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Sample records for repetitive stress injuries

  1. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  2. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries What's in this article? ...

  3. Huperzine A alleviates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and improves cognitive function after repetitive traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhengrong; Zheng, Peiying; Tan, Xiangping; Wang, Ying; Situ, Bing

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may trigger secondary injury cascades including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments targeting either primary or secondary injuries that result in long-term detrimental consequences. Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) that has been used treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of HupA in TBI and its possible mechanisms. Repetitive mild closed head injury (CHI) model was used to mimic concussive TBI. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups including sham, vehicle-treated and HupA-treated injured mice. The HupA was given at dose of 1.0 mg/kg/day and was initiated 30 min after the first injury, then administered daily for a total of 30 days. The neuronal functions including motor functions, emotion-like behaviors, learning and memory were tested. Axonal injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuroinflammation were examined as well. The results showed that injured mice treated with HupA had significant improvement in Morris water maze performance compared with vehicle-treated injured mice. HupA treatment significantly attenuated markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the injured mice. Taken together, HupA was effective in reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and behavioral recovery after TBI. HupA is a promising candidate for treatment of TBI.

  4. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  5. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Deficits after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xixia; Qiu, Jianhua; Alcon, Sasha; Hashim, Jumana; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah

    2017-08-15

    Although environmental enrichment has been shown to improve functional and histologic outcomes in pre-clinical moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), there are a paucity of pre-clinical data regarding enrichment strategies in the setting of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). Given the vast numbers of athletes and those in the military who sustain rmTBI, the mounting evidence of the long-term and progressive sequelae of rmTBI, and the lack of targeted therapies to mitigate these sequelae, successful enrichment interventions in rmTBI could have large public health significance. Here, we evaluated enrichment strategies in an established pre-clinical rmTBI model. Seventy-one male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to two different housing conditions, environmental enrichment (EE) or normal condition (NC), then subjected to rmTBI injury (seven injuries in 9 days) or sham injury (anesthesia only). Functional outcomes in all four groups (NC-TBI, EE-TBI, NC-sham, and EE-sham) were assessed by motor, exploratory/anxiety, and mnemonic behavioral tests. At the synaptic level, N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression of phosphorylated glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and calpain were evaluated by western blot. Compared to injured NC-TBI mice, EE-TBI mice had improved memory and decreased anxiety and exploratory activity post-injury. Treatment with enrichment also corresponded to normal NMDAR subunit expression, decreased GluR1 phosphorylation, decreased phosphorylated CaMKII, and normal calpain expression post-rmTBI. These data suggest that enrichment strategies may improve functional outcomes and mitigate synaptic changes post-rmTBI. Given that enrichment strategies are feasible in the clinical setting, particularly for athletes and soldiers for whom the risk of repetitive injury is greatest, these data suggest that clinical trials may be warranted.

  6. Surgical Management of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Repetitive Stress Epiphyseal Fracture Nonunion in Elite Sport Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Yasser; Lutter, Chris; Schoeffl, Isabelle; Schoeffl, Volker; Flohe, Sascha

    2017-11-14

    Repetitive stress fracture of the middle phalanx epiphysis is an injury specific to elite adolescent sport climbers. As sport climbing becomes increasingly popular in younger age groups, an increased number of these injuries have been reported in recent years. To date, treatment of these fractures has been nonsurgical, with strict rest and physiotherapy prescribed until fracture union. However, when these patients present in a delayed fashion with an established nonunion, nonsurgical treatment may fail, leading to disabling chronic pain and/or digital deformity in some cases. In this article, we present 2 cases of surgical treatment for finger middle phalanx repetitive stress epiphyseal fracture nonunion, using a percutaneous spot drilling epiphysiodesis technique. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations

  8. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS......: The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...

  9. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J H; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S W; Thomsen, J F; Frost, P; Kaergaard, A

    2005-01-01

    Pain in the neck and upper extremity is reported with high frequency in repetitive work. Mechanical overload of soft tissues seems a plausible mechanism, but psychological factors have received considerable attention during the past decade. If psychological factors are important for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress Profile Inventory. Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution because the stress inventory has not been validated against a gold standard.

  10. Neuroprotective Strategies after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    applica- tions are beyond the scope of this review, it should be noted that certain drugs, fever and respiratory ailments limit clinical application of...observed no evidence of hemorrhage early after injury but did observe the presence of subtle petechial hemorrhages at 7 days post-injury (Fig. 7

  11. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  12. Oral verrucous carcinoma complicating a repetitive injury by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we reported a case of VC of oral cavity a particularly very aggressive, arising from prosthesis injury. Regardless of the treatment modality, given new insights into the possible aggressivity of this tumor, radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy may be a more appropriate primary treatment compared with the significant ...

  13. Bone Stress Injuries in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Kraus, Emily; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational repetitive strain injuries and gender in Ontario, 1986 to 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbury, F D

    1995-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in Ontario were examined with respect to gender for the period 1986 to 1991, using data from Ontario Workers' Compensation Board systems. Technical issues surrounding analysis of workplace injuries and theoretical suggestions raised by the data are discussed. Analyses revealed that the risk of RSIs for women is greater than that for men. Furthermore, women receive compensation benefits because of RSIs for a longer period than do their male counterparts, which may indicate a longer-term effect of RSIs on women.

  15. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Gidday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s therapeutic window – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances postischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious, but practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease.

  17. Injuries of Repetitive Efforts in Workers from the Poultry Meat Industry: A Bibliometric Analysis of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Crespo Coelho S. Pinto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming to identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute to the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, and draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for the selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the knowledge development process—constructivist (Proknow-C, as the theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords was obtained. The ProKnow-C process allowed us to identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for future research. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge for the identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.

  18. Nonword repetition in adults who stutter: The effects of stimuli stress and auditory-orthographic cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Coalson

    Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS are less accurate in their immediate repetition of novel phonological sequences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS. The present study examined whether manipulation of the following two aspects of traditional nonword repetition tasks unmask distinct weaknesses in phonological working memory in AWS: (1 presentation of stimuli with less-frequent stress patterns, and (2 removal of auditory-orthographic cues immediately prior to response.Fifty-two participants (26 AWS, 26 AWNS produced 12 bisyllabic nonwords in the presence of corresponding auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., immediate repetition task, and the absence of auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., short-term recall task. Half of each cohort (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to the stimuli with high-frequency trochaic stress, and half (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to identical stimuli with lower-frequency iambic stress.No differences in immediate repetition accuracy for trochaic or iambic nonwords were observed for either group. However, AWS were less accurate when recalling iambic nonwords than trochaic nonwords in the absence of auditory-orthographic cues.Manipulation of two factors which may minimize phonological demand during standard nonword repetition tasks increased the number of errors in AWS compared to AWNS. These findings suggest greater vulnerability in phonological working memory in AWS, even when producing nonwords as short as two syllables.

  19. Repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia increases cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury: prevention by the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Stefan; Calvillo, Laura; Tillmanns, Jochen; Elbing, Inka; Dienesch, Charlotte; Bischoff, Hilmar; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann

    2005-04-01

    Protective effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose have been reported for various diabetic complications. In the STOP-NIDDM study, even patients without overt diabetes, but with impaired glucose tolerance, had a reduction in cardiovascular events when treated with acarbose. Therefore, we investigated the effect of repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia on the cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. Mice were treated daily by single applications of placebo, sucrose (4 g/kg body weight), or sucrose + acarbose (10 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for 7 days. Acarbose treatment significantly reduced the sucrose-induced increase in plasma glucose concentration. Subsequently, animals underwent 30 min of ischemia by coronary artery ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. In the sucrose group, ischemia/reperfusion damage was significantly increased (infarct/area at risk, placebo vs. sucrose, 38.8+/-7.5% vs. 62.2+/-4.8%, P<0.05). This was prevented by acarbose treatment (infarct/area at risk 30.7+/-7.2%). While myocardial inflammation was similar in all groups, oxidative stress as indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxides was enhanced in the sucrose, but not in the sucrose + acarbose group. In summary, repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia increases ischemia/reperfusion damage. This effect can be prevented by treatment with the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose.

  20. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakawa, Glenn R.; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C.; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury...

  1. Epidemiology and Impact on Performance of Lower Extremity Stress Injuries in Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Rogowski, Joseph P; Stotts, Jeff; Samani, Marisa J; Sikka, Robby; Bedi, Asheesh

    Professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during both regular-season and off-season training. Little is known about the incidence of lower extremity bony stress injuries and their impact on return to play and performance in these athletes. Stress injuries of the lower extremity will have significant impact on performance. Case series. Level 4. All bony stress injuries from 2005 to 2015 were identified from the NBA. Number of games missed due to injury and performance statistics were collected from 2 years prior to injury to 2 years after the injury. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of injury for players who returned to sport. A total of 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries involving 75 NBA players (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.1 years) were identified. Fifty-five percent (42/76) involved the foot, and most injuries occurred during the regular season (82.9%, 63/76), with half occurring within the first 6 weeks. Among players who sustained a fifth metatarsal stress fracture, 42.9% were unable to return to professional play. Players who sustained stress injuries had reduced play performance, specifically related to number of games played ( P = 0.014) and number of steals per game ( P = 0.004). Players who had surgery had significantly better performance at 2 years than those who were managed nonoperatively, independent of the type of injury (β = 4.561; 95% CI, 1.255-7.868). Lower extremity bony stress injuries may significantly affect both short- and long-term player performance and career length. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics compared with those treated using conservative methods. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics.

  2. Comorbid psychopathology and stress mediate the relationship between autistic traits and repetitive behaviours in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D; Rojahn, J

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. A battery of questionnaires including measures of autistic traits, repetitive behaviours, stress, executive dysfunctions and comorbid psychopathology were administered to a sample of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities (n = 43). We found that when taken as set dimensions of comorbidity, dysexecutive functioning and stress mediated or explained the effects of autistic symptoms on repetitive behaviour. The total model explained 60% of the variation in repetitive behaviours (R = 0.60; F = 13.64, P autism, while executive functioning did not contribute to that relationship. © 2013 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Short and Long Term Behavioral and Pathological Changes in a Novel Rodent Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McAteer

    Full Text Available A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1 or 3x mTBI spaced five days apart using a modified version of the Marmarou impact-acceleration diffuse-TBI model to deliver 110G of linear force. Functional outcomes were assessed six and twelve weeks post-injury, with histopathology assessed twenty-four hours and twelve weeks post-injury. Repetitive mTBI resulted in mild spatial and recognition memory deficits as reflected by increased escape latency on the Barnes maze and decreased time spent in the novel arm of the Y maze. There was a trend towards increased anxiety-like behavior, with decreased time spent in the inner portion of the open field. At 24 hours and 12 weeks post injury, repetitive mTBI animals showed increased tau phosphorylation and microglial activation within the cortex. Increases in APP immunoreactivity were observed in repetitive mTBI animals at 12 weeks indicating long-term changes in axonal integrity. This novel model of repetitive mTBI with its persistent cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, axonal injury and tau hyperphosphorylation, thus represents a clinically relevant experimental approach to further explore the underlying pathogenesis of CTE.

  4. Validity of one-repetition maximum predictive equations in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, F; Guanais, P; Dornelas, E; Coutinho, A C B; Costa, R R G

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional study. The study aimed (a) to test the cross-validation of current one-repetition maximum (1RM) predictive equations in men with spinal cord injury (SCI); (b) to compare the current 1RM predictive equations to a newly developed equation based on the 4- to 12-repetition maximum test (4-12RM). SARAH Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brasilia, Brazil. Forty-five men aged 28.0 years with SCI between C6 and L2 causing complete motor impairment were enrolled in the study. Volunteers were tested, in a random order, in 1RM test or 4-12RM with 2-3 interval days. Multiple regression analysis was used to generate an equation for predicting 1RM. There were no significant differences between 1RM test and the current predictive equations. ICC values were significant and were classified as excellent for all current predictive equations. The predictive equation of Lombardi presented the best Bland-Altman results (0.5 kg and 12.8 kg for mean difference and interval range around the differences, respectively). The two created equation models for 1RM demonstrated the same and a high adjusted R 2 (0.971, Ppredictive equations are accurate to assess individuals with SCI at the bench press exercise. However, the predictive equation of Lombardi presented the best associated cross-validity results. A specific 1RM prediction equation was also elaborated for individuals with SCI. The created equation should be tested in order to verify whether it presents better accuracy than the current ones.

  5. The Relationship between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…

  6. The Relationship Between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related to stress involving the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings highlight specific areas of stress experienced by mothers of children with ASD that are related to the child's symptoms, providing information for caregiver support and intervention.

  7. Low sensitivity of three-phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI is subjective and solely based on clinical signs and physical examination. The aim of this paper was to assess the usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS in diagnosing RSI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (mean age 31.2 years; 47 males with clinical suspicion of RSI in the upper limbs were studied. A total of 127 joints with suspicion of RSI were studied. The shoulders, elbows and wrists were analyzed semi-quantitatively, using the shafts of the humeri and ulnae as references. The results were compared with a control group of 40 normal individuals. The patients’ signs and symptoms were used as the "gold standard" for calculating the probabilities. RESULTS: From visual analysis, abnormalities were observed in the flow phase for four joints, in the blood pool phase for 11 joints and in the delayed images for 26 joints. Visual analysis of the joints of the control group did not show any abnormalities. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that most of the patients’ joint ratios were normal. The exceptions were the wrists of patients with left-sided RSI (p = 0.0216. However, the sensitivity (9% and accuracy (41% were very low. CONCLUSION: TPBS with semi-quantitative analysis has very low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of RSI abnormalities in the upper limbs.

  8. Understanding decision-making towards housework among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O'Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2016-02-01

    Among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI), occupational therapy interventions include education to facilitate ergonomic practices in housework. From a client-centred perspective, an understanding of women's decision-making about housework is needed to design effective occupational therapy programmes. This study addresses a gap in research in this area by exploring women's views about changing housework habits. The aim was to construct a conceptual representation to explain decision-making in housework by drawing on experiences of a sample of Singapore Chinese women with upper limb RSI from one hand therapy clinic. Based on a constructivist grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 15 women. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analysed with line by line coding, focussed coding and axial coding with constant comparison throughout data collection. Decision-making in housework among these women involved three main themes: (i) emotional attachment to housework; (ii) cognitively informed decision; and (iii) emotionally influenced decision. Women with upper limb RSI had to make cognitive decisions for or against a change in housework to manage their condition. However, the women's cognitively informed decisions were shaped by their emotional attachment to housework. As such, they experienced strong emotional barriers to changing their housework practices even when they had cognitively accepted the necessity and possibility of making a change. Therapists need to be aware that counselling to address the emotional barriers experienced by women is important during ergonomic education. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  10. The Effect of Mantram Repetition on Burnout and Stress Among VA Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Sheryl; Weingart, Kimberly; Topp, Robert; Bormann, Jill

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the authors determined the effect of a structured Internet-delivered Mantram Repetition Program (MRP) on burnout and stress of conscience (SOC), stress related to ambiguity from ethical or moral conflicts among health care workers (HCWs) within the Veteran Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. A secondary purpose was to determine whether practicing meditation prior to the study combined with MRP affected burnout or SOC. The MRP teaches the mindful practices of repeating a mantram, slowing down, and one-pointed attention for managing stress. Thirty-nine HCW volunteers who provided direct patient care completed the Internet-delivered MRP. The outcomes of burnout (i.e., exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) and SOC (i.e., frequency of stressful events and troubled conscience about those events) were measured at baseline (T1), postintervention (T2), and 3-months postintervention (T3). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that exhaustion significantly ( p stressful events significantly declined between T1 and T2 and troubled conscience declined between T1 and T3. Secondary analysis demonstrated that individuals who did not practice meditation at baseline ( n = 16, 41%) significantly decreased exhaustion, frequency of stressful events, and troubled conscience between T1 and T3, and improved professional efficacy between T1 and T2. Individuals who practiced meditation at baseline ( n = 23, 59%) did not demonstrate significant change on any study outcomes. An MRP intervention may reduce burnout and SOC in those individuals who are naïve to practicing meditation.

  11. Minocycline Transiently Reduces Microglia/Macrophage Activation but Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits Following Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neonatal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Lauren A.; Huh, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored. Acute minocycline administration in this model of AHT decreased microglial/macrophage reactivity in the corpus callosum of brain-injured animals at 3 days postinjury, but this effect was lost by 7 days postinjury. Additionally, minocycline treatment had no effect on traumatic axonal injury, neurodegeneration, tissue atrophy, or spatial learning deficits. Interestingly, minocycline-treated animals demonstrated exacerbated injury-induced spatial memory deficits. These results contrast with previous findings in other models of brain injury and suggest that minocycline is ineffective in reducing microglial/macrophage activation and ameliorating injury-induced deficits following repetitive neonatal traumatic brain injury. PMID:26825312

  12. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  13. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  14. Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a juvenile rat model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart were induced in juvenile rats. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO was applied 1 hour/day × 3 days at 2 atmosphere absolute consecutively, starting at 1 day after initial mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Neuropathology was assessed by multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and tissue immunohistochemistry. After repetitive mTBI, there were increases in T2-weighted imaging-defined cortical lesions and susceptibility weighted imaging-defined cortical microhemorrhages, correlated with brain tissue gliosis at the site of impact. HBO treatment significantly decreased the MRI-identified abnormalities and tissue histopathology. Our findings suggest that HBO treatment improves the cumulative tissue damage in juvenile brain following rmTBI. Such therapy regimens could be considered in adolescent athletes at the risk of repeated concussions exposures.

  15. Cognitive performance of male and female C57BL/6J mice after repetitive concussive brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosky, Alexander G; Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; Liu, Jiong; McCabe, Joseph T

    2017-05-01

    In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury. Following rCBI by impact to the scalp, male mice exhibited longer righting reflexes during acute recovery. In both sexes, there were no evident histopathological changes observed in the underlying cerebral cortex or hippocampus. Reactive astrogliosis was elevated in the corpus callosum and optic tract, and astrogliosis was slightly less in the optic tract of female mice. rCBI mice exhibited impairment during the learning phase of the Morris water maze (MWM), but female mice, in comparison to male mice, were observed to have superior spatial memory during standard MWM probe trials. Female mice were overall more active, evidenced by greater distances traveled in the y-maze and greater swim speeds in the MWM. The results of this study demonstrate sex differences in cognitive performance following rCBI and support previous research suggesting the neuroprotective role of sex in brain injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The influence of personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems on repetitive nonsuicidal self-injury in a school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lavrnja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms by which treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT exerts its beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury are still unrevealed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the influence of repetitive HBOT on the reactive astrogliosis and expression of mediators of inflammation after cortical stab injury (CSI. CSI was performed on male Wistar rats, divided into control, sham, and lesioned groups with appropriate HBO. The HBOT protocol was as follows: 10 minutes of slow compression, 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA for 60 minutes, and 10 minutes of slow decompression, once a day for 10 consecutive days. Data obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that repetitive HBOT applied after the CSI attenuates reactive astrogliosis and glial scarring, and reduces expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 both at gene and tissue levels. In addition, HBOT prevents expression of CD40 and its ligand CD40L on microglia, neutrophils, cortical neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Accordingly, repetitive HBOT, by prevention of glial scarring and limiting of expression of inflammatory mediators, supports formation of more permissive environment for repair and regeneration.

  18. Repetitive stress leads to impaired cognitive function that is associated with DNA hypomethylation, reduced BDNF and a dysregulated HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhathini, Khayelihle B; Abboussi, Oualid; Stein, Dan J; Mabandla, Musa V; Daniels, William M U

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to repetitive stress has a negative influence on cognitive-affective functioning, with growing evidence that these effects may be mediated by a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, abnormal neurotrophic factor levels and its subsequent impact on hippocampal function. However, there are few data about the effect of repetitive stressors on epigenetic changes in the hippocampus. In the present study, we examine how repetitive restrain stress (RRS) affects cognitive-affective functioning, HPA axis regulation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and global hippocampal DNA methylation. RRS was induced in rats by restraining the animals for 6h per day for 28 days. The novel object recognition test (NORT) was used to assess cognitive functioning and the open field test (OFT) was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior during the last week of stress. Hippocampal BDNF levels, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor mRNA were assessed using real-time PCR and confirmed with Western blot, while ELISAs were used to determine plasma corticosterone levels and the global methylation status of the hippocampus. Animals exposed to repetitive stress demonstrated significant alterations in the NORT and OFT, had significantly increased plasma corticosterone and significantly decreased hippocampal BDNF concentrations. The expression levels of GR and MR mRNA and protein levels of these genes were significantly decreased in the stressed group compared to control animals. The global DNA methylation of the hippocampal genome of stressed animals was also significantly decreased compared to controls. The data here are consistent with previous work emphasizing the role of the HPA axis and neurotrophic factors in mediating cognitive-affective changes after exposure to repetitive stressors. Our findings, however, extend the literature by indicating that epigenetic alterations in the hippocampal genome may also play an important role in the

  19. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  20. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3...

  1. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3) metab...

  2. Mantram repetition for stress management in veterans and employees: a critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jill E; Oman, Doug; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Becker, Sheryl; Gershwin, Madeline; Kelly, Ann

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study assessing the usefulness of a mantram repetition programme. Complementary/alternative therapies are becoming commonplace, but more research is needed to assess their benefits. A 5-week programme teaching a 'mind-body-spiritual' technique of silently repeating a mantram - a word or phrase with spiritual meaning - to manage stress was developed. A mantram was chosen by individuals, who were taught to repeat it silently throughout the day or night to interrupt unwanted thoughts and elicit the relaxation response. Participants who attended a 5-week course were invited to participate in the study. Of those who consented, a randomly selected subset (n = 66) was contacted approximately 3 months after the course for a telephone interview using the critical incident interviewing technique. Participants were asked whether the intervention was helpful or not, and if helpful, to identify situations where it was applied. Interviews were transcribed and incidents were identified and categorized to create a taxonomy of uses. The data were collected in 2001-2002. Participants included 30 veterans, mostly males (97%), and 36 hospital employees, mostly females (86%). Mean age was 56 years (sd = 12.94). Fifty-five participants (83.3%) practiced the technique and reported 147 incidents where the programme was helpful. Outcomes were organized into a taxonomy of incidents using four major categories that included managing: (a) emotions other than stress (51%); (b) stress (23.8%); (c) insomnia (12.9%); and (d) unwanted thoughts (12.3%). A group of raters reviewed the categories for inter-rater reliability. The majority of participants from two distinct samples reported that the mantram programme was helpful in a variety of situations. The critical incident interviewing method was found to be practical, efficient, and thorough in collecting and analyzing data. Such qualitative methods contribute to understanding the benefits of mind-body complementary therapies.

  3. Stress injury of the rib in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heincelman, Carrie [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brown, Seth; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Rib stress injuries are uncommonly reported but have been documented among athletes, most notably rowers. There have only been two prior case reports of rib stress injuries in swimmers, both of which were young females. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was either not obtained or the imaging characteristics were incompletely described. We present a case of an isolated third rib stress injury in a collegiate male swimmer diagnosed via MR imaging. We briefly discuss the possible etiologies for rib stress injuries, their MR appearance, as well as their treatment. (orig.)

  4. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Glenn R; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours). In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau), in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.

  5. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Yamakawa

    Full Text Available Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI, we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours. In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau, in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.

  6. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  7. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  8. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouil Tzekov

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL, tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A, microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B, collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3 and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1, APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the

  9. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling.

  10. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  11. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26103523

  12. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and cardiovascular disease is well-evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, chronic stress is arrythmogenic and incr...

  13. Bilateral changes in forearm oxygen consumption at rest and after exercise in patients with unilateral Repetitive Strain Injury : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterhof; D. Thijssen; M. Hopman; J. Brunnekreef

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether oxygen consumption and blood flow at rest and after exercise are lower in the affected arm of patients with repetitive strain injury (RSI) compared to controls, and lower in the healthy nonaffected forearm within patients with unilateral RSI. RSI is considered an upper

  14. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  15. Human CST Facilitates Genome-wide RAD51 Recruitment to GC-Rich Repetitive Sequences in Response to Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Megan; Zhou, Qing; Shiva, Olga; Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Whitmore, Leanne; Jia, Pingping; Dai, Xueyu; Huang, Chenhui; Ye, Ping; Chai, Weihang

    2016-08-02

    The telomeric CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex has been implicated in promoting replication recovery under replication stress at genomic regions, yet its precise role is unclear. Here, we report that STN1 is enriched at GC-rich repetitive sequences genome-wide in response to hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stress. STN1 deficiency exacerbates the fragility of these sequences under replication stress, resulting in chromosome fragmentation. We find that upon fork stalling, CST proteins form distinct nuclear foci that colocalize with RAD51. Furthermore, replication stress induces physical association of CST with RAD51 in an ATR-dependent manner. Strikingly, CST deficiency diminishes HU-induced RAD51 foci formation and reduces RAD51 recruitment to telomeres and non-telomeric GC-rich fragile sequences. Collectively, our findings establish that CST promotes RAD51 recruitment to GC-rich repetitive sequences in response to replication stress to facilitate replication restart, thereby providing insights into the mechanism underlying genome stability maintenance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute stress decreases but chronic stress increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Eisenmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and cardiovascular disease is well-evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, chronic stress is arrythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  17. Neurodegeneration after mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury: Chronic traumatic encepalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanescu Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently under research. CTE can be diagnosed only by post mortem neuropathological examination of the brain. Great efforts are being made to better understand the clinical signs and symptoms of CTE, obtained in most cases retrospectively from families of affected persons.Patients with CTE are described as having behavioral, mood, cognitive and motor impairments, occurring after a long latency from the traumatic events. Recent pathogenetic studies have provided new insights to CTE mechanisms, offering important clues in understanding neurodegenerative process and relations between physical factors and pathologic protein deposition. Further research is needed to better identify the genetic and environmental risk factors for CTE, as well as rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

  18. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

  19. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  20. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  1. Comfort Ye My People: Chaplains, Spiritual Care, and Operational Stress Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), operational stress injury (OSI...combat operational stress injury and post - traumatic stress disorder yet, of necessity, their work is grounded in a medical model ill equipped to...into combat operational stress injury and post - traumatic stress disorder yet, of necessity’ their work is groWlded in. a medical model ill equipped

  2. Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

  3. Coping with injury in powerlifting : stress-injury model perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelic, Marina

    2017-01-01

    A need to evaluate psychological antecedents to injury in strength-based sports is evident. Powerlifting especially has seen a rise in participation rates (International Paralympic Committee; Powerlifting Australia Ltd.; British Weight Lifting), also resulting in an increase in weightlifting-related injuries (Metzger et al., 2012). While much literature exists on mental stressors and coping mechanisms athletes encounter in the sport context, minimal research has attempted to understand how at...

  4. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  5. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  6. Effect of Intermediate-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Verdugo-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI represents a significant public health concern and has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although several research groups have proposed the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to enhance neuroprotection and recovery in patients with TBI, few studies have obtained sufficient evidence regarding its effects in this population. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of intermediate-frequency rTMS (2 Hz on behavioral and histological recovery following TBI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three groups without TBI (no manipulation, movement restriction plus sham rTMS, and movement restriction plus rTMS and three groups subjected to TBI (TBI only, TBI plus movement restriction and sham rTMS, and TBI plus movement restriction and rTMS. The movement restriction groups were included so that rTMS could be applied without anesthesia. Our results indicate that the restriction of movement and sham rTMS per se promotes recovery, as measured using a neurobehavioral scale, although rTMS was associated with faster and superior recovery. We also observed that TBI caused alterations in the CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus, which are partly restored by movement restriction and rTMS. Our findings indicated that movement restriction prevents damage caused by TBI and that intermediate-frequency rTMS promotes behavioral and histologic recovery after TBI.

