutritional behaviors, menstrual patterns, and prior injuries, as well as a 3-day diet record. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and each year of participation in the study. Athletes with clinical evidence of bone stress injuries had plain radiographs. If radiograph findings were negative, MRI was performed. Bone stress injuries were evaluated by 2 independent radiologists utilizing an MRI grading system. The MRI grading and risk factors were evaluated to identify predictors of time to return to sport. Thirty-four of the athletes (12 men, 22 women) sustained 61 bone stress injuries during the 5-year study period. The mean prospective assessment for participants was 2.7 years. In the multiple regression model, MRI grade and total-body bone mineral density (BMD) emerged as significant and independent predictors of time to return to sport. Specifically, the higher the MRI grade (P = .004) and lower the BMD (P = .030), the longer the recovery time. Location of the bone injury at predominantly trabecular sites of the femoral neck, pubic bone, and sacrum was also associated with a prolonged time to return to sport. Female athletes with oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea had bone stress injuries of higher MRI grades compared with

  6. Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rakhshan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress leads to physiological changes called “stress response” which are the result ofthe changes in the adrenomedullary hormone system, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and sympatheticnervous system (SNS activity. In the present study, the effects of chronic physical and psychological stressand also the role of sympathetic system effects in stress on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries have beenstudied in isolated rat heart. Rat heart was isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 minreperfusion. The daily stress was induced for one week prior to I/R induction. Sympathectomy was donechemically by injection of hydroxyl-dopamine prior to stress induction. There were no significant changes inheart rate and Coronary Flow between groups. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and rate productpressure (RPP in both physical and psychological stress groups decreased significantly compared to those incontrol group (Pgroups. Infarct size significantly increased in both physical and psychological stress groups and control group(Pas compared with stress groups (Ppsychological stress prior to ischemia/reperfusion causes enhancement of myocardial injuries and it seemsthat increased sympathetic activity in response to stress is responsible for these adverse effects of stress onischemic/reperfused heart.

  7. Impact of repeated stress on traumatic brain injury-induced mitochondrial electron transport chain expression and behavioral responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang eXing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of the military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts have suffered from both mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The mechanisms are unknown. We used a rat model of repeated stress and mTBI to examine brain activity and behavioral function. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Naïve; 3 days repeated tail-shock stress; lateral fluid percussion mTBI; and repeated stress followed by mTBI (S-mTBI. Open field activity, sensorimotor responses, and acoustic startle responses were measured after mTBI. The protein expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC complex subunits (CI-V and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHE1α1 were determined in 4 brain regions at day 7 post mTBI. Compared to Naïves, repeated stress decreased horizontal activity; repeated stress and mTBI both decreased vertical activity; and the mTBI and S-mTBI groups were impaired in sensorimotor and acoustic startle responses. Repeated stress significantly increased CI, CII, and CIII protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but decreased PDHE1α1 protein in the PFC and cerebellum, and decreased CIV protein in the hippocampus. The mTBI treatment decreased CV protein levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus. The S-mTBI treatment resulted in increased CII, CIII, CIV, and CV protein levels in the PFC, increased CI level in the cerebellum, and increased CIII and CV levels in the cerebral cortex, but decreased CI, CII, CIV, and PDHE1α1 protein levels in the hippocampus. Thus, repeated stress or mTBI alone differentially altered ETC expression in heterogeneous brain regions. Repeated stress followed by mTBI had synergistic effects on brain ETC expression, and resulted in more severe behavioral deficits. These results suggest that repeated stress could have contributed to the high incidence of long-term neurologic and neuropsychiatric morbidity in military personnel with or without

  8. Estrogen Sulfotransferase Is an Oxidative Stress-responsive Gene That Gender-specifically Affects Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Xu, Meishu; Jiang, Mengxi; Ren, Songrong; Fan, Jie; Billiar, Timothy R; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2015-06-05

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) regulates estrogen homeostasis by sulfonating and deactivating estrogens. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) involves both hypoxia during the ischemic phase and oxidative damage during the reperfusion phase. In this report, we showed that the expression of EST was markedly induced by I/R. Mechanistically, oxidative stress-induced activation of Nrf2 was responsible for the EST induction, which was abolished in Nrf2(-/-) mice. EST is a direct transcriptional target of Nrf2. In female mice, the I/R-responsive induction of EST compromised estrogen activity. EST ablation attenuated I/R injury as a result of decreased estrogen deprivation, whereas this benefit was abolished upon ovariectomy. The effect of EST ablation was sex-specific because the EST(-/-) males showed heightened I/R injury. Reciprocally, both estrogens and EST regulate the expression and activity of Nrf2. Estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy abolished the I/R-responsive Nrf2 accumulation, whereas the compromised estrogen deprivation in EST(-/-) mice was associated with increased Nrf2 accumulation. Our results suggested a novel I/R-responsive feedback mechanism to limit the activity of Nrf2 in which Nrf2 induces the expression of EST, which subsequently increases estrogen deactivation and limits the estrogen-responsive activation of Nrf2. Inhibition of EST, at least in females, may represent an effective approach to manage hepatic I/R injury.

  9. Polydatin ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress through activating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Hong-Bao; Wang, Jian-Bo

    2016-10-01

    Polydatin, a glucoside of resveratrol, recently has been demonstrated possibly to exert its biological effects by targeting sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, whether Shh signaling pathway is involved in the therapeutic effects of polydatin for renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been evaluated. Our results showed that I/R induced the secretion of Shh, upregulated Patched and Smoothened, and enhanced the nuclear translocation and target gene transcription of Glioblastoma 1 in renal I/R injury models, which were further upregulated after the administration of polydatin significantly and in turn exerted prominent nephroprotective effects against cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. The treatment with cyclopamine (a specific inhibitor of Smoothened) or 5E1 (an anti-Shh antibody) not only markedly inhibited the activation of the Shh pathway, but also dramatically suppressed the nephroprotective effects of polydatin above-mentioned. These results advance our knowledge that polydatin can provide protection for kidneys against I/R injury by enhancing antioxidant capacity and decreasing cell apoptosis through activating Shh signaling pathway.

  10. Evaluating a theory of stress and adjustment when predicting long-term psychosocial outcome after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutterford, Neil A; Wood, Rodger L

    2006-05-01

    Kendall and Terry (1996) include many psychosocial predictors in their theoretical model that explains individual differences in psychosocial adjustment (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The model depicts appraisal and coping variables as mediating relationships between situation factors, environmental and personal resources, and multidimensional outcome. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery from traumatic brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years post-injury (mean = 15.31 years) completed several psychosocial measures relating to outcome dimensions comprising employment, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. There was no evidence that appraisal and coping variables mediated relationships between psychosocial and any of the outcome variables. However, when appraisal and coping variables were combined with psychosocial variables as direct predictors of outcome, every outcome except employment status was reliably predicted, accounting for between 31 and 46% of the variance. Personality significantly influenced all predicted outcomes. Self-efficacy contributed to the prediction of all outcomes except QoL. Data did not support for the theory of stress and adjustment as a framework for explaining the nature of predictive relationships between psychosocial variables and very long-term, multidimensional outcome after brain injury.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Karthikeyan K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

  12. Work stress and quality of life in persons with disabilities from four European countries: the case of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Evidence on the adverse effects of work stress on quality of life (QoL) is largely derived from general populations, while respective information is lacking for people with disabilities. We investigated associations between work stress and QoL and the potentially moderating role of socioeconomic circumstances in employed persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data from 386 employed men and women with SCI (≥18 work h/week) from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway were analyzed. Work stress was assessed with the 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI) model and the control component of the 'demand/control' model. QoL was operationalized with five WHOQoL BREF items. Socioeconomic circumstances were measured by years of formal education and perception of financial hardship. We applied ordinal and linear regressions to predict QoL and introduced interaction terms to assess a potential moderation of socioeconomic circumstances. Multivariate analyses showed consistent associations between increased ERI and decreased overall QoL (coefficient -1.55, p work stress and QoL among persons with SCI.

  13. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eDavies

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM, or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 hr after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes.

  14. Microparticles generated by decompression stress cause central nervous system injury manifested as neurohypophysial terminal action potential broadening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-11-01

    The study goal was to use membrane voltage changes during neurohypophysial action potential (AP) propagation as an index of nerve function to evaluate the role that circulating microparticles (MPs) play in causing central nervous system injury in response to decompression stress in a murine model. Mice studied 1 h following decompression from 790 kPa air pressure for 2 h exhibit a 45% broadening of the neurohypophysial AP. Broadening did not occur if mice were injected with the MP lytic agent polyethylene glycol telomere B immediately after decompression, were rendered thrombocytopenic, or were treated with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) prior to decompression, or in knockout (KO) mice lacking myeloperoxidase or iNOS. If MPs were harvested from control (no decompression) mice and injected into naive mice, no AP broadening occurred, but AP broadening was observed with injections of equal numbers of MPs from either wild-type or iNOS KO mice subjected to decompression stress. Although not required for AP broadening, MPs from decompressed mice, but not control mice, exhibit NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inherent differences in MPs from decompressed mice, rather than elevated MPs numbers, mediate neurological injury and that a component of the perivascular response to MPs involves iNOS. Additional study is needed to determine the mechanism of AP broadening and also mechanisms for MP generation associated with exposure to elevated gas pressure.

  15. The effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in experimental diabetes mellitus-related ovarian injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayki, Umit; Onk, Didem; Balci, Gurhan; Nayki, Cenk; Onk, Alper; Çankaya, Murat; Taskın Kafa, Ayse Humeyra; Kuzucu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and ovarian injury in rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups: Group 1 as nondiabetic healthy controls (n = 8), group 2 as nontreated diabetic rats (n = 8) and group 3 as melatonin-treated diabetic rats (n = 8). After overt diabetes was produced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozosin, 20 mg/kg/day of melatonin was given intraperitoneally to group 3 for a week. NF-kB and caspase-3 immunoexpressions, lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidative enzymes, total oxidant capacity and total antioxidant capacity were assessed. Immunoexpressions of NF-kB and caspase-3 were significantly lower in group 3 than group 2. There was a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in group 2 than group 1 and a significant increase in group 3 compared with group 2. We observed a nonsignificant decrease in catalase activity between group 1 and group 2 and a nonsignificant increase between group 2 and group 3. There was a nonsignificant increase in the plasma level of total oxidant status in group 2 than group 1, but a significant decrease was observed in group 3 compared to group 2. Total antioxidant status was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 1 and group 3. In conclusion, melatonin ameliorates the negative effects of oxidative stress on DM-related ovarian injury.

  16. Oxidant stress, mitochondria, and cell death mechanisms in drug-induced liver injury: lessons learned from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Hartmut; McGill, Mitchell R; Ramachandran, Anup

    2012-02-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a serious problem during drug development and for the use of many established drugs. For example, acetaminophen overdose is currently the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain. Evaluation of the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury indicates that mitochondria are critical targets for drug toxicity, either directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive metabolites. The consequence of these modifications is generally a mitochondrial oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, which leads to structural alterations of proteins and mitochondrial DNA and, eventually, to the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) pores. MPT pore formation results in a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cessation of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. In addition, the release of intermembrane proteins, such as apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G, and their translocation to the nucleus, leads to nuclear DNA fragmentation. Together, these events trigger necrotic cell death. Alternatively, the release of cytochrome c and other proapoptotic factors from mitochondria can promote caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. Drug toxicity can also induce an inflammatory response with the formation of reactive oxygen species by Kupffer cells and neutrophils. If not properly detoxified, these extracellularly generated oxidants can diffuse into hepatocytes and trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress, which then induces MPT and necrotic cell death. This review addresses the formation of oxidants and the defense mechanisms available for cells and applies this knowledge to better understand mechanisms of drug hepatotoxicity, especially acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Pei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 2 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. BMP-7 (10−4 g/kg or vehicle was infused into rats at the onset of reperfusion via the tail vein. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, histopathological changes, oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, neuronal apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins were assessed. BMP-7 significantly improved neurological and histological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, and decreased apoptotic cells after cerebral ischemia. BMP-7 also markedly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA in IR rats. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated that BMP-7 prevented cytochrome c release, inhibited activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. Our data suggested that BMP-7 has protective effects against cerebral IR injury in rats, and the neuroprotective effects may be attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis.