  7. Young Children's Acute Stress After a Burn Injury: Disentangling the Role of Injury Severity and Parental Acute Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A

    2017-09-01

    Although injury severity and parental stress are strong predictors of posttraumatic adjustment in young children after burns, little is known about the interplay of these variables. This study aimed at clarifying mediation processes between injury severity and mother's, father's, and young child's acute stress. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between injury severity and parental and child acute stress. Parents of 138 burn-injured children (ages 1-4 years) completed standardized questionnaires on average 19 days postinjury. Sixteen children (11.7%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, preschool criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (excluding time criterion). The model revealed a significant mediation of maternal acute stress, with the effect of injury severity on a child's acute stress mediated by maternal acute stress. Paternal acute stress failed to serve as a mediating variable. Our findings confirm mothers' crucial role in the posttraumatic adjustment of young children. Clinically, mothers' acute stress should be monitored. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  9. LER - lesão por esforços repetitivos: um conceito falho e prejudicial RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury: a questionable and harmful concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TEOTONIO DE OLIVEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de que movimentos repetitivos ou posturas prolongadas causam lesões não tem suporte científico. Os sintomas dolorosos e sensitivos apresentados pelos pacientes são melhor explicados como um fenômeno psicológico e psicossocial, como insatisfação e desadaptação no trabalho e desejo de obter benefícios. O conceito de lesões por esforços repetitivos é iatrogênico e de custo elevado para a sociedade, devendo ser abandonado.The hypothesis that repetitive movements and postures cause musculoskeletal injury is not supported by scientific data. The sensory and pain symptoms are better explained as of psychological and psychosocial nature, such as job insatisfaction or disajustment, with financial gains objectives. The repetitive strain injury concept is iatrogenic and costly to society, and must be abandonned.

  10. Repetitive Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Attenuates the Induction of Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Behaviors in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Wan; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-07-10

    The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13) spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management.

  11. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena K. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.

  12. Repetitive Supra-Physiological Shear Stress Impairs Red Blood Cell Deformability and Induces Hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Jarod T; Sabapathy, Surendran; Simmonds, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The supra-physiological shear stress that blood is exposed to while traversing mechanical circulatory assist devices affects the physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), impairs RBC deformability, and may induce hemolysis. Previous studies exploring RBC damage following exposure to supra-physiological shear stress have employed durations exceeding clinical instrumentation, thus we explored changes in RBC deformability following exposure to shear stress below the reported "hemolytic threshold" using shear exposure durations per minute (i.e., duty-cycles) reflective of that employed by circulatory assist devices. Blood collected from 20 male donors, aged 18-38 years, was suspended in a viscous medium and exposed to an intermittent shear stress protocol of 1 s at 100 Pa, every 60 s for 60 duty-cycles. During the remaining 59 s/min, the cells were left at stasis until the subsequent duty-cycle commenced. At discrete time points (15/30/45/60 duty-cycles), an ektacytometer measured RBC deformability immediately after shear exposure at 100 Pa. Plasma-free hemoglobin, a measurement of hemolysis, was quantified via spectrophotometry. Supra-physiological shear stress impaired RBC properties, as indicated by: (1) decreased maximal elongation of RBCs at infinite shear stress following 15 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress protocol (100 Pa) following exposure to 1 duty-cycle (F (1.891, 32.15) = 12.21, P = 0.0001); and (3) increased plasma-free hemoglobin following 60 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress, impairs RBC deformability, with the extent of impairment exacerbated with each duty-cycle, and ultimately precipitates hemolysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Software-engineering-based model for mitigating Repetitive Strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incorporation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in virtually all facets of human endeavours has fostered the use of computers. This has induced Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) for continuous and persistent computer users. Proposing a software engineering model capable of enacted RSI force break ...

  14. Erognomic education on housework for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI): a conceptual representation of therapists' clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O' Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2017-09-18

    Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed with line by line, focused and axial coding with constant data comparison throughout data collection. Therapists made clinical decisions based on their perceptions of their clients' behavior change in three stages: (i) listen; (ii) try; and (iii) persevere, bearing significant similarities to the transtheoretical theory of change. The study also showed that therapists may not have considered the full range of meanings that their clients attach to housework when interacting with them, a gap that needs to be addressed. The present study indicates the importance of therapists' understanding of the meanings that their clients attach to housework. Further research needs to address how to achieve this in a time-pressured clinical environment. Implications for Rehabilitation This study used qualitative research to demonstrate the process of translating therapists' tacit knowledge into an explicit form. It elucidates the following major implications for practice when therapists conduct ergonomic education to facilitate behavior change in housework for female homemakers with upper limb RSI:The conceptual framework of clinical reasoning constructed from the results can be used to increase therapists' awareness of how they make clinical decisions during an intervention. This framework can also be used for training new therapists. It is

  15. Oxidative stress and repetitive element methylation changes in artisanal gold miners occupationally exposed to mercury

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    Diana M. Narváez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg exposure is a public health concern due to its persistence in the environment and its high toxicity. Such toxicity has been associated with the generation of oxidative stress in occupationally exposed subjects, such as artisanal gold miners. In this study, we characterize occupational exposure to Hg by measuring blood, urine and hair levels, and investigate oxidative stress and DNA methylation associated with gold mining. To do this, samples from 53 miners and 36 controls were assessed. We show higher levels of oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG in the miners. Differences in LINE1 and Alu(Yb8 DNA methylation between gold miners and control group are present in peripheral blood leukocytes. LINE1 methylation is positively correlated with 8-OHdG levels, while XRCC1 and LINE1 methylation are positively correlated with Hg levels. These results suggest an effect of Hg on oxidative stress and DNA methylation in gold miners that may have an impact on miners’ health.

  16. Stress fractures in athletes. How to spot this underdiagnosed injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, R E; Jones, K

    1991-05-01

    Stress fractures are an increasingly common injury in competitive athletes, especially runners. Amenorrheic athletes are at particularly high risk. A radionuclide bone scan should be considered when the index of suspicion for stress fracture is high. Plain radiographs are of little use in establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the injury. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of conservative therapy allow for a favorable outcome in most cases. Avoidance of or reduced participation in the inciting activity is important for pain control. Certain stress fractures, such as those involving the femoral neck, should be monitored closely and treated aggressively with internal fixation when conservative measures fail. Runners who have exercise-induced amenorrhea should be advised to decrease their training intensity to a level where menses resume. Cyclic therapy with conjugated estrogens and progesterone should also be considered, as should daily calcium supplementation.

  17. Integrated Stress Response Mediates Epithelial Injury in Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinay, Tamas; Himes, Blanca E; Shumyatcher, Maya; Lawrence, Gladys Gray; Margulies, Susan S

    2017-08-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a severe complication of mechanical ventilation that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. VILI is characterized by damage to the epithelial barrier with subsequent pulmonary edema and profound hypoxia. Available lung-protective ventilator strategies offer only a modest benefit in preventing VILI because they cannot impede alveolar overdistension and concomitant epithelial barrier dysfunction in the inflamed lung regions. There are currently no effective biochemical therapies to mitigate injury to the alveolar epithelium. We hypothesize that alveolar stretch activates the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway and that the chemical inhibition of this pathway mitigates alveolar barrier disruption during stretch and mechanical ventilation. Using our established rat primary type I-like alveolar epithelial cell monolayer stretch model and in vivo rat mechanical ventilation that mimics the alveolar overdistension seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome, we studied epithelial responses to mechanical stress. Our studies revealed that the ISR signaling pathway is a key modulator of epithelial permeability. We show that prolonged epithelial stretch and injurious mechanical ventilation activate the ISR, leading to increased alveolar permeability, cell death, and proinflammatory signaling. Chemical inhibition of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, an upstream regulator of the pathway, resulted in decreased injury signaling and improved barrier function after prolonged cyclic stretch and injurious mechanical ventilation. Our results provide new evidence that therapeutic targeting of the ISR can mitigate VILI.

  18. Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Injury Severity on Recovery in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenardy, Justin; Le Brocque, Robyne; Hendrikz, Joan; Iselin, Greg; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The adverse impact on recovery of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated in returned veterans. The study assessed this effect in children's health outcomes following TBI and extended previous work by including a full range of TBI severity, and improved assessment of PTSD within a…

  19. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyu-Sik; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Lee, Han Do; Chang, Min Cheol

    2018-02-28

    Central pain can occur following traumatic brain injury, leading to poor functional recovery, limitation of activities of daily living, and decreased quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency (10 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, applied over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere, can be used to manage chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury. Prospective randomized feasibility study. Twelve patients with mild traumatic brain injury and chronic central pain were randomly assigned to transcranial magnetic stimulation (high-frequency stimulation, 10 sessions) or sham groups. Diffuse tensor tractography revealed partially injured spinothalamocortical tracts in all recruited patients. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain intensity during pre-treatment and immediately after the 5th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post1), 10th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post2), and 1 (post3), 2 (post4), and 4 weeks (post 5) after finishing treatment. Physical and mental health status were evaluated using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), including physical and mental component scores (PCS, MCS). The NRS score of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation group was significantly lower than the sham group score at all clinical evaluation time-points during and after transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. The transcranial magnetic stimulation group's SF-36 PCS score was significantly higher at post2, post3, post4, and post5 compared with the sham group. High-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used to manage chronic central pain and improve quality of life in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. However, this is a pilot study and further research is needed.

  20. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-sik Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Central pain can occur following traumatic brain injury, leading to poor functional recovery, limitation of activities of daily living, and decreased quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency (10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, applied over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere, can be used to manage chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury. Design: Prospective randomized feasibility study. Methods: Twelve patients with mild traumatic brain injury and chronic central pain were randomly assigned to transcranial magnetic stimulation (high-frequency stimulation, 10 sessions or sham groups. Diffuse tensor tractography revealed partially injured spinothalamocortical tracts in all recruited patients. A numerical rating scale (NRS was used to evaluate pain intensity during pre-treatment and immediately after the 5th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post1, 10th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post2, and 1 (post3, 2 (post4, and 4 weeks (post 5 after finishing treatment. Physical and mental health status were evaluated using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, including physical and mental component scores (PCS, MCS. Results: The NRS score of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation group was significantly lower than the sham group score at all clinical evaluation time-points during and after transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. The transcranial magnetic stimulation group’s SF-36 PCS score was significantly higher at post2, post3, post4, and post5 compared with the sham group. Conclusion: High-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used to manage chronic central pain and improve quality of life in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. However, this is a pilot study and further research is needed.

  1. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  2. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  3. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) can have serious effects on rowing training and performance and accordingly represent an important topic for sports medicine practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this review is to outline the definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, injury management and injury prevention strategies for RSF in rowers. To this end, nine relevant books, 140 journal articles, the proceedings of five conferences and two unpublished presentations were reviewed after searches of electronic databases using the keywords 'rowing', 'rib', 'stress fracture', 'injury', 'mechanics' and 'kinetics'. The review showed that RSF is an incomplete fracture occurring from an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and the rate of bone formation. RSF occurs in 8.1-16.4% of elite rowers, 2% of university rowers and 1% of junior elite rowers. Approximately 86% of rowing RSF cases with known locations occur in ribs four to eight, mostly along the anterolateral/lateral rib cage. Elite rowers are more likely to experience RSF than nonelite rowers. Injury occurrence is equal among sweep rowers and scullers, but the regional location of the injury differs. The mechanism of injury is multifactorial with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors contributing. Posterior-directed resultant forces arising from the forward directed force vector through the arms to the oar handle in combination with the force vector induced by the scapula retractors during mid-drive, or repetitive stress from the external obliques and rectus abdominis in the 'finish' position, may be responsible for RSF. Joint hypomobility, vertebral malalignment or low bone mineral density may be associated with RSF. Case studies have shown increased risk associated with amenorrhoea, low bone density or poor technique, in combination with increases in training volume. Training volume alone may have less effect on injury than other factors. Large differences in seat and handle

  4. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Frederick D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may be the earliest sign of disease. Repetitive bone stress causes bone remodeling and may result in spondylolysis, a non-displaced fracture of the pars interarticularis. A fracture of the pars interarticularis may ultimately become unstable leading to spondylolisthesis. Results in the literature support the use of bone scintigraphy to diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected spondylolysis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT provides more contrast than planar bone scintigraphy, increases the sensitivity and improves anatomic localization of skeletal lesions without exposing the patient to additional radiation. It also provides an opportunity for better correlation with other imaging modalities, when necessary. As such, the addition of SPECT to standard planar bone scintigraphy can result in a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for efficient patient care. It is our expectation that by improving our ability to correctly diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected injury of the posterior elements, the long-term cost of managing this condition will be lowered.

  5. Telomere length and advanced diffusion MRI as biomarkers for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in adolescent rats

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    David K. Wright

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI are of worldwide concern in adolescents of both sexes, and repeated mTBI (RmTBI may have serious long-term neurological consequences. As such, the study of RmTBI and discovery of objective biomarkers that can help guide medical decisions is an important undertaking. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, which provides markers of axonal injury, and telomere length (TL are two clinically relevant biomarkers that have been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, and may also be affected by RmTBI. Therefore, this study utilized the lateral impact injury model of RmTBI to investigate changes in diffusion MRI and TL, and how these changes relate to each other. Adolescent male and female rats received either three mTBIs or three sham injuries. The first injury was given on postnatal day 30 (P30, with the repeated injuries separated by four days each. Seven days after the final injury, a sample of ear tissue was collected for TL analysis. Rats were then euthanized and whole brains were collected and fixated for MRI analyses that included diffusion and high-resolution structural sequences. Compared to the sham-injured group, RmTBI rats had significantly shorter TL at seven days post-injury. Analysis of advanced DWI measures found that RmTBI rats had abnormalities in the corpus callosum and cortex at seven days post-injury. Notably, many of the DWI changes were correlated with TL. These findings demonstrate that TL and DWI measurements are changed by RmTBI and may represent clinically applicable biomarkers for this. Keywords: Biomarker, Concussion, Track weighted imaging, Animal model, Diffusion tensor imaging, MRI

  6. Enhancement of catalase activity by repetitive low-grade H2O2 exposures protects fibroblasts from subsequent stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Prosenjit; Mukherjee, Sebanti; Bhaumik, Gayaram; Das, Pradeep; Ganguly, Sandipan; Choudhury, Nandini; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts to mild and repetitive H 2 O 2 doses in culture for 15 weeks produced no change in lipid peroxidation status, GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activity of these cells (VST cells). In contrast, in VST cells catalase levels underwent a prominent increase which could be significantly inhibited and brought down to control levels after treatment with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT). When control (VC) cells were exposed to UV radiation (UVC 5 J/m 2 ) or H 2 O 2 (7.5 mM, 15 min), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels rose prominently with significant activation of caspase-3. Marked nuclear fragmentation and lower cell viability were also noted in these cells. In contrast, VST cells demonstrated a significantly lower ROS level, an absence of nuclear fragmentation and an unchanged caspase-3 activity after exposure to UVC or H 2 O 2 . Cell viability was also significantly better preserved in VST cells than VC cells after UV or H 2 O 2 exposures. Following 3-AT treatment of VST cells, UVC radiation or H 2 O 2 brought about significantly higher elevations in intracellular ROS, increases in caspase-3 activity, significantly lowered cell viability and marked nuclear fragmentation, indicating the involvement of high catalase levels in the cytoprotective effects of repetitive stress. Therefore, upregulation of the antioxidant defense after repetitive oxidative stress imparted a superior ability to cope with subsequent acute stress and escape apoptotic death and loss of viability

  7. Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) has been difficult to determine because of the prevalence of...Qualification Test; CAPS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; PTSD , posttraumatic stress disorder ; TBI, traumatic brain injury. a For the zeromodel, base...New onset and persistent symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures. BMJ.

  8. LER - Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: uma reflexão sobre os aspectos psicossociais Repetitive Strain Injury: a reflection on psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elena Rodrigues Gravina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de contribuir para a compreensão dos fenômenos que envolvem as LER e sua relação com o mundo do trabalho, refletindo sobre a multiplicidade dos fatores, dando ênfase à dimensão psicossocial a partir de depoimentos de pessoas com LER. A opção foi pela metodologia qualitativa e, pelas características da pesquisa, o instrumental escolhido foi o estudo de caso. Foram realizadas entrevistas com quatro bancárias com diagnóstico de LER e que estavam afastadas do trabalho. As entrevistas foram realizadas individualmente utilizando-se um roteiro semi estruturado, em data e horários previamente marcados e tiveram a duração media de duas horas cada uma. As pessoas apresentaram: descrédito no adoecimento; insatisfação e revolta por não poder mais fazer coisas importantes para a vida pessoal; dificuldades em mostrar a doença e fazer com que os outros acreditem nela; falta de reconhecimento pelo trabalho realizado; perda de identidade; ansiedade pelo desconhecido; estado de estresse e esgotamento muito acentuado; limitações impostas pela doença. Em conclusão pode ser apresentado: interferência da organização do trabalho e das relações de trabalho no adoecimento; o sofrimento físico que antecede e precede o adoecimento; onipresença da dor e as limitações impostas em nível físico e mental que impossibilitam projetos de vida; dificuldades no diagnóstico e tratamento; comprometimento da vida pessoal e familiar.The aim of this study was contributing to the understanding of the phenomena that involves the Repetitive Straisn Injury (RSI and its relation with the work arena. It was carried out through the reflection on the multiplicity of factors and emphasis on the psychosocial dimension based on the statements of people affected by RSI. The qualitative method was used and the case study tool was chosen based on the characteristics of the research clerks on leave for RSI diagnosis were interviwed

  9. 5 Hz Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Conelea, Christine; Tyrka, Audrey R; Welch, Emma S; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Price, Lawrence H; Niedzwiecki, Matthew; Yip, Agustin G; Barnes, Jennifer; Philip, Noah S

    2018-08-01

    Standard clinical protocols for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) apply 10 Hz pulses over left prefrontal cortex, yet little is known about the effects of rTMS in more diagnostically complex depressed patients. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly comorbid with MDD, and while rTMS has been shown to alleviate PTSD symptoms in preliminary studies, ideal parameters remain unclear. We conducted a prospective, open-label study of 5 Hz rTMS for patients with comorbid PTSD + MDD and hypothesized stimulation would reduce symptoms of both disorders. Outpatients (N = 40) with PTSD + MDD and at least moderate global severity were enrolled. 5 Hz rTMS included up to 40 daily sessions followed by a 5-session taper. Symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (IDS-SR). Baseline-to-endpoint changes were analyzed. The intent-to-treat population included 35 participants. Stimulation significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (PCL-5 baseline mean ± SD score 52.2 ± 13.1 versus endpoint 34.0 ± 21.6; p < .001); 23 patients (48.6%) met a pre-defined categorical PTSD response criteria. MDD symptoms also improved significantly (IDS-SR, baseline 47.8 ± 11.9 to endpoint 30.9 ± 18.9; p < .001); 15 patients (42.9%) demonstrated categorical response and 12 (34.3%) remitted. PTSD and MDD symptom change was highly correlated (r = 0.91, p < .001). Unblinded single-arm study, with modest sample size. Significant and clinically meaningful reductions in both MDD and PTSD symptoms were observed following stimulation. The preliminary efficacy of 5 Hz rTMS for both symptom domains in patients with comorbid disorders supports future controlled studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

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    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  11. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  12. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-03-28

    Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the effectiveness of an in-hospital screening tool. This descriptive longitudinal study of trauma patients was conducted at a Level 1 Metropolitan Trauma Centre in Australia over 14 months. Participants were interviewed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short-form version (DASS-21) during hospital admission then at 3 and 6 months after injury. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate participant characteristics and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Correlations and logistic regression were conducted to investigate the ability of the DASS-21 to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and to investigate factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress 6 months after injury. 201 participants ranging in age (18-94 years) and injury severity participated in the baseline interview and 109 completed all 3 interviews over 6 months. Over half (54%) reported above normal scores for depression, anxiety and/or stress in at least one of the 3 time points. Intensive care unit admission and high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 3 months post injury were predictors for high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 6 months. Low scores for depression, anxiety and stress during admission were correlated with low scores for depression, anxiety and stress at 3 and 6 months. Depression, anxiety and stress in patients hospitalised following injury is common and should be anticipated in patients who have had an intensive care admission. Screening at 3

  13. Enhancement of catalase activity by repetitive low-grade H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposures protects fibroblasts from subsequent stress-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Prosenjit; Mukherjee, Sebanti; Bhaumik, Gayaram; Das, Pradeep; Ganguly, Sandipan; Choudhury, Nandini; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2003-08-28

    Exposure of Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts to mild and repetitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} doses in culture for 15 weeks produced no change in lipid peroxidation status, GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activity of these cells (VST cells). In contrast, in VST cells catalase levels underwent a prominent increase which could be significantly inhibited and brought down to control levels after treatment with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT). When control (VC) cells were exposed to UV radiation (UVC 5 J/m{sup 2}) or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (7.5 mM, 15 min), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels rose prominently with significant activation of caspase-3. Marked nuclear fragmentation and lower cell viability were also noted in these cells. In contrast, VST cells demonstrated a significantly lower ROS level, an absence of nuclear fragmentation and an unchanged caspase-3 activity after exposure to UVC or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Cell viability was also significantly better preserved in VST cells than VC cells after UV or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposures. Following 3-AT treatment of VST cells, UVC radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} brought about significantly higher elevations in intracellular ROS, increases in caspase-3 activity, significantly lowered cell viability and marked nuclear fragmentation, indicating the involvement of high catalase levels in the cytoprotective effects of repetitive stress. Therefore, upregulation of the antioxidant defense after repetitive oxidative stress imparted a superior ability to cope with subsequent acute stress and escape apoptotic death and loss of viability.

  14. Can Unshod Running Reduce Running Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    78 viii ACRONYMS FFS Forefoot Strike MFS Midfoot Strike RFS Rearfoot...differences between forefoot and rearfoot striking runners. Daoud collected the history of the 52 runners and quantified their injury rates and severity...conclusion was that the rearfoot striking runners have a significantly higher rate of repetitive stress injuries compared to forefoot runners

  15. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  16. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the ...

  17. Evaluation of anterior talofibular ligament injury with stress radiography, ultrasonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oae, Kazunori; Uchio, Yuji; Takao, Masato; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of stress radiography (stress X-P), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury. Thirty-four patients with ankle sprain were involved. In all patients, Stress X-P, US, MR imaging, and arthroscopy were performed. The arthroscopic results were considered to be the gold standard. The imaging results were compared with the arthroscopic results, and the accuracy calculated. Arthroscopic findings showed ATFL injury in 30 out of 34 cases. The diagnosis of ATFL injury with stress X-P, US, MR imaging were made with an accuracy of 67, 91 and 97%. US and MR imaging demonstrated the same location of the injury as arthroscopy in 63 and 93%. We have clarified the diagnostic value of stress X-P, US, and MR imaging in diagnosis of ATFL injury. We obtained satisfactory results with US and MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of anterior talofibular ligament injury with stress radiography, ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oae, Kazunori; Uchio, Yuji [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Shimane, Izumo (Japan); Takao, Masato [Teikyo University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo, Itabashi-ku (Japan); Ochi, Mitsuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hiroshima, Minami-ku (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of stress radiography (stress X-P), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury. Thirty-four patients with ankle sprain were involved. In all patients, Stress X-P, US, MR imaging, and arthroscopy were performed. The arthroscopic results were considered to be the gold standard. The imaging results were compared with the arthroscopic results, and the accuracy calculated. Arthroscopic findings showed ATFL injury in 30 out of 34 cases. The diagnosis of ATFL injury with stress X-P, US, MR imaging were made with an accuracy of 67, 91 and 97%. US and MR imaging demonstrated the same location of the injury as arthroscopy in 63 and 93%. We have clarified the diagnostic value of stress X-P, US, and MR imaging in diagnosis of ATFL injury. We obtained satisfactory results with US and MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R Ljubisavljevic

    Full Text Available Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS and intermittent (iTBS theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS. The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss

  20. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  1. The correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Lan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: 78 patients who were diagnosed with acute traumatic brain injury in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected as the TBI group, and 90 healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. The peripheral blood was collected to detect glucose, insulin and nerve injury marker molecules, stress hormones as well as oxidative stress reaction products, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Results: The HOMA-IR index of TBI group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, S100β, myelin basic protein (MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdGlevels of TBI group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum NSE, UCH-L1, S100β, MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, MDA and 8-OHdG levels of patients with high HOMA-IR were significantly higher than those of patients with low HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Conclusion: The insulin resistance increases significantly in patients with traumatic brain injury, and is closely related to the degree of cerebral injury and stress reaction.

  2. Defense Health Care: Research on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury and Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder Why GAO Did This Study TBI and PTSD are signature...injury (TBI) and post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), most of which were focused solely on TBI (29 articles). The 32 articles consisted of 7 case...Case Report Articles on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ),

  3. Transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses of a thin diamond crystal for X-ray free-electron lasers under high-repetition-rate operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Songwei; Wu, Juhao

    2018-01-01

    High-brightness X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are perceived as fourth-generation light sources providing unprecedented capabilities for frontier scientific researches in many fields. Thin crystals are important to generate coherent seeds in the self-seeding configuration, provide precise spectral measurements, and split X-ray FEL pulses, etc. In all of these applications a high-intensity X-ray FEL pulse impinges on the thin crystal and deposits a certain amount of heat load, potentially impairing the performance. In the present paper, transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses as well as transient thermal analysis are carried out to address the thermomechanical issues for thin diamond crystals, especially under high-repetition-rate operation of an X-ray FEL. The material properties at elevated temperatures are considered. It is shown that, for a typical FEL pulse depositing tens of microjoules energy over a spot of tens of micrometers in radius, the stress wave emission is completed on the tens of nanoseconds scale. The amount of kinetic energy converted from a FEL pulse can reach up to ∼10 nJ depending on the layer thickness. Natural frequencies of a diamond plate are also computed. The potential vibrational amplitude is estimated as a function of frequency. Due to the decreasing heat conductivity with increasing temperature, a runaway temperature rise is predicted for high repetition rates where the temperature rises abruptly after ratcheting up to a point of trivial heat damping rate relative to heat deposition rate.

  4. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

  5. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Ahmed, Mohammad E; Zaheer, Smita; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Iyer, Shankar S; Bhagavan, Sachin M; Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Swathi; Zaheer, Asgar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This

  6. Barefoot-simulating footwear associated with metatarsal stress injury in 2 runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Jeffrey; Masini, Brendan; Alitz, Curtis; Owens, Brett D

    2011-07-07

    Stress-related changes and fractures in the foot are frequent in runners. However, the causative factors, including anatomic and kinematic variables, are not well defined. Footwear choice has also been implicated in contributing to injury patterns with changes in force transmission and gait analyses reported in the biomechanical literature. Despite the benefits of footwear, there has been increased interest among the running community in barefoot running with proposed benefits including a decreased rate of injury. We report 2 cases of metatarsal stress fracture in experienced runners whose only regimen change was the adoption of barefoot-simulating footwear. One was a 19-year-old runner who developed a second metatarsal stress reaction along the entire diaphysis. The second case was a 35-year-old ultra-marathon runner who developed a fracture in the second metatarsal diaphysis after 6 weeks of use of the same footwear. While both stress injuries healed without long-term effects, these injuries are alarming in that they occurred in experienced male runners without any other risk factors for stress injury to bone. The suspected cause for stress injury in these 2 patients is the change to barefoot-simulating footwear. Runners using these shoes should be cautioned on the potential need for gait alterations from a heel-strike to a midfoot-striking pattern, as well as cautioned on the symptoms of stress injury. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. O exercício legal da medicina em LER/DORT The legal aspects involving repetitive strain injuries (RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Techy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available No relacionamento entre médico e paciente, além da boa prática da medicina, o médico está obrigado a conhecer e cumprir as leis, normas e convenções que podem garantir direitos a uns e gerar obrigações a outros, com base nas informações criadas e perenizadas em prontuários, atestados e pareceres, que servirão de referência às decisões de entidades públicas ou privadas na concessão ou na recusa de direitos e deveres legais. Apontamos como os médicos devem se comportar em relação aos pacientes e aos aspectos legais dentro desse cenário ocupacional, no sentido de adequar a conduta e prevenir eventuais dissabores, aos quais estamos expostos. Nossa ideia é chamar a atenção para a necessidade da prática médica dentro das normas legais, orientando onde buscar a respectiva informação. O médico não pode estar alheio à evolução da medicina, nem às atualizações permanentes das leis, normas e convenções da região em que atua.In order to have a good patient-physician relationship, besides practicing a fair and updated technical medicine, the physician is obligated to have knowledge of and follow the laws, rules and regulations, which grant specific rights to some and delegate obligations to others. The physician is responsible for writing legal statements based on information from medical records. These declarations will serve as important documents, upon which public or private entities will base their decision on granting rights or delegating obligations. This article stresses the importance of adequate physician decision making capacity when it comes to access the patient's needs within the working environment. It also emphasizes the seriousness of reaching an optimal treatment plan, in order to prevent expected complications. Our objective is to promote the practice of medicine within the current law, giving directions to the reader on where to obtain this information. Physicians have to keep themselves updated not

  8. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post - Deployment Health Assessment, according to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ...Key words: blasts, deployment, males, military, odds ratio, percent change, Post -Deployment Health Assessment, post - traumatic stress disorder ...Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen, PDHA = Post -Deployment Health Assessment, PDHRA = Post - Deployment Health Reassessment, PTSD =

  9. Predicting the Transition From Acute Stress Disorder to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children With Severe Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C; Nugent, Nicole R; Hawn, Sage E; Koenen, Karestan C; Miller, Alisa; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saxe, Glenn

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of risk for and the transition between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a longitudinal sample of youth with severe injuries admitted to the hospital. These data would assist with treatment and discharge planning. Youth were assessed for ASD during the initial hospital stay and were followed-up over an 18-month period for PTSD (n = 151). Youth were classified into four groups, including Resilient (ASD-, PTSD-), ASD Only (ASD+, PTSD-), PTSD Only (ASD-, PTSD+), and Chronic (ASD+, PTSD+). Demographic, psychiatric, social context, and injury-related factors were examined as predictors of diagnostic transition. The results of multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons found that peritraumatic dissociation, gender, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors after controlling for multiple testing. Results suggest that both within-child and contextual factors contribute to the longitudinal response to trauma in children. Clinicians should consider early screening and discharge planning, particularly for children most at risk. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  11. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  12. Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Recovery and Injury in Heat-stressed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial in- jury, hepatocellular injury, intestinal ischemia, pancreatic injury, and hemorrhagic...pathways are involved in the observed cardiomyopathy. Results and discussion To induce the pathophysiological effects of heat stress, we placed conscious...Table S2). The incidence and severity of lesions, such as car- diomyopathy and chronic progressive nephropathy, were generally minimal and consistent

  13. Heat stress presenting with encephalopathy and MRI findings of diffuse cerebral injury and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Waldo R; Varghese, Shaun; Savitz, Sean; Wu, Tzu Ching

    2013-06-17

    Heat stress results in multiorgan failure and CNS injury. There a few case reports in the literature on the neurological consequences of heat stress. We describe a patient with heat stress presenting with encephalopathy and bilateral cerebral, cerebellar, and thalamic lesions and intraventricular hemorrhage on MRI. Heat stress should be in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with encephalopathy and elevated serum inflammatory markers especially if the history suggests a preceding episode of hyperthermia.

  14. Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post-Traumatic Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post- Traumatic Headache 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0366 5c...consequences of TBI is post-traumatic headache (PTH). Because both TBI and stress could contribute to PTH, we examine them together and separately...significant stress . Both TBI and stress are risk factors for chronic headache . They may contribute separate or overlapping mechanisms, and treatment can be

  15. Differential Effects of Voluntary and Forced Exercise on Stress Responses after Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, Grace S.; Tio, Delia L.; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L.; Taylor, Anna N.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed ...

  16. Significance of radiographic abnormalities in patients with tibial stress injuries: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Choi, James; Smet, Arthur de; Mukharjee, Rajat

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to correlate radiographic findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected tibial stress injuries in order to determine the significance of radiographic signs of stress injury in these individuals. The study group consisted of 80 patients with suspected tibial stress injuries who underwent a radiographic and MR examination of the tibia. Nineteen patients had bilateral involvement. Thus, a total of 99 tibias were evaluated. All radiographs and MR examinations were retrospectively reviewed, 1 month apart, in consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the site of the clinical symptoms. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the association between a positive radiograph and the presence of various MRI signs of a high-grade stress injury. There was a strong association between the presence of periosteal reaction on radiographs at the site of the clinical symptoms and a Fredericson grade 4 stress injury on MRI. The presence of periosteal reaction on radiographs at the site of clinical symptoms is predictive of a high-grade stress injury by MRI criteria. (orig.)

  17. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  18. Oxidative Stress and Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salatti Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury is directly related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, endothelial cell injury, increased vascular permeability, and the activation of neutrophils and platelets, cytokines, and the complement system. Several studies have confirmed the destructiveness of the toxic oxygen metabolites produced and their role in the pathophysiology of different processes, such as oxygen poisoning, inflammation, and ischemic injury. Due to the different degrees of tissue damage resulting from the process of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, several studies in animal models have focused on the prevention of IR injury and methods of lung protection. Lung IR injury has clinical relevance in the setting of lung transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass, for which the consequences of IR injury may be devastating in critically ill patients.

  19. Oxidative stress following traumatic brain injury: enhancement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuronal loss following traumatic brain injury and presents experimental and clinical evidence of the role of exogenous antioxidants as neuroprotectants. Method: We reviewed published literature on reactive oxygen species and their role in experimental and clinical brain injuries in journals and the Internet using Yahoo ...

  20. Hippocampal mGluR5 predicts an occurrence of helplessness behavior after repetitive exposure to uncontrollable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yeong Shin; Lee, Jinu; Kim, Gun-Tae; Song, Teresa; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo

    2012-06-21

    An individual's behavior is generally based on genetic blueprint and previous experiences. A coping strategy, affected by personal interpretation of past events, can be determined by behavioral controllability of stress. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hippocampal mGluR5 expression and coping strategies to stress. Rats were exposed to stress via inescapable and unpredictable footshocks on PNDs 14 and 90. Coping strategies to stress were also measured. Hippocampal mGluR5 was found to be linked to the behavioral coping strategy, as it increased in rats that showed helplessness behavior (HL (+) group) and decreased in those that did not (HL (-) group). Also, the HL (+) group showed a lack of adaptation in a novel environment but the HL (-) group did not. The results suggest that mGluR5 has a pivotal role in the controllability-based coping strategy. Hippocampal mGluR5 could be a target molecule in the manipulation of neuropsychiatric conditions for which maladaptation is a part of behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL, one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone1 (NQO1. However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  2. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  3. Use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Watanabe, Laine M; Moreno, Tamara J; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Pelvic stress injuries are a relatively uncommon form of injury that require high index of clinician suspicion and usually MRI for definitive diagnosis. We present a case report of a 21-year-old female elite runner who was diagnosed with pelvic stress injury and used an antigravity treadmill during rehabilitation. She was able to return to pain-free ground running at 8 weeks after running at 95% body weight on the antigravity treadmill. Ten weeks from time of diagnosis, she competed at her conference championships and advanced to the NCAA Championships in the 10,000-meters. She competed in both races without residual pain. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report on use of an antigravity treadmill in rehabilitation of bone-related injuries. Our findings suggest that use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury may result in appropriate bone loading and healing during progression to ground running and faster return to competition. Future research may identify appropriate protocols for recovery from overuse lower extremity injuries and other uses for this technology, including neuromuscular recovery and injury prevention. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Repetition of large stress drop earthquakes on Wairarapa fault, New Zealand, revealed by LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, E.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Beaupretre, S.; Vitard, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have acquired high-resolution LiDAR topographic data over most of the onland trace of the 120 km-long Wairarapa strike-slip fault, New Zealand. The Wairarapa fault broke in a large earthquake in 1855, and this historical earthquake is suggested to have produced up to 18 m of lateral slip at the ground surface. This would make this earthquake a remarkable event having produced a stress drop much higher than commonly observed on other earthquakes worldwide. The LiDAR data allowed us examining the ground surface morphology along the fault at statistical analysis of the cumulative offsets per segment reveals that the alluvial morphology has well recorded, at every step along the fault, no more than a few (3-6), well distinct cumulative slips, all lower than 80 m. Plotted along the entire fault, the statistically defined cumulative slip values document four, fairly continuous slip profiles that we attribute to the four most recent large earthquakes on the Wairarapa fault. The four slip profiles have a roughly triangular and asymmetric envelope shape that is similar to the coseismic slip distributions described for most large earthquakes worldwide. The four slip profiles have their maximum slip at the same place, in the northeastern third of the fault trace. The maximum slips vary from one event to another in the range 7-15 m; the most recent 1855 earthquake produced a maximum coseismic slip of 15 × 2 m at the ground surface. Our results thus confirm that the Wairarapa fault breaks in remarkably large stress drop earthquakes. Those repeating large earthquakes share both similar (rupture length, slip-length distribution, location of maximum slip) and distinct (maximum slip amplitudes) characteristics. Furthermore, the seismic behavior of the Wairarapa fault is markedly different from that of nearby large strike-slip faults (Wellington, Hope). The reasons for those differences in rupture behavior might reside in the intrinsic properties of the broken faults, especially

  5. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  6. Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Gudex, Claire; Andersen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    on somatic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and emotional stress, and measure self-rated health in regular exercisers presenting to a sports medicine clinic with musculoskeletal injury. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors...... associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counselling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: A sports medicine clinic for injuries of the foot, knee, or shoulder. PARTICIPANTS: Regular exercisers with present injuries (n=694) and exercisers without...... completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), and questions on sociodemographics, exercise habits, and injury history. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression were reported by 12% of injured exercisers and 5% of non-injured controls (p

  7. The Relationship of Stressors and Stress on Injury Incident of Construction Workers in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Ali Khairul Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Workers (CWs are the main source of manpower that is necessary to every construction project. Non conducive and hazardous working environment at construction site will affect the physiological health of the construction labour. This study is conducted to explore the impact of job stress and emotional stress to the CWs that potentially lead to injuries incident in Penang. Twelve stressors were identified through factor analysis. Then, the stressors are classified into five main categories. Questionnaires were developed according to the stressstressor relationship. The correlation between factors of injury incident (stressor and stress shows that lack of autonomy and inappropriate safety equipment lead to the emotional stress among the CWs with 0.287 and 0.204 respectively. In addition, poor physical environment causes the job stress among CWs with the correlation of 0.270.

  8. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imagin...

  9. Stressful life events and acute kidney injury in intensive and semi-intensive care unities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Denise Para; Marques, Daniella Aparecida; Blay, Sérgio Luis; Schor, Nestor

    2012-03-01

    Several studies point out that pathophysiological changes related to stress may influence renal function and are associated with disease onset and evolution. However, we have not found any studies about the influence of stress on renal function and acute kidney injury. To evaluate the association between stressful life events and acute kidney injury diagnosis, specifying the most stressful classes of events for these patients in the past 12 months. Case-control study. The study was carried out at Hospital São Paulo, in Universidade Federal de São Paulo and at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado de São Paulo, in Brazil. Patients with acute kidney injury and no chronic disease, admitted to the intensive or semi-intensive care units were included. Controls included patients in the same intensive care units with other acute diseases, except for the acute kidney injury, and also with no chronic disease. Out of the 579 patients initially identified, 475 answered to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) questionnaire and 398 were paired by age and gender (199 cases and 199 controls). The rate of stressful life events was statistically similar between cases and controls. The logistic regression analysis to detect associated effects of the independent variables to the stressful events showed that: increasing age and economic classes A and B in one of the hospitals (Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP) increased the chance of a stressful life event (SLE). This study did not show association between the Acute Kidney Injury Group with a higher frequency of stressful life events, but that old age, higher income, and type of clinical center were associated.

  10. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  11. Combat Blast Injuries: Injury Severity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interaction on Career Outcomes in Male Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder . INTRODUCTION Blasts are the most...Metzler TJ, Golding JM, Stewart A, Schlenger WE, Wells KB. Post - traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally...proportions were higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) than in those without PTSD . There was a significant interaction between PTSD

  12. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  14. Repetition and the Concept of Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Grøn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description of the meaning of the category of repetition. Firstly, it is pointed out that Constantin uses repetition as a concept that means the creation of epochs; the passing from Greece to Modernity is accomplished distinguishing between recollection, a concept that looks back to the past, and repetition, a concept that looks forward to future. Secondly, it is showed that the category of repetition, as a religious category, relates with what Climacus calls “ethic despair” and with what Vigilius calls “second ethics”; it is through repetition that it can be understood that sin finds its place in ethics and these shows the tension between it and dogmatics. And thirdly, it is showed that the descovery of the new category of repetition is a rediscovery of what Kierkegaard calls category of spirit; repetition has for its object the individuality, and coming to be oneself is what Kierkegaard undertands as liberty. At the end of the paper it is questioned if the category of repetition is inconsistent with the book Repetition.

  15. Prior stress exposure increases pain behaviors in a rat model of full thickness thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Jennifer E; McLean, Samuel A; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-12-01

    Thermal burns among individuals working in highly stressful environments, such as firefighters and military Service Members, are common. Evidence suggests that pre-injury stress may exaggerate pain following thermal injury; however current animal models of burn have not evaluated the potential influence of pre-burn stress. This sham-controlled study evaluated the influence of prior stress exposure on post-burn thermal and mechanical sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 20 min of inescapable swim stress or sham stress once per day for three days. Exposure to inescapable swim stress (1) increased the intensity and duration of thermal hyperalgesia after subsequent burn and (2) accelerated the onset of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after subsequent burn. This stress-induced exacerbation of pain sensitivity was reversed by pretreatment and concurrent treatment with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine. These data suggest a better understanding of mechanisms by which prior stress augments pain after thermal burn may lead to improved pain treatments for burn survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Core Self-Evaluations in the Relationship between Stress and Depression in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Jesse B.; Yaghmaian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of core self-evaluations (CSE) in the relationship between perceived stress and depression in persons with spinal cord injury. Method: Two hundred forty-seven adults with spinal cord injury completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, CSE, and depressive symptoms. Results: A multiple regression analysis…

  17. Posttraumatic stress following pediatric injury: update on diagnosis, risk factors, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L; Hildenbrand, Aimee; Winston, Flaura

    2013-12-01

    After pediatric injury, transient traumatic stress reactions are common, and about 1 in 6 children and their parents develop persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms that are linked to poorer physical and functional recovery. Meta-analytic studies identify risk factors for persistent PTS, including preinjury psychological problems, peritrauma fear and perceived life threat, and posttrauma factors such as low social support, maladaptive coping strategies, and parent PTS symptoms. There is growing prospective data indicating that children's subjective appraisals of the injury and its aftermath influence PTS development. Secondary prevention of injury-related PTS often involves parents and focuses on promoting adaptive child appraisals and coping strategies. Web-based psychoeducation and targeted brief early intervention for injured children and their parents have shown a modest effect, but additional research is needed to refine preventive approaches. There is a strong evidence base for effective psychological treatment of severe and persistent PTS via trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy; evidence is lacking for psychopharmacological treatment. Pediatric clinicians play a key role in preventing injury-related PTS by providing "trauma-informed" pediatric care (ie, recognizing preexisting trauma, addressing acute traumatic stress reactions associated with the injury event, minimizing potentially traumatic aspects of treatment, and identifying children who need additional monitoring or referral).

  18. Differential effects of voluntary and forced exercise on stress responses after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L; Taylor, Anna N

    2012-05-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed with acute exercise, at post-injury days 0-4 and 7-11, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release were measured in rats running voluntarily or exposed to two daily 20-min periods of forced running wheel exercise. Forced, but not voluntary exercise, continuously elevated CORT. ACTH levels were initially elevated with forced exercise, but decreased by post-injury day 7 in the control, but not the FPI animals. As previously reported, voluntary exercise did not increase BDNF in the FPI group as it did in the control animals. Forced exercise did not increase levels of BDNF in any group. It did, however, decrease hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the control group. The results suggest that exercise regimens with strong stress responses may not be beneficial during the early post-injury period.

  19. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  20. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  1. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-11-25

    We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Cross-sectional study. We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20-59 years old. Individuals with occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. High job stress among firefighters was associated with both the occurrence of occupational injury, and also with an increased frequency of injuries. Therefore, job stress should be addressed to prevent occupational injuries among firefighters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.; Holm, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    , there is controversy whether PCS deserves to be identified as a diagnostic syndrome. OBJECTIVE To assess whether persistent symptoms 3 months following head injury are specific to MTBI or whether they are better described as part of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted...

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  4. A review of oxidative stress in acute kidney injury: protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the common clinical syndrome which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The severity extends from less to more advanced spectrums which link to biological, physical and chemical agents. Oxidative stress (OS)-related AKI has demonstrated the increasing of reactive oxygen ...

  5. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  6. Internet-Based Early Intervention to Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Injury Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  7. Internet-based early intervention to prevent poststraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: Randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  8. Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.

  9. The role of oxidative stress in corneal diseases and injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 8 (2015), s. 893-900 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S Keywords : Diseased corneas * Immunohistochemistry * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.875, year: 2015

  10. [Protective effect and mechanism of compound Ginkgo biloba granules on oxidative stress injury of HUVEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xi; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Li, Yu-Jie; Yang, Qing; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Wei-Yan; Huang, He-Fei; Zhu, Xiao-Xin

    2016-02-01

    To reveal the protective and anti-apoptosis effect of compound Ginkgo biloba granules on oxidative stress injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Negative control group, H2O2 model group and 4 drug pretreatment groups (80, 160, 320, 640 mg• L⁻¹) were established. The cell proliferation, morphological changes in each group after oxidative stress injury was detected by MTT assay and through microscope observation respectively. The content of LDH, MDA, SOD and NO and SOD activity in supernatant were detected to judge the protection effect of the drugs on endothelial cells. The protective effect on HUVEC apoptosis was analyzed by Caspase-3 activity test and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blot was used to observe the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. Results showed that 1 200 μmol• L⁻¹ H2O2 can induce oxidative stress injury in endothelial cells and reduce the cell survival rate; cell proliferation inhibition degree is positively correlated with the effect time of H2O2. Besides, 80, 160, 320 640 mg•L⁻¹ compound Ginkgo biloba granules can protect HUVEC from oxidative stress injury, recover the normal proliferation level of cells, improve their state, prohibit cell apoptosis, and can up-regulate and down-regulate the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax respectively. In conclusion, compound G. biloba granules can protect HUVEC from the oxidative stress injury induced by H2O2, its mechanism may be correlated with inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HUVEC. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Maxillofacial fractures and craniocerebral injuries - stress propagation from face to neurocranium in a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huempfner-Hierl, Heike; Schaller, Andreas; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    Severe facial trauma is often associated with intracerebral injuries. So it seemed to be of interest to study stress propagation from face to neurocranium after a fistlike impact on the facial skull in a finite element analysis. A finite element model of the human skull without mandible consisting of nearly 740,000 tetrahedrons was built. Fistlike impacts on the infraorbital rim, the nasoorbitoethmoid region, and the supraorbital arch were simulated and stress propagations were depicted in a time-dependent display. Finite element simulation revealed von Mises stresses beyond the yield criterion of facial bone at the site of impacts and propagation of stresses in considerable amount towards skull base in the scenario of the fistlike impact on the infraorbital rim and on the nasoorbitoethmoid region. When impact was given on the supraorbital arch stresses seemed to be absorbed. As patients presenting with facial fractures have a risk for craniocerebral injuries attention should be paid to this and the indication for a CT-scan should be put widely. Efforts have to be made to generate more precise finite element models for a better comprehension of craniofacial and brain injury.

  12. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-11-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to parent-reported overall recovery. Children and parents (n = 263 child-parent dyads) were enrolled during ED treatment for unintentional injury. Approximately 5 months later, children and parents (n = 178 dyads) completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and parents reported on child overall recovery. Follow-up assessments found significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in 15% of children and 5% of parents, significant depression symptoms in 13% of children and 16% of parents, and problematic overall recovery in 17% of children. For both children and parents, posttraumatic stress and depression symptom severity were strongly associated. Child and parent symptoms were only modestly associated with each other, and there were few families in which both child and parent had significant posttraumatic stress or depression. Parent symptoms, but not child symptoms, were inversely associated with children's overall recovery. For about 1 in 6 children and parents, unintentional injury treated in the ED can be associated with negative psychological sequelae and suboptimal recovery. Within families, child and parent responses may differ; their relative association with overall recovery deserves additional research. To promote emotional recovery, ED clinicians should be aware of the potential psychological impact of unintentional injury, provide timely evidence-based anticipatory guidance, and communicate these concerns to primary care clinicians.

  13. Acute Lung Injury Results from Innate Sensing of Viruses by an ER Stress Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike R. Hrincius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Incursions of new pathogenic viruses into humans from animal reservoirs are occurring with alarming frequency. The molecular underpinnings of immune recognition, host responses, and pathogenesis in this setting are poorly understood. We studied pandemic influenza viruses to determine the mechanism by which increasing glycosylation during evolution of surface proteins facilitates diminished pathogenicity in adapted viruses. ER stress during infection with poorly glycosylated pandemic strains activated the unfolded protein response, leading to inflammation, acute lung injury, and mortality. Seasonal strains or viruses engineered to mimic adapted viruses displaying excess glycans on the hemagglutinin did not cause ER stress, allowing preservation of the lungs and survival. We propose that ER stress resulting from recognition of non-adapted viruses is utilized to discriminate “non-self” at the level of protein processing and to activate immune responses, with unintended consequences on pathogenesis. Understanding this mechanism should improve strategies for treating acute lung injury from zoonotic viral infections.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Jia, Pengyu; Jia, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is in controversy and the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. In the present study, we firstly detected the effects of hypercholesterolemia on MIRI and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in this process. The infarct size was determined by TTC staining, and apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL method. The marker proteins of ER stress response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia significantly increased the myocardial infarct size, the release of myocardium enzyme and the ratio of apoptosis, but did not affect the recovery of cardiac function. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia also remarkably up-regulated the expressions of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 and calreticulin) and critical molecules in ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway (CHOP, caspase 12, phospho-JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia enhanced myocardial vulnerability/sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion injury involved in aggravation the ER stress and activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway and it gave us a new insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with hypercholesterolemia-induced exaggerated MIRI and also provided a novel target for preventing MIRI in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Invisible Bleeding: The Command Team’s Role in the Identification, Understanding, and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Traumatic Brain Injury, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder , TBI, PTSD , Wounded...Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). Command teams must leverage the existing programs and infrastructure while demonstrating a...subsequent struggle with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) have given me the unique insight to tackle

  17. Excess Stress Fractures, Musculoskeletal Injuries, and Health Care Utilization Among Unfit and Overweight Female Army Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Margot R; Garvin, Nadia U; Boivin, Michael R; Cowan, David N

    2017-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are prevalent among military trainees and certain occupations. Fitness and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with musculoskeletal conditions, including stress fractures. The incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, stress fracture and non-stress fracture overuse musculoskeletal injuries during the first 6 months of service is higher among unfit female recruits. Those who exceeded body fat limits are at a greater risk of incident stress fractures, injuries, or health care utilization compared with weight-qualified recruits. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All applicants to the United States Army were required to take a preaccession fitness test during the study period (February 2005-September 2006). The test included a 5-minute step test scored as pass or fail. BMI was recorded at application. There were 2 distinct comparisons made in this study: (1) between weight-qualified physically fit and unfit women and (2) between weight-qualified physically fit women and those who exceeded body fat limits. We compared the incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, musculoskeletal injuries, including stress fractures and physical therapy visits, during the first 183 days of military service. Among the weight-qualified women, unfit participants had a higher non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization rate compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.14-1.53) and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10-1.27), respectively. Among fit women, compared with the weight-qualified participants, those exceeding body fat limits had higher rate ratios for non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.11-1.31), respectively. Weight-qualified women who were unfit had a higher incidence of stress fractures and related excess health care utilization compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.62 (95% CI, 1

  18. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...

  19. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama

    2008-01-01

    outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may......Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...

  20. The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Qian-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Ni, Hao; Liu, Ming-Yie; Mo, Fan-E

    2013-10-01

    Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H₂O₂. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H₂O₂ and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, pain, and disability 12 months after traumatic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Casey, Sara L.; Devlin, Anna; Ioannou, Liane J.; Gibson, Stephen J.; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Jennings, Paul A.; Cameron, Peter A.; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic pain is common after traumatic injury and frequently co-occurs with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS). Objectives: This study sought to understand the association between probable PTSD, PTSS, and pain. Methods: Four hundred thirty-three participants were recruited from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry and Victorian State Trauma Registry and completed outcome measures. Participants were predominantly male (n = 324, 74.8%) and aged 17-75 years at the time of their injury (M = 44.83 years, SD = 14.16). Participants completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Brief Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, EQ-5D-3L and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire 12 months after hospitalization for traumatic injury. Data were linked with injury and hospital admission data from the trauma registries. Results: Those who reported having current problems with pain were 3 times more likely to have probable PTSD than those without pain. Canonical correlation showed that pain outcomes (pain severity, interference, catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, self-efficacy, and disability) were associated with all PTSSs, but especially symptoms of cognition and affect, hyperarousal, and avoidance. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, on the contrary, were predominantly associated with high catastrophizing and low self-efficacy. When controlling for demographics, pain and injury severity, depression, and self-efficacy explained the greatest proportion of the total relationship between PTSS and pain-related disability. Conclusion: Persons with both PTSS and chronic pain after injury may need tailored interventions to overcome fear-related beliefs and to increase their perception that they can engage in everyday activities, despite their pain. PMID:29392235

  2. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p model.

  3. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: Preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tony, G., E-mail: drgtony@gmail.com [Stafford General Hospital, Weston Road, Stafford, Staffordshire ST16 3SA (United Kingdom); Charran, A., E-mail: amandacharran@yahoo.com [Hillingdon Hospital, Pield Heath Rd, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3NN (United Kingdom); Tins, B., E-mail: bernhard.tins@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Lalam, R., E-mail: radhesh.lalam@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Tyrrell, P.N.M., E-mail: prudencia.tyrrell@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Singh, J., E-mail: jaspreet.singh@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cool, P., E-mail: paul.cool@rjah.nhs.uk [Orthopaedic Oncology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Kiely, N., E-mail: nigel.kiely@rjah.nhs.uk [Paediatric Orthopaedics, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N., E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt, Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Purely intra-epiphyseal stress injuries of the proximal tibial epiphysis are described for the first time. • The variation in the MRI findings of these injuries depending on the stage of maturation is demonstrated. • We postulate a patho-mechanism to explain the variations in site and appearance of stress injuries in this region. - Abstract: Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families.