  18. Coping with burns: the role of coping self-efficacy in the recovery from traumatic stress following burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Mark W G; Hofland, Helma W; De Jong, Alette E; Van Loey, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a three-wave prospective study among patients with burns (N = 178) to examine the prospective influence of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions on trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the first 12 months after burn injuries. Using linear growth curve modeling, we corrected for demographics, the number of surgeries during initial admittance, trait coping styles, and changing levels of health-related quality of life. CSE during initial admission was by far the strongest predictor of both initial PTSD symptoms and degree of symptom change with higher CSE levels associated with lower initial symptoms and a steeper decline of symptoms over time. Of the other variables only avoidant coping was associated with higher initial symptom levels, and only emotional expression associated with greater rate of recovery. Current findings suggest that CSE plays a pivotal role in recovery from posttraumatic stress after a burn injury, even when the role of burn-related impairments is taken into consideration. Implications of findings are discussed.

  19. Beneficial effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats: A histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, H; Dogan, Z; Taslidere, E; Cetin, A; Turkoz, Y

    2016-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic commonly used in clinical practice. Quercetin is an antioxidant belongs to flavonoid group. It inhibits the production of superoxide anion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin. Twenty-eight female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, quercetin (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) gavage for 21 days), ciprofloxacin (20 mg kg(-1) twice a day intraperitoneally for 10 days), and ciprofloxacin + quercetin. Samples were processed for histological and biochemical evaluations. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in kidney tissue. The ciprofloxacin group showed histopathological changes such as infiltration, dilatation in tubules, tubular atrophy, reduction of Bowman's space, congestion, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, these histopathological changes markedly reduced. MDA levels increased in the ciprofloxacin group and decreased in the ciptofloxacin + quercetin group. SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly decreased in the ciprofloxacin group. On the other hand, in the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly increased with regard to the ciprofloxacin group. We concluded that quercetin has antioxidative and therapeutic effects on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats.

  20. The Roles of Financial Threat, Social Support, Work Stress, and Mental Distress in Dairy Farmers’ Expectations of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Emilia M.; O’Hora, Denis; McNamara, John; Kinsella, Stephen; Noone, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Farming is dangerous, with fatalities among the highest in any occupation. Farmers often work alone, for long hours, with unreliable equipment and in difficult weather conditions with hazardous chemicals and livestock. In addition, farmers make large financial commitments exposing them to high levels of financial risk. Exposure to such financial risk can give rise to subjective experiences of financial threat (FT) that are psychologically challenging. The current study attempted to characterize the role that FT plays in farm injuries. One hundred and twenty one dairy farmers completed a battery of questionnaires assessing FT, social support (SS), depression, anxiety, farm job stress, and health and safety beliefs. Mental distress directly predicted farmers’ expectations of injury and a direct effect of non-financial farm stress (FS) approached significance. Mental distress mediated these relationships as evidenced by significant indirect effects of FS and FT, and SS served to reduce distress. These findings support calls for interventions designed to reduce FS and FT and increase SS for farmers. PMID:27446893

  1. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  2. Eriodictyol attenuates cisplatin-induced kidney injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-zhen; Jin, Hai-hong; Sun, Hong-xin; Zhang, Zhong-zhe; Zheng, Jia-xin; Li, Shu-hua; Han, Seong-ho

    2016-02-05

    Eriodictyol, a flavonoid present in citrus fruits, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the protective effects of eriodictyol on cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury were detected. CP-induced kidney injury model was established by administration of CP (20mg/kg). The results showed that treatment of eriodictyol inhibited the production of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, MDA, TBARS, reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as the production of TNF-α, and IL-1β in kidney tissues induced by CP. Eriodictyol also up-regulated the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX decreased by CP. Furthermore, eriodictyol was found to up-regulate the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibited CP-induced NF-κB activation in kidney tissues. In conclusion, eriodictyol protected against CP-induced kidney injury through activating Nrf2 and inhibiting NF-κB activation.

  3. Non-suicidal self-injury and life stress: A systematic meta-analysis and theoretical elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Cheek, Shayna M; Nestor, Bridget A

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable growth of interest in the study of life stress and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current article presents a systematic review of the empirical literature on this association. In addition to providing a comprehensive meta-analysis, the current article includes a qualitative review of the findings for which there were too few cases (i.e., <3) for reliable approximations of effect sizes. Across the studies included in the meta-analysis, a significant but modest relation between life stress and NSSI was found (pooled OR=1.81 [95% CI=1.49-2.21]). After an adjustment was made for publication bias, the estimated effect size was smaller but still significant (pooled OR=1.33 [95% CI=1.08-1.63]). This relation was moderated by sample type, NSSI measure type, and length of period covered by the NSSI measure. The empirical literature is characterized by several methodological limitations, particularly the frequent use of cross-sectional analyses involving temporal overlap between assessments of life stress and NSSI, leaving unclear the precise nature of the relation between these two phenomena (e.g., whether life stress may be a cause, concomitant, or consequence of NSSI). Theoretically informed research utilizing multi-wave designs, assessing life stress and NSSI over relatively brief intervals, and featuring interview-based assessments of these constructs holds promise for advancing our understanding of their relation. The current review concludes with a theoretical elaboration of the association between NSSI and life stress, with the aim of providing a conceptual framework to guide future study in this area.

  4. Baicalin Attenuates Alcoholic Liver Injury through Modulation of Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Sonic Hedgehog Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifen Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipid accumulation, inflammatory responses and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Targeting inhibition of these features may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for ALD. Baicalin, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to exert a hepatoprotective effect. However, its effects on ALD remain obscure. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of baicalin on alcohol-induced liver injury and its related mechanisms. Methods: For in vivo experiments, rats were supplied intragastrical administration of alcohol continuously for 4 or 8 weeks, and then received baicalin treatment in the latter 4 weeks in the presence / absence of alcohol intake. Liver histology and function, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative mediators, and the components of the Sonic hedgehog pathway were evaluated. For in vitro experiments, alcohol-stimulated human normal liver cells LO2 were used. Results: Baicalin treatment significantly alleviated alcoholic liver injury, improved liver function impaired by alcohol, and inhibited hepatocytes apoptosis. In addition, baicalin decreased the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and malonyldialdehyde (MDA, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. Furthermore, baicalin modulated the activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway. Administration of baicalin upregulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh, patched (Ptc, Smoothened (Smo, and Glioblastoma-1(Gli-1. Blockade of the Shh pathway in cyclopamine abolished the effects of baicalin in vitro. Conclusion: Both in vivo and in vitro experimental results indicate that baicalin exerts hepatoprotective roles in alcohol-induced liver injury through inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and the regulation of the Shh pathway.

  5. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  6. Caregiver Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Caregiver stress Caregiver stress > A-Z Health Topics Caregiver fact sheet (PDF, ... receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Caregiver stress Caregivers care for someone with an illness, injury, ...

  7. Protective effect of hyperoside on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of ER stress and activation of Nrf2 signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yin Hou; Ying Liu; Liang Liu; Xin-Ming Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of hyperoside (Hyp) on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury and its potential mechanism. Methods: Rats were divided into two groups for the evaluation, the Hyp (50 μM Hyp; n=8) and the control group (n=8). Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB) for 30 min. After being inhibited with cardioplegic solution, they were stored for 4 h in B21 solution at 4 ℃. Afterwards, rat hearts were perfused with KHB again for 45 min. In this period, Hyp was added into solutions of cardioplegia for storage and KHB. Parameters of cardiac functions, including heart rate, the systolic pressure of the left ventricle, the end-diastolic pressure of the left ventricle, the developed pressure of the left ventricle, the left-ventricular systolic pressure and the peak rise rate of the pressure of the left ventricle were recorded. The levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the content of malondialdehyde and apoptotic cells were determined to evaluate the protective effect of Hyp on hearts suffered from ischemia reperfusion injury. Moreover, cultured cardiac myocytes were subjected to the process simulating ischemia/reperfusion. What were analyzed included the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress hallmarks expressions, such as binding immunoglobulin protein and C/EBP homologous protein, using the western blot and real-time PCR. Besides, the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression was measured to explore the potential mechanism. Results: Compared with the control group, the Hyp group had better cardiac functional parameters and higher ATP levels; pretreatment of Hyp greatly relieved the apoptosis of myocyte, decreased oxidative stress as well as ER stress and activated the signaling pathway of anti-oxidative Nrf2 to a further extent. Conclusions: Hyp plays an important role in preserving cardiac function by improving ATP levels of tissue, easing oxidative injury of myocardium and reducing apoptosis following IRI

  8. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  9. Burn and cut injuries related to job stress among kitchen workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Takashi; Haratani, Takashi; Muto, Shigeki; Ito, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the correlation between kitchen work-related burns and cuts and job stress, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 991 kitchen workers among 126 kitchen facilities. The demographics, condition of burns and cuts, job stress with the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), health condition, and work-related and environmental factors were surveyed. Multiple logistic regression models and trend tests were used according to quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4) of each sub-scale BJSQ. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, burns/cuts were associated with a higher score category (Q4) of job demands (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.10-6.02/OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.30-5.69), psychological stress (OR: 4.49, 95% CI: 2.05-9.81/OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.84-6.72), and physical stress (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.20-4.98/OR 2.16, 95% CI: 1.16-4.01). The ORs of the burn/cut injures increased from Q1 to Q4 with job demands (p for trend = 0.045/0.003), psychological stress (p for trendkitchen work-related burns and cuts are more likely to be correlated with job stress, and the higher the job stress score, the higher the frequency of burns and cuts among kitchen workers.

  10. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.; Holm, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A proportion of patients experience long-lasting symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The postconcussion syndrome (PCS), included in the DSM-IV, has been proposed to describe this condition. Because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions, there i...

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perce

  12. Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Burned Service Members: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    APRN, BC, Douglas B. Cooper, PhD, Janyna M. Mercado , PhD, Jan E. Kennedy, PhD, Linda H. Yoder, RN, MBA, PhD, AOCN, FAAN, and COL John B. Holcomb, MC...TX): I agree that PTSD and mTBI are now well recognized combat injuries, especially in the popular media. Of concern are the differences and

  13. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perce

  15. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Yang; Zhi-ping Hu

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia triggers secondary ischemia/reperfusion injury and endoplasmic reticulum stress initiates cell apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the signaling pathway remains unclear. We hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms are mediated by the protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway. To verify this hypothesis, we occluded the middle cere-bral artery in rats to establish focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Results showed that the expression levels of protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase and caspase-3, as well as the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, were increased after ischemia/reperfusion. Administration of atorvastatin decreased the expression of protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, caspase-3 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, reduced the infarct volume and improved ultrastructure in the rat brain. After salubrinal, the speciifc inhibitor of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α was given into the rats in-tragastrically, the expression levels of caspase-3 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the were decreased, a reduction of the infarct volume and less ultrastructural damage were observed than the untreated, ischemic brain. However, salubrinal had no impact on the expression of protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Experimental ifndings indi-cate that atorvastatin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress and exerts neuroprotective effects. The underlying mechanisms of attenuating ischemia/reperfusion injury are associated with the protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α/caspase-3 pathway.

  17. Protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Zhenfei; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Liang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    As previous studies demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis play crucial roles in ischemic pathogenesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) treatment attenuates oxidative stress-induced cell death among primary neurons and astrocytes as well as significantly reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rats. We used a spinal cord ischemia injury (SCII) model in rats to verify our hypothesis that NAD(+) could ameliorate oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Adult male rats were subjected to transient spinal cord ischemia for 60min, and different doses of NAD(+) were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the start of reperfusion. Neurological function was determined by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores. The oxidative stress level was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The degree of apoptosis was analyzed by deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor). The results showed that NAD(+) at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly decreased the oxidative stress level and neuronal apoptosis in the spinal cord of ischemia-reperfusion rats compared with saline, as accompanied with the decreased oxidative stress, NAD(+) administration significantly restrained the neuronal apoptosis after ischemia injury while improved the neurological and motor function. These findings suggested that NAD(+) might protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

  18. Observation on the change of inflammatory stress and metabolic status of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the perioperative period of standard large trauma craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Luan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and study the change state of inflammatory stress and metabolic status of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the perioperative period of standard large trauma craniotomy. Methods:A total of 58 surgical patients with severe traumatic brain injury in our hospital from January 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the study object, and 29 cases of them were divided into control group (conventional craniotomy group) and other 29 cases into observation group (standard large trauma craniotomy group) by the differences of operation methods, then the cerebral metabolism, proteometabolism and inflammatory stress indexes of two groups before the surgery and at first, third and fifth day after the surgery were compared. Results:The cerebral metabolism, proteometabolism and inflammatory stress indexes of two groups before the surgery all had no significant differences, the cerebral metabolism, proteometabolism and inflammatory stress indexes of observation group at first, third and fifth day after the surgery were all better than those of control group, the differences of two groups at differences time after the surgery were all significant. Conclusion:The bad fluctuations of inflammatory stress and metabolic status of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the perioperative period of standard large trauma craniotomy are smaller than those of conventional craniotomy, so the standard large trauma craniotomy are more suitable for the patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  19. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  20. Limited Link between Oxidative Stress and Ochratoxin A—Induced Renal Injury in an Acute Toxicity Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA displays nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, in the acute toxicity rat model, there is no evidence on the relationship between OTA and nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Based on this, the integrated analysis of physiological status, damage biomarkers, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were performed. After OTA treatment, the body weight decreased and AST, ALP, TP, and BUN levels in serum increased. Hydropic degeneration, swelling, vacuolization, and partial drop occurred in proximal tubule epithelial cells. PCNA and Kim-1 were dose-dependently increased in the kidney, but Cox-2 expression and proliferation were not found in the liver. In OTA-treated kidneys, the mRNA expressions of Kim-1, Cox-2, Lcn2, and Clu were dose-dependently increased. The mRNA expressions of Vim and Cox-2 were decreased in OTA-treated livers. Some oxidative stress indicators were altered in the kidneys (ROS and SOD and livers (SOD and GSH. DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were not found. In conclusion, there is a limited link between oxidative stress and OTA-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model.

  1. Non-suicidal self-injury prospectively predicts interpersonal stressful life events and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one's tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age=18.74, SD=.69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls.

  2. Limited Link between Oxidative Stress and Ochratoxin A—Induced Renal Injury in an Acute Toxicity Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liye; Yu, Tao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Gao, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Haoshu; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) displays nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, in the acute toxicity rat model, there is no evidence on the relationship between OTA and nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Based on this, the integrated analysis of physiological status, damage biomarkers, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were performed. After OTA treatment, the body weight decreased and AST, ALP, TP, and BUN levels in serum increased. Hydropic degeneration, swelling, vacuolization, and partial drop occurred in proximal tubule epithelial cells. PCNA and Kim-1 were dose-dependently increased in the kidney, but Cox-2 expression and proliferation were not found in the liver. In OTA-treated kidneys, the mRNA expressions of Kim-1, Cox-2, Lcn2, and Clu were dose-dependently increased. The mRNA expressions of Vim and Cox-2 were decreased in OTA-treated livers. Some oxidative stress indicators were altered in the kidneys (ROS and SOD) and livers (SOD and GSH). DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were not found. In conclusion, there is a limited link between oxidative stress and OTA-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model. PMID:27983637

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Kukoamine a against Radiation-induced Rat Brain Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Cheng, Zhihua; Wang, Changli; Ma, Hongda; Meng, Weihong; Zhao, Qingchun

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a prominent side effect of radiotherapy for cranial tumors. Kukoamine A (KuA) has the ability of anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether KuA would prevent the detrimental effect of ionizing radiation on hippocampal neurons. For this study, male Wistar rats were received either sham irradiation or whole brain irradiation (30 Gy single dose of X-rays) followed by the immediate injection of either KuA or vehicle intravenously. The dose of KuA was 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively. The protective effects of KuA were assessed by Nissl staining. The levels of oxidative stress marker and antioxidants activities were assayed by kits. TUNEL staining was performed to detect the level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins as well as the brain-derived neurophic factor (BDNF) was evaluated by western blot. Whole brain irradiation led to the neuronal abnormality and it was alleviated by KuA. KuA decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome C, Bax and Bcl-2. Additionally, KuA increased the expression of BDNF. These data indicate that KuA has neuroprotective effects against RIBI through inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  4. The Paradox of Fight or Flight - A Leadership Guide to Understanding and Mitigating Operational Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    recognized that soldiers who complained of “ loneliness and helplessness” would rapidly become stress casualties… The lack of attention that the U.S...Charles C. Moskos, The American Enlisted Man: The Rank and File in Today’s Military (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1970), 147. 160 The goal and...Military. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1970. NCERx Health Sites. “Stress and Health.” Reference works on-line; available from http

  5. Stress analyses coupled with damage laws to determine biomechanical risk factors for deep tissue injury during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Gefen, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcer that onsets in muscle tissue overlying bony prominences and progresses unnoticeably to more superficial tissues. To minimize DTI, the efficacy of wheelchair cushions should be evaluated not only based on their performance in redistributing interface pressures but also according to their effects on stress concentrations in deep tissues, particularly muscles. However, a standard bioengineering approach for such analyses is missing in literature. The goals of this study were to develop an algorithm to couple finite element (FE) modeling of the buttocks with an injury threshold for skeletal muscle and with a damage-stiffening law for injured muscle tissue, from previous animal experiments, to predict DTI onset and progression for different patient anatomies and wheelchair cushions. The algorithm was also employed for identifying intrinsic (anatomical) biomechanical risk factors for DTI onset. A set of three-dimensional FE models of seated human buttocks was developed, representing different severities of pathoanatomical changes observed in chronically sitting patients: muscle atrophy and "flattening" of the ischial tuberosity (IT). These models were then tested with cushions of different stiffnesses representing products available on the market and semirigid supports. Outcome measures were the percentage of damaged muscle tissue volumes after 90 min and 110 min of simulated continuous immobilized sitting as well as muscle injury rates post-60 min, -90 min, and -110 min of continuous sitting. Damaged muscle volumes grew exponentially with the level of muscle atrophy. For example, simulation of a subject with 70% muscle atrophy sitting on a soft cushion showed damage to 33% of the muscle volume after 90 min of immobilized sitting, whereas a comparable simulation with a nonatrophied muscle yielded only 0.4% damaged tissue volume. The rates of DTI progression also increased substantially with

  6. A Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Blast Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Stress in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    The weight drop model (also called Marmarou’s weight drop model; Marmarou et al., 1994; Foda & Marmarou, 1994) is frequently used to model...locomotion depend on rat sex and housing condition. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1(2), 143-151. Foda , M.A., & Marmarou, A. (1994). A new model of diffuse...of traumatic brain injury. Georgian Med News, 140, 1306. Marmarou, A., Foda , M.A., van den Brink, W., Campbell, J., Kita, H., & Demetriadou

  7. Perspectives on Molecular Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Strategies in Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    André Mendes Arent; Luiz Felipe de Souza; Roger Walz; Alcir Luiz Dafre

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with abnormal blood-brain barrier function, resulting in the release of factors that can be used as molecular biomarkers of TBI, among them GFAP, UCH-L1, S100B, and NSE. Although many experimental studies have been conducted, clinical consolidation of these biomarkers is still needed to increase the predictive power and reduce the poor outcome of TBI. Interestingly, several of these TBI biomarkers are oxidatively modified to carbonyl group...

  8. Restoration from Taishan Ganoderma after repetitive motion injury and repair of skeletal muscle micro-movement of Wushu athletes fatigue%从泰山赤灵芝对重复运动后骨骼肌微损伤修复探讨武术运动员的运动疲劳的恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 吕晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Discussion Taishan Ganoderma variation in rat skeletal muscle injury after high intensity micro repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)restoration,study of martial arts athletes in training to give appropriate treatment of skeletal muscle micro amount of Taishan Ganoderma lucidum drug intervention to help sport rehabilitation and sports injury fatigue recovery. Methods:Male 52 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group,the experimental group. Animal model of repetitive motion:Rats in a treadmill downhill running speed 18m/min,the slope of -16 degrees,the re-petitive motion of the high-intensity( exhaustive exercise). Set up an experimental group( feeding Taishan Ganoderma lu-cidum decoction),the control group,the same repeated exhaustive exercise,at the same time point the control group,the experimental group after the high-intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)femoral four muscle,while the experi-mental group therapeutic dose Taishan Ganoderma lucidum feeding study drug would affect the skeletal muscle micro-inju-ry variation of the repetitive motion of the high-intensity,observe the control group,the experimental group high intensity exercise( repetitive motion)under rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure study the variation. The results supplement Taishan Ganoderma repetitive motion training in rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure variation studies have shown that:the use of the same high - intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise ) TEM supplement Taishan Ganoderma lucidum rats,the process of bone the degree of muscle ultrastructural changes be seen that the rat quadriceps micro damage have significantly improved,but still showed irregular arrangement myofibrillar sarcomere incomplete,Z line thinning,muscle wire curl. Conclusion:intensity exercise skeletal muscle ultrastructure spectrum variation and skeletal muscle micro-injury or fatigue adaptive mechanism can complement the Taishan Ganoderma process,at the same time bring

  9. Protective effect of melatonin on neurons after oxidative-stress injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ximing Wang; Zhiqiang Lu; Qiuhong Duan; Tao Lu; Shanshu He

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that melatonin(MT) can protect secondary neuronal injury.However,the protective effect of MT on neuronal injury in ischemia/reperfusion models in vitro still has not been proved.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the protective effect of MT on central ischemic injury of nerve cells and analyze its possible mechanism.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology.MATERIALS: Rats aged 7-8 days and weighing 10-12g were provided by Medical Experimental Animal Center,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology,MT was provided by Sigma Company,USA.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Tongji Hospital,Huazhong University of Science and Technology from October 2002 to March 2004.The effects of MT on the neurodegeneration induced by oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) were tested in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells.Neuron damage was quantitatively assessed by Typan Blue exclusion and MTT assay at different time points after oxygen-glucose-deprivation(90 minutes).DNA gel electrophoresis and acridine orange stain were performed to determine the nature of cell damage.And fluorescence spectrophotometer was used for quantification of intracellular malondialdehyde(MDA)at various time intervals.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between degrees of neuronal injury and reperfusion times,apoptosis,and production of MDA in cells.RESULTS:①The neuron injury was aggravated with reperfusion time.②The protective effect of MT was time-and dose-dependent when its concentration was not higher than 10 μmol/L.⑧When neurons were exposed to OGD for 90 minutes.part of the cells exhibited typical features of apoptosis:internucleosomal DNA condensation and DNA ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis.MT added to cells recovering from OGD exerted neuroprotective action

  10. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide improves functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zili; Zhou, Yulong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Jiawei; Liu, Yanlong; Wu, Fenzan; Zhang, Xie; Tong, Songlin; Wang, Maofeng; Wang, Zhouguang; He, Huacheng; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis occurs in the spinal cord following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) exerts an neuroprotective effects against both ischemic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases; however, the relationship between ER stress-induced apoptosis and the therapeutic effect of NBP in SCI remains unclear. In this study, moderate spinal cord injuries were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with a vascular clip. NBP was administered by oral (80 mg/kg/d) gavage 2 h before injury and then once daily for 28 d thereafter. Neurological recovery was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion rating scale, the inclined plane test, and the footprint analysis. Neuronal cell death was examined by TUNEL staining at 7 days post-injury. ER stress and apoptosis-related proteins were quantified by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting both in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that NBP significantly decreased spinal cord lesion cavity area and improved locomotor recovery in SD rats after SCI. NBP also decreased neuronal apoptosis and inhibited activation of the caspase 3 cascade. Upregulation of ER stress-related proteins, such as GRP78, ATF-6, ATF-4, PDI, XBP-1, and CHOP, was reversed by NBP treatment in SD rats with SCI. Similarly, NBP effectively ameliorated ER stress and apoptosis-related protein expression induced by incubation with thapsigargin (TG) in PC12 cells. Our findings demonstrate that NBP treatment alleviates secondary SCI by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis, thereby promoting neurological and locomoter functional recovery. PMID:28386335

  11. Pre-ischemia melatonin treatment alleviated acute neuronal injury after ischemic stroke by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent autophagy via PERK and IRE1 signalings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dayun; Wang, Bao; Wang, Lei; Abraham, Neeta; Tao, Kai; Huang, Lu; Shi, Wei; Dong, Yushu; Qu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Melatonin has demonstrated a potential protective effect in central nervous system. Thus, it is interesting to determine whether pre-ischemia melatonin administration could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-related injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we revealed that IR injury significantly activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. Pre-ischemia melatonin treatment was able to attenuate IR-induced ER stress and autophagy. In addition, with tandem RFP-GFP-LC3 adeno-associated virus, we demonstrated pre-ischemic melatonin significantly alleviated IR-induced autophagic flux. Furthermore, we showed that IR induced neuronal apoptosis through ER stress related signalings. Moreover, IR-induced autophagy was significantly blocked by ER stress inhibitor (4-PBA), as well as ER-related signaling inhibitors (PERK inhibitor, GSK; IRE1 inhibitor, 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde). Finally, we revealed that melatonin significantly alleviated cerebral infarction, brain edema, neuronal apoptosis, and neurological deficiency, which were remarkably abolished by tunicamycin (ER stress activator) and rapamycin (autophagy activator), respectively. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that pre-ischemia melatonin administration significantly protects against cerebral IR injury through inhibiting ER stress-dependent autophagy. Our findings shed light on the novel preventive and therapeutic strategy of daily administration of melatonin, especially among the population with high risk of cerebral ischemic stroke. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  14. Prone position prevents regional alveolar hyperinflation and mechanical stress and strain in mild experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Cristina E; Garcia, Cristiane S N B; Xisto, Débora G; Nagato, Lilian K S; Lassance, Roberta M; Prota, Luiz Felipe M; Ornellas, Felipe M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-06-30

    Prone position may delay the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the mechanisms require better elucidation. In experimental mild acute lung injury (ALI), arterial oxygen partial pressure (Pa O2), lung mechanics and histology, inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta], and type III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA expressions were analysed in supine and prone position. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. In controls, saline was intraperitoneally injected while ALI was induced by paraquat. After 24-h, the animals were mechanically ventilated for 1-h in supine or prone positions. In ALI, prone position led to a better blood flow/tissue ratio both in ventral and dorsal regions and was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of alveolar aeration/tissue ratio reducing lung static elastance and viscoelastic pressure, and increasing end-expiratory lung volume and Pa O2. PCIII expression was higher in the ventral than dorsal region in supine position, with no regional changes in inflammatory markers. In conclusion, prone position may protect the lungs against VILI, thus reducing pulmonary stress and strain.