  4. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: Preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tony, G.; Charran, A.; Tins, B.; Lalam, R.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; Singh, J.; Cool, P.; Kiely, N.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Purely intra-epiphyseal stress injuries of the proximal tibial epiphysis are described for the first time. • The variation in the MRI findings of these injuries depending on the stage of maturation is demonstrated. • We postulate a patho-mechanism to explain the variations in site and appearance of stress injuries in this region. - Abstract: Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families

  5. Making Sense of Oxidative Stress in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Mediator or Distracter in Brain Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eZhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to cognitive impairment, metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Identifying the mechanisms by which this prevalent disorder influences health outcomes is now of utmost importance. As the prevalence of this disorder steadily increases, therapies are needed to prevent or reverse sleep apnea morbidities now more than ever before. Oxidative stress is implicated in cardiovascular morbidities of sleep apnea. What role oxidative stress plays in neural injury and cognitive impairments has been difficult to understand without readily accessible tissue to biopsy in persons with and without sleep apnea. An improved understanding of the role oxidative stress plays in neural injury in sleep apnea may be developed by integrating information gained examining neural tissue in animal models of sleep apnea with key features of redox biochemistry and clinical sleep apnea studies where extra-neuronal oxidative stress characterizations have been performed. Collectively, this information sets the stage for developing and testing novel therapeutic approaches to treat and prevent, not only central nervous system injury and dysfunction in sleep apnea, but also the cardiovascular and potentially metabolic conditions associated with this prevalent, disabling disorder.

  6. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK)ζ, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGKζ siRNA transfection decreased H 2 O 2 -induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGKζ also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGKζ rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H 2 O 2 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGKζ, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

  7. Patterns of gene expression associated with recovery and injury in heat-stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jonathan D; Ippolito, Danielle L; Rakesh, Vineet; Baer, Christine E; Dennis, William E; Helwig, Bryan G; Jackson, David A; Leon, Lisa R; Lewis, John A; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-12-03

    The in vivo gene response associated with hyperthermia is poorly understood. Here, we perform a global, multiorgan characterization of the gene response to heat stress using an in vivo conscious rat model. We heated rats until implanted thermal probes indicated a maximal core temperature of 41.8°C (Tc,Max). We then compared transcriptomic profiles of liver, lung, kidney, and heart tissues harvested from groups of experimental animals at Tc,Max, 24 hours, and 48 hours after heat stress to time-matched controls kept at an ambient temperature. Cardiac histopathology at 48 hours supported persistent cardiac injury in three out of six animals. Microarray analysis identified 78 differentially expressed genes common to all four organs at Tc,Max. Self-organizing maps identified gene-specific signatures corresponding to protein-folding disorders in heat-stressed rats with histopathological evidence of cardiac injury at 48 hours. Quantitative proteomics analysis by iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) demonstrated that differential protein expression most closely matched the transcriptomic profile in heat-injured animals at 48 hours. Calculation of protein supersaturation scores supported an increased propensity of proteins to aggregate for proteins that were found to be changing in abundance at 24 hours and in animals with cardiac injury at 48 hours, suggesting a mechanistic association between protein misfolding and the heat-stress response. Pathway analyses at both the transcript and protein levels supported catastrophic deficits in energetics and cellular metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response in heat-stressed rats with histopathological evidence of persistent heat injury, providing the basis for a systems-level physiological model of heat illness and recovery.

  8. Pain, perceived injustice and the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms during the course of rehabilitation for whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Thibault, Pascal; Simmonds, Maureen J; Milioto, Maria; Cantin, André-Philippe; Velly, Ana M

    2009-10-01

    The present study assessed the role of pain and pain-related psychological variables in the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms following whiplash injury. Individuals (N=112) with whiplash injuries who had been admitted to a standardized multidisciplinary rehabilitation program were asked to complete measures of pain, post-traumatic stress symptoms, physical function and pain-related psychological variables at three different points during their treatment program. The findings are consistent with previous research showing that indicators of injury severity such as pain, reduced function and disability, and scores on pain-related psychological were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms in individuals with whiplash injuries. Contrary to expectations, indicators of pain severity did not contribute to the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Univariate analyses revealed that self-reported disability, pain catastrophizing and perceived injustice were significant determinants of the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. In multivariate analyses, only perceived injustice emerged as a unique predictor of the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The results suggest that early adequate management of pain symptoms and disability consequent to whiplash injury might reduce the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The development of effective intervention techniques for targeting perceptions of injustice might be important for promoting recovery of post-traumatic stress symptoms consequent to whiplash injury.

  9. MicroRNA-122 is involved in oxidative stress in isoniazid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Zhang, Z R; Zhang, J L; Zhu, X B; He, L; Shi, Z; Gao, L; Li, Y; Hu, B; Feng, F M

    2015-10-27

    Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of liver injury includes oxidative stress. MicroRNA-122 may be a marker for the early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between microRNA-122 and oxidative stress in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. We measured changes in tissue microRNA-122 levels and indices of oxidative stress during liver injury in mice after administration of isoniazid, a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. We quantified microRNA-122 expression and indices of oxidative stress at 7 time points, including 1, 3, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The tissue microRNA-122 levels and oxidative stress significantly changed at 3 and 5 days, suggesting that isoniazid-induced liver injury reduces oxidative stress and microRNA-122 expression compared to in the control group (P microRNA-122, began to change at 5 days (P microRNA-122 profile may affect oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene during isoniazid-induced liver injury, which may contribute to the response mechanisms of microRNA-122 and oxidative stress.

  10. Examining the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingen, Bella; Locatelli, Sara M; Miskevics, Scott; LaVela, Sherri L

    2017-07-26

    The objectives of this study were to examine differences in social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders with and without post-traumatic stress disorder, and determine if lower social participation was independently associated with having post-traumatic stress disorder. A cross-sectional mailed national survey was sent to a national sample of Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders who received prior-year Veterans Affairs healthcare. Surveys provided data on: demographics, health conditions, injury characteristics, and social participation. Analyses included bivariate comparisons, and multivariate logistic regression to determine if lower social participation was independently associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Veterans with (vs. without) post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 896) reported lower social participation (40.2 vs. 43.9, p stress disorder, while a greater number of health conditions (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p stress disorder (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.003). Results indicate post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders, independent of other factors that may impact participation. Efforts to screen for and treat post-traumatic stress disorder among persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders, regardless of injury-specific factors, are needed to improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with spinal cord injuries/disorders often have post-traumatic stress disorder; in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders this may be compounded by trauma incurred through military experiences. Social participation, an important aspect of rehabilitation and community integration following spinal cord injury or disorder, may be hindered by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Our data show that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans

  11. Melatonin ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through SIRT3-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Mengen; Li, Buying; Duan, Weixun; Jing, Lin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Liming; Liu, Zhenhua; Yu, Bo; Ren, Kai; Gao, Erhe; Yang, Yang; Liang, Hongliang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yu, Shiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Sirtuins are a family of highly evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine nucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family that is localized primarily to the mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress-related diseases, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has a favorable effect in ameliorating MI/R injury. We hypothesized that melatonin protects against MI/R injury by activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. In this study, mice were pretreated with or without a selective SIRT3 inhibitor and then subjected to MI/R operation. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg) 10 minutes before reperfusion. Melatonin treatment improved postischemic cardiac contractile function, decreased infarct size, diminished lactate dehydrogenase release, reduced the apoptotic index, and ameliorated oxidative damage. Notably, MI/R induced a significant decrease in myocardial SIRT3 expression and activity, whereas the melatonin treatment upregulated SIRT3 expression and activity, and thus decreased the acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). In addition, melatonin increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 levels in response to MI/R. However, the cardioprotective effects of melatonin were largely abolished by the selective SIRT3 inhibitor 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (3-TYP), suggesting that SIRT3 plays an essential role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of melatonin. In vitro studies confirmed that melatonin also protected H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury (SIR) by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis, while SIRT3-targeted siRNA diminished these effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that melatonin treatment ameliorates MI/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis via activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  12. Agmatine attenuates intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Inci; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Ozacmak, V Haktan; Barut, Figen; Araslı, Mehmet

    2017-11-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are major factors causing several tissue injuries in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Agmatine has been reported to attenuate I/R injury of various organs. The present study aims to analyze the possible protective effects of agmatine on intestinal I/R injury in rats. Four groups were designed: sham control, agmatine-treated control, I/R control, and agmatine-treated I/R groups. IR injury of small intestine was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for half an hour to be followed by a 3-hour-long reperfusion. Agmatine (10mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before reperfusion period. After 180min of reperfusion period, the contractile responses to both carbachol and potassium chloride (KCl) were subsequently examined in an isolated-organ bath. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in intestinal tissue. Plasma cytokine levels were determined. The expression of the intestinal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with agmatine appeared to be significantly effective in reducing the MDA content and MPO activity besides restoring the content of GSH. The treatment also attenuated the histological injury. The increases in the I/R induced expressions of iNOS, IFN-γ, and IL-1α were brought back to the sham control levels by the treatment as well. Our findings indicate that the agmatine pretreatment may ameliorate reperfusion induced injury in small intestine mainly due to reducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  14. Sex-dependent effects of chronic psychosocial stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah; Fry, Megan E; Lawson, Joseph D; Stoner, Lauren E; Johnson, Brandon L; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience many debilitating symptoms, including intrusive memories, persistent anxiety and avoidance of trauma-related cues. PTSD also results in numerous physiological complications, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, characterization of PTSD-induced cardiovascular alterations is lacking, especially in preclinical models of the disorder. Thus, we examined the impact of a psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to psychosocial stress or control conditions for 31 days. Stressed rats were given two cat exposures, separated by a period of 10 days, and were subjected to daily social instability throughout the paradigm. Control rats were handled daily for the duration of the experiment. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) on day 32, and hearts were isolated on day 33 and subjected to 20 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Stressed male and female rats gained less body weight relative to controls, but only stressed males exhibited increased anxiety on the EPM. Male, but not female, rats exposed to psychosocial stress exhibited significantly larger infarcts and attenuated post-ischemic recovery of contractile function compared to controls. Our data demonstrate that predator stress combined with daily social instability sex-dependently increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Thus, this manipulation may be useful for studying potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular alterations in PTSD, as well as sex differences in the cardiovascular stress response.

  15. Functional Neuroimaging Distinguishes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Traumatic Brain Injury in Focused and Large Community Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Amen, Daniel G.; Raji, Cyrus A.; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly heterogeneous and often present with overlapping symptomology, providing challenges in reliable classification and treatment. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be advantageous in the diagnostic separation of these disorders when comorbid or clinically indistinct. Methods Subjects were selected from a multisite database, where rest and on-task SPECT scans were obtained on a large gr...

  16. A Military-Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    metabolites, such as maltotetraose, were elevated in positive control and sPCI tissues and may reflect catabolism to support glycolytic and anabolic ...PPP plays a critical role in promoting anabolic growth, nucleotide biogenesis, and replenishing NADPH necessary for glutathione reductase function...Fiskum, G., & McKenna, M. (2009). Delayed cerebral oxidative glucose metabolism after traumatic brain injury in young rats. J Neurochem, 109 Suppl 1

  17. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  18. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury increases risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ann Marie; Boals, Adriel; Elliott, Timothy R; Reynolds, Megan; Weddle, Rebecca Jo; Holtz, Pamela; Trost, Zina; Foreman, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occur in individuals who sustain physical injury and share a significant overlap in symptoms. PTSD rates in the civilian injury population range from 20% to 40%. The current study examined the presence of PTSD symptoms at multiple time points (3 months and 6 months after injury) among individuals with and without TBI after admission to a Level I trauma center. This prospective cohort study included patients 18 years and older admitted to a Level I trauma center for 24 hours or greater. Demographic and injury-related data were gathered in addition to assessments of PTSD during initial hospitalization after injury, as well as 3 months and 6 months later. The Primary Care PTSD Screen and PTSD Checklist-Civilian version were used to determine probable PTSD. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Rev. codes were used to determine mild TBI (MTBI). A total of 494 patients were enrolled at baseline, 311 (63%) completed 3-month follow-up, and 231 (47%) completed 6-month follow-up at the time of analysis. Preinjury PTSD was reported by 7% of the participants. At 3 months, patients with MTBI evidenced a probable PTSD rate of 18%, compared with a rate of 9% for patients with no MTBI (p = 0.04), although this relationship became a nonsignificant trend (p = 0.06) when demographics were included. At 6 months, patients with MTBI evidenced a probable PTSD rate of 26%, compared with a rate of 15% for patients with no MTBI (p = 0.04), and this relationship remained significant when demographics were included. Preinjury history of TBI did not predict PTSD, but incidence of TBI for the injury in which they were hospitalized did predict PTSD. TBI at time of injury demonstrated a nonsignificant trend toward higher rates of PTSD at 3 months and significantly predicted PTSD at 6 months after injury. This important finding may help clinicians identify patients at high risk for PTSD after injury and target these

  20. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Alleviating ER Stress Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqian; Hu, Houxiang; Chen, Bin; Yue, Rongchuan; Zhou, Zhou; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Huan; Yu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Inhibiting ER stress is a major therapeutic target/strategy in treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that lycopene exhibits great pharmacological potential in protecting against the I/R-injury in vitro and vivo, but whether attenuation of ER stress (and) or ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the effects remains unclear. In the present study, using neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardium I/R in vivo, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that lycopene could alleviate the ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H/R-injury. We observed that lycopene alleviated the H/R injury as revealed by improving cell viability and reducing apoptosis, suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and improved the phosphorylated AMPK expression, attenuated ER stress as evidenced by decreasing the expression of GRP78, ATF6 mRNA, sXbp-1 mRNA, eIF2α mRNA and eIF2α phosphorylation, alleviated ER stress-induced apoptosis as manifested by reducing CHOP/GADD153 expression, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-12 and caspase-3 activity in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. Thapsigargin (TG) is a potent ER stress inducer and used to elicit ER stress of cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that lycopene was able to prevent TG-induced ER stress as reflected by attenuating the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 compared to TG group, significantly improve TG-caused a loss of cell viability and decrease apoptosis in TG-treated cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the protective effects of lycopene on H/R-injury are, at least in part, through alleviating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:26291709

  1. Protective effects of gallic acid against spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong Hong; Wang, Zao; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Ran

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of gallic acid in oxidative stress induced during spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to measure oxidative stress, the levels of lipid peroxide, protein carbonyl, reactive oxygen species and nitrates/nitrites were determined. In addition, the antioxidant status during SCI injury and the protective role of gallic acid were investigated by determining glutathione levels as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Adenosine triphophatase (ATPase) enzyme activities were determined to evaluate the role of gallic acid in SCI-induced deregulation of the activity of enzymes involved in ion homeostasis. The levels of inflammatory markers such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and cycloxygenase (COX)-2 were determined by western blot analysis. Treatment with gallic acid was observed to significantly mitigate SCI-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response by reducing the oxidative stress, decreasing the expression of NF-κB and COX-2 as well as increasing the antioxidant status of cells. In addition, gallic acid modulated the activity of ATPase enzymes. Thus the present study indicated that gallic acid may have a role as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against SCI.

  2. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  3. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury

  4. Reducing stress to minimize injury: the nation's first employee assistance program for dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Steven; Dotter, Earl; Handy, Myra; Waterman, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This commentary describes the nation's first Employee Assistance Program (EAP) for dairy farmers. It discusses (1) the significant financial strain and emotional stress experienced by Vermont's dairy farmers reaching dangerous levels; (2) the effect of stress and anxiety on workplace safety; and (3) the highly effective role of an EAP in reducing stress. The commentary depicts the Farm First program model of prevention and early intervention services for dairy farmers that include short-term solution-focused counseling, resources, and referrals to help farmers address the stressors they confront daily. The Farm First program mitigates depression, anxiety, financial and legal problems, family issues, and other stressors on farms that are correlated with accidents, on-the-job injuries, disability, and harm to self or others. EAPs specifically have been shown to reduce on-the-job injuries by reducing employee stress. Ultimately the program has seen good usage commensurate with that at any place of employment. Further, in addition to seeking help for themselves, a number of farmers have used this management consultation service to obtain assistance with farm worker issues. Although the authors have not systematically studied this approach, it shows promise and the authors encourage its duplication and further study in other states.

  5. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  6. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  7. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  8. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  9. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Diane; Thomas, Matt; Whiting, Diane; McGrath, Andrew

    To confirm the construct validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) by investigating the fit of published factor structures in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (posttraumatic amnesia > 24 hours). Archival data from 504 patient records at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Australia. Participants were aged between 16 and 71 years and were engaged in a specialist rehabilitation program. The DASS-21. Two of the 6 models had adequate fit using structural equation modeling. The data best fit Henry and Crawford's quadripartite model, which comprised a Depression, Anxiety and Stress factor, as well as a General Distress factor. The data also adequately fit Lovibond and Lovibond's original 3-factor model, and the internal consistencies of each factor were very good (α = 0.82-0.90). This study confirms the structure and construct validity of the DASS-21 and provides support for its use as a screening tool in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

  10. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  11. Cofilin Knockdown Attenuates Hemorrhagic Brain Injury-induced Oxidative Stress and Microglial Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadidi, Qasim; Nash, Kevin M; Alaqel, Saleh; Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin; Shah, Zahoor A

    2018-05-08

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) resulting from the rupture of the blood vessels in the brain is associated with significantly higher mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies focused on alleviating the primary injury, hematoma formation and expansion, were largely ineffective, suggesting that secondary injury-induced inflammation and the formation of reactive species also contribute to the overall injury process. In this study, we explored the effects of cofilin knockdown in a mouse model of ICH. Animals given stereotaxic injections of cofilin siRNA, 72-h prior to induction of ICH by collagenase injection within the area of siRNA administration showed significantly decreased cofilin expression levels and lower hemorrhage volume and edema, and the animals performed significantly better in neurobehavioral tasks i.e., rotarod, grip strength and neurologic deficit scores. Cofilin siRNA knocked-down mice had reduced ICH-induced DNA fragmentation, blood-brain barrier disruption and microglial activation, with a concomitant increase in astrocyte activation. Increased expression of pro-survival proteins and decreased markers of oxidative stress were also observed in cofilin siRNA-treated mice possibly due to the reduced levels of cofilin. Our results suggest that cofilin plays a major role in ICH-induced secondary injury, and could become a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... percentiles), at pre-kicking to 2.65 (2.55-2.81) Nm ∙ kg(-1) (P = 0.024) 24 h post-kicking. This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session....... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury and amnesia for the event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, D L; Labbate, L A; Salazar, A M; Nelson, R; Sheley, E; Staudenmeier, J; Martin, E

    1997-01-01

    Frequency of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 47 active-duty service members (46 male, 1 female; mean age 27 = 7) with moderate traumatic brain injury and neurogenic amnesia for the event. Patients had attained "oriented and cooperative" recovery level. When evaluated with a modified Present State Examination and other questions at various points from study entry to 24-month follow-up, no patients met full criteria for PTSD or met criterion B (reexperience); 6 (13%) met both C (avoidance) and D (arousal) criteria. Five of these 6 also had organic mood disorder, depressed type, and/or organic anxiety disorder. Posttraumatic amnesia following moderate head injury may protect against recurring memories and the development of PTSD. Some patients with neurogenic amnesia may develop a form of PTSD without the reexperiencing symptoms.

  14. Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David V; Esty, Mary Lee

    2015-10-01

    Previous report suggested the beneficial effects of an adaptation of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) for the amelioration of mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. As a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, FNS falls within the bioenergy domain of complementary and alternative medicine. Rather than learning voluntary control over the production/inhibition of brain wave patterns, FNS involves offsetting stimulation of brain wave activity by means of an external energy source, specifically, the conduction of electromagnetic energy stimulation via the connecting electroencephalograph cables. Essentially, these procedures subliminally induce strategic distortion of ongoing brain wave activity to presumably facilitate resetting of more adaptive patterns of activity. Reported herein are two cases of Vietnam veterans with mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms, each treated with FNS for 25 sessions. Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R after high (25 mM or low (5.5 mM glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  16. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: guluer@163.com [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wu, Xudong, E-mail: xudongwu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  17. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction

  18. Epidemiology of stress fracture injuries among US high school athletes, 2005-2006 through 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changstrom, Bradley G; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Braund, Cortney; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes in the United States sustain millions of injuries annually, approximately 10% of which are fractures. However, there is no clear estimate of the number of stress fractures sustained by high school athletes annually despite reports that stress fractures account for 0.7% to 20% of injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. This suggests a high utilization of resources for a potentially preventable injury. In addition, stress fractures have been associated with low energy availability and disordered eating in young athletes, highlighting the importance of early recognition and intervention. To investigate stress fracture rates and patterns in a large national sample of US high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data from High School RIO (Reporting Information Online), a national sports injury surveillance study, were analyzed to describe rates and patterns of stress fracture injury sustained from 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, across sports and by sex. From 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, a total of 51,773 injuries were sustained during 25,268,873 athlete-exposures, of which 389 (0.8%) were stress fractures, resulting in an overall stress fracture rate of 1.54 per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures were highest in girls' cross country (10.62), girls' gymnastics (7.43), and boys' cross country (5.42). In sex-comparable sports, girls sustained more stress fractures (63.3%) than did boys (36.7%) and had higher rates of stress fracture (2.22 vs 1.27; rate ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.23). The most commonly injured sites were the lower leg (40.3% of all stress fractures), foot (34.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (15.2%). Management was nonsurgical in 98.7% of the cases, and 65.3% of injuries resulted in ≥3 weeks of time loss, medical disqualification, or an end to the season before athletes could return to play. Although a rare injury, stress fractures cause considerable morbidity for high school athletes

  19. The military's approach to traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Grimes, Jamie; Ecklund, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are common conditions. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI became prominent among US service members but the vast majority of TBI was still due to typical causes such as falls and sporting events. PTS has long been a focus of the US military mental health providers. Combat Stress Teams have been integral to forward deployed units since the beginning of the Global War on Terror. Military medical management of disease and injury follows standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) established by civilian counterparts. However, when civilian CPGs do not exist or are not applicable to the military environment, new practice standards are created. Such is the case for mild TBI. In 2009, the VA-DoD CPG for management of mild TBI/concussion was published and a system-wide clinical care program for mild TBI/concussion was introduced. This was the first large scale effort on an entire medical care system to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. In 2010, the VA-DoD CPG for management of PTSD was published. Nevertheless, both TBI and PTS are still incompletely understood. Investment in terms of money and effort has been committed by the DoD to their study. The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury are prominent examples of this effort. These are just beginnings, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always striving to provide the very best care to its military beneficiaries.

  20. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  1. Seawater immersion aggravates burn-associated lung injury and inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qi; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Jiahan; Yang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    With the increasing frequency of marine development activities and local wars at sea, the incidence of scald burns in marine accidents or wars has been increasing yearly. Various studies have indicated that immersion in seawater has a systemic impact on some organs of animals or humans with burn. Thus, for burn/scald injuries after immersion in seawater, it is desirable to study the effects and mechanisms of action on important organs. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of immersion in seawater on lung injury, inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses in scalded rats. The structural damage to lungs was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the results showed that seawater immersion aggravated structural lung injury in scalded rats. The expression of HMGB1 in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis and the results showed that seawater immersion increased HMGB1 expression in lung tissues of scalded rats. Apoptosis in lung tissues was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and the results showed that seawater immersion increased apoptosis rate in lung tissues of scalded rats. In addition, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, SOD, and MDA in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the results showed that seawater immersion induced secretion of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), increased MDA protein level, and suppressed SOD activity in the serum of scalded rats. Furthermore, measurement of plasma volume and pH showed that seawater immersion decreased plasma volume and pH value. Overall, the results indicated that all effects induced by immersion in seawater in scalded rats are more pronounced than those induced by freshwater. In conclusion, seawater immersion may aggravate lung injury and enhance inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses after burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  2. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study.

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    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W; Korsholm, Lars; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals.

  3. Repetition and Translation Shifts

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    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  4. Effect of edaravone combined with nimodipine on oxidative stress, inflammatory factors in patients with craniocerebral injury

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    Xiao-Yan Xie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of edaravone combined with nimodipine on oxidative stress, inflammatory factors in patients with craniocerebral injury. Methods: A total of 126 patients with craniocerebral injury were randomly divided into the observation group (66 cases and the control group (60 cases. The control group was given nimodipine based on conventional therapy, and the observation was given edaravone based on the control group. For 14 days, the changes of oxidative stress indicators (SOD, MPO, MDA and inflammatory factors (CRP, TNF-α, IL-8 between the two groups were observed. Results: There was significantly difference in SOD, MPO, MDA in these two groups (Fgroup=5.483, 6.275, 6.561, P<0.05, they were all showed a rising then reducing trend over time (Ftime=13.062, 8.172, 7.842, P<0.05, the rising amplitude of SOD in observation group was less than the control group and MPO, MDA was more than the control group (Finteraction=5.305, 4.631, 5.327, P<0.05. There was significantly difference of TNF-α, CRP, IL-8 in these two groups (Fgroup=9.308, 10.375, 11.350, P<0.05, they were all showed a rising then reducing trend over time (Ftime=9.308, 10.375, 11.350, P<0.05, the rising amplitude in observation group was less than the control group (Finteraction =5.071, 4.736, 6.347, P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone combined with nimodipine can inhibits oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction significantly in craniocerebral injury, and better than nimodipine alone.

  5. Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Muscle Injury Animal Models: A Systematic Review

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    Solange Almeida dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review was performed to identify the role of photobiomodulation therapy on experimental muscle injury models linked to induce oxidative stress. EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched for studies published from January 2006 to January 2016 in the areas of laser and oxidative stress. Any animal model using photobiomodulation therapy to modulate oxidative stress was included in analysis. Eight studies were selected from 68 original articles targeted on laser irradiation and oxidative stress. Articles were critically assessed by two independent raters with a structured tool for rating the research quality. Although the small number of studies limits conclusions, the current literature indicates that photobiomodulation therapy can be an effective short-term approach to reduce oxidative stress markers (e.g., thiobarbituric acid-reactive and to increase antioxidant substances (e.g., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. However, there is a nonuniformity in the terminology used to describe the parameters and dose for low-level laser treatment.

  6. Effect of oxidative stress induced by intracranial iron overload on central pain after spinal cord injury.

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    Meng, Fan Xing; Hou, Jing Ming; Sun, Tian Sheng

    2017-02-08

    Central pain (CP) is a common clinical problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies found the pathogenesis of CP was related to the remodeling of the brain. We investigate the roles of iron overload and subsequent oxidative stress in the remodeling of the brain after SCI. We established a rat model of central pain after SCI. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: SCI, sham operation, SCI plus deferoxamine (DFX) intervention, and SCI plus nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor treatment. Pain behavior was observed and thermal pain threshold was measured regularly, and brain levels of iron, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), ferritin (Fn), and lactoferrin (Lf), were detected in the different groups 12 weeks after establishment of the model. Rats demonstrated self-biting behavior after SCI. Furthermore, the latent period of thermal pain was reduced and iron levels in the hind limb sensory area, hippocampus, and thalamus increased after SCI. Iron-regulatory protein (IRP) 1 levels increased in the hind limb sensory area, while Fn levels decreased. TfR1 mRNA levels were also increased and oxidative stress was activated. Oxidative stress could be inhibited by ferric iron chelators and NOS inhibitors. SCI may cause intracranial iron overload through the NOS-iron-responsive element/IRP pathway, resulting in central pain mediated by the oxidative stress response. Iron chelators and oxidative stress inhibitors can effectively relieve SCI-associated central pain.