  15. Achyranthes bidentata Polypeptides Reduces Oxidative Stress and Exerts Protective Effects against Myocardial Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes bidentata, a Chinese medicinal herb, is reported to be neuroprotective. However, its role in cardioprotection remains largely unknown. Our present study aimed to investigate the effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides (ABPP preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R injury and to test the possible mechanisms. Rats were treated with ABPP (10 mg/kg/d, i.p. or saline once daily for one week. Afterward, all the animals were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion. ABPP preconditioning for one week significantly improved cardiac function following MI/R. Meanwhile, ABPP reduced infarct size, plasma creatine kinase (CK/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities and myocardial apoptosis at the end of reperfusion in rat hearts. Moreover, ABPP preconditioning significantly inhibited superoxide generation, gp91phox expression, malonaldialdehyde formation and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in I/R hearts. Furthermore, ABPP treatment inhibited PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation in I/R rat heart. PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked Akt activation, and abolished ABPP-stimulated anti-oxidant effect and cardioprotection. Our study demonstrated for the first time that ABPP reduces oxidative stress and exerts cardioprotection against MI/R injury in rats. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt may contribute to the anti-oxidant capacity and cardioprotection of ABPP.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic pulse (EMP causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  17. Oxidative stress and lung injury induced by short-term exposure to wood smoke in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Becerril, C; Cisneros, J; González-Ávila, G; Rivera-Rosales, R; Sommer, B; Medina-Campos, O N; Montaño, M

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress and lung injury induced by short-term exposure to wood smoke were evaluated in guinea pigs through cell profile, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), conventional histology and immunohistochemistry (4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, Mn-superoxide dismutase, heme oxygenase-1); malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal concentration, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in plasma, lung and BAL. Total cells increased in BAL, and the percentage of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes augmented (72-96 h). Histopathological examination of lung tissues showed mild thickening of membranous bronchiole walls, infiltration of foamy macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bronchial, bronchiolar and intraalveolar spaces. Goblet cell hyperplasia was also observed in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. Plasma malondialdehyde concentration was increased at all times, while 4-hydroxynonenal was increased only in plasma and BAL after 24 h. Plasma glutathione reductase activity increased at 24 and 72 h, BAL glutathione peroxidase activity decreased at 72 and 96 h, whereas catalase activity increased in plasma at 72 h, and decreased in BAL at 24 h. Immunostaining intensity to 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, Mn-superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 was enhanced mainly in macrophages, bronchial/bronchiolar epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes after 72-96 h of wood smoke exposure. Overall, short-term exposure to wood smoke induces alterations in oxidative/antioxidant state in lung and airway injury, similar to those observed in humans with domestic exposure.

  18. Citicoline protects brain against closed head injury in rats through suppressing oxidative stress and calpain over-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ke; Gu, Yi; Zhao, Yumei; Li, Zhenzong; Sun, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Citicoline, a natural compound that functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids, is essential for membrane integrity and repair. It has been reported to protect brain against trauma. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of citicoline on closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Citicoline (250 mg/kg i.v. 30 min and 4 h after CHI) lessened body weight loss, and improved neurological functions significantly at 7 days after CHI. It markedly lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and the levels of glutathione, reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid. Moreover, citicoline suppressed the activities of calpain, and enhanced the levels of calpastatin, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. Also, it attenuated the axonal and myelin sheath damage in corpus callosum and the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. These data demonstrate the protection of citicoline against white matter and grey matter damage due to CHI through suppressing oxidative stress and calpain over-activation, providing additional support to the application of citicoline for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

  19. Assessing maladaptive repetitive thought in clinical disorders: A critical review of existing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtani, Suraj; Moulds, Michelle L

    2017-04-01

    Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology. This review highlights problems with the content validity of existing instruments; for example, confounds between repetitive thought and symptomatology, metacognitive beliefs, and affect. This review also builds on previous reviews by including newer transdiagnostic measures of repetitive thinking. We hope that this review will help to expand our understanding of repetitive thinking beyond the mood and anxiety disorders, and suggest ways forward in the measurement of repetitive thinking in individuals with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Minocycline effects on cerebral edema: relations with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers following traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Shadi; Federico, Fabiola; Croci, Nicole; Palmier, Bruno; Plotkine, Michel; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz

    2009-09-29

    One of the severe complications following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is cerebral edema and its effective treatment is of great interest to prevent further brain damage. This study investigated the effects of minocycline, known for its anti-inflammatory properties, on cerebral edema and its respective inflammatory markers by comparing different dose regimens, on oxidative stress and on neurological dysfunction following TBI. The weight drop model was used to induce TBI in mice. The brain water content was measured to evaluate cerebral edema. Inflammatory markers were detected by ELISA (IL-1beta), zymography and Western blot (MMP-9). The oxidative stress marker (glutathione levels) and neurological function were measured by Griffith technique and string test, respectively. Minocycline was administered i.p. once (5 min), twice (5 min and 3 h) or triple (5 min, 3 h and 9 h) following TBI. The first dose of minocycline only varied (45 or 90 mg/kg), whereas the following doses were all at 45 mg/kg. The single and double administrations of minocycline reduced the increase of inflammatory markers at 6 h post-TBI. Minocycline also reduced cerebral edema at this time point, only after double administration and at the high dose regimen, although with no effect on the TBI-induced oxidized glutathione increase. The anti-edematous effect of minocycline persisted up to 24 h, upon a triple administration, and accompanied by a neurological recovery. In conclusion, we reported an anti-edematous effect of minocycline after TBI in mice according to a specific treatment regimen. These findings emphasize that the beneficial effects of minocycline depend on the treatment regimen following a brain injury.

  1. Studies of renal injury. II. Activation of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) gene and glycolysis in LLC-PK1 cells under Ca2+ stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, J H; Song, B; Liu-Chen, S; Qulali, M; Howard, R; Lee, C H; McAteer, J

    1996-01-01

    Injury to the renal proximal tubule is common and may be followed by either recovery or cell death. The survival of injured cells is supported by a transient change in cellular metabolism that maintains life even when oxygen tension is reduced. This adaptive process involves the activation of the gene encoding the glucose transporter GLUT1, which is essential to maintain the high rates of glucose influx demanded by glycolysis. We hypothesized that after cell injury increases of cell Ca2+ (Ca2+i) initiate the flow of information that culminates with the upregulation of the stress response gene GLUT1. We found that elevations of Ca2+i caused by the calcium ionophore A23187 activated the expression of the GLUT1 gene in LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulatory effect of Ca2+i on GLUT1 gene expression was, at least in part, transcriptional and resulted in higher levels of GLUT1 mRNA, cognate protein, cellular hexose transport activity, glucose consumption, and lactate production. This response was vital to the renal cells, as its interruption severely increased Ca2+-induced cytotoxicity and cell mortality. We propose that increases of Ca2+i initiate stress responses, represented in part by activation of the GLUT1 gene, and that disruption to the flow of information originating from Ca2+-induced stress, or to the coordinated expression of the stress response, prevents cell recovery after injury and may be an important cause of permanent renal cell injury and cell death. PMID:8755650

  2. Addition of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity more accurately estimates disability and pain than fear avoidance measures alone after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.

  3. Altering endoplasmic reticulum stress in a model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury controls cellular fate and ameliorates neuropsychiatric symptoms

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    Aric Flint Logsdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI increases the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis have all been implicated in bTBI. Microvessel compromise is a primary effect of bTBI and is postulated to cause subcellular secondary effects such as ER stress. What remains unclear is how these secondary effects progress to personality disorders in humans exposed to head trauma. To investigate this we exposed male rats to a clinically relevant bTBI model we have recently developed. The study examined initial BBB disruption using Evan’s blue, ER stress mechanisms, apoptosis and impulsive-like behavior measured with elevated plus maze (EPM. Large BBB openings were observed immediately following bTBI, and persisted for at least 6 h. Data showed increased mRNA abundance of stress response genes at 3 h, with subsequent increases in the ER stress markers C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34 at 24 h. Caspase-12 and Caspase-3 were both cleaved at 24 h following bTBI. The ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (SAL, was administered (1mg/kg i.p. to investigate its’ effects on neuronal injury and impulsive-like behavior associated with bTBI. SAL reduced CHOP protein expression, and diminished Caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting apoptosis attenuation. Interestingly, SAL also ameliorated impulsive-like behavior indicative of head trauma. These results suggest SAL plays a role in apoptosis regulation and the pathology of chronic disease. These observations provide evidence that bTBI involves ER stress and that the UPR is a promising molecular target for the attenuation of neuronal injury.

  4. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway

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    Xiao-Hui Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway.

  5. The Effects of Quercetin on Acute Lung Injury and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Model of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Fethullah; Sener, Umit; Erman, Hayriye; Yilmaz, Ahsen; Aydin, Bayram; Armutcu, Ferah; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    Experimental studies indicate that sepsis causes remote organ injury although the molecular mechanism has not been clearly defined. In this report, the role of oxidative damage, and inflammation on lung injury, following sepsis model by cecal ligation and puncture, and the effects of quercetin, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory flavonoid, in the lung tissue were investigated. In the present study, we found that administration of single-dose quercetin before cecal ligation and puncture procedure, while markedly diminishing the levels of YKL-40 and oxidant molecules (xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)), increases the antioxidant enzymes levels. Quercetin is beneficial to acute lung injury by decreasing the levels of oxidative stress markers and increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities. Quercetin also causes a decrease in the serum levels of YKL-40 and periostin in the oxidative lung injury induced by the experimental sepsis model.

  6. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  7. Troxerutin protects the mouse liver against oxidative stress-mediated injury induced by D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-feng; Fan, Shao-hua; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-mei; Shan, Qun; Hu, Bin

    2009-09-01

    Troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of rutin, has been well-demonstrated to exert hepatoprotective properties. In the present study, we attempted to explore whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms were involved in troxerutin-mediated protection from D-gal-induced liver injury. The effects of troxerutin on liver lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and the expression of inflammatory mediator were investigated in D-gal-treated mice. The results showed that troxerutin largely attenuated the D-gal-induced TBARS content increase and also markedly renewed the activities of Cu, Zn-SOD, CAT, and GPx in the livers of D-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, troxerutin inhibited the upregulation of the expression of NF-kappaB p65, iNOS, and COX-2 induced by D-gal. D-Gal-induced tissue architecture changes and serum ALT and AST increases were effectively suppressed by troxerutin. In conclusion, these results suggested that troxerutin could protect the mouse liver from D-gal-induced injury by attenuating lipid peroxidation, renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and suppressing inflammatory response. This study provided novel insights into the mechanisms of troxerutin in the protection of the liver.

  8. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  9. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-05-09

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  10. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day. Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  11. Mechanization, the labor process, and injury risks in the Canadian meat packing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novek, J; Yassi, A; Spiegel, J

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, Canada's major manufacturing industries experienced considerable financial restructuring and technological transformation, largely in response to recessionary pressures. At the same time, the rate of lost-time injuries in Canadian manufacturing rose steadily. This article explores the relationship between these sets of factors. The meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of the interaction between industrial organization, the labor process, and the risk of workplace injuries. The authors suggest that the following factors have contributed to high and rising injury rates in the meat industry during the 1980s: consolidation into a smaller number of large, highly specialized, and mechanized plants; deteriorating labor relations in the face of falling profits; and an intensified labor process stressing line speedups and a growing risk of repetitive strain injuries. These observations are supported by a detailed analysis of the relationship between the labor process and workplace injuries at one packing plant considered typical for the industry.