  7. Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos (LER: uma doença emblemática Repetition Strain Injury (RSI: an emblematic illness

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    Herval Pina Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As lesões ósteo-musculares dos membros superiores por esforços repetitivos atribuídas ao trabalho (LER são hoje a mais freqüente das doenças do trabalho nos países precoce ou tardiamente industrializados. O autor sustenta que mais do que uma doença do trabalho, as LER são um modo de adoecimento emblemático, revelador das contradições e da patogenicidade social desse novo ciclo de desenvolvimento e crise do modo de produção capitalista. Discutindo essa dimensão social e histórica maior, insiste em que a baixa eficácia das intervenções técnicas no âmbito da engenharia, da ergonomia ou da Medicina para a prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento adequados e precoces dessa doença da pós-modernidade e as dificuldades de reinserção dos adoecidos ou ex-adoecidos no trabalho refletem, justamente, essa determinação mais abrangente, externa ao trabalho senso estrito, porque a apropriacão, a incorporação e uso das inovações tecnológicas e as novas formas de administração do trabalho se fazem no interesse exclusivo do capital. Com isso, um contingente cada vez maior de trabalhadores jovens, a maioria do gênero feminino, das mais diferentes categorias estão perdendo ou ameaçados de perder a saúde e a capacidade de trabalho, bens públicos essenciais e intimamente relacionados. A saída para resolver a questão LER deve ser política e coletiva.Muscular-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs resulting from work involving repetition strain (RSI are now the most frequent work-related diseases in early or late industrialized countries. The author maintains that in addition to being work-related diseases, RSIs are symbolic illnesses revealing the contradictions and social pathogenesis of the new cycle of development and crisis in capitalist production. Discussing the social and historical dimensions of this process, the author insists that the low efficacy of technical interventions by labor engineering, ergonomics, and

  8. Role of SPECT imaging in symptomatic posterior element lumbar stress injuries

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    Debnath U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of stress injuries of spine is very difficult with conventional radiography. Methods : In a observational study, 132 subjects were recruited (between 8 and 38 years of age, who had lumbar spondylolysis or posterior element stress injuries. All these patients underwent clinical examination followed by plain X-rays, planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT (single photon emission computerised tomography. SPECT scans can identify the posterior element lumbar stress injuries earlier than other imaging modalities. As the lesions evolve and the completed spondylolysis becomes chronic, the SPECT scans tend to revert to normal even though healing of the defect has not occurred. The aim of the study was to determine the time lag after which SPECT imaging tends to be negative. We divided the patients into two groups, one SPECT positive group and the other SPECT negative group. Pre treatment background variables such as age, gender, back pain in extension or flexion, sporting activities, time of onset of symptoms, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were used in a univariate logistic regression model to find the strong predictors of positive SPECT imaging results. Determinants of positivity versus negativity of SPECT were identified by discriminant analysis using multivariate logistic regression. Results : Seventy nine patients had positive SPECT scans whereas 53 patients had negative SPECT scans. Bilateral increased uptake was more common than unilateral uptake. Increased uptake at the L5 lumbar spine was more common (70% in SPECT positive group. Low back pain in extension was significantly more common in SPECT positive subjects. Active sporting individuals had higher probability of having a positive SPECT scan. The mean time lag from the onset of low back pain to SPECT imaging was 7 months in SPECT positive group and 25 months in the SPECT negative group. Multivariate analysis predicted that there is a significant difference in positivity of

  9. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

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    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  10. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

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    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

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    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cold stress-induced brain injury regulates TRPV1 channels and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

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    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yunen; Jin, Hongxu; Cong, Peifang; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Shi, Xiuyun; Liu, Xuelei; Tong, Zhou; Shi, Lin; Hou, Mingxiao

    2017-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that interacts with several intracellular proteins in vivo, including calmodulin and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt). TRPV1 activation has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold stress on the mouse brain and the underlying mechanisms of TRPV1 involvement. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cold stress (4°C for 8h per day for 2weeks). The behavioral deficits of the mice were then measured using the Morris water maze. Expression levels of brain injury-related proteins and mRNA were measured by western blot, immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. The mice displayed behavioral deficits, inflammation and changes in brain injury markers following cold stress. As expected, upregulated TRPV1 expression levels and changes in PI3K/Akt expression were found. The TRPV1 inhibitor reduced the levels of brain injury-related proteins and inflammation. These data suggest that cold stress can induce brain injury, possibly through TRPV1 activation and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Suppression of inflammation by inhibition of TRPV1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway may be helpful to prevent cold stress-induced brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

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    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  14. Bone stress injury of the ankle in professional ballet dancers seen on MRI

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    Besser Marcus P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ballet Dancers have been shown to have a relatively high incidence of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. It was our objective to examine MR imaging patterns of bone marrow edema (BME in the ankles of high performance professional ballet dancers, to evaluate clinical relevance. Methods MR Imaging was performed on 12 ankles of 11 active professional ballet dancers (6 female, 5 male; mean age 24 years, range 19 to 32. Individuals were imaged on a 0.2 T or 1.5 T MRI units. Images were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and one orthopaedic surgeon in consensus for location and pattern of bone marrow edema. In order to control for recognized sources of bone marrow edema, images were also reviewed for presence of osseous, ligamentous, tendinous and cartilage injuries. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the strength of the correlation between bone marrow edema and ankle pain. Results Bone marrow edema was seen only in the talus, and was a common finding, observed in nine of the twelve ankles imaged (75% and was associated with pain in all cases. On fluid-sensitive sequences, bone marrow edema was ill-defined and centered in the talar neck or body, although in three cases it extended to the talar dome. No apparent gender predilection was noted. No occult stress fracture could be diagnosed. A moderately strong correlation (phi = 0.77, p= 0.0054 was found between edema and pain in the study population. Conclusion Bone marrow edema seems to be a specific MRI finding in the talus of professional ballet dancers, likely related to biomechanical stress reactions, due to their frequently performed unique maneuvers. Clinically, this condition may indicate a sign of a bone stress injury of the ankle.

  15. Bone stress injury of the ankle in professional ballet dancers seen on MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ilan; Zoga, Adam C; Raikin, Steven M; Peterson, Judith R; Besser, Marcus P; Morrison, William B; Schweitzer, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    Background Ballet Dancers have been shown to have a relatively high incidence of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. It was our objective to examine MR imaging patterns of bone marrow edema (BME) in the ankles of high performance professional ballet dancers, to evaluate clinical relevance. Methods MR Imaging was performed on 12 ankles of 11 active professional ballet dancers (6 female, 5 male; mean age 24 years, range 19 to 32). Individuals were imaged on a 0.2 T or 1.5 T MRI units. Images were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and one orthopaedic surgeon in consensus for location and pattern of bone marrow edema. In order to control for recognized sources of bone marrow edema, images were also reviewed for presence of osseous, ligamentous, tendinous and cartilage injuries. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the strength of the correlation between bone marrow edema and ankle pain. Results Bone marrow edema was seen only in the talus, and was a common finding, observed in nine of the twelve ankles imaged (75%) and was associated with pain in all cases. On fluid-sensitive sequences, bone marrow edema was ill-defined and centered in the talar neck or body, although in three cases it extended to the talar dome. No apparent gender predilection was noted. No occult stress fracture could be diagnosed. A moderately strong correlation (phi = 0.77, p= 0.0054) was found between edema and pain in the study population. Conclusion Bone marrow edema seems to be a specific MRI finding in the talus of professional ballet dancers, likely related to biomechanical stress reactions, due to their frequently performed unique maneuvers. Clinically, this condition may indicate a sign of a bone stress injury of the ankle. PMID:18371230

  16. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients with Severe Head Injury

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    Luca Loredana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU. After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS. A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine. In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.

  17. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

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    Fu-Chao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed.

  18. Can mesenchymal stem cells reverse chronic stress-induced impairment of lung healing following traumatic injury?

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    Gore, Amy V; Bible, Letitia E; Livingston, David H; Mohr, Alicia M; Sifri, Ziad C

    2015-04-01

    One week following unilateral lung contusion (LC), rat lungs demonstrate full histologic recovery. When animals undergo LC plus the addition of chronic restraint stress (CS), wound healing is significantly delayed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent cells capable of immunomodulation, which have been the focus of much research in wound healing and tissue regeneration. We hypothesize that the addition of MSCs will improve wound healing in the setting of CS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-7 per group) were subjected to LC/CS with or without the injection of MSCs. MSCs were given as a single intravenous dose of 5 × 10 cells in 1 mL Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium at the time of LC. Rats were subjected to 2 hours of restraint stress on Days 1 to 6 following LC. Seven days following injury, rats were sacrificed, and the lungs were examined for histologic evidence of wound healing using a well-established histologic lung injury score (LIS) to grade injury. LIS examines inflammatory cells/high-power field (HPF) averaged over 30 fields, interstitial edema, pulmonary edema, and alveolar integrity, with scores ranging from 0 (normal) to 11 (highly damaged). Peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of T-regulatory (C4CD25FoxP3) cells. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test, expressed as mean (SD). As previously shown, 7 days following isolated LC, LIS has returned to 0.83 (0.41), with a subscore of zero for inflammatory cells/HPF. The addition of CS results in an LIS of 4.4 (2.2), with a subscore of 1.9 (0.7) for inflammatory cells/HPF. Addition of MSC to LC/CS decreased LIS to 1.7 (0.8), with a subscore of zero for inflammatory cells/HPF. Furthermore, treatment of animals undergoing LC/CS with MSCs increased the %T-regulatory cells by 70% in animals undergoing LC/CS alone (12.9% [2.4]% vs. 6.2% [1.3%]). Stress-induced impairment of wound healing is reversed by the addition of MSCs given

  19. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Restoration of strength despite low stress and abnormal imaging after Achilles injury.

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    Trudel, Guy; Doherty, Geoffrey P; Koike, Yoichi; Ramachandran, Nanthan; Lecompte, Martin; Dinh, Laurent; Uhthoff, Hans K

    2009-11-01

    To determine the usefulness of clinical imaging in predicting the mechanical properties of rabbit Achilles tendons after acute injury. We created a 2 x 7-mm full-thickness central tendon defect in one Achilles tendon of healthy rabbits. Rabbits in groups of 10 were killed immediately and 4 and 8 wk after surgery (n = 30). We then performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US), bone mineral densitometry (BMD), and mechanical testing to failure using a dual-cryofixation assembly on experimental and contralateral tendons. The main outcome measures included tendon dimensions, optical density (OD) of T1-weighted, proton density (PD), and T2-weighted MR sequences, US focal abnormalities, BMD of the calcaneus, and stress and peak load to failure. On MR imaging and US, all dimensions of the injured tendons after 2 wk and more were greater than those of the contralateral tendons (P tendons at both 4 wk (39 +/- 9 vs 77 +/- 16 N x mm(-2)) and 8 wk (58 +/- 6 vs 94 +/- 26 N x mm(-2); P tendons, higher T1-weighted OD correlated with lower peak load (r = -0.46; P tendon of lower stress. These findings support progressive physical loading 4 wk after an Achilles tendon injury. T1-weighted OD constituted a marker of tendon mechanical recovery.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Injury and Hepatocarcinogenesis: Focusing on the Role of Stress-Activated MAPK

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    Hayato Nakagawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Short-term prognosis of patients with HCC has improved recently due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment, but long-term prognosis is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, obtaining a further understanding of the molecular carcinogenic mechanisms and the unique pathogenic biology of HCC is important. The most characteristic process in hepatocarcinogenesis is underlying chronic liver injury, which leads to repeated cycles of hepatocyte death, inflammation, and compensatory proliferation and subsequently provides a mitogenic and mutagenic environment leading to the development of HCC. Recent in vivo studies have shown that the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade converging on c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 plays a central role in these processes, and it has attracted considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, JNK and p38 have complex functions and a wide range of cellular effects. In addition, crosstalk with each other and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway further complicate these functions. A full understanding is essential to bring these observations into clinical settings. In this paper, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms of liver injury and hepatocarcinogenesis focusing on the role of the stress-activated MAPK pathway.

  2. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

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    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  3. Social connectedness, stressful life events, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among young adults.

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    Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella

    2018-01-01

    Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure Combined with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induces Deep Tissue Injury via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Pressure Ulcer Model

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    Fei-Fei Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer is a complex and significant health problem in long-term bedridden patients, and there is currently no effective treatment or efficient prevention method. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis contributing to the deep injury of pressure ulcers are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and Akt/GSK3β signaling in pressure ulcers. A model of pressure-induced deep tissue injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was established. Rats were treated with 2-h compression and subsequent 0.5-h release for various cycles. After recovery, the tissue in the compressed regions was collected for further analysis. The compressed muscle tissues showed clear cellular degenerative features. First, the expression levels of ER stress proteins GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 were generally increased compared to those in the control. Phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β were upregulated in the beginning of muscle compression, and immediately significantly decreased at the initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in compressed muscles tissue. These data show that ER stress may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of cell degeneration after pressure ulcers and that the Akt/GSK3β signal pathway may play an important role in deep tissue injury induced by pressure and ischemia/reperfusion.

  5. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

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    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%, and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal. Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  6. Locus of control among spinal cord injury patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Chung, Man Cheung; Preveza, Eleni; Papandreou, Konstantinos; Prevezas, Nikolaos

    2007-08-30

    Two hypotheses were investigated in the present study: 1) Patients with full posttraumatic stress symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) would experience more general health problems than those with partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with no-PTSD and the control group; 2) Patients with full PTSD would endorse the external locus of control more than those with partial PTSD, no-PTSD and the control group. Sixty-two patients were recruited from a specialized rehabilitation clinic for spinal cord injury. The control group comprised 60 participants without SCI. Patients with SCI were assessed using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The control group was assessed using the GHQ-28 and the MHLC. The full PTSD group experienced more somatic problems, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression than the partial PTSD, the no-PTSD and the control groups. The results also showed that the full PTSD group endorsed significantly more external health locus of control than the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the three patient groups in health locus of control. The three PTSD sub-scales were positively correlated with general health problems. Further analyses showed that partial PTSD patients with paraplegia and partial PTSD patients whose SCI had a medically related cause were more likely to report less internal locus of control than other patients. Patients who suffered from full PTSD experienced more general health problems than those with fewer PTSD symptoms and those without SCI. External locus of control was a distinctive strategy that SCI-PTSD patients used in coping with the effects of SCI-PTSD.

  7. Effect of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia on maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section

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    Xue-Hong Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia on maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section. Methods: 37 puerperae receiving cesarean section for fetal intrauterine hypoxia between May 2014 and December 2016 were selected as hypoxia group and 40 puerperae receiving cesarean section during the same period and without complications during pregnancy or fetal intrauterine hypoxia were selected as control group. Umbilical arterial blood was collected after delivery of placenta for blood gas analysis, and the placenta tissue and serum samples were collected to test the content of oxidative stress products and antioxidants. Results: Umbilical arterial blood gas analysis parameters pH value as well as PO2, HCO3 - and BE content of hypoxia group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; NADPH, reactive oxide species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS content in placenta tissue of hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of control group (P <0.05 while glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, Trx, vitamin C (VitC, VitE and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α content of hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia can lead to maternal oxidative stress injury after cesarean section and increase the generation of free radicals and the consumption of antioxidants.

  8. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, M.R.; van de Schoot, R.; Geenen, R.; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    Aim The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents’ own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. Methods One-hundred children (8–18 years old), and their mothers (n

  9. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

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    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  10. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

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    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high

  11. Synergistic Interaction of Hypertension and Diabetes in Promoting Kidney Injury and the Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; do Carmo, Jussara M; Aberdein, Nicola; Zhou, Xinchun; Williams, Jan M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are major risk factors for chronic kidney injury, together accounting for >70% of end-stage renal disease. In this study, we assessed interactions of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in causing kidney dysfunction and injury and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hypertension was induced by aorta constriction (AC) between the renal arteries in 6-month-old male Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic and control Wistar rats. Fasting plasma glucose averaged 162±11 and 87±2 mg/dL in GK and Wistar rats, respectively. AC produced hypertension in the right kidney (above AC) and near normal blood pressure in the left kidney (below AC), with both kidneys exposed to the same levels of glucose, circulating hormones, and neural influences. After 8 weeks of AC, blood pressure above the AC (and in the right kidney) increased from 109±1 to 152±5 mm Hg in GK rats and from 106±4 to 141±5 mm Hg in Wistar rats. The diabetic-hypertensive right kidneys in GK-AC rats had much greater increases in albumin excretion and histological injury compared with left kidneys (diabetes mellitus only) of GK rats or right kidneys (hypertension only) of Wistar-AC rats. Marked increases in ER stress and oxidative stress indicators were observed in diabetic-hypertensive kidneys of GK-AC rats. Inhibition of ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholic acid for 6 weeks reduced blood pressure (135±4 versus 151±4 mm Hg), albumin excretion, ER and oxidative stress, and glomerular injury, while increasing glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive-diabetic kidneys. These results suggest that diabetes mellitus and hypertension interact synergistically to promote kidney dysfunction and injury via ER stress. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats.

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    Yang, Long; Dong, Xiujuan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics. This protective effect coincided with reduced malondialdehyde and increased glutathione in both serum and lung tissues, indicating attenuated oxidative stress in crocin-treated rats. Myeloperoxide levels in lung, kidney and liver were also reduced. Crocin can potentially be used to protect organs from HS-induced damages during resuscitation due to its anti-oxidative role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress caused by activation of NADPH oxidase 4 promotes contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Bo Young Jeong

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI is a leading cause of acute kidney injury following radiographic procedures. Intrarenal oxidative stress plays a critical role in CIAKI. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate (NADPH oxidases (Noxs are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney in rodents. Here, we evaluated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition on CIAKI using in vivo and in vitro models. HK-2 cells were treated with iohexol, with or without Nox4 knockdown, or the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor (GKT137831. Effects of Nox4 inhibition on CIAKI mice were examined. Expression of Nox4 in HK-2 cells was significantly increased following iohexol exposure. Silencing of Nox4 rescued the production of ROS, downregulated pro-inflammatory markers (particularly phospho-p38 implicated in CIAKI, and reduced Bax and caspase 3/7 activity, which resulted in increased cellular survival in iohexol-treated HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with GKT137831 replicated these effects by decreasing levels of phospho-p38. In a CIAKI mouse model, even though the improvement of plasma blood urea nitrogen was unclear, pretreatment with GKT137831 resulted in preserved structure, reduced expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, and reduced number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. These results suggest Nox4 as a key source of reactive oxygen species responsible for CIAKI and provide a novel potential option for prevention of CIAKI.

  14. Fisetin alleviates oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong; Zhou, Yali; Zhu, Yihao; Fei, Maoxin

    2018-05-22

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has neuroprotection properties in many brain injury models. However, its role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been fully explained. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of fisetin in a mouse model of TBI. We found that fisetin improved neurological function, reduced cerebral edema, attenuated brain lesion and ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after TBI. Moreover, the up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reversed by fisetin treatment. Furthermore, administration of fisetin suppressed neuron cell death and apoptosis, increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), while decreased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 after TBI. In addition, fisetin activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway following TBI. However, fisetin only failed to suppress oxidative stress in Nrf2 -/- mice. In conclusion, our data provided the first evidence that fisetin played a critical role in neuroprotection after TBI partly through the activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Injury-related fear-avoidance and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in parents of children with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, M; Sveen, J

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with burns experience a range of psychological reactions and symptoms, and parents' health is known to impact children's health. So far, there is little research into potential mechanisms that maintain parents' symptoms. The aim was to investigate parental injury-related fear-avoidance, and its associations with injury severity and health measures. Parents (n=107) of children aged 0.4-18 years that sustained burns 0.1-9.0 years previously completed questionnaires on fear-avoidance, posttraumatic stress, and health of the child. Analyses showed that the average level of fear-avoidance was low and positively associated with measures of injury severity and parents' symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and negatively associated with parents' ratings of their child's health. In two separate multiple regressions with parents' symptoms of PTSD and the child's health as dependent variables, fear-avoidance made the largest contribution in both models while injury severity was non-significant. Results were not related to comorbid conditions of the child, scarring, or parent-related socio-demographic variables. In summary, injury-related fear-avoidance is more likely among parents whose children sustain more severe burns. In turn, fear-avoidance contributes significantly to parents' symptoms of PTSD and to poorer health ratings regarding the child, irrespective of injury severity or child comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective study on paediatric traffic injuries : health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Stewart, RE; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To examine children's reports of their health- related quality of life ( HRQoL) following paediatric traffic injury, to explore child and parental post- traumatic stress, and to identify children and parents with adverse outcomes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Assessments: shortly

  18. Associations of Work Stress, Supervisor Unfairness, and Supervisor Inability to Speak Spanish with Occupational Injury among Latino Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-06-22

    Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.

  19. StressModEx--Physiotherapist-led Stress Inoculation Training integrated with exercise for acute whiplash injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Carrie; Kenardy, Justin; Smeets, Rob; Sterling, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Whiplash associated disorders are the most common non-hospitalised injuries following a road traffic crash. Up to 50% of individuals who experience a whiplash injury will not fully recover and report ongoing pain and disability. Most recovery, if it occurs, takes place in the first 2-3 months post injury, indicating that treatment provided in the early stages is critical to long-term outcome. However, early management approaches for people with acute whiplash associated disorders are modestly effective. One reason may be that the treatments have been non-specific and have not targeted the processes shown to be associated with poor recovery, such as post-traumatic stress symptoms. Targeting and modulating these early stress responses in the early management of acute whiplash associated disorders may improve health outcomes. Early aggressive psychological interventions in the form of psychological debriefing may be detrimental to recovery and are now not recommended for management of early post-traumatic stress symptoms. In contrast, Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) is a cognitive behavioural approach that teaches various general problem-solving and coping strategies to manage stress-related anxiety (ie, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring and positive self-statements) and provides important information to injured individuals about the impact of stress on their physical and psychological wellbeing. While referral to a psychologist may be necessary in some cases where acute stress disorder or other more significant psychological reactions to stress are evident, in the case of acute whiplash injuries, it is neither feasible nor necessary for a psychologist to deliver the early stress modulation intervention to all injured individuals. The feasibility of using other specially trained health professionals to deliver psychological interventions has been explored in conditions such as chronic low back pain, chronic whiplash and cancer, but few trials have studied

  20. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  1. Chronic restraint stress after injury and shock is associated with persistent anemia despite prolonged elevation in erythropoietin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Letitia E; Pasupuleti, Latha V; Gore, Amy V; Sifri, Ziad C; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Mohr, Alicia M

    2015-07-01

    Following severe traumatic injury, critically ill patients have a prolonged hypercatacholamine state that is associated with bone marrow (BM) dysfunction and persistent anemia. However, current animal models of injury and shock result in a transient anemia. Daily restraint stress (chronic stress [CS]) has been shown to increase catecholamines. We hypothesize that adding CS following injury or injury and shock in rats will prolong the hypercatecholaminemia and prolong the initial anemia, despite elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8 per group) underwent lung contusion (LC) or combined LC/hemorrhagic shock (LCHS) followed by 6 days of CS. CS consisted of a 2-hour restraint period interrupted with repositioning and alarms every 30 minutes. At 7 days, urine was assessed for norepinephrine (NE) levels, blood for EPO and hemoglobin (Hgb), and BM for erythroid progenitor growth. Animals undergoing LC or combined LCHS predictably recovered by Day 7; urine NE, EPO, and Hgb levels were normal. The addition of CS to LC and LCHS models was associated with a significant elevation in NE on Day 6. The addition of CS to LC led to a persistent 20% to 25% decrease in the growth of BM hematopoietic progenitor cells. These findings were further exaggerated when CS was added following LCHS, resulting in a 20%q to 40% reduction in BM erythroid progenitor colony growth and a 20% decrease in Hgb when compared with LCHS alone. Exposing injured animals to CS results in prolonged elevation of NE and EPO, which is associated with worsening BM erythroid function and persistent anemia. Chronic restraint stress following injury and shock provides a clinically relevant model to further evaluate persistent injury-associated anemia seen in critically ill trauma patients. Furthermore, alleviating CS after severe injury is a potential therapeutic target to improve BM dysfunction and anemia.

  2. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  3. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Åhman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused by an injury, answered a set of questionnaires to assess post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], pain intensity (VAS, depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD].Results: Moderate to severe post-traumatic stress was reported by 48.1% of the patients. Possible–probable anxiety on the HAD was scored by 44.5% and possible–probable depression by 45.2%. Pain intensity (VAS was significantly correlated to post-traumatic stress (r = 0.183, p = 0.022, the HAD-scores anxiety (r = 0.186, p = 0.0021, and depression (r = 0.252, p = 0.002. No statistically significant differences were found between genders for post-traumatic stress, pain intensity, anxiety, or depression. Participants with moderate to severe stress reaction reported statistically significant higher anxiety scores on the HAD (p = 0.030 in comparison with patients with mild stress.Conclusion: The findings of relationships between pain intensity, post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety may have implications for clinicians and underline the importance of considering all these factors when managing patients with injury-related chronic pain.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, chronic pain

  4. ALDH2 Inhibition Potentiates High Glucose Stress-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes

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    Guodong Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily consists of 19 isozymes. They are present in various organs and involved in metabolizing aldehydes that are biologically generated. For instance, ALDH2, a cardiac mitochondrial ALDH isozyme, is known to detoxify 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a reactive aldehyde produced upon lipid peroxidation in diabetic conditions. We hypothesized that inhibition of ALDH leads to the accumulation of unmetabolized 4HNE and consequently exacerbates injury in cells subjected to high glucose stress. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines were pretreated with 10 μM disulfiram (DSF, an inhibitor of ALDH2 or vehicle (DMSO for 2 hours, and then subjected to high glucose stress {33 mM D-glucose (HG or 33 mM D-mannitol as an osmotic control (Ctrl} for 24 hrs. The decrease in ALDH2 activity with DSF pretreatment was higher in HG group when compared to Ctrl group. Increased 4HNE adduct formation with DSF pretreatment was higher in HG group compared to Ctrl group. Pretreatment with DSF leads to potentiated HG-induced cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes by lowering mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that ALDH2 activity is important in preventing high glucose induced cellular dysfunction.

  5. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Mild-Moderate Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul G. Harch, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Traumatic Brain Injury Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect 11-28% and 13-17%, respectively, of U.S. combat troops returning from Iraq and

  6. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Somaio Neto, Frederico; Chaves, José Carlos; Teruya, Roberto; Bertoletto, Eduardo Rodrigues; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José

    2012-11-01

    To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120 min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60 min of small bowel ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters) for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2%) had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8%) showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7%) were up-regulated and 04 (6.3%) were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04%) showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04%) were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9%) genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6%) or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%). The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.

  7. Stress fractures of the ribs and upper extremities: causation, evaluation, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Harris, Joshua D; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2013-08-01

    Stress fractures are common troublesome injuries in athletes and non-athletes. Historically, stress fractures have been thought to predominate in the lower extremities secondary to the repetitive stresses of impact loading. Stress injuries of the ribs and upper extremities are much less common and often unrecognized. Consequently, these injuries are often omitted from the differential diagnosis of rib or upper extremity pain. Given the infrequency of this diagnosis, few case reports or case series have reported on their precipitating activities and common locations. Appropriate evaluation for these injuries requires a thorough history and physical examination. Radiographs may be negative early, requiring bone scintigraphy or MRI to confirm the diagnosis. Nonoperative and operative treatment recommendations are made based on location, injury classification, and causative activity. An understanding of the most common locations of upper extremity stress fractures and their associated causative activities is essential for prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment.

  8. Repetitive Questioning II

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    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  9. Edaravone Protected Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Methylglyoxal-Induced Injury by Inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Xu, Hongjiao; Hu, Yangmin; He, Ping; Ni, Zhenzhen; Xu, Huimin; Zhang, Zhongmiao; Dai, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10–100 µmol/l. What’s more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress. PMID:24098758

  10. Edaravone protected human brain microvascular endothelial cells from methylglyoxal-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlu Li

    Full Text Available Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC, protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10-100 µmol/l. What's more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

  11. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Adam I; Geissler, Gary J; Wang, Frank; Saretsky, Jason; Daoud, Yahya A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study tests if runners who habitually forefoot strike have different rates of injury than runners who habitually rearfoot strike. We measured the strike characteristics of middle- and long-distance runners from a collegiate cross-country team and quantified their history of injury, including the incidence and rate of specific injuries, the severity of each injury, and the rate of mild, moderate, and severe injuries per mile run. Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot strike and 16 (31%) primarily used a forefoot strike. Approximately 74% of runners experienced a moderate or severe injury each year, but those who habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were not significantly different between the two groups. A generalized linear model showed that strike type, sex, race distance, and average miles per week each correlate significantly (P strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike. This study does not test the causal bases for this general difference. One hypothesis, which requires further research, is that the absence of a marked impact peak in the ground reaction force during a forefoot strike compared with a rearfoot strike may contribute to lower rates of injuries in habitual forefoot strikers.

  13. Effectiveness of a stress management pilot program aimed at reducing the incidence of sports injuries in young football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p youth soccer sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the oxidative stress responses in traumatic brain injury patients

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    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Hypertonic saline (HTS has advantages as being preferred osmotic agent, but few studies investigated oxidant and antioxidant effects of HTS in TBI. This study was designed to compare two different regimens of HTS 5% with mannitol on TBI-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with TBI were recruited and have randomly received one of the three protocols: 125 cc of HTS 5% every 6 h as bolus, 500 cc of HTS 5%as infusion for 24 h or 1 g/kg mannitol of 20% as a bolus, repeated with a dose of 0.25-0.5 g/kg every 6 h based on patient′s response for 3 days. Serum total antioxidant power (TAP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO were measured at baseline and daily for 3 days. Results: Initial serum ROS and NO levels in patients were higher than control(6.86± [3.2] vs. 1.57± [0.5] picoM, P = 0.001, 14.6± [1.6] vs. 7.8± [3.9] mM, P = 0.001, respectively. Levels of ROS have decreased for all patients, but reduction was significantly after HTS infusion and mannitol (3. 08 [±3.1] to 1.07 [±1.6], P = 0.001, 5.6 [±3.4] to 2.5 [±1.8], P = 0.003 respectively. During study, NO levels significantly decreased in HTS infusion but significantly increased in mannitol. TAP Levels had decreased in all patients during study especially in mannitol (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline 5% has significant effects on the oxidant responses compared to mannitol following TBI that makes HTS as a perfect therapeutic intervention for reducing unfavorable outcomes in TBI patients.

  15. C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Plays a Crucial Role in Mediating Oxidative Stress-Induced Podocyte Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hongyan; Wu, Qinyu; Miao, Jinhua; Luo, Congwei; Hong, Xue; Wang, Yongping; Tang, Lan; Hou, Fan Fan; Liu, Youhua; Zhou, Lili

    2017-08-20

    Oxidative stress plays a role in mediating podocyte injury and proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the potential role of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), the receptor for stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), in mediating oxidative stress-induced podocyte injury. In mouse model of adriamycin nephropathy (ADR), CXCR4 expression was significantly induced in podocytes as early as 3 days. This was accompanied by an increased upregulation of oxidative stress in podocyte, as demonstrated by malondialdehyde assay, nitrotyrosine staining and secretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine, and induction of NOX2 and NOX4, major subunits of NADPH oxidase. CXCR4 was also induced in human kidney biopsies with proteinuric kidney diseases and colocalized with advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), an established oxidative stress trigger. Using cultured podocytes and mouse model, we found that AOPPs induced significant loss of podocyte marker Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), nephrin, and podocalyxin, accompanied by upregulation of desmin both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, AOPPs worsened proteinuria and aggravated glomerulosclerosis in ADR. These effects were associated with marked activation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in podocytes. Administration of AMD3100, a specific inhibitor of CXCR4, reduced proteinuria and ameliorated podocyte dysfunction and renal fibrosis triggered by AOPPs in mice. In glomerular miniorgan culture, AOPPs also induced CXCR4 expression and downregulated nephrin and WT1. Innovation and Conclusion: These results suggest that chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a crucial role in mediating oxidative stress-induced podocyte injury, proteinuria, and renal fibrosis. CXCR4 could be a new target for mitigating podocyte injury, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis in proteinuric chronic kidney disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 345-362.

  16. Mangiferin Reduces Oxidative Stress-mediated Renal Injury in γ-radiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabany, H.; Lotfi, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species in different tissues provoking oxidative damage and tissue injury. Mangiferin (MGN), 1,3,6,7-tetra hydroxyxanthone-C 2 -β-D-glucoside, a naturally occurring polyphenol, present in Mangifera indica (M. indica) in large amounts in the leaves and edible mango fruits has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MGN on radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in the kidney of mice. MGN (20 mg/ kg body weight) was administrated to male albino mice via gavages during 15 successive days before whole body exposures to gamma rays (4 Gy). The animals were sacrificed 48 hours post irradiation. Biochemical analysis in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species. A significant increase was recorded in the level of lipid peroxidation products; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and lipid hydroperoxides (HDPx), in addition to a significant increase in the level of protein carbonyl content (PC) , marker of protein oxidation. The increase of oxidative markers was accompanied by a significant decrease in the contents of total sulphydryl (SH) group ,glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Moreover, irradiation induced a significant decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Histological observations in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed tubular necrosis, degeneration, dilatation, desquamation, thickening of basement membrane and luminal cast formation. MGN pre-treatment has significantly improved the oxidant /antioxidant status, which was associated with significant regeneration of the kidney tissue. Based on these results, it is concluded that the natural dietary antioxidant M GN m ight

  17. Fear learning alterations after traumatic brain injury and their role in development of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Acheson, Dean T; Geyer, Mark A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Baker, Dewleen G; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2017-08-01

    It is unknown how traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potential mechanism is via alteration of fear-learning processes that could affect responses to trauma memories and cues. We utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to determine if TBI is associated with altered fear learning and extinction, and if fear processing mediates effects of TBI on PTSD symptom change. Eight hundred fifty two active-duty Marines and Navy Corpsmen were assessed before and after deployment. Assessments included TBI history, PTSD symptoms, combat trauma and deployment stress, and a fear-potentiated startle task of fear acquisition and extinction. Startle response and self-reported expectancy and anxiety served as measures of fear conditioning, and PTSD symptoms were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Individuals endorsing "multiple hit" exposure (both deployment TBI and a prior TBI) showed the strongest fear acquisition and highest fear expression compared to groups without multiple hits. Extinction did not differ across groups. Endorsing a deployment TBI was associated with higher anxiety to the fear cue compared to those without deployment TBI. The association of deployment TBI with increased postdeployment PTSD symptoms was mediated by postdeployment fear expression when recent prior-TBI exposure was included as a moderator. TBI associations with increased response to threat cues and PTSD symptoms remained when controlling for deployment trauma and postdeployment PTSD diagnosis. Deployment TBI, and multiple-hit TBI in particular, are associated with increases in conditioned fear learning and expression that may contribute to risk for developing PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Roles of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in NECA-Induced Cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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    Fengmei Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate whether the nonselective A2 adenosine receptor agonist NECA induces cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury via glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP through inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS. Methods and Results. H9c2 cells were exposed to H2O2 for 20 minutes. NECA significantly prevented H2O2-induced TMRE fluorescence reduction, indicating that NECA inhibited the mPTP opening. NECA blocked H2O2-induced GSK-3β phosphorylation and GRP94 expression. NECA increased GSK-3β phosphorylation and decreased GRP94 expression, which were prevented by both ERS inductor 2-DG and PKG inhibitor KT5823, suggesting that NECA may induce cardioprotection through GSK-3β and cGMP/PKG via ERS. In isolated rat hearts, both NECA and the ERS inhibitor TUDCA decreased myocardial infarction, increased GSK-3β phosphorylation, and reversed GRP94 expression at reperfusion, suggesting that NECA protected the heart by inhibiting GSK-3β and ERS. Transmission electron microscopy showed that NECA and TUDCA reduced mitochondrial swelling and endoplasmic reticulum expansion, further supporting that NECA protected the heart by preventing the mPTP opening and ERS. Conclusion. These data suggest that NECA prevents the mPTP opening through inactivation of GSK-3β via ERS inhibition. The cGMP/PKG signaling pathway is responsible for GSK-3β inactivation by NECA.

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, R J; Liter, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or post-concussive syndrome develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their cognitive difficulties, diminished coping skills, or other losses. This study examined 70 patients who had previously been diagnosed as having either PTSD or MTBI. Each patient was asked to provide a highly detailed chronological history of the events which preceded, followed, and occurred during the traumatic event, to indicate whether they were rendered unconscious or had amnesia for the event, and to describe the various symptoms they developed. All (100.0%) of the PTSD patients were able to provide a highly detailed and emotionally charged recollection of the events which occurred within 15 minutes of the traumatic event in comparison to none (0.0%) of the MTBI patients. None of the MTBI patients reported symptoms such as intrusive recollections of the traumatic event, nightmares, hypervigilance, phobic or startle reactions, or became upset when they were asked to describe the traumatic event or were exposed to stimuli associated with it. These data suggest that PTSD and MTBI are two mutually exclusive disorders, and that it is highly unlikely that MTBI patients develop PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that clinicians should exercise considerable caution in ruling out PTSD prior to making the diagnosis of MTBI.

  20. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

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    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  1. Curcumin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiying; Fan, Yanxia; Sun, Hongyu; Chen, Liyan; Man, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the dynamic changes of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 153 (GADD153) gene and caspase-12 in the brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) and the impact of curcumin pretreatment. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into the normal group (N), the sham operation group (S), the dimethyl sulfoxide control group (D) and the curcumin treatment group (C). For group D and C, 12 (T1), 24 (T2) and 72 h (T3) of reperfusion were performed after 2 h ischemia. The expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 in the brain tissue were detected and compared among the groups by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence double staining and western blotting. The expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 were increased at T1compared with groups N and S, and the expression of caspase-12 peaked at T2 in group D, while GADD153 was increased until T3 in group D. Compared with group D, the expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 in group C at T2 and T3 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathological process of CIRI. Curcumin may decrease the expression levels of the above two factors, thus exhibiting protective effects against CIRI in rats. PMID:29067098

  2. Partial deletion of argininosuccinate synthase protects from pyrazole plus lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung Ming; Ward, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Along with nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, ASS endows cells with the l-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) salvage pathway to continually supply l-arginine from l-citrulline for sustained NO· generation. Because of the relevant role of NOS in liver injury, we hypothesized that downregulation of ASS could decrease the availability of intracellular substrate for NO· synthesis by NOS-2 and, hence, decrease liver damage. Previous work demonstrated that pyrazole plus LPS caused significant liver injury involving NO· generation and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts; thus, wild-type (WT) and Ass+/− mice (Ass−/− mice are lethal) were treated with pyrazole plus LPS, and markers of nitrosative stress, as well as liver injury, were analyzed. Partial ablation of Ass protected from pyrazole plus LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing nitrosative stress and hepatic and circulating TNFα. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented, since pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− mice showed decreased phosphorylation of JNK; increased MAPK phosphatase-1, which is known to deactivate JNK signaling; and lower cleaved caspase-3 than treated WT mice, and this was accompanied by less TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive staining. Lastly, hepatic neutrophil accumulation was almost absent in pyrazole plus LPS-treated Ass+/− compared with WT mice. Partial Ass ablation prevents pyrazole plus LPS-mediated liver injury by reducing nitrosative stress, TNFα, apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:22052013

  3. Development of prediction models of stress and long-term disability among claimants to injury compensation systems: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittal, Matthew J; Grant, Genevieve; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C; Studdert, David M

    2018-04-28

    We sought to develop prognostic risk scores for compensation-related stress and long-term disability using markers collected within 3 months of a serious injury. Cohort study. Predictors were collected at baseline and at 3 months postinjury. Outcome data were collected at 72 months postinjury. Hospitalised patients with serious injuries recruited from four major trauma hospitals in Australia. 332 participants who made claims for compensation for their injuries to a transport accident scheme or a workers' compensation scheme. 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and 6 items from the Claims Experience Survey. Our model for long-term disability had four predictors (unemployed at the time of injury, history of a psychiatric disorder at time of injury, post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity at 3 months and disability at 3 months). This model had good discrimination (R 2 =0.37) and calibration. The disability risk score had a score range of 0-180, and at a threshold of 80 had sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 86%. Our model for compensation-related stress had five predictors (intensive care unit admission, discharged to home, number of traumatic events prior to injury, depression at 3 months and not working at 3 months). This model also had good discrimination (area under the curve=0.83) and calibration. The compensation-related stress risk score had score range of 0-220 and at a threshold of 100 had sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 75%. By combining these two scoring systems, we were able to identify the subgroup of claimants at highest risk of experiencing both outcomes. The ability to identify at an early stage claimants at high risk of compensation-related stress and poor recovery is potentially valuable for claimants and the compensation agencies that serve them. The scoring systems we developed could be incorporated into the claims-handling processes to guide prevention-oriented interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  4. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    , the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  5. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  6. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  7. The temporal development of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles following whiplash injury: an association with pain and posttraumatic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Elliott

    Full Text Available Radiological findings associated with poor recovery following whiplash injury remain elusive. Muscle fatty infiltrates (MFI in the cervical extensors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with chronic pain have been observed. Their association with specific aspects of pain and psychological factors have yet to be explored longitudinally.44 subjects with whiplash injury were enrolled at 4 weeks post-injury and classified at 6 months using scores on the Neck Disability Index as recovered, mild and moderate/severe. A measure for MFI and patient self-report of pain, loss of cervical range of movement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were collected at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-injury. The effects of time and group and the interaction of time by group on MFI were determined. We assessed the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress and cervical range of movement on the longitudinal relationship between initial pain intensity and MFI. There was no difference in MFI across all groups at enrollment. MFI values increased in the moderate/severe group and were significantly higher in comparison to the recovered and mild groups at 3 and 6 months. No differences in MFI values were found between the mild and recovered groups. Initial severity of PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and MFI at 6 months. Initial ROM loss did not.MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms.

  8. Angiotensin-(1?7) inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress to relieve lung injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, W.; Kang, J.; Hu, K.; Tang, S.; Zhou, X.; Yu, S.; Li, Y.; Xu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in lung tissues and can lead to metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the effects of angiotensin1–7 [Ang-(1–7)] on lung injury in rats induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–200 g) to normoxia control (NC), CIH-untreated (uCIH), Ang-(1–7)-treated normoxia control (N-A), and Ang-(1–7)-treated CIH (CIH-A) groups. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured ...

  9. Selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced injury of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Pan, Shengchi; Gan, Fang; Hao, Shu; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Haibin; Huang, Kehe

    2018-04-01

    Keshan disease is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy in humans. Selenium deficiency, T-2 toxin, and myocarditis virus are thought to be the major factors contributing to Keshan disease. But the relationship among these three factors is poorly described. This study aims to explore whether selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanism. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat and cultured at the physiological (2.0 μM) or lower concentrations of selenium with different concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results showed that selenium deficiencies aggravated T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT bioassay, LDH activity, reactive oxygen species levels and caspase 3 protein expressions. T-2 toxin treatment significantly increased mRNA expressions for stress proteins GRP78 and CHOP in cardiomyocytes compared with the control. Selenium deficiencies further promoted GRP78, CHOP and p-eIF2α expressions. Knockdown of CHOP by the specific small interfering RNA eliminated the effect of selenium deficiencies on T-2 toxin-induced injury. It could be concluded that selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury through initiating more aggressive endoplasmic reticulum stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of dexmedetomidine in stress control in traumatic brain injury and its influence on neuroendocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-shen LUO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of dexmedetomidine in stress control in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI and its influence on neuroendocrine system. Methods Ninety moderate or severe TBI patients (GCS 6-13 were admitted to ICU from May 2009 to January 2012, and they were divided into three groups according to the order of admission. Patients in group A (n=32 received 0.5-1.0μg/kg dexmedetomidine within 30min, maintained with 0.2-0.6μg/(kg.h dexmedetomidine for 24h, and morphine was administered by intravenous injection when necessary; patients in group B (n=31 received a 0.5-2.0mg/kg loading dose of propofol within 10min, maintained with 1.0-3.0mg/(kg.h for 72h, and morphine was administered by intravenous injection when necessary; patients in group C (n=27 received an intramuscular injection of pethidine or other optional drugs as control. A comprehensive evaluation was performed using Riker sedation-agitation scale combined with physiological and physical response indicators. The blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, tidal volume, arterial blood gas, plasma cortisol, plasma β-endorphin (β-EP, peripheral WBC count and blood glucose were measured and compared in 3 groups. Results The sedation rate of single-drug (i.e., without morphine administration in groups A, B and C was 86.7%, 80.6% and 77.8% respectively, and no significant difference was found among 3 groups (P>0.05. The mean arterial blood pressure at 30 min after administration was lower than that before administration in group A (P0.05. The WBC count and plasma cortisol level at 24h after treatment were lower than those before administration of the drugs in group A (P0.05. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine could alleviate the stress as a result of moderate and severe TBI, and its anti-stress and sedative effects were similar to those of propofol, but it is necessary to monitor the blood pressure. β-EP may play a coordinating role in the early stage of effect

  11. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, I W; Eklund, R C; Gordon, S

    2000-05-01

    Based on Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury, six psychosocial variables were assessed as possible moderators of the relationship between life stress and injury among 121 athletes (65 males, 56 females) competing in a variety of sports at state, national or international level. No significant effects of the sex of the participants were evident. Correlational analyses revealed moderator effects of several variables. Specifically, dispositional optimism and hardiness were related to decreased injury time-loss in athletes when positive life change increased, and global self-esteem was associated with decreased injury time-loss when both negative life change and total life change increased. The results indicate that athletes with more optimism, hardiness or global self-esteem may cope more effectively with life change stress, resulting in reduced injury vulnerability and recovery rates.

  12. Is a single item stress measure independently associated with subsequent severe injury: a prospective cohort study of 16,385 forest industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Simo; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-06-02

    A previous review showed that high stress increases the risk of occupational injury by three- to five-fold. However, most of the prior studies have relied on short follow-ups. In this prospective cohort study we examined the effect of stress on recorded hospitalised injuries in an 8-year follow-up. A total of 16,385 employees of a Finnish forest company responded to the questionnaire. Perceived stress was measured with a validated single-item measure, and analysed in relation recorded hospitalised injuries from 1986 to 2008. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine the prospective associations between work stress, injuries and confounding factors. Highly stressed participants were approximately 40% more likely to be hospitalised due to injury over the follow-up period than participants with low stress. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, occupational status, educational level, and physical work environment. High stress is associated with an increased risk of severe injury.

  13. Brain and Serum Androsterone is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM. ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34, PID 35 (S35, on both days (2S, or the experimental context (CON. Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG, allopregnanolone (ALLO, and androsterone (ANDRO were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30 and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  15. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Åhman; Britt-Marie Stålnacke

    2008-01-01

    Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused b...

  16. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 3: The Neuro-Immunology of Stress, Injury and Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    .... Employing a mouse model of stress-induced reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), we are determining the time course of viral reactivation relative to the alteration of immune parameters including lymphocyte functions and numbers...

  17. Naural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection, and Repair. Revised. Volume 3, Part I. The Neuroimmunology of Stress, Injury and Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazán, Nicolás G

    1997-01-01

    .... Employing a mouse model of stress-induced reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), we are determining the time course of viral reactivation relative to the alteration of immune parameters including lymphocyte functions and numbers...

  18. Effect of PAS triple therapy on nerve injury, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of probucol + aspirin + atorvastatin (PAS triple therapy on nerve injury, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: Patients with acute cerebral infarction who were treated in Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University between February 2015 and January 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the PAS group who received probucol + aspirin + atorvastatin triple therapy and the control group who received aspirin + atorvastatin double therapy. The markers of nerve injury, oxidative stress and inflammatory response were determined before treatment and 15 d after treatment. Results: 15 d after treatment, peripheral blood Keap-1 expression and serum GPX1 contents of both groups of patients were significantly higher than those before treatment while peripheral blood Nrf-2 and ARE expression as well as serum S100B, NSE, sTRAIL, FKN, HMGB-1, sICAM-1, Chemerin and 8-iso-PGF2α contents were significantly lower than those before treatment, and peripheral blood Keap-1 expression and serum GPX1 content of PAS group were significantly higher than those of control group while peripheral blood Nrf-2 and ARE expression as well as serum S100B, NSE, sTRAIL, FKN, HMGB-1, sICAM-1, Chemerin and 8-iso-PGF2α contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: PAS triple therapy can reduce the nerve injury as well as oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in patients with cerebral infarction.

  19. IL-23 Promotes Myocardial I/R Injury by Increasing the Inflammatory Responses and Oxidative Stress Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury. We hypothesized that IL-23, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, could promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into sham operated control (SO group, ischemia and reperfusion (I/R group, (IL-23 + I/R group and (anti-IL-23 + I/R group. At 4 h after reperfusion, the serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and the tissue MDA concentration and SOD activity were measured. The infarcte size was measured by TTC staining. Apoptosis in heart sections were measured by TUNEL staining. The expression of HMGB1 and IL-17A were detected by Western Blotting and the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by Elisa. Results: After 4 h reperfusion, compared with the I/R group, IL-23 significantly increased the infarct size, the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and the levels of LDH and CK (all P 0.05. All these effects were abolished by anti-IL-23 administration. Conclusion: The present study suggested that IL-23 may promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress reaction.

  20. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development.

  1. The risk of developing repetitive stress injury in seamstresses, in the clothing industry, under the perspective of ergonomic work analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the sewing task with the approach of the ergonomic analysis of the work, in the seam activity in a clothing industry to identify the relationship between the use of different sewing machines and the activity of sewing pants and blouses, which brings larger risk for the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders. It was done a study of transverse and exploratory cut, in that was used a methodology control of multiple analysis of variables. The population objective was the workers that exercise the activity in the section of makings, with 93 workers, being 54,8% sewing auxiliary and 45,2% dressmakers. Most is single (75,3%), has the 2nd complete degree (58,0%) and the medium age was 25 years old. As results were observed that the machines serger, zig zag and traveti are classified as of high risk of developing work related to musculoskeletal disorders, that the postures assumed during the execution of the tasks were classified as bad or terrible, and that the workstations were just classified as reasonable. It was concluded then, that a relationship exists among the task of sewing pants and blouses, and the risk of the development of work related to musculoskeletal disorders.

  2. The effect of injury diagnosis on illness perceptions and expected postconcussion syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L; Kempe, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    To determine if systematic variation of diagnostic terminology (ie, concussion, minor head injury [MHI], mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI]) following a standardized injury description produced different expected symptoms and illness perceptions. We hypothesized that worse outcomes would be expected of mTBI, compared with other diagnoses, and that MHI would be perceived as worse than concussion. 108 volunteers were randomly allocated to conditions in which they read a vignette describing a motor vehicle accident-related mTBI followed by a diagnosis of mTBI (n = 27), MHI (n = 24), concussion (n = 31), or, no diagnosis (n = 26). All groups rated (a) event "undesirability," (b) illness perception, and (c) expected postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 6 months after injury. There was a statistically significant group effect on undesirability (mTBI > concussion and MHI), PTSD symptomatology (mTBI and no diagnosis > concussion), and negative illness perception (mTBI and no diagnosis > concussion). In general, diagnostic terminology did not affect anticipated PCS symptoms 6 months after injury, but other outcomes were affected. Given that these diagnostic terms are used interchangeably, this study suggests that changing terminology can influence known contributors to poor mTBI outcome.

  3. Screening for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Civilian Emergency Department Population with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet; Taylor, Christopher A; Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Pirracchio, Romain; Cooper, Shelly R; Burke, John F; Stein, Murray B; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While the importance of PTSD and TBI among military personnel is widely recognized, there is less awareness of PTSD associated with civilian TBI. We examined the incidence and factors associated with PTSD 6 months post-injury in a civilian emergency department population using measures from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke TBI Common Data Elements Outcome Battery. Participants with mild TBI (mTBI) from the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot study with complete 6-month outcome batteries (n = 280) were analyzed. Screening for PTSD symptoms was conducted using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Descriptive measures are summarized and predictors for PTSD were examined using logistic regression. Incidence of screening positive for PTSD was 26.8% at 6 months following mTBI. Screening positive for PTSD was significantly associated with concurrent functional disability, post-concussive and psychiatric symptomatology, decreased satisfaction with life, and decreased performance in visual processing and mental flexibility. Multi-variable regression showed injury mechanism of assault (odds ratio [OR] 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-7.63; p = 0.001) and prior psychiatric history (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.42-4.61; p = 0.002) remained significant predictors of screening positive for PTSD, while education (per year OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; p = 0.021) was associated with decreased odds of PTSD. Standardized data collection and review of pre-injury education, psychiatric history, and injury mechanism during initial hospital presentation can aid in identifying patients with mTBI at risk for developing PTSD symptoms who may benefit from closer follow-up after initial injury care.