  12. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress in NLRC5 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong; Ding, Tao; Ma, Chuan-Gen

    2017-08-04

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury could arise as a complication of liver surgery and transplantation. No specific therapeutic strategies are available to attenuate I/R injury. NOD-, LRR-and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5), a member of the NOD-like protein family, has been suggested to negatively regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through interacting with IKKα and blocking their phosphorylation. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been shown to attenuate liver injury. In the current study, we investigated the pre-treatment of DEX on hepatic I/R injury in wild type (WT) and NLRC5 knockout (NLRC5(-/-)) mice. Our results indicated that NLRC5(-/-) showed significantly stronger histologic damage, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis after I/R compared to the WT group of mice, indicating the protective role of NLRC5 against liver I/R injury. Importantly, I/R-induced increase of NLRC5 was reduced by DEX pre-treatment. After hepatic I/R injury, WT and NLRC5(-/-) mice pre-treated with DEX exhibited attenuated histological disruption, and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was associated with the inactivated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis was observed in DEX-treated mice with I/R injury, probably through enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reducing mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathways. In vitro, the results were further confirmed in WT and NLRC5(-/-) hepatocytes pre-treated with or without DEX. Together, the findings illustrated that lack of NLRC5 resulted in severer liver I/R injury, which could be alleviated by DEX pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress by an imidazopyridine derivative X22 prevents heart injury from obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yali; Zhong, Peng; Peng, Kesong; Xu, Zheng; Chen, Xuemei; Lu, Kongqin; Chen, Gaozhi; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of obesity-related complications and cardiovascular disease. Benzimidazole and imidazopyridine compounds are a class of compounds with a variety of activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer. X22 is an imidazopyridine derivative we synthesized and evaluated previously for anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. However, its ability to alleviate obesity-induced heart injury via its anti-inflammatory actions was unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of X22 using cell culture studies and a high-fat diet rat model. We observed that palmitic acid treatment in cardiac-derived H9c2 cells induced a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis and hypertrophy. All of these changes were inhibited by treatment with X22. Furthermore, oral administration of X22 suppressed high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis in rat heart tissues and decreased serum lipid concentration. We also found that the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions of X22 were associated with Nrf2 activation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibition, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study indicate that X22 may be a promising cardioprotective agent and that Nrf2 and NF-κB may be important therapeutic targets for obesity-related complications.

  14. The relationship of psychological trauma and dissociative and posttraumatic stress disorders to nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D; Gómez, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed research on the relationship between (a) exposure to psychological trauma and (b) nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality (suicidal ideation [SI] and suicide attempts [SA]) in individuals with dissociative disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The review provides a context for the special issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation on these topics. Exposure to childhood sexual abuse is the most consistent traumatic antecedent of self-harm, although traumatic violence in childhood (particularly physical abuse) and adulthood (particularly domestic violence) and exposure to multiple types of traumatic stressors also are associated with NSSI and SI/SA. Dissociative disorders and PTSD are consistently associated with increased NSSI and SA/SI. There is preliminary cross-sectional evidence that dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorders may mediate the relationship between psychological trauma and NSSI and SI/SA. Research on emotion dysregulation as a potential cross-cutting mechanism linking dissociation, PTSD, and self-harm is also reviewed. We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice and future directions for scientific research.

  15. Resveratrol mitigates hepatic injury in rats by regulating oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B, and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hassan Seif el.Din

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol, possesses several pharmacological activities including anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antinociceptive, and antiasthmatic activity. Little is known about its hepatoprotective action mechanisms. This study was conceived to explore the possible protective mechanisms of resveratrol compared with the hepatoprotective silymarin in thioacetamide (TAA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; normal control (i, TAA (100 mg/kg (ii, TAA + silymarin (50 mg/kg (iii, and TAA + resveratrol (10 mg/kg (iv. Liver function and histopathology, pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and apoptotic markers were examined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test followed by Tukey post hoc test. Compared to TAA-intoxicated group, resveratrol mitigated liver damage, and inflammation as noted by less inflammatory infiltration, hydropic degeneration with decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma by 78.83, 18.12, and 64.49%, respectively. Furthermore, it reduced (P < 0.05 alanine and aspartate aminotransferases by 36.64 and 48.09%, respectively, restored hepatic glutathione content and normalized superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. While it inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B, cytochrome 2E1, and enhanced apoptosis of necrotic hepatocytes via increasing caspase-3 activity. Our findings indicated that the potential hepatoprotective mechanisms of resveratrol are associated with inhibition of inflammation, enhancing the apoptosis of necrotic hepatocytes, and suppression of oxidative stress.

  16. PPAR{alpha} agonist fenofibrate protects the kidney from hypertensive injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats via inhibition of oxidative stress and MAPK activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaoyang [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, 250012 Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, BCM 390, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Shen, Ying H. [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, BCM 390, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li, Chuanbao; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Cheng [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, 250012 Jinan, Shandong (China); Bu, Peili, E-mail: peilibu6320@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, 250012 Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Yun [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, 250012 Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2010-04-09

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of hypertensive renal injury. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) has antioxidant effect. In this study, we demonstrated that fenofibrate significantly reduced proteinuria, inflammatory cell recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins deposition in the kidney of SHRs without apparent effect on blood pressure. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we found that fenofibrate treatment markedly reduced oxidative stress accompanied by reduced activity of renal NAD(P)H oxidase, increased activity of Cu/Zn SOD, and decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK in the kidney of SHRs. Taken together, fenofibrate treatment can protect against hypertensive renal injury without affecting blood pressure by inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis via suppression of oxidative stress and MAPK activity.

  17. Overuse in volleyball training/practice: A review on shoulder and spine-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance.

  18. Iron and Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease: An Observational Study of Injury Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio S Medeiros

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by progressive motor impairment attributed to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN pars compacta. In addition to an accumulation of iron, there is also an increased production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS and inflammatory markers. These observations suggest that iron dyshomeostasis may be playing a key role in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this metal-associated oxidative stress and neuronal damage have not been fully elucidated. To determine peripheral levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin in PD patients and its possible relation with oxidative/nitrosative parameters, whilst attempting to identify a profile of peripheral biomarkers in this neurological condition. Forty PD patients and 46 controls were recruited to compare serum levels of iron, ferritin, transferrin, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, nitrosative stress marker (NOx, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, non-protein thiols (NPSH, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and vitamin C as well as inflammatory markers (NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA, ischemic-modified albumin (IMA and myeloperoxidase. Iron levels were lower in PD patients, whereas there was no difference in ferritin and transferrin. Oxidative stress (TBARS and AOPP and inflammatory markers (NTPDases, IMA, and myeloperoxidase were significantly higher in PD, while antioxidants FRAP, vitamin C, and non-protein thiols were significantly lower in PD. The enzymes SOD, CAT, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase were not different among the groups, although NOx and ADA levels were significantly higher in the controls. Our data corroborate the idea that ROS/RNS production and neuroinflammation may dysregulate iron homeostasis and collaborate to reduce the periphery levels of this ion, contributing to alterations

  19. Iron and Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease: An Observational Study of Injury Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcio S; Schumacher-Schuh, Arthur; Cardoso, Andreia Machado; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Kegler, Aline; Santana, Daniel; Chaves, Carolina Maria Martins Behle Soares; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Rieder, Carlos R M; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive motor impairment attributed to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. In addition to an accumulation of iron, there is also an increased production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and inflammatory markers. These observations suggest that iron dyshomeostasis may be playing a key role in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this metal-associated oxidative stress and neuronal damage have not been fully elucidated. To determine peripheral levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin in PD patients and its possible relation with oxidative/nitrosative parameters, whilst attempting to identify a profile of peripheral biomarkers in this neurological condition. Forty PD patients and 46 controls were recruited to compare serum levels of iron, ferritin, transferrin, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nitrosative stress marker (NOx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and vitamin C) as well as inflammatory markers (NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), ischemic-modified albumin (IMA) and myeloperoxidase). Iron levels were lower in PD patients, whereas there was no difference in ferritin and transferrin. Oxidative stress (TBARS and AOPP) and inflammatory markers (NTPDases, IMA, and myeloperoxidase) were significantly higher in PD, while antioxidants FRAP, vitamin C, and non-protein thiols were significantly lower in PD. The enzymes SOD, CAT, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase were not different among the groups, although NOx and ADA levels were significantly higher in the controls. Our data corroborate the idea that ROS/RNS production and neuroinflammation may dysregulate iron homeostasis and collaborate to reduce the periphery levels of this ion, contributing to alterations

  20. Olmesartan protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Daisuke; Anraku, Makoto; Sakaya, Moe; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    The primary cause of death of hemodialysis (HD) patients is cardiovascular disease, and increased oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of olmesartan on oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, indoxyl sulfate, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are known to be present at higher concentrations in the blood of HD patients, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the mean fluorescence intensity of CM-H2DCFCA, an ROS-sensitive fluorescent dye, in HUVECs. HUVECs were incubated with each of the above compounds in the presence or absence of olmesartan. Moreover, these oxidant-stimulated cells were also treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or PKC inhibitor calphostin C. In addition, we investigated the effects of olmesartan on cytotoxicity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which is involved in vascular inflammation in HUVECs induced by AOPP or H2O2. The treatment of these oxidant-stimulated cells with olmesartan resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular ROS production to an extent that was nearly equivalent to that of NAC, DPI or calphostin C. Furthermore, olmesartan reduced the cytotoxicity and VEGF secretion induced by AOPP or H2O2. These results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of olmesartan might contribute to both its vasculoprotective and anti-hypertensive effects.

  1. Gymnastics injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis J; Nassar, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the distribution and determinants of injury rates as reported in the pediatric gymnastics injury literature, and to suggest measures for the prevention of injury and directions for further research. An extensive search of Pubmed was conducted using the Text and MeSH words "gymnastics" and "injury" and limited to the pediatric population (0-18 years). The review focused on studies using denominator-based designs and on those published in the English language. Additional references were obtained from hand searches of the reference lists. Unpublished injury data from the USA Gymnastics National Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships during 2002-04 were also analyzed. Comparison of study results was compromised due to the diversity of study populations, variability of injury definition across studies, and changes in rules and equipment across years. Notwithstanding, this review of the literature reveals a reasonably consistent picture of pediatric gymnastics injuries. The incidence and severity of injuries is relatively high, particularly among advanced level female gymnasts. Body parts particularly affected by injury vary by gender and include the ankle, knee, wrist, elbow, lower back, and shoulder. Ankle sprains are a particular concern. Overuse and nonspecific pain conditions, particularly the wrist and low back, occur frequently among advanced-level female gymnasts. Factors associated with an increased injury risk among female gymnasts include greater body size and body fat, periods of rapid growth, and increased life stress. Above all, this overview of the gymnastics injury literature underscores the need to establish large-scale injury surveillance systems designed to provide current and reliable data on injury trends in both boys and girls gymnastics, and to be used as a basis for analyzing injury risk factors and identifying dependable injury preventive measures.

  2. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  3. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications.

  4. Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sakai, M; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2010-09-01

    Studies on environmental consequences of stress on animal production have grown substantially in the last few years for economic and animal welfare reasons. Physiological, hormonal, and immunological deficits as well as increases in animals' susceptibility to diseases have been reported after different stressors in broiler chickens. The aim of the current experiment is to describe the effects of 2 different heat stressors (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C/10 h per d) applied to broiler chickens from d 35 to 42 of life on the corticosterone serum levels, performance parameters, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity, correlating and discussing the obtained data under a neuroimmune perspective. In our study, we demonstrated that heat stress (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) increased the corticosterone serum levels and decreased BW gain and food intake. Only chickens submitted to 36 +/- 1 degrees C, however, presented a decrease in feed conversion and increased mortality. We also showed a decrease of bursa of Fabricius (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C), thymus (36 +/- 1 degrees C), and spleen (36 +/- 1 degrees C) relative weights and of macrophage basal (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) and Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative burst (31 +/- 1 degrees C). Finally, mild multifocal acute enteritis characterized by an increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the jejunum's lamina propria was also observed. The stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was taken as responsible for the negative effects observed on the chickens' performance and immune function and also the changes of the intestinal mucosa. The present obtained data corroborate with others in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  5. New role of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in endothelial cell oxidative stress injury and protective effect of melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixun Duan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a regulatory role in cellular oxidative stress injury (OSI. In this study, we explored the role of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced OSI and the protective effect of melatonin against (H2O2-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. AG490 (a specific inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and JAK2 siRNA were used to manipulate JAK2/STAT3 activity, and the results showed that AG490 and JAK2 siRNA inhibited OSI and the levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. HUVECs were then subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland. Melatonin conferred a protective effect against H2O2, which was evidenced by improvements in cell viability, adhesive ability and migratory ability, decreases in the apoptotic index and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and several biochemical parameters in HUVECs. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting showed that H2O2 treatment increased the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Cytochrome c, Bax and Caspase3 and decreased the levels of Bcl2, whereas melatonin treatment partially reversed these effects. We, for the first time, demonstrate that the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway results in a protective effect against endothelial OSI. The protective effects of melatonin against OSI, at least partially, depend upon JAK2/STAT3 inhibition.