  4. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  5. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in arsenite-induced oxidative injury in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Anya M.Y.; Chao, P.L.; Fang, S.F.; Chi, C.W.; Yang, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism underlying sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in rat brain. Arsenite was locally infused in the substantia nigra (SN) of anesthetized rat. Seven days after infusion, lipid peroxidation in the infused SN was elevated and dopamine level in the ipsilateral striatum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-5 nmol). Furthermore, local infusion of arsenite (5 nmol) decreased GSH content and increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 in the infused SN. Aggregation of α-synuclein, a putative pathological protein involved in several CNS neurodegenerative diseases, was elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. From the breakdown pattern of α-spectrin, both necrosis and apoptosis were involved in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity. Pyknotic nuclei, cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic disintegration, indicating necrosis, and TUNEL-positive cells and DNA ladder, indicating apoptosis was observed in the arsenite-infused SN. Arsenite-induced apoptosis was mediated via two different organelle pathways, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For mitochondrial activation, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 levels were elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. In ER pathway, arsenite increased activating transcription factor-4, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologues protein (CHOP) and cytosolic immunoglobulin binding protein levels. Moreover, arsenite reduced procaspase 12 levels, an ER-specific enzyme in the infused SN. Taken together, our study suggests that arsenite is capable of inducing oxidative injury in CNS. In addition to mitochondria, ER stress was involved in the arsenite-induced apoptosis. Arsenite-induced neurotoxicity clinically implies a pathophysiological role of arsenite in CNS neurodegeneration

  7. Functional Neuroimaging Distinguishes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Traumatic Brain Injury in Focused and Large Community Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly heterogeneous and often present with overlapping symptomology, providing challenges in reliable classification and treatment. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be advantageous in the diagnostic separation of these disorders when comorbid or clinically indistinct. Subjects were selected from a multisite database, where rest and on-task SPECT scans were obtained on a large group of neuropsychiatric patients. Two groups were analyzed: Group 1 with TBI (n=104), PTSD (n=104) or both (n=73) closely matched for demographics and comorbidity, compared to each other and healthy controls (N=116); Group 2 with TBI (n=7,505), PTSD (n=1,077) or both (n=1,017) compared to n=11,147 without either. ROIs and visual readings (VRs) were analyzed using a binary logistic regression model with predicted probabilities inputted into a Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis to identify sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. One-way ANOVA identified the most diagnostically significant regions of increased perfusion in PTSD compared to TBI. Analysis included a 10-fold cross validation of the protocol in the larger community sample (Group 2). For Group 1, baseline and on-task ROIs and VRs showed a high level of accuracy in differentiating PTSD, TBI and PTSD+TBI conditions. This carefully matched group separated with 100% sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the ROI analysis and at 89% or above for VRs. Group 2 had lower sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, but still in a clinically relevant range. Compared to subjects with TBI, PTSD showed increases in the limbic regions, cingulum, basal ganglia, insula, thalamus, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the ability to separate PTSD and TBI from healthy controls, from each other, and detect their co-occurrence, even in highly comorbid samples, using SPECT. This modality may offer a clinical option for aiding

  8. Functional Neuroimaging Distinguishes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Traumatic Brain Injury in Focused and Large Community Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Amen

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are highly heterogeneous and often present with overlapping symptomology, providing challenges in reliable classification and treatment. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT may be advantageous in the diagnostic separation of these disorders when comorbid or clinically indistinct.Subjects were selected from a multisite database, where rest and on-task SPECT scans were obtained on a large group of neuropsychiatric patients. Two groups were analyzed: Group 1 with TBI (n=104, PTSD (n=104 or both (n=73 closely matched for demographics and comorbidity, compared to each other and healthy controls (N=116; Group 2 with TBI (n=7,505, PTSD (n=1,077 or both (n=1,017 compared to n=11,147 without either. ROIs and visual readings (VRs were analyzed using a binary logistic regression model with predicted probabilities inputted into a Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis to identify sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. One-way ANOVA identified the most diagnostically significant regions of increased perfusion in PTSD compared to TBI. Analysis included a 10-fold cross validation of the protocol in the larger community sample (Group 2.For Group 1, baseline and on-task ROIs and VRs showed a high level of accuracy in differentiating PTSD, TBI and PTSD+TBI conditions. This carefully matched group separated with 100% sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the ROI analysis and at 89% or above for VRs. Group 2 had lower sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, but still in a clinically relevant range. Compared to subjects with TBI, PTSD showed increases in the limbic regions, cingulum, basal ganglia, insula, thalamus, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes.This study demonstrates the ability to separate PTSD and TBI from healthy controls, from each other, and detect their co-occurrence, even in highly comorbid samples, using SPECT. This modality may offer a clinical option for

  9. Brain network disturbance related to posttraumatic stress and traumatic brain injury in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the neural causes and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a high research priority, given the high rates of associated disability and suicide. Despite remarkable progress in elucidating the brain mechanisms of PTSD and mTBI, a comprehensive understanding of these conditions at the level of brain networks has yet to be achieved. The present study sought to identify functional brain networks and topological properties (measures of network organization and function) related to current PTSD severity and mTBI. Graph theoretic tools were used to analyze resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 208 veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn, all of whom had experienced a traumatic event qualifying for PTSD criterion A. Analyses identified brain networks and topological network properties linked to current PTSD symptom severity, mTBI, and the interaction between PTSD and mTBI. Two brain networks were identified in which weaker connectivity was linked to higher PTSD re-experiencing symptoms, one of which was present only in veterans with comorbid mTBI. Re-experiencing was also linked to worse functional segregation (necessary for specialized processing) and diminished influence of key regions on the network, including the hippocampus. Findings of this study demonstrate that PTSD re-experiencing symptoms are linked to weakened connectivity in a network involved in providing contextual information. A similar relationship was found in a separate network typically engaged in the gating of working memory, but only in veterans with mTBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Resilience, traumatic brain injury, depression, and posttraumatic stress among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy R; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kwok, Oi-Man; Morissette, Sandra B

    2015-08-01

    We examined the prospective influence of the resilient, undercontrolled, and overcontrolled personality prototypes on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. After accounting for the possible influence of combat exposure, we expected that the resilient prototype would predict lower depression and PTSD over time and would be associated with adaptive coping strategies, higher social support, lower psychological inflexibility, and higher self-reported resilience relative to overcontrolled and undercontrolled prototypes, independent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) status. One hundred twenty-seven veterans (107 men, 20 women; average age = 37) participated in the study. Personality was assessed at baseline, and PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed 8 months later. Path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of personality on distress. No direct effects were observed from personality to distress. The resilient prototype did have significant indirect effects on PTSD and depression through its beneficial effects on social support, coping and psychological inflexibility. TBI also had direct effects on PTSD. A resilient personality prototype appears to influence veteran adjustment through its positive associations with greater social support and psychological flexibility, and lower use of avoidant coping. Low social support, avoidant coping, and psychological inflexibility are related to overcontrolled and undercontrolled personality prototypes, and these behaviors seem to characterize veterans who experience problems with depression and PTSD over time. A positive TBI status is directly and prospectively associated with PTSD symptomology independent of personality prototype. Implications for clinical interventions and future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Protocatechuic aldehyde attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a classic chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat different types of cancers including ovarian, head and neck, testicular and uterine cervical carcinomas. However, cisplatin induces acute kidney injury by directly triggering an excessive inflammatory response, oxidative stress and programmed cell death of renal tubular epithelial cells. All of which lead to higher mortality rates in patients. In this study we examined the protective effect of protocatechuic aldehyde (PA in vitro in cisplatin-treated tubular epithelial cells and in vivo in cisplatin nephropathy. PA is a monomer of Traditional Chinese Medicine isolated from the root of S. miltiorrhiza. Results show that PA prevented cisplatin-induced decline of renal function and histological damage, which was confirmed by attenuation of KIM1 in both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PA reduced renal inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress and programmed cell death in response to cisplatin, which was further evidenced by in vitro data. Of note, PA suppressed NAPDH oxidases, including Nox2 and Nox4, in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, silencing Nox4, but not Nox2, removed the inhibitory effect of PA on cisplatin-induced renal injury, indicating that Nox4 may play a pivotal role in mediating the protective effect of PA in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Collectively, our data indicate that PA largely blocked cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation without compromising anti-tumor activity of cisplatin. These findings suggest that PA and its derivatives may serve as potential protective agents for cancer patients with cisplatin treatment.

  12. Dual Gas Treatment With Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Protects From Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T; Hayashi, T; Inamoto, T; Kato, R; Ibuki, N; Takahara, K; Takai, T; Yoshikawa, Y; Uchimoto, T; Saito, K; Tanda, N; Kouno, J; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Hirano, H; Nomi, H; Okada, Y; Azuma, H

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) gas are both reported to reduce reactive oxygen species and alleviate tissue ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture of H 2 gas and CO gas (dual gas) in comparison with hydrogen gas (H 2 : 2%) alone on I-R renal injury (composition of dual gas; N 2 : 77.8%; O 2 : 20.9%; H 2 : 1.30%; CO: 250 parts per million). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 250-280 g) were divided into 5 groups: (1) sham operation control, (2) dual gas inhalation (dual treatment) without I-R treatment, (3) I-R renal injury, (4) H 2 gas alone inhalation (H 2 treatment) with I-R renal injury, and (5) dual treatment with I-R renal injury. I-R renal injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, and then contralateral nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. Renal function was markedly decreased at 24 hours after reperfusion, and thereafter the effects of dual gas were assessed by histologic examination and determination of the superoxide radical, together with functional and molecular analyses. Pathologic examination of the kidney of I-R rats revealed severe renal damage. Importantly, cytoprotective effects of the dual treatment in comparison with H 2 treatment and I-R renal injury were observed in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity and histochemical features. Rats given dual treatment and I-R renal injury showed significant decreases in blood urea nitrogen. Increased expression of several inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, nuclear factor-κB, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and heme oxygenase-1) was attenuated by the dual treatment. Dual gas inhalation decreases oxidative stress and markedly improves I-R-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  14. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate protects against liver ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatoba, Mario; Eckstein, Christopher; Bilbao, Guadalupe; Smyth, Cheryl A; Jenkins, Stacie; Thompson, J Anthony; Eckhoff, Devin E; Contreras, Juan L

    2005-08-01

    Evidence is emerging that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) participates in initiation of apoptosis induced by the unfolded protein response and by aberrant Ca(++) signaling during cellular stress such as ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury). ER-induced apoptosis involves the activation of caspase-12 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and the shutdown of translation initiated by phosphorylation of eIF2alpha. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid that acts as a chemical chaperone reducing the load of mutant or unfolded proteins retained in the ER during cellular stress and also exerting anti-inflammatory activity. It has been used successfully for treatment of urea cycle disorders and sickle cell disease. Thus, we hypothesized that PBA may reduce ER-induced apoptosis triggered by I/R injury to the liver. Groups of male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to warm ischemia (70% of the liver mass, 45 minutes). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was assessed 6 hours after reperfusion; apoptosis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of caspase-12 and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha, Western blot analyses of eIF2alpha, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of CHOP expression. A dose-dependent decrease in aspartate aminotransferase was demonstrated in mice given intraperitoneal PBA (1 hour before and 12 hours after reperfusion), compared with vehicle-treated controls; this effect was associated with reduced pyknosis, parenchymal hemorrhages, and neutrophil infiltrates in PBA-treated mice, compared with controls. In a lethal model of total liver I/R injury, all vehicle-treated controls died within 3 days after reperfusion. In contrast, 50% survival (>30 days) was observed in animals given PBA. The beneficial effects of PBA were associated with a greater than 45% reduction in apoptosis, decreased ER-mediated apoptosis characterized by significant reduction in caspase-12 activation, and reduced levels of both phosphorylated

  15. Valsartan Protects Against Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Peng, Ping-An; Ma, Yue; Liu, Xiao-Li; Yu, Yi; Jia, Shuo; Xu, Xiao-Han; Wu, Si-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication of the administration of iodinated contrast media (CM) for diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. While the preventative measures can mitigate the risk of CI-AKI, there remains a need for novel and effective therapeutic approaches. The pathogenesis of CI-AKI is complex and not completely understood. CM-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis caused by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in CIAKI. We previously demonstrated that valsartan alleviated CM-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress in vitro. However, the nephroprotective effect of valsartan on CI-AKI in vivo has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of valsartan in a rat model of CI-AKI by measuring the amelioration of renal damage and the changes in ER stressrelated biomarkers. Our results showed that the radiocontrast agent meglumine diatrizoate caused significant renal insufficiency, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and renal tubular apoptosis by triggering ER stress through activation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), caspase 12, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) (Pvalsartan significantly alleviated renal dysfunction, pathological injury, and apoptosis along with the inhibition of ER stressrelated biomarkers (PValsartan could protect against meglumine diatrizoate-induced kidney injury in rats by inhibiting the ER stress-induced apoptosis, making it a promising strategy for preventing CI-AKI. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Injured body, injured soul? Predicting and preventing posttraumatic stress disorder after injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury is common and may have a major impact on the survivor’s life. In the Netherlands alone, over 7 million injuries are registered yearly, caused by accidents in traffic, at home, at work, or by interpersonal violence. Besides physical recovery, survivors often deal with the

  17. Rationale for Spiritually Oriented Cognitive Processing Therapy for Moral Injury in Active Duty Military and Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Boucher, Nathan A; Oliver, Rev John P; Youssef, Nagy; Mooney, Scott R; Currier, Joseph M; Pearce, Michelle

    2017-02-01

    Wartime experiences have long been known to cause ethical conflict, guilt, self-condemnation, difficulty forgiving, loss of trust, lack of meaning and purpose, and spiritual struggles. "Moral injury" (MI) (also sometimes called "inner conflict") is the term used to capture this emotional, cognitive, and behavioral state. In this article, we provide rationale for developing and testing Spiritually Oriented Cognitive Processing Therapy, a version of standard cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of MI in active duty and veteran service members (SMs) with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms who are spiritual or religious (S/R). Many SMs have S/R beliefs that could increase vulnerability to MI. Because the injury is to deeply held moral standards and ethical values and often adversely affects spiritual beliefs and worldview, we believe that those who are S/R will respond more favorably to a therapy that directly targets this injury from a spiritually oriented perspective. An evidence-based treatment for MI in posttraumatic stress disorder that not only respects but also utilizes SMs' spiritual beliefs/behaviors may open the door to treatment for many S/R military personnel.

  18. The role of curcumin on intestinal oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Kanter, Mehmet; Pergel, Ahmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Guzel, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of curcumin on oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat intestinal mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ curcumin; each group contain 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. After I/R groups animals underwent laparotomy, 1 h of superior mesenteric artery ligation were followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the curcumin group, 3 days before I/R, curcumin (100 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and intestinal tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. Curcumin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased of reduced superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in intestinal tissues samples. I/R caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions and villous congestion and hemorrhage. Curcumin treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury, with inhibiting of I/R-induced apoptosis and cell proliferation. These results suggest that curcumin treatment has a protective effect against intestinal damage induced by intestinal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  19. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulsed ultrasound associated with gold nanoparticle gel reduces oxidative stress parameters and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in an animal model of muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eduardo G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanogold has been investigated in a wide variety of biomedical applications because of the anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TPU (Therapeutic Pulsed Ultrasound with gold nanoparticles (GNP on oxidative stress parameters and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules after traumatic muscle injury. Materials and methods Animals were divided in nine groups: sham (uninjured muscle; muscle injury without treatment; muscle injury + DMSO; muscle injury + GNP; muscle injury + DMSO + GNP; muscle injury + TPU; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO; muscle injury + TPU + GNP; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP. The ROS production was determined by concentration of superoxide anion, modulation of antioxidant defenses was determined by the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes, oxidative damage determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and protein carbonyls. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as inflammatory parameters. Results Compared to muscle injury without treatment group, the muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP gel group promoted a significant decrease in superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation levels (p Conclusions Our results suggest that TPU + DMSO + GNP gel presents beneficial effects on the muscular healing process, inducing a reduction in the production of ROS and also the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules.

  1. Perspectives on creating clinically relevant blast models for mild traumatic brain injury and post traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eBrenner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel are returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and reporting non-specific physical (somatic, behavioral, psychological, and cognitive symptoms. Many of these symptoms are frequently associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and/or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Despite significant attention and advances in assessment and intervention for these two conditions, challenges persist. To address this, clinically relevant blast models are essential in the full characterization of this type of injury, as well as in the testing and identification of potential treatment strategies. In this publication, existing diagnostic challenges and current treatment practices for mTBI and/or PTSD will be summarized, along with suggestions regarding how what has been learned from existing models of PTSD and traditional mechanism (e.g., non-blast TBI can be used to facilitate the development of clinically relevant blast models.

  2. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajarem, Jamaan S.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. PMID:28588748

  3. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent work demonstrated that circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects through the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats diminished circu...

  4. Specificity protein 1-zinc finger protein 179 pathway is involved in the attenuation of oxidative stress following brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ying Chuang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After sudden traumatic brain injuries, secondary injuries may occur during the following days or weeks, which leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Since ROS exacerbate brain damage, it is important to protect neurons against their activity. Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179 was shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, but the regulation of gene expression under oxidative stress remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated an increase in Znf179 protein levels in both in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced ROS accumulation and animal models of traumatic brain injury. Additionally, we examined the sub-cellular localization of Znf179, and demonstrated that oxidative stress increases Znf179 nuclear shuttling and its interaction with specificity protein 1 (Sp1. Subsequently, the positive autoregulation of Znf179 expression, which is Sp1-dependent, was further demonstrated using luciferase reporter assay and green fluorescent protein (GFP-Znf179-expressing cells and transgenic mice. The upregulation of Sp1 transcriptional activity induced by the treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF led to an increase in Znf179 levels, which further protected cells against H2O2-induced damage. However, Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A, was shown to inhibit NGF effects, leading to a decrease in Znf179 expression and lower cellular protection. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study show that Znf179 autoregulation through Sp1-dependent mechanism plays an important role in neuroprotection, and NGF-induced Sp1 signaling may help attenuate more extensive (ROS-induced damage following brain injury.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J; Steele, Martin R; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. A proportion of the returning soldiers also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and in some cases, this may be a consequence of TBI. Effective treatments are still being identified, and a possible therapeutic candidate is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Some clinical trials have been performed which suggest benefits with regard to survival and disease severity of TBI and/or PTSD, while several other studies do not see any improvement compared to a possibly poorly controlled sham. HBOT has been shown to reduce apoptosis, upregulate growth factors, promote antioxidant levels, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines in animal models, and hence, it is likely that HBOT could be advantageous in treating at least the secondary phase of TBI and PTSD. There is some evidence of a putative prophylactic or preconditioning benefit of HBOT exposure in animal models of brain injury, and the optimal time frame for treatment is yet to be determined. HBOT has potential side effects such as acute cerebral toxicity and more reactive oxygen species with long-term use, and therefore, optimizing exposure duration to maximize the reward and decrease the detrimental effects of HBOT is necessary. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of HBOT as well as suggests future directions including prophylactic use and chronic treatment. PMID:27799776

  6. Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in aesthetic athletes (dancers, gymnasts, and figure skaters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Luke, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Young aesthetic athletes require special understanding of the athletic biomechanical demands peculiar to each sport. The performance of these activities may impart specific biomechanical stresses and subsequent injury patterns. The clinician must understand these aspects as well as the spinal changes that occur with growth when many of these injuries often occur. Further, athletes, parents, coaches, and healthcare providers must be sensitive to the overall aspects of the athlete, including nutrition, overtraining, adequate recovery, proper technique, and limiting repetition of difficult maneuvers to minimize injuries.

  7. Changes in Oxidative Stress Markers and Biological Markers of Muscle Injury with Aging at Rest and in Response to an Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Regis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (pantioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. PMID:24618679

  8. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Janneh, O. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70, Pembroke Place, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3GF (United Kingdom); Maddock, H.L., E-mail: h.maddock@coventry.ac.uk [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  9. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A.; Janneh, O.; Maddock, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  10. The effect of ethyl pyruvate on oxidative stress in intestine and bacterial translocation after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoğlu, Melih; Unal, Bülent; Bozkurt, Betül; Dolapçi, Iştar; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Karabeyoğlu, Işil; Cengiz, Omer

    2008-01-01

    Thermal injury causes a breakdown in the intestinal mucosal barrier due to ischemia reperfusion injury, which can induce bacterial translocation (BT), sepsis, and multiple organ failure in burn patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on intestinal oxidant damage and BT in burn injury. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The sham group was exposed to 21 degrees C water and injected intraperitoneal with saline (1 mL/100 g). The sham + EP group received EP (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 6 h after the sham procedure. The burn group was exposed to thermal injury and given intraperitoneal saline injection (1 mL/100 g). The burn + EP group received EP (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 6 h after thermal injury. Twenty-four hours later, tissue samples were obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver for microbiological analysis and ileum samples were harvested for biochemical analysis. Thermal injury caused severe BT in burn group. EP supplementation decreased BT in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen in the burn + EP group compared with the burn group (P < 0.05). Also, burn caused BT in liver, but this finding was not statistically significant among all groups. Thermal injury caused a statistically significant increase in malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels, and EP prevented this effects in the burn + EP group compared with the burn group (P < 0.05). Our data suggested that EP can inhibit the BT and myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde production in intestine following thermal injury, suggesting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of EP.

  11. A Systems Biology Approach to Heat Stress, Heat Injury and Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    stroke [3, 11, 12], leading to severe encephalopathy , rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury...heart, kidney, and liver failure are increased by 40% in Service members with a history of heat stroke [5, 6]. Indeed, there is an urgent need for...other organs at high risk for injury, such as liver and kidney [24, 25]. 2.1 Utility of the computational model Molecular indicators of heat

  12. Spinal injury in sport

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    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  13. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  14. Effects of acute restraint-induced stress on glucocorticoid receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Vincelli, J; Tio, D L; Hovda, D A

    2012-05-17

    We have previously reported that experimental mild traumatic brain injury results in increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, as determined by analyzing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation following restraint-induced stress. This is the same time period when rehabilitative exercise has proven to be ineffective after a mild fluid-percussion injury (FPI). Here we evaluated effects of stress on neuroplasticity. Adult male rats underwent either an FPI or sham injury. Additional rats were only exposed to anesthesia. Rats were exposed to 30 min of restraint stress, followed by tail vein blood collection at post-injury days (PID) 1, 7, and 14. The response to dexamethasone (DEX) was also evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was collected 120 min after stress onset. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors was determined by Western blot analysis. Results indicated injury-dependent changes in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors that were influenced by the presence of dexamethasone. Control and FPI rats responded differentially to DEX in that GR increases after receiving the lower dose of DEX were longer lasting in the FPI group. A suppression of MR was found at PID 1 in vehicle-treated FPI and Sham groups. Decreases in the precursor form of BDNF were observed in different FPI groups at PIDs 7 and 14. These findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, after a mild FPI, has an impact on hippocampal neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Angiotensin-(1–7 inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress to relieve lung injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in lung tissues and can lead to metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the effects of angiotensin1–7 [Ang-(1–7] on lung injury in rats induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–200 g to normoxia control (NC, CIH-untreated (uCIH, Ang-(1–7-treated normoxia control (N-A, and Ang-(1–7-treated CIH (CIH-A groups. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in lung tissues, and expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4 and Nox subunits (p22phox, and p47phox was determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Pulmonary pathological changes were more evident in the uCIH group than in the other groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunohistochemical staining showed that inflammatory factor concentrations in serum and lung tissues in the uCIH group were significantly higher than those in the NC and N-A groups. Expression of inflammatory factors was significantly higher in the CIH-A group than in the NC and N-A groups, but was lower than in the uCIH group (P<0.01. Oxidative stress was markedly higher in the uCIH group than in the NC and N-A groups. Expression of Nox4 and its subunits was also increased in the uCIH group. These changes were attenuated upon Ang-(1–7 treatment. In summary, treatment with Ang-(1-7 reversed signs of CIH-induced lung injury via inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. Umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and their relationship with maternal and fetal oxidative stress injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and maternal as well as fetal oxidative stress injury. Methods: 108 puerperae giving birth in our hospital between May 2014 and October 2016 were selected and divided into normal pregnancy group with neonatal Apgar score >7 points and intrauterine hypoxia group with neonatal Apgar score ≤7 points, color Doppler diasonograph was used to determine umbilical blood flow ultrasound parameters, umbilical cord blood was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products, and the placenta was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products and related apoptosis molecules. Results: During 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and diastolic velocity/systolic velocity (S/D of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox- LDL, 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios, HSP-70, Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, and Bcl-2 and XIAP levels were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; RI, PI and S/ D were positively correlated with MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios and HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood and placenta tissue, positively correlated with Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue, and negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and XIAP levels in placental tissue. Conclusions: The increased umbilical blood flow resistance and decreased flow volume of fetal intrauterine hypoxia are closely related to maternal, fetal and placental oxidative

  17. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background : Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo , excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective : We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design : The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results : MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions : The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations : MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin

  18. Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rakhshan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress leads to physiological changes called “stress response” which are the result ofthe changes in the adrenomedullary hormone system, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and sympatheticnervous system (SNS activity. In the present study, the effects of chronic physical and psychological stressand also the role of sympathetic system effects in stress on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries have beenstudied in isolated rat heart. Rat heart was isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 minreperfusion. The daily stress was induced for one week prior to I/R induction. Sympathectomy was donechemically by injection of hydroxyl-dopamine prior to stress induction. There were no significant changes inheart rate and Coronary Flow between groups. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and rate productpressure (RPP in both physical and psychological stress groups decreased significantly compared to those incontrol group (Pgroups. Infarct size significantly increased in both physical and psychological stress groups and control group(Pas compared with stress groups (Ppsychological stress prior to ischemia/reperfusion causes enhancement of myocardial injuries and it seemsthat increased sympathetic activity in response to stress is responsible for these adverse effects of stress onischemic/reperfused heart.

  19. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthaman, Karunakaran K; Saleem, Mohamed TS; Thanislas, Peter T; Prabhu, Vinoth V; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan K; Devaraj, Niranjali S; Somasundaram, Jayaprakash S

    2006-01-01

    Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms) in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. PMID:16987414

  20. Concepts and strategies for clinical management of blast-induced traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2013-01-01

    After exposure of the human body to blast, kinetic energy of the blast shock waves might be transferred into hydraulic energy in the cardiovascular system to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of blood (a volumetric blood surge). The volumetric blood surge moves through blood vessels from the high-pressure body cavity to the low-pressure cranial cavity, causing damage to tiny cerebral blood vessels and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Large-scale cerebrovascular insults and BBB damage that occur globally throughout the brain may be the main causes of non-impact, blast-induced brain injuries, including the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The volumetric blood surge may be a major contributor not only to blast-induced brain injuries resulting from physical trauma, but may also be the trigger to psychiatric disorders resulting from emotional and psychological trauma. Clinical imaging technologies, which are able to detect tiny cerebrovascular insults, changes in blood flow, and cerebral edema, may help diagnose both TBI and PTSD in the victims exposed to blasts. Potentially, prompt medical treatment aiming at prevention of secondary neuronal damage may slow down or even block the cascade of events that lead to progressive neuronal damage and subsequent long-term neurological and psychiatric impairment.

  1. Longitudinal Study of Headache Trajectories in the Year After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kathryn; Bell, Kathleen R; Ehde, Dawn M; Temkin, Nancy; Dikmen, Sureyya; Williams, Rhonda M; Dillworth, Tiara; Hoffman, Jeanne M

    2015-11-01

    To examine headache trajectories among persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the year after injury and the relation of headache trajectory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 1 year postinjury. Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were recruited through a university medical center and participated in follow-up assessments by telephone. Prospectively enrolled individuals (N=212) within 1 week of MTBI who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Not applicable. Participants rated average headache pain intensity using the 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at each assessment period. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version was completed at 12 months postinjury. Latent class growth analysis produced a 4-trajectory group model, with groups labeled resolved, worsening, improving, and chronic. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that younger age and premorbid headache correlated with membership in the worse trajectory groups (worsening and chronic; PHeadache is common in the year after MTBI, with younger people, persons who previously had headaches, and persons with PTSD more likely to report chronic or worsening headache. Further research is needed to examine whether PTSD symptoms exacerbate headaches or whether problematic headache symptoms exacerbate PTSD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Distal Minority Stress and Internalized Transnegativity in Suicidal Ideation and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Bryan, Amanda E B; George, William H

    Transgender people are at elevated risk for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation compared to the general population. Transgender (trans) refers to a diverse group of people who experience incongruence between their gender identity and sex assigned at birth. The present study is guided by the minority stress model and the psychological mediation framework, which postulate that sexual minority groups experience elevated stress as a result of anti-minority prejudice, contributing to negative mental health outcomes. This study utilized these theories to investigate the role of internalized transnegativity-internalization of negative societal attitudes about one's trans identity-in the relationships of distal trans stress to suicidal ideation and NSSI. A U.S. national sample of trans adults (N = 237) completed a battery of online measures. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare models with mediation and moderation effects. Results suggested that internalized transnegativity acts as both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between distal trans stress and suicidal ideation. Log likelihood comparisons suggested moderation models had the superior fit for these data. Results suggest that clinical interventions should directly target individuals' internalized transnegativity as well as societal-level transnegativity.