  6. Evaluation of stress hormones in traumatic brain injury patients with gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biteghe-Bi-Nzeng Alain-Pascal; WEI Hui-jie; CHEN Xin; ZHANG Jian-ning

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the local risk factors of traumatic brain injury(TBI)patients developing gastrointestinal(GI)bleeding during the early hospitalization in neurosurgery intensive care unit(NICU).Method:From September 2005 to February 2006,41 patients admitted to NICU and 13 healthy volunteers were involved in our study.Blood samples at 24 hours,2-3 days and 5-7 days were obtained from each patient via arterial line at 8 a.m.to measure the concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH),total cortisol and gastrin.The collected serum was immersed in an ice bath and tested by the Immulite 1000 systems.Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5.Results:Within 24 hours following TBI,the concentrations of total cortisol,ACTH and gastrin increased proportionally to the severity of injury,especially significant in the experimental group(P<0.05).The concentrations of ACTH and gastrin were higher in the GI bleeding positive group than in the GI bleeding negative group,(F=1.413,P=0.253)for ACTH and(F=9.371,P=0.006)for gastrin.GI bleeding had a positive correlation with gastrin concentration(r=0.312,P<0.05)and a negative correlation with serum hemoglobin(Hb)(r=-0.420,P<0.01).The clinical incidence of GI bleeding was 24.39%(10/41)in the experimental group.Within 24 hours,GI bleeding had a strong correlation with gastrin concentration(OR=26.643,P<0.05)and hematocrit(Hct)(OR=5.385,P<0.05).High ACTH concentration(>100 pg/ml)increased the frequency of GI bleeding.For patients with severe TBI and treated with routine antacids,the incidence of GI bleeding was 40.91%(9/22)and the mortality rate was 20%(2/10).Conclusions:Low Glasgow coma scale scores,low Hb,high concentrations of gastrin and ACTH(>100 pg/ml)are risk factors and can be predictive values for post-traumatic GI bleeding.Severe TBI patients have high risks of GI bleeding with high mortality.

  7. Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by lithium chloride contributes to the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zili; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery. Our data indicated that LiCl treatment could attenuates BSCB disruption and improved the recovery of functional locomotion in rats SCI model, reduced the structure damage and number loss of microvessels, increased the expressions of junction proteins, including p120, β-catenin, occludin, and claudin-5, via reversed the upregulated ER stress associated proteins. In addition, LiCl significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of junction proteins in thapsigargin (TG)-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). These findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promote the neurological function recovery after SCI, partly through inhibiting the activation of ER stress.

  8. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  9. Neuroprotective Properties of Panax notoginseng Saponins via Preventing Oxidative Stress Injury in SAMP8 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Tian, Xin; Qin, Mei-Chun; Xu, Zhe-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Inhibiting oxidative damage in early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered as a strategy for AD treatment. Our previous study has shown that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have an antiaging action by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the serum of aged rats. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PNS on antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins (UCPs) involved in oxidative stress in AD mice. The results showed that PNS prevented neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 region and alleviated pathomorphological change of neurons in CA1 region. Moreover, PNS inhibited the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), enhanced the expressions and activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, and improved the mRNA and protein levels of UCP4 and UCP5 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Together, our study shows that PNS has the ability to protect neurons in AD brain from oxidative stress damage through attenuating the production of 8-OHdG, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expressions levels of UCP4 and UCP5. Accordingly, PNS may be a promising agent for AD treatment. PMID:28250796

  10. Neuroprotective Properties of Panax notoginseng Saponins via Preventing Oxidative Stress Injury in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibiting oxidative damage in early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is considered as a strategy for AD treatment. Our previous study has shown that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS have an antiaging action by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the serum of aged rats. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PNS on antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins (UCPs involved in oxidative stress in AD mice. The results showed that PNS prevented neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 region and alleviated pathomorphological change of neurons in CA1 region. Moreover, PNS inhibited the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, enhanced the expressions and activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, and improved the mRNA and protein levels of UCP4 and UCP5 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Together, our study shows that PNS has the ability to protect neurons in AD brain from oxidative stress damage through attenuating the production of 8-OHdG, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expressions levels of UCP4 and UCP5. Accordingly, PNS may be a promising agent for AD treatment.

  11. Effect of ATRA on Contents of liver Retinoids, Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Rat Model of Extrahepatic Cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyan; DAN Zili; WANG Hui; LIN Jusheng

    2007-01-01

    The effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) administration on the concentration of retinoids (RA and vitamin A) in liver, oxidative stress and the hepatic injury in a rat model of com-mon bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced liver injury were investigated. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n=5) or CBDL (n=48). Two weeks after operation, rats undergoing CBDL were randomized to receive treatment with either ATRA at three different doses (0.1, 1.5, 7.5 mg/kg) dissolved in bean oil or only bean oil every day over a 4-week experimental period. Rats were killed and blood samples were collected from the heart for determination of the serum transaminase. The contents of retinoids in rat liver were detected by using HPLC. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superox-ide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver were determined by a spectrophotometric method according to the instruction of the kits. Liver pathologic changes were observed under the light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that compared with sham-operated group, the levels of reti-noids in the liver tissue were significantly decreased in the CBDL group (P<0.01). ATRA (0.1 mg/kg) administration in CBDL rats partially restored the contents of retinoids (P<0.05). Liver RA and vita-min A contents in CBDL group were significantly increased after ATRA (1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg) sup-plementation as compared with sham-operated group (P<0.05). However, in ATRA-treated CBDL group, hepatic GSH level and SOD activity, depressed by CBDL, and hepatic MDA level, increased by CBDL were returned to those in sham-operated group (P<0.05). The histologic observation of liver tissues indicated that ATRA treatment notably alleviated hepatocellular swelling, steatosis, the swelling of mitochondria and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Treatment with ATRA could reduce levels of serum transaminase as compared with sham-operated group, more greatly in 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg ATRA-treated groups than in 0.1 mg

  12. Patients "At Risk" of Suffering from Persistent Complaints after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Coping, Mood Disorders, and Post-Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E; Spikman, Jacoba M; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Roks, Gerwin; Hageman, Gerard; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-01-01

    Although most patients recover fully following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a minority (15-25%) of all patients develop persistent post-traumatic complaints (PTC) that interfere with the resumption of previous activities. An early identification of patients who are at risk for PTC is currently performed by measuring the number of complaints in the acute phase. However, only part of this group will actually develop persisting complaints, stressing the need for studies on additional risk factors. This study aimed to compare this group of patients with many complaints with patients with few and no complaints to identify potential additional discriminating characteristics and to evaluate which of these factors have the most predictive value for being at risk. We evaluated coping style, presence of psychiatric history, injury characteristics, mood-related symptoms, and post-traumatic stress. We included 820 patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15) admitted to three level-1 trauma centers as part of the UPFRONT-study. At 2 weeks after injury, 60% reported three or more complaints (PTC-high), 25% reported few complaints (PTC-low), and 15% reported no complaints (PTC-zero). Results showed that PTC-high consisted of more females (78% vs. 73% and 52%, p post-traumatic stress (37% vs. 27% and 19%, p post-traumatic stress symptoms had the highest predictive value and should be taken into account in the identification of at-risk patients for future treatment studies.

  13. The roles of social stress and decision-making in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heather T; Andover, Margaret S; Armey, Michael F

    2015-10-30

    Research suggests that individuals with a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) do not have difficulty generating alternatives to social problems but choose more negative solutions, suggesting a deficit in decision-making. However, studies report no significant differences in risky decision-making on a performance-based task among individuals with and without NSSI histories. A limitation of these studies is that decision-making was only assessed at baseline. As individuals with a history of NSSI typically self-injure when experiencing negative emotions, decision-making ability may become impaired specifically in the presence of these emotions. The aim of the current study was to investigate decision-making ability among individuals with and without NSSI histories both at baseline and following a distressing social exclusion task. We compared individuals with (n=48) and without (n=72) NSSI histories on the Iowa Gambling Task, a behavioral measure of risky decision-making, before and after exclusion or inclusion on the Cyberball task. Results indicated no significant group differences in performance regardless of condition. When participants were grouped by racial/ethnic minority status, results indicated that non-Hispanic White individuals with a history of NSSI exhibited deterioration in risky decision-making ability following social exclusion. Potential explanations for these findings and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Protective effect of liquiritin on oxidative stress injury of SH-EP1 cell lines caused by hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Shi; Hong-ju Guo; Huan Wang; Yu-Xin Fan; Yu-Min Zhang; Li-Rong Chang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the protective effect of liquiritin on the oxidative stress injury of SH-EP1 cell lines caused by hydrogen peroxide.Methods: SH-EP1 cell lines were cultured and randomly divided into control group, H2O2 group and liquiritin group that were treated with the culture medium without serum, 200 μmol/L H2O2 as well as 100 μmol/L, 200 μmol/L and 400 μmol/L liquiritin combined with 200 μmol/L H2O2 respectively. After treatment, cell viability values as well as the content of mitochondrial apoptosis molecules and antioxidant molecules in cells were determined.Results:After 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h of treatment, the cell viability values of H2O2 group were significantly lower than those of control group, the cell viability values of 100 μmol/L, 200 μmol/L and 400 μmol/L liquiritin group were significantly higher than those of H2O2 group and the larger the liquiritin dosage, the higher the cell viability value; after 24 h of treatment, Bax, Caspase-3, Nrf2 and ARE content of H2O2 group were significantly higher than those of control group while Bcl-2, XIAP, SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 content were significantly lower than those of control group; Bax and Caspase-3 content of 100 μmol/L, 200 μmol/L and 400 μmol/L liquiritin group were significantly lower than those of H2O2 group while Bcl-2, XIAP, Nrf2, ARE, SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 content were significantly higher than those of H2O2group, and the larger the liquiritin dosage, the lower the Bax and Caspase-3 content while the higher the Bcl-2, XIAP, Nrf2, ARE, SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 content.Conclusions:Liquiritin can inhibit the mitochondrial apoptosis and enhance the antioxidant system function to relieve the oxidative stress injury of SH-EP1 cell lines caused by hydrogen peroxide.

  15. H2S Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Reducing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, known as the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, has received increasing attention because of its diverse effects, including angiogenesis, vascular relaxation and myocardial protection.We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI induced by endotoxemia. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided in six groups: (1 Control group; (2 GYY4137treatment group; (3 L-NAME treatment group; (4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment group; (5 LPS with GYY4137 treatment group; and (6 LPS with L-NAME treatment group. The lungs were analysed by histology, NO production in the mouse lungs determined by modified Griess (Sigma-Aldrich reaction, cytokine levels utilizing commercialkits, and protein abundance by Western blotting. Results: GYY4137, a slowly-releasing H2S donor, improved the histopathological changes in the lungs of endotoxemic mice. Treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, increased anti-oxidant biomarkers such as thetotal antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and theactivities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD but decreased a marker of peroxynitrite (ONOO- action and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT in endotoxemic lung. L-NAME administration also suppressed inflammation in endotoxemic lung, as evidenced by the decreased pulmonary levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and myeloperoxidase (MPO and the increased level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. GYY4137 treatment reversed endotoxin-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogenperoxide (H2O2 and 3-NT and an increase in the antioxidant biomarker ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione(GSH/GSSG ratio and T-AOC, CAT and SOD activity. GYY4137 also attenuated endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, treatment with GYY4137 inhibited inducible NOS (iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO production in the

  16. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  17. Comparison of measures of physiologic stress during treadmill exercise in a patient with 20% lower extremity burn injuries and healthy matched and nonmatched individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, J L; Giuffrida, C; Petrazzi, A; Schlanser, J; McDowell-Montini, C; Pietrzyk, C; Landry, V L

    2000-01-01

    Patients with burn injuries are referred for rehabilitation within days after the injuries to encourage early ambulation and functional training. Many of these patients are hypermetabolic at rest. Metabolic demands of activity are added to the already hypermetabolic state and elevate total energy requirements and some physiologic measures. Reports on the physiologic stress imposed by therapeutic activities for patients with burn injuries are limited to low levels of metabolic demand (burn injuries. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical measures of myocardial and physiologic stress in a patient with 20% lower extremity total body surface area burns during an exercise challenge equivalent to stair climbing. Physiologic measures were assessed before and during a treadmill activity (5 METS) for a 40-year-old obese man 3 weeks after he had lower extremity burn injuries. These measures were compared with mean values for 62 healthy counterparts and 6 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and fitness level. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and the rating of perceived exertion for the patient with burn injuries were higher at baseline and during exercise than the mean values for the 62 healthy individuals and the 6 matched subjects. The steady state exercise values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and rating of perceived exertion at 6 minutes were 189 beats per minute, 190 mm Hg, 3591, and 17, respectively, for the patient with burn injuries and were 111.3 beats per minute, 149 mm Hg, 1680, and 11.7, respectively, for the 6 matched subjects. Ventilation during exercise also increased for the patient with burn injuries more than for the matched subjects (3/4 vs 1/4). Pain experienced by the patient with burn injuries decreased with activity (9.8 vs 7.3 on a 15-cm scale). Treadmill walking produced near maximal responses for most physiologic measures for this patient who was hypermetabolic at rest

  18. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  19. Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication mechanisms. To cope with the induced stress and the changes in the redox environment, organisms elicit transient responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to counteract toxic effects of radiation. Metabolic pathways are induced during and shortly after the exposure. Depending on radiation dose, dose-rate and quality, these protective mechanisms may or may not be sufficient to cope with the stress. When the harmful effects exceed those of homeostatic biochemical processes, induced biological changes persist and may be propagated to progeny cells. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play critical roles in many cellular functions. In irradiated cells, levels of these reactive species may be increased due to perturbations in oxidative metabolism and chronic inflammatory responses, thereby contributing to the long-term effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on genomic stability. Here, in addition to immediate biological effects of water radiolysis on DNA damage, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in the delayed outcomes of ionization radiation. Defects in mitochondrial functions lead to accelerated aging and numerous pathological conditions. Different types of radiation vary in their linear energy transfer (LET) properties, and we discuss their effects on various aspects of mitochondrial physiology. These include short and long-term in vitro and in vivo effects on mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial protein import and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22182453

  20. Taurine antagonized oxidative stress injury induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHANG; Jian-xin XU; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Yong-fen QI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe protective effects of taurine on reactive oxygen species generation induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). METHODS: Rat VSMC was incubated with various concentrations of homocysteine and taurine. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity which released into culture medium was elevated as an indicator for VSMC injury. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2- )were measured with luminol or lucigenin chemiluminescences method, and the mitochondria Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also measured in treated VSMC. RESULTS: LDH leakage from cultured VSMC treated with homocystenie, was increased (P<0.01 vs control), and it was markedly inhibited when co-incubated with taurine (P<0.01). Homocysteine induced H2O2 generation from VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs control). However, taurine (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) significantly antagonized 0.5 mmol/L homocysteine-induced H2O2 generation in VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group), although taurine itself did not alter the H2O2 generation in VSMC (P>0.05 vs control).In this study, the superoxide anion in VSMC was not detectable by chemiluminent method. In addition, treatment of VSMC with taurine increased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05), but homocysteine decreased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity (P<0.01 vs control). In addition,co-administration of taurine markedly ameliorated homocysteine-induced inhibition of Mn-SOD and CAT activity in VSMC (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group). CONCLUSION: Taurine antagonized the effects of homocysteine on ROS generation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in rat VSMC in vitro.

  1. Effect of local anesthetics on perioperative oxidative stress injury and nerve conduction function in diabetic or non-diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Yang Zhu; Ping Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of local anesthetics on perioperative oxidative stress injury and nerve conduction function in diabetic or non-diabetic patients.Methods:A total of 100 c diabetic patients and 100 non-diabetic patients who received selective surgery under intraspinal block anesthesia were selected as the research subjects, diabetic patients were selected as observation group, non-diabetic patients were selected as control group, serum and urine were collected respectively before and after operation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined; electromyography was carried out, and the motor nerve conduction velocity of median nerve and common peroneal nerve as well as sensory nerve conduction velocity of median nerve and superficial peroneal nerve were determined.Results:One day before operation and 1 day after operation, serum ROS and MDA levels and urine 8-OHdG levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group, and serum SOD levels were significantly lower than those of control group; ROS, MDA, SOD and 8-OHdG levels of observation group before and after operation changed more significantly than those of control group. 1 week after operation, MNCV of median nerve and common peroneal nerve as well as SNCV of median nerve and superficial peroneal nerve of observation group were significantly lower than those before operation, and MNCV of median nerve and common peroneal nerve as well as SNCV of median nerve and superficial peroneal nerve of control group were not significantly different from those before operation.Conclusions: Local anesthetics can cause peripheral nerve conduction function impairment in diabetic patients, and the possible molecular mechanism is that local anesthetics activate perioperative oxidative stress more significantly in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients.

  2. Event centrality as a unique predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms and perceived disability following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, A; Trost, Z; Berntsen, D; Nowlin, L; Wheelis, T; Monden, K R

    2017-05-30

    We conducted a cross-sectional study involving completion of self-report measures. Individuals who acquire a spinal cord injury (SCI) face numerous physical and psychological challenges, with the former receiving considerable less attention during the rehabilitation process. In this article, we examined event centrality as a unique predictor of psychological outcomes in a sample of individuals receiving rehabilitation for SCI. Event centrality refers to the extent to which individuals construe a stressful experience as a core part of their identity. In samples of individuals exposed to psychological traumas (for example, sexual assault or military combat), event centrality has emerged as a consistent and powerful predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs). This is the first study to examine event centrality in an SCI sample. Inpatient rehabilitation program in a large urban city in the Southwestern United States. A sample of 55 participants in rehabilitation for a recent SCI completed measures of event centrality, PTSS, depressed mood and perceived disability. Event centrality was significantly related to perceived disability (r=0.48) and PTSS (r=0.31) and accounted for unique variance in these two outcomes after controlling for demographics and depressed mood. Event centrality is common among individuals with SCI and may be a unique contributor to worse psychological and functional outcomes. We hope our findings will alert health-care professionals to the importance of event centrality. This study was supported by a grant from the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF89).Spinal Cord advance online publication, 30 May 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.57.

  3. Chapter 5 mantram repetition: an evidence-based complementary practice for military personnel and veterans in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jill E; Weinrich, Sally; Allard, Carolyn B; Beck, Danielle; Johnson, Brian D; Holt, Lindsay Cosco

    2014-01-01

    Today in the digital age, with our advances in modern technology and communication, there are additional stressors for our military personnel and Veterans. Constant dangers exist both on and off the battlefield, unlike prior wars that had clearly-defined war zones. In addition, medical advances have assisted in saving the lives of many more gravely injured troops than ever previously possible. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan come to an end, large numbers of service men and women are returning home with multiple injuries. This group of Veterans has significantly higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury than ever before reported. Although existing PTSD therapies have been found to be highly effective for many Veterans, there is a substantial minority unsatisfactorily treated. Mantram repetition, an innovative, complementary, evidence-based treatment, is proving to be successful for these new Veterans. When used regularly it helps with "road rage, impatience, anger, frustration, and being out of control." A mantram is a brief, sacred word or phrase that embodies divine power or the greatest positive energy one can imagine (Easwaran, 2008a). Mantram repetition is a simple, quick, personal, portable, and private complementary practice that may be used as an adjunct to current treatments for PTSD. Growing research evidence supports mantram repetition's value for dissemination and adoption in the 21st century. This chapter summarizes Mantram Program research conducted from 2003 to 2014. It describes the health-related benefits of the Mantram Program in various populations. The current research focuses on benefits for managing psychological distress and promoting quality of life in Veterans. Future areas for research are suggested.

  4. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury%重复功能性磁刺激联合腹直肌电刺激对颈髓损伤患者肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 袁华; 牟翔; 杜起; 毛利; 惠楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury.Methods Twenty-five patients with cervical spinal cord injury were randomized into an experimental group (n =13) and a control group (n =12).The control group was given comprehensive rehabilitation treatment,including upper limb movements,standing training and training of respiratory function,while the experimental group was given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and abdominal muscle electrical stimulation in addition to the comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The patients' maximum lung capacity (VC),forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1),peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and tidal volume (VT) were measured at the outset and after 3 months of treatment.Results The lung function indexes increased in both groups after treatment,but each index improved significantly more in the experimental group,on average,than in the control group.Conclusion As a supplement to routine respiratory function training,repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal intermediate frequency electrical stimulation can improve the pulmonary ventilation function of patients with middle and lower cervical spinal cord injury.%目的 观察重复功能性磁刺激(rFMS)联合腹直肌电刺激对中、低位颈髓损伤(CSCI)患者肺通气功能的影响.方法 共选取25例中、低位CSCI患者,采用随机数字表法将其分为治疗组及对照组.对照组给予上肢主动运动、站立训练、呼吸功能训练等综合康复治疗,治疗组在此基础上辅以rFMS及腹直肌中频电刺激.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后对2组患者肺功能[包括最大肺活量(VC)、1秒钟用力呼气量(FEV1)、呼气峰值流速(PEF)及潮气量(VT)等指标]进行评定.结果 2组患者分别经3个

  5. Effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes recovery of cognitive function and functional independence in patients with traumatic brain injury%低频重复经颅磁刺激对脑外伤患者认知功能和功能独立的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄居科; 麦荣康; 陈尚杰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in improving the memory function and quality of life of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods Sixty patients with brain injury were randomly divided into the treatmem group and control group. The patients in the control group received conventional treatments (including medications, acupuncture and exercise training), and those in the treatment group were given additional low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment. Scores of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and Functional independence Measure (FIM) were recorded before and after the treatments and compared between the two groups. Results The patients in both of the groups showed significant improvements in RBMT and FIM scores after the treatments (P<0.05). The improvements in RBMT and FIM scores after the treatments differed significantly between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can significantly improve the cognitive function and functional independence of patients with traumatic brain injury.%目的 观察低频重复经颅磁刺激改善脑外伤患者的认知功能和功能独立的作用.方法 将60例脑损伤患者按随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组(各30例),均给予常规治疗.治疗组在此基础上应用低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗,连续治疗5 d为1个疗程,疗程之间间隔2d,连续4个疗程.观察两组患者治疗前后Rivermead行为记忆评分(RBMT)和功能独立性评分(FIM).结果 两组患者治疗后RBMT评分(治疗组:17.72±5.69,对照组:16.86±4.82)和FIM评分(治疗组:75.19±16.55,对照组:59.86±15.27)均较治疗前(治疗组:13.97±4.37,对照组:14.25±4.51;治疗组:43.21±12.62,对照组:45.79±13.97)有明显改善,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组治疗前后RBMT评分差值(3.68±2.06 vs 2.71±1.17)和FIM评分差值(31.86±10.89 vs 18.71

  6. Pilot study of the effects of mixed light touch manual therapies on active duty soldiers with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and injury to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren; Hanson, Brenda; Gilliam, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of mixed Light Touch Manual Therapies (LTMT) on headache, anxiety and other symptoms suffered by active duty United States service members experiencing chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Ten service members diagnosed with PTSD and having a self-reported injury to the head acquired at least two years prior, were provided with two hour-long sessions of mixed LTMT given a week apart. Data to assess the immediate and durable effects were gathered before and after the LTMT sessions. Results indicate that headache, anxiety, and pain interference were significantly reduced during the course of the pilot study. This suggests that mixed LTMT may be helpful in reducing some of the symptoms of PTSD and injury to the head. Further studies will be needed to determine if LTMT is an effective non-pharmacological treatment for headache, anxiety or other problems associated with PTSD or injury to the head.

  7. Decreased cysteine uptake by EAAC1 gene deletion exacerbates neuronal oxidative stress and neuronal death after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Young; Kim, In Yeol; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Bo Eun; Lee, Song Hee; Kho, A Ra; Jung, Hee Jae; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2016-07-01

    Excitatory amino acid carrier type 1 (EAAC1), a high-affinity glutamate transporter, can expend energy to move glutamate into neurons. However, under normal physiological conditions, EAAC1 does not have a great effect on glutamate clearance but rather participates in the neuronal uptake of cysteine. This process is critical to maintaining neuronal antioxidant function by providing cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Previous study showed that mice lacking EAAC1 show increased neuronal oxidative stress following transient cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we sought to characterize the role of EAAC1 in neuronal resistance after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Young adult C57BL/6 wild-type or EAAC1 (-/-) mice were subjected to a controlled cortical impact model for TBI. Neuronal death after TBI showed more than double the number of degenerating neurons in the hippocampus in EAAC1 (-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Superoxide production, zinc translocation and microglia activation similarly showed a marked increase in the EAAC1 (-/-) mice. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduced TBI-induced neuronal death, superoxide production and zinc translocation. These findings indicate that cysteine uptake by EAAC1 is important for neuronal antioxidant function and survival following TBI. This study also suggests that administration of NAC has therapeutic potential in preventing TBI-induced neuronal death.

  8. Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Elbogen, Eric B; Dedert, Eric A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hair, Lauren P; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans who reported a recent history of engaging in cutting, hitting, or burning themselves were significantly more likely to report making violent threats and engaging in violent acts, including the use of a knife or gun, in the past year than veterans without NSSI. NSSI was uniquely associated with interpersonal violence after controlling for a variety of dispositional, historical, contextual, and clinical risk factors for violence, including age, race, socio-economic status, marital status, employment status, combat exposure, alcohol misuse, depression, PTSD symptom severity, and reported difficulty controlling violence. These findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans with PTSD should review NSSI history when conducting a risk assessment of violence.

  9. Nitraria retusa fruit prevents penconazole-induced kidney injury in adult rats through modulation of oxidative stress and histopathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane, Mariem; Koubaa, Mohamed; Soudani, Nejla; Elwej, Awatef; Grati, Malek; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-12-01

    Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) Asch. (Nitrariaceae) is a medicinal plant which produces edible fruits whose antioxidant activity has been demonstrated. The current study elucidates the potential protective effect of N. retusa fruit aqueous extract against nephrotoxicity induced by penconazole, a triazole fungicide, in the kidney of adult rats. Adult Wistar rats were exposed either to penconazole (67 mg/kg body weight), or to N. retusa extract (300 mg/kg body weight) or to their combination. Penconazole was administered by intra-peritoneal injection every 2 days from day 7 until day 15, the sacrifice day, while N. retusa extract was administered daily by gavage during 15 days. Oxidative stress parameters, kidney biomarkers and histopathological examination were determined. Nitraria retusa extract administration to penconazole treated rats decreased kidney levels of malondialdehyde (-10%), hydrogen peroxide (-12%), protein carbonyls (PCOs, -11%) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, -16%); antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (-13%), superoxide dismutase (-8%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -14%), and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants: non-protein thiols (-9%), glutathione (-7%) and metallothionein (-12%). Furthermore, this plant extract prevented kidney biomarker changes by reducing plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and LDH and increasing those of ALP and GGT. Histopathological alterations induced by penconazole (glomeruli fragmentation, Bowman's space enlargement, tubular epithelial cells necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory leucocytes) were attenuated following N. retusa administration. Our results indicated that N. retusa fruit extract had protective effects against penconazole-induced kidney injury, which could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  10. StressModEx – Physiotherapist-led Stress Inoculation Training integrated with exercise for acute whiplash injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carrie Ritchie; Justin Kenardy; Rob Smeets; Michele Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Whiplash associated disorders are the most common non-hospitalised injuries following a road traffic crash. Up to 50% of individuals who experience a whiplash injury will not fully recover and report ongoing pain and disability. Most recovery, if it occurs, takes place in the first 2-3 months post injury, indicating that treatment provided in the early stages is critical to long-term outcome. However, early management approaches for people with acute whiplash associated disorder...

  11. Rowing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  12. Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents following accidental child injury: evaluation of the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijel, Els P M; Gigengack, Maj R; Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Heij, Hugo A; Goslings, J Carel; Bloemers, Frank W; Luitse, Jan S K; Boer, Frits; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-05-12

    Children and their parents are at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following injury due to pediatric accidental trauma. Screening could help predict those at greatest risk and provide an opportunity for monitoring so that early intervention may be provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP) in a mixed-trauma sample in a non-English speaking country (the Netherlands). Children aged 8-18 and one of their parents were recruited in two academic level I trauma centers. The STEPP was assessed in 161 children (mean age 13.9 years) and 156 parents within one week of the accident. Three months later, clinical diagnoses and symptoms of PTSD were assessed in 147 children and 135 parents. We used the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV - Child and Parent version, the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to estimate the Areas Under the Curve as a measure of performance and to determine the optimal cut-off score in our sample. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The aim was to maximize both sensitivity and negative predictive values. PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of the children; 10% of their parents scored above the cut-off point for PTSD. At the originally recommended cut-off scores (4 for children, 3 for parents), the sensitivity in our sample was 41% for children and 54% for parents. Negative predictive values were 92% for both groups. Adjusting the cut-off scores to 2 improved sensitivity to 82% for children and 92% for parents, with negative predictive values of 92% and 96%, respectively. With adjusted cut-off scores, the STEPP performed well: 82% of the children and 92% of the parents with a subsequent positive diagnosis were identified correctly. Special attention in the screening procedure is required because of a

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent ...

  14. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  15. Plantar pressure asymmetry and risk of stress injuries in the foot of young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Renato R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Franco, Pedro S; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetries in the magnitude of plantar pressure are considered a risk factor for stress fracture of the fifth metatarsal in soccer athletes. To investigate the presence of plantar pressure asymmetries among young soccer athletes. Observational. Laboratory. Thirty young adolescents divided into a soccer player group (n = 15) or a matched control group (n = 15). Mean plantar pressure was determined for seven different regions of the foot. Data were compared between the preferred and non-preferred foot, and between the groups, during barefoot standing on a pressure mat system. Higher pressure was found in the hallux, 5th metatarsal and medial rearfoot of the non-preferred foot in the young soccer players. These asymmetries were not observed in the control group. Magnitudes of plantar pressure did not differ between the groups. Young soccer players present asymmetries in plantar pressure in the hallux, 5th metatarsal and medial rearfoot, with higher pressure observed in the non-preferred foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diosmetin protects against retinal injury via reduction of DNA damage and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeren Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is a global public health problem that needs new candidate drugs. Chrysanthemum is a traditional Chinese drug, famous for its eye-protective function, with an unclear mechanism of action. To determine how chrysanthemum contributes to vision, we identified, for the first time, the component of chrysanthemum, diosmetin (DIO, which acts in protecting the injured retina in an adriamycin (ADR improving model. We observed that DIO could attenuate the apoptosis of retinal cells in Sprague–Dawley rats and verified this effect in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells, ARPE-19. Our further study on the mechanism revealed the counteractive effect of DIO on the attenuation of DNA damage and oxidative stress, which occurs in a wide range of retinal disorders. These results collectively promise the potential value of DIO as a retinal-protective agent for disorders that lead to blindness. In addition, we identified, for the first time, the component of chrysanthemum, DIO, which acts in protecting the injured retina.

  17. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  18. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces cell death through inhibition of DNA oxidative stress and overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Hua, Ning; Xie, Keliang; Zhao, Tingting; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-08-01

    Overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), as a result of sustained DNA oxidation in ischemia-reperfusion injury, triggers programmed cell necrosis and apoptosis. The present study was conducted to demonstrate whether hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has a neuroprotective effect on retinal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) injury through inhibition of PARP-1 activation. RIR was induced by transient elevation of intraocular pressure in rats. HRS (5 ml/kg) was administered peritoneally every day from the beginning of reperfusion in RIR rats until the rats were sacrificed. Retinal damage and cell death was determined using hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. DNA oxidative stress was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. In addition, the expression of PARP-1 and caspase-3 was investigated by western blot analysis and/or immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that HRS administration improved morphological alterations and reduced apoptosis following RIR injury. Furthermore, the present study found that HRS alleviated DNA oxidation and PARP-1 overactivation in RIR rats. HRS can protect RIR injury by inhibition of PARP-1, which may be involved in DNA oxidative stress and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis.

  19. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  20. Association of high expression in rat gastric mucosal heat shock protein 70 induced by moxibustion pretreatment with protection against stress injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point on gastric mucosa injury in stressinduced ulcer rats and its correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70).METHODS: Sixty healthy SD rats (30 males, 30 females)were divided into control group, injury model group,Zushanli point group, Liangmeng point group. Stress gastric ulcer model was induced by binding cold stress method. Gastric mucosa ulcer injury (UI) index was calculated by Guth method. Gastric mucosa blood flow (GMBF) was recorded with a biological signal analyzer.Protein content and gene expression in gastric mucosal HSP70 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC)and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thiobarbital method was used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Gastric mucosal endothelin (ET) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: High gastric mucosal UI index, high HSP70 expression, low GMBF and PGF2, elevated MDA and ET were observed in gastric mucosa of rats subjected to cold stress. Moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point decreased rat gastric mucosal UI index, MDA and ET.Conversely, the expression of HSP70, GMBF, and PGE2 was elevated in gastric mucosa after pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point. The observed parameters were significantly different between Zusanli and Liangmeng points.CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point protects gastric mucosa against stress injury. This protection is associated with the higher expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein,leading to release of PGE2 and inhibition of MDA and ET,impairment of gastric mucosal index.

  1. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters.

  2. Stress and strain analysis on the anastomosis site sutured with either epineurial or perineurial sutures after simulation of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of tensile stress and tensile strain at an anastomosis site under physiological stress is an important factor for the success of anastomosis following suturing in peripheral nerve injury treatment.Sciatic nerves from fresh adult cadavers were used to create models of sciatic nerve injury.The denervated specimens underwent epineurial and perineurial suturing.The elastic modulus (40.96 ± 2.59 MPa) and Poisson ratio (0.37 ± 0.02) of the normal sciatic nerve were measured by strain electrical measurement.A resistance strain gauge was pasted on the front,back,left,and right of the edge of the anastomosis site after suturing.Strain electrical measurement results showed that the stress and strain values of the sciatic nerve following perineurial suturing were lower than those following epineurial suturing.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sciatic nerve fibers were disordered following epineurial compared with perineurial suturing.These results indicate that the effect of perineurial suturing in sciatic nerve injury repair is better than that of epineurial suturing.

  3. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xin, Danqing; Wang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Tiantian; Bai, Xuemei; Li, Tong; Xie, Yunkai; Xue, Hao; Bo, Shishi; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H2S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H2S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H2S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H2S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H2S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H2S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H2S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72 h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H2S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI.

  5. The MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Confers Repair of Murine Pancreatic Acinar Cells following Acute and Chronic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziova, Ivana; Jackson, Daniel; Boor, Paul J.; Carter, Dwayne; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Elferink, Cornelis J.; Joshi, Aditya D.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra; Logsdon, Craig D.; Pereira de Castro, Karen; Soong, Lynn; Tao, Xinrong; Qiu, Suimin; Elferink, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Acinar cells represent the primary target in necroinflammatory diseases of the pancreas, including pancreatitis. The signaling pathways guiding acinar cell repair and regeneration following injury remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor/MET signaling as an intrinsic repair mechanism for acinar cells following acute damage and chronic alcohol-associated injury. Here, we generated mice with targeted deletion of MET in adult acinar cells (MET-/-). Acute and repetitive pancreatic injury was induced in MET-/- and control mice with cerulein, and chronic injury by feeding mice Lieber-DeCarli diets containing alcohol with or without enhancement of repetitive pancreatic injury. We examined the exocrine pancreas of these mice histologically for acinar death, edema, inflammation and collagen deposition and changes in the transcriptional program. We show that MET expression is relatively low in normal adult pancreas. However, MET levels were elevated in ductal and acinar cells in human pancreatitis specimens, consistent with a role for MET in an adaptive repair mechanism. We report that genetic deletion of MET in adult murine acinar cells was linked to increased acinar cell death, chronic inflammation and delayed recovery (regeneration) of pancreatic exocrine tissue. Notably, increased pancreatic collagen deposition was detected in MET knockout mice following repetitive injury as well alcohol-associated injury. Finally, we identified specific alterations of the pancreatic transcriptome associated with MET signaling during injury, involved in tissue repair, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Together, these data demonstrate the importance of MET signaling for acinar repair and regeneration, a novel finding that could attenuate the symptomology of pancreatic injury. PMID:27798657

  6. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  7. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  8. Opposing effects of traumatic brain injury on excitatory synaptic function in the lateral amygdala in the absence and presence of preinjury stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca C; Acheson, Shawn K; Qadri, Laura H; Dawson, Alina A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Moore, Scott D; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Dawson, Hana N

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among young adults and is highly prevalent among recently deployed military personnel. Survivors of TBI often experience cognitive and emotional deficits, suggesting that long-term effects of injury may disrupt neuronal function in critical brain regions, including the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and fear memory. Amygdala hyperexcitability has been reported in both TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder patients, yet little is known regarding the effects of combined stress and TBI on amygdala structure and function at the neuronal level. The present study seeks to determine how the long-term effects of preinjury foot-shock stress and TBI interact to influence synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) of adult male C57BL/6J mice by using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology 2-3 months postinjury. In the absence of stress, TBI resulted in a significant increase in membrane excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in LA pyramidal-like neurons. Foot-shock stress in the absence of TBI also resulted in increased sEPSC activity. In contrast, when preinjury stress and TBI occurred in combination, sEPSC activity was significantly decreased compared with either condition alone. There were no significant differences in i