  3. Work stress and quality of life in persons with disabilities from four European countries: the case of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Evidence on the adverse effects of work stress on quality of life (QoL) is largely derived from general populations, while respective information is lacking for people with disabilities. We investigated associations between work stress and QoL and the potentially moderating role of socioeconomic circumstances in employed persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data from 386 employed men and women with SCI (≥18 work h/week) from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway were analyzed. Work stress was assessed with the 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI) model and the control component of the 'demand/control' model. QoL was operationalized with five WHOQoL BREF items. Socioeconomic circumstances were measured by years of formal education and perception of financial hardship. We applied ordinal and linear regressions to predict QoL and introduced interaction terms to assess a potential moderation of socioeconomic circumstances. Multivariate analyses showed consistent associations between increased ERI and decreased overall QoL (coefficient -1.55, p life satisfaction (health -1.32, p work stress and QoL among persons with SCI.

  4. Carbon monoxide alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress injury through suppressing the expression of Fis1 in NR8383 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jia [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Yu, Jian-bo, E-mail: yujianbo11@126.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Wei; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Da-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin 300100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, as one of the products of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses powerful protective properties in vivo or in vitro models, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis function. However, there is little evidence that CO alleviates oxidative stress damage through altering mitochondrial fission in alveolar macrophages. In the present study, our results showed that CO increased cell vitality, improved mitochondrial SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited cell apoptosis in NR8383 exposed to LPS. Meanwhile, CO decreased the expression of Fis1, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained elongation of mitochondria in LPS-incubated NR8383. Overall, our study underscored a critical role of CO in suppressing the expression of Fis1 and alleviating LPS- induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. - Highlights: • LPS exposure triggered cell injury in NR8383. • CO alleviated LPS-induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. • CO inhibited Fis1 levels and improved mitochondrial function in LPS-induced NR8383.

  5. Characteristics and prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in professional and non-professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michelle S S; Ferreira, Arthur S; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Elirez B; Felicio, Lilian R

    2016-01-19

    Ballet is a high-performance activity that requires an advanced level of technical skills. Ballet places great stress on tendons, muscles, bones, and joints and may act directly as a trigger of injury by overuse. 1) to describe the main types of injuries and affected areas related to classical ballet and 2) to compare the frequency of musculoskeletal injuries among professional and non-professional ballet dancers, considering possible gender differences among the professional dancers. A total of 110 questionnaires were answered by professional and non-professional dancers. The questionnaire contained items related to the presence of injury, the regions involved, and the mechanism of the injury. We observed a high frequency of musculoskeletal injuries, with ankle sprains accounting for 69.8% of injuries in professional dancers and 42.1% in non-professional dancers. Pirouettes were the most frequent mechanism of injury in professional dancers, accounting for 67.9% of injuries, whereas in the non-professional dancers, repetitive movement was the most common mechanism (28.1%). Ankle sprains occurred in 90% of the women's injuries, and muscle sprains occurred in 54.5% of the men's injuries. The most frequent injury location was the ankle joint in both sexes among the professional dancers, with 67.6% in women and 40.9% in men. The identification of the mechanism of injury and time of practice may contribute to better therapeutic action aimed at the proper function of the dancers' bodies and improved performance by these athletes.

  6. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  7. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  8. The effects of dietary fish oil on inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress associated with obstructive renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Gobe, Glenda C; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-03-01

    We examined whether dietary supplementation with fish oil modulates inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16 per group) were fed for 4 wk on normal rat chow (oleic acid), chow containing fish oil (33 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 26 g docosahexaenoic acid per kg diet), or chow containing safflower oil (60 g linoleic acid per kg diet). All diets contained 7% fat. After 4 wk, the rats were further subdivided into four smaller groups (n=4 per group). Unilateral ureteral obstruction was induced in three groups (for 4, 7 and 14 days). The fourth group for each diet did not undergo surgery, and was sacrificed as controls at 14 days. When rats were sacrificed, plasma and portions of the kidneys were removed and frozen; other portions of kidney tissue were fixed and prepared for histology. Compared with normal chow and safflower oil, fish oil attenuated collagen deposition, macrophage infiltration, TGF-β expression, apoptosis, and tissue levels of arachidonic acid, MIP-1α, IL-1β, MCP-1 and leukotriene B(4). Compared with normal chow, fish oil increased the expression of HO-1 protein in kidney tissue. Fish oil intake reduced inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress following obstructive renal injury. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury: the clinical potential of the depression, anxiety and stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Little, Trudi; Turner, Ben; Hawkes, Anna; Shum, David

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the clinical potential of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS 42) and its shorter version (DASS 21) for assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury. Participants included 23 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 25 individuals with brain tumour and 29 non-clinical controls. Investigations of internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, theory-consistent differences, sensitivity to change and concurrent validity were conducted. Internal consistency of the DASS was generally acceptable (r > 0.70), with the exception of the anxiety scale for the TBI sample. Test-re-test reliability (1-3 weeks) was sound for the depression scale (r > 0.75) and significant but comparatively lower for other scales (r = 0.60-0.73, p scale (p DASS in the context of hospital discharge was demonstrated for depression and stress (p 0.05). Concurrent validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was significant for all scales of the DASS (p DASS following ABI, further research examining the factor structure of existing and modified versions of the DASS is recommended.

  10. Deployment-Related Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in US Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder ( PTSD ), an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to a traumatic event, is a frequent psychological...wounded Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry 1989;146:667–9. 17. Helzer JE, Robins LN, McEvoy L. Post - traumatic stress disorder in the general...Meyer C. Post - traumatic stress disorder : the role of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders , and gender. European Archives of Psychiatry

  11. Stress tolerance and stress-induced injury in crop plants measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo: chilling, freezing, ice cover, heat, and high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, R M; Hetherington, S E

    1983-08-01

    The proposition is examined that measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo can be used to monitor cellular injury caused by environmental stresses rapidly and nondestructively and to determine the relative stress tolerances of different species. Stress responses of leaf tissue were measured by F(R), the maximal rate of the induced rise in chlorophyll fluorescence. The time taken for F(R) to decrease by 50% in leaves at 0 degrees C was used as a measure of chilling tolerance. This value was 4.3 hours for chilling-sensitive cucumber. In contrast, F(R) decreased very slowly in cucumber leaves at 10 degrees C or in chilling-tolerant cabbage leaves at 0 degrees C. Long-term changes in F(R) of barley, wheat, and rye leaves kept at 0 degrees C were different in frost-hardened and unhardened material and in the latter appeared to be correlated to plant frost tolerance. To simulate damage caused by a thick ice cover, wheat leaves were placed at 0 degrees C under N(2). Kharkov wheat, a variety tolerant of ice encapsulation, showed a slower decrease in F(R) than Gatcher, a spring wheat. Relative heat tolerance was also indicated by the decrease in F(R) in heated leaves while changes in vivo resulting from photoinhibition, ultraviolet radiation, and photobleaching can also be measured.

  12. [Emotional regulation in aspect of action vs. state orientation, stress and self - injurious behavior among people with borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Rabska, Ewelina; Jaworska-Andryszewska, Paulina; Laso, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    In the bordeline personality disorder a large role ascribe to biopsychosocial factors. Studies have shown that more than 70% patients BPD reported experiencing traumatic events in childhood. The findings are confirming that making self-harming is a frequent symptom of bordeline disorder and 70-75% patients show at least one act of self-harming. Selfharming can be a reaction to maladaptive emotional regulation. Moreover a lowered tolerance level is characteristic of them to the stress and determined course learning dysfunctional patterns of behavior. The aim of this study is to determine the level of emotional regulation through the variable action vs state orientation and to investigate their relation to stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior. In study participated 45 persons with emotionally unstable borderline personality diagnosis. In the group was 33 women and 12 men in age 19-43. A Polish adaptation of standardized questionnaires was used to measure stress and action vs state orientation (SSI-K), self-injurious behavior (SHI) and suicidal tendencies (RFL-I). By patients with borderline personality disorder the level of action control, reasons for living and stress are predictors of selfharming behavior. The mediation analyze showed, that stress and reasons for living are mediators between action vs. state control and the level of self-harming behavior. A high level of stress correlates positively with self-harming and negatively with action control in patients with borderline personality disorder, and a high level of reasons for living correlates positively with action control and negatively with self-harming in people with BPD. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  13. Non-suicidal self-injury and life stress: A systematic meta-analysis and theoretical elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Cheek, Shayna M.; Nestor, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable growth of interest in the study of life stress and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current article presents a systematic review of the empirical literature on this association. In addition to providing a comprehensive meta-analysis, the current article includes a qualitative review of the findings for which there were too few cases (i.e., life stress and NSSI was found (pooled OR = 1.81 [95% CI = 1.49–2.21]). After an adjustment was made for publication bias, the estimated effect size was smaller but still significant (pooled OR = 1.33 [95% CI = 1.08–1.63]). This relation was moderated by sample type, NSSI measure type, and length of period covered by the NSSI measure. The empirical literature is characterized by several methodological limitations, particularly the frequent use of cross-sectional analyses involving temporal overlap between assessments of life stress and NSSI, leaving unclear the precise nature of the relation between these two phenomena (e.g., whether life stress may be a cause, concomitant, or consequence of NSSI). Theoretically informed research utilizing multi-wave designs, assessing life stress and NSSI over relatively brief intervals, and featuring interview-based assessments of these constructs holds promise for advancing our understanding of their relation. The current review concludes with a theoretical elaboration of the association between NSSI and life stress, with the aim of providing a conceptual framework to guide future study in this area. PMID:27267345

  14. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  16. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  17. Reno-Cerebral Reflex Activates the Renin-Angiotensin System, Promoting Oxidative Stress and Renal Damage After Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Li, Aiqing; Li, Jiawen; Wu, Chunyi; Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Zhanmei; Liu, Youhua; Wilcox, Christopher S; Hou, Fan Fan

    2017-09-01

    A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury, but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury. Selective renal afferent denervation with capsaicin or renal denervation significantly attenuated IRI-induced activation of central RAS and brain inflammation. Central blockade of RAS or oxidative stress by intracerebroventricular (ICV) losartan or tempol reduced the renal ischemic injury score by 65% or 58%, respectively, and selective renal afferent denervation or reduction of sympathetic tone by ICV clonidine decreased the score by 42% or 52%, respectively (all p renal damage and dysfunction persisted after controlling blood pressure with hydralazine. This study uncovered a novel reflex pathway between ischemic kidney and the brain that sustains renal oxidative stress and local RAS activation to promote ongoing renal damage. These data suggest that the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axes are interlinked by a reno-cerebral sympathetic reflex that is activated by ischemia-reperfusion, which contributes to ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain inflammation and worsening of the acute renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 415-432.

  18. Maresin 1 Ameliorates Lung Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Nrf-2-Mediated HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanchao Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury occurs in various clinical conditions and heavily damaged lung function. Oxidative stress reaction and antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of lung I/R injury. In the current study, we investigated the impact of Maresin 1 on lung I/R injury and explored the possible mechanism involved in this process. MaR 1 ameliorated I/R-induced lung injury score, wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF leukocyte count, BALF neutrophil ratio, and pulmonary permeability index levels in lung tissue. MaR 1 significantly reduced ROS, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and 15-F2t-isoprostane generation and restored antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities. Administration of MaR 1 improved the expression of nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 in I/R-treated lung tissue. Furthermore, we also found that the protective effects of MaR 1 on lung tissue injury and oxidative stress were reversed by HO-1 activity inhibitor, Znpp-IX. Nrf-2 transcription factor inhibitor, brusatol, significantly decreased MaR 1-induced nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 expression. In conclusion, these results indicate that MaR 1 protects against lung I/R injury through suppressing oxidative stress. The mechanism is partially explained by activation of the Nrf-2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway.

  19. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  20. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by

  1. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  2. A Scaphoid Stress Fracture in a Female Collegiate-Level Shot-Putter and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Kohring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid stress fractures are rare injuries that have been described in young, high-level athletes who exhibit repetitive loading with the wrist in extension. We present a case of an occult scaphoid stress fracture in a 22-year-old female Division I collegiate shot-putter. She was successfully treated with immobilization in a thumb spica splint for 6 weeks. Loaded wrist extension activities can predispose certain high-level athletes to sustain scaphoid stress fractures, and a high index of suspicion in this patient population may aid prompt diagnosis and management of this rare injury.

  3. The effect of army vest design on the occurrence of stress fractures and overuse injuries in female military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Frankl, M; Nyska, M; Hetsroni, I; Constantini, N; Trejo, L; Bechar, R; Novak, G; Lankovsky, Z; Mann, G

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures (SFs) occur when microdamage caused by repetitive mechanical load exceeds the biological load-bearing capacity of the bone. The study objective was to test whether a vest specifically designed and manufactured for female recruits, compared with the standard vest used on a regular basis by Border Police recruits, would reduce the incidence of SF in female Border Police recruits. Data based on reports of military personnel show that women are more likely to sustain SFs. A follow-up of 240 female Border Police infantry recruits, divided into two trial groups, was conducted from 2007 to 2009. Two different vests were evaluated-the standard special unit fighting vest, which was conventionally used by both men and women during basic training, and the new fighting vest, specially design for female body shape. No significant difference was noted in the number of SFs between the two groups which may be attributed to increased weight of the new vest. There was a lower incidence of long bone SFs which may have been due to the superior vest design. The female Border Police Infantry recruits expressed great satisfaction with the new vest. Increased effort should be invested to further reduce the weight of female combat gear, alongside efforts to improve fit and comfort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Zhenfei; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Liang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    As previous studies demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis play crucial roles in ischemic pathogenesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) treatment attenuates oxidative stress-induced cell death among primary neurons and astrocytes as well as significantly reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rats. We used a spinal cord ischemia injury (SCII) model in rats to verify our hypothesis that NAD + could ameliorate oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Adult male rats were subjected to transient spinal cord ischemia for 60min, and different doses of NAD + were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the start of reperfusion. Neurological function was determined by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores. The oxidative stress level was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The degree of apoptosis was analyzed by deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor). The results showed that NAD + at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly decreased the oxidative stress level and neuronal apoptosis in the spinal cord of ischemia-reperfusion rats compared with saline, as accompanied with the decreased oxidative stress, NAD + administration significantly restrained the neuronal apoptosis after ischemia injury while improved the neurological and motor function. These findings suggested that NAD + might protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C for 20 min and at 5 o C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0 o C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author)

  7. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C for 20 min and at 5{sup o}C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0{sup o}C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author).

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve DJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available David J Eve,1 Martin R Steele,2 Paul R Sanberg,1 Cesar V Borlongan1 1Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, 2Veterans Reintegration Steering Committee, Veterans Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. A proportion of the returning soldiers also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and in some cases, this may be a consequence of TBI. Effective treatments are still being identified, and a possible therapeutic candidate is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. Some clinical trials have been performed which suggest benefits with regard to survival and disease severity of TBI and/or PTSD, while several other studies do not see any improvement compared to a possibly poorly controlled sham. HBOT has been shown to reduce apoptosis, upregulate growth factors, promote antioxidant levels, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines in animal models, and hence, it is likely that HBOT could be advantageous in treating at least the secondary phase of TBI and PTSD. There is some evidence of a putative prophylactic or preconditioning benefit of HBOT exposure in animal models of brain injury, and the optimal time frame for treatment is yet to be determined. HBOT has potential side effects such as acute cerebral toxicity and more reactive oxygen species with long-term use, and therefore

  9. Limited Link between Oxidative Stress and Ochratoxin A—Induced Renal Injury in an Acute Toxicity Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA displays nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, in the acute toxicity rat model, there is no evidence on the relationship between OTA and nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Based on this, the integrated analysis of physiological status, damage biomarkers, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were performed. After OTA treatment, the body weight decreased and AST, ALP, TP, and BUN levels in serum increased. Hydropic degeneration, swelling, vacuolization, and partial drop occurred in proximal tubule epithelial cells. PCNA and Kim-1 were dose-dependently increased in the kidney, but Cox-2 expression and proliferation were not found in the liver. In OTA-treated kidneys, the mRNA expressions of Kim-1, Cox-2, Lcn2, and Clu were dose-dependently increased. The mRNA expressions of Vim and Cox-2 were decreased in OTA-treated livers. Some oxidative stress indicators were altered in the kidneys (ROS and SOD and livers (SOD and GSH. DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were not found. In conclusion, there is a limited link between oxidative stress and OTA-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model.

  10. NADPH oxidase is not an essential mediator of oxidative stress or liver injury in murine MCD diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Aileen; Leclercq, Isabelle A; Williams, Jacqueline; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Hepatic oxidative stress is a key feature of metabolic forms of steatohepatitis, but the sources of pro-oxidants are unclear. The NADPH oxidase complex is critical for ROS generation in inflammatory cells; loss of any one component (e.g., gp91phox) renders NADPH oxidase inactive. We tested whether activated inflammatory cells contribute to oxidant stress in steatohepatitis. gp91phox-/- and wildtype (wt) mice were fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Serum ALT, hepatic triglycerides, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-kappaB, expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes and macrophage chemokines were measured. After 10 days of MCD dietary feeding, gp91phox-/- and wt mice displayed equivalent hepatocellular injury. After 8 weeks, there were fewer activated macrophages in livers of gp91phox-/- mice than controls, despite similar mRNA levels for MCP and MIP chemokines, but fibrosis was similar. NF-kappaB activation and increased expression of ICAM-1, TNF-alpha and COX-2 mRNA were evident in both genotypes, but in gp91phox-/- mice, expression of these genes was confined to hepatocytes. A functional NADPH oxidase complex does not contribute importantly to oxidative stress in this model and therefore is not obligatory for induction or perpetuation of dietary steatohepatitis.

  11. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Rather Than Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Best Account for Altered Emotional Responses in Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Craig A; Goldman, Daniel J; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Lissek, Shmuel; Sponheim, Scott R

    2018-02-01

    Emotional dysfunction is evident in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet it is unclear what aspects of the disorder most directly relate to aberrant emotional responding. Also, the frequent co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among recently deployed U.S. military personnel complicates efforts to understand the basis for emotional disruption. We studied a cross-sectional sample (enriched for PTSD and mTBI) of 123 U.S. veterans of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We measured subjective affective evaluations and peripheral psychophysiological responses to images with pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and combat-related aversive content. When compared with other postdeployment participants, those who had combat-related PTSD rated pleasant image content as less positive (ηp2 = .04) and less arousing (ηp2 = .06), and exhibited heightened physiological responsivity to combat image content (ηp2 = .07). Symptoms of PTSD were associated with elevated skin conductance responses (β = .28), reduced heart rate deceleration (β = .44 to .47), and increased corrugator facial muscle electromyography (β = .47). No effects for blast-related mTBI were observed across any affective modulation measures. These findings point to a greater impact of PTSD symptomatology than blast-related mTBI on emotional functioning and highlight the utility of dimensional assessments of psychopathology for understanding the effects of combat-stress conditions on adjustment to civilian life. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Feng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with brain diseases. Methods: A total of 115 patients with craniocerebral injury were selected as the observation group, according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, they were divided into light-sized group (n=38, middle-sized group (n=40 and severe-sized group (n=37, at the same time the other 120 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and procalcitonin (PCT], neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and the stress hormone cortisol [(COR, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, β-endorphin (β-EP] of both groups were compared. Results: The levels of TNF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP in the observation group were (145.73±19.24 ng/L, (2.41±0.64 ng/mL, (38.11±12.28 ng/mL, (0.87±0.32 μg/L, (818.87±121.14 nmol/L, (107.38±13.94 ng/L, (126.74±39.04 ng/mL, which were significantly higher than control group, the difference was statistically significant; Comparison of indexes among the observation group, NF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP levels in the middle-sized group and severe-sized group were significantly higher than those in the light-sized group, and the levels in the severe-sized group were significantly higher than those of the middle-sized group, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The levels of Serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone were significantly increased in patients with craniocerebral injury, the level was related to the degree of traumatic brain injury, which could be used as an important indicator to assess the severity of the disease.

  13. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  14. Family Caregivers for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury: Exploring the Stresses and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    testing of the newly developed instrument was conducted, however, the sample size was smaller than needed for full pilot testing. A future study with a...larger sample will be needed to verify the pilot testing results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS spinal cord injury, veterans, caregivers 16. SECURITY...A qualitative approach takes advantage of the rich information provided by those living the experience of caregiving and SCI, enabling us to learn

  15. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  16. Correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Feng Tian

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: A total of 110 patients with traumatic brain injury who were treated in our hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 were collected as the observation group, and 60 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE levels as well as oxidative stress index and insulin resistance index levels of two groups of subjects were detected, and Pearson test was used to further evaluate the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Results: Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of normal control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA, MPO and LPO contents were higher than those of normal control group while SOD and TAC contents were lower than those of normal control group; serum insulin resistance indexes GLU, INS and HOMA-IR levels were higher than those of control group. Pearson test showed that serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents in patients with traumatic brain injury were directly correlated with post-traumatic oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Conclusion: The serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents increase in patients with traumatic brain injury, and the increase is directly correlated with the oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  17. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  18. The Making of Compassion Stress Injury: A Review of Historical and Etiological Models toward a De-Stigmatizing Neurobehavioral Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex interactions between empathy and vulnerability amongst those in helping professions/roles have been explored by practitioners and researchers across multiple disciplines for decades. While these explorations have spurred interest and awareness in the unique risks and protective factors of helping professions/roles, they have also resulted in myriad competing, overlapping, and/or parallel definitions, conceptualizations, terminology, and etiological attributions of adverse impacts of secondary exposure to others’ suffering. In this conceptual review, we will follow the historical origins of this phenomenon, beginning with the early 1900s with the First World War and the works of early psychiatric clinicians and moving toward recent advances in understanding etiology and conceptualization. Finally, we will provide support for the use and additional research of a proposed unifying and comprehensive conceptualization term: compassion stress injury (CSI, based on a mind-body and de-stigmatizing framework.

  19. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  20. Evaluation of Depression Associated With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Maxillofacial Injuries-A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Vatsala; Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Chellappazham, Saravanan; Balasubramaniam, Sasikala; Raja V B, Krishnakumar

    2018-06-01

    Maxillofacial injuries can result in psychological derangement, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by continual re-experiencing of any traumatic event in addition to numerous systemic complications. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of "PTSD-related depression" in patients with maxillofacial injuries and to identify the risk factors involved. This prospective study involved 88 patients with maxillofacial trauma who had only cosmetic deficits (group A), only functional deficits (group B), or cosmetic and functional deficits (group C). The psychological status of all patients was assessed before and after surgery using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale. Remission time also was analyzed. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using parametric methods. Comparison of mean values among groups was performed using 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey honest significance difference post hoc tests for multiple pairwise comparisons. To compare proportions, the χ 2 test was applied. The number of patients in groups A, B, and C was 11, 34 and 43, respectively. In the immediate post-trauma stage, all patients in group A showed severe depression; the percentages of patients with severe depression in groups B and C were 8.8 and 81.4%, respectively, which was statistically relevant. Depression scores of patients of all groups decreased gradually in the postsurgical phase. Patients with cosmetic defects consistently recorded higher depression scores at all intervals. The time taken for recovery from depression (remission time) was shorter for patients with only functional deficits (group B). Patients with maxillofacial injuries are prone to PTSD-related depression from functional and cosmetic deficits. The objectives of trauma management must be aimed at restoring pre-trauma form and function of the maxillofacial skeleton and the patient's psychological status. Copyright © 2018 American Association of

  1. Dietary nitrate attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injuries by modulation of immune responses and reduction of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Tarnawski, Laura; Peleli, Maria; Zhuge, Zhengbing; Terrando, Niccolo; Harris, Robert A; Olofsson, Peder S; Larsson, Erik; Persson, A Erik G; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Carlstrom, Mattias

    2017-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury involves complex pathological processes in which reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is suggested as a key factor. Inorganic nitrate can form NO in vivo via NO synthase-independent pathways and may thus provide beneficial effects during IR. Herein we evaluated the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation in a renal IR model. Male mice (C57BL/6J) were fed nitrate-supplemented chow (1.0mmol/kg/day) or standard chow for two weeks prior to 30min ischemia and during the reperfusion period. Unilateral renal IR caused profound tubular and glomerular damage in the ischemic kidney. Renal function, assessed by plasma creatinine levels, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, was also impaired after IR. All these pathologies were significantly improved by nitrate. Mechanistically, nitrate treatment reduced renal superoxide generation, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 p70) and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. Moreover, nitrate reduced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemo attractors, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the injured kidney. In another cohort of mice, two weeks of nitrate supplementation lowered superoxide generation and IL-6 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our study demonstrates protective effect of dietary nitrate in renal IR injury that may be mediated via modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. These novel findings suggest that nitrate supplementation deserve further exploration as a potential treatment in patients at high risk of renal IR injury. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres treated paraquat-induced acute lung injury by resisting oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yong Zhu,1,* Guoying Deng,2,* Anqi Ji,2 Jiayi Yao,1 Xiaoxiao Meng,1 Jinfeng Wang,1 Qian Wang,2 Qiugen Wang,2 Ruilan Wang1 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, 2Trauma Center, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Acute paraquat (PQ poisoning is one of the most common forms of pesticide poisoning. Oxidative stress and inflammation are thought to be important mechanisms in PQ-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Selenium (Se can scavenge intracellular free radicals directly or indirectly. In this study, we investigated whether porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres could alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation in PQ-induced ALI. Male Sprague Dawley rats and RLE-6TN cells were used in this study. Rats were categorized into 3 groups: control (n=6, PQ (n=18, and PQ + Se@SiO2 (n=18. The PQ and PQ + Se@SiO2 groups were randomly and evenly divided into 3 sub-groups according to different time points (24, 48 and 72 h after PQ treatment. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres 1 mg/kg (in the PQ + Se@SiO2 group were administered via intraperitoneal injection every 24 h. Expression levels of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were detected, and a histological analysis of rat lung tissues was performed. The results showed that the levels of ROS, malondialdehyde, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly increased after PQ treatment. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels were reduced. However, treatment with porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres markedly alleviated PQ-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the results from histological examinations and wet-to-dry weight ratios of rat lung

  3. Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment: Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Felmingham, Kim L; Palmer, Matthew A; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence, Andrew J; Bryant, Richard A; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2017-11-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Participants viewed emotional face expressions while their neural activity was recorded (via event-related potentials) prior to and following deployment. The high-PTSD group displayed increased P1 and P2 amplitudes to threatening faces at post-deployment compared to the low-PTSD group. In contrast, the mTBI group displayed reduced face-specific processing (N170 amplitude) to all facial expressions compared to the no-mTBI group. Here, we identified distinctive neural patterns of emotional face processing, with attentional biases towards threatening faces in PTSD, and reduced emotional face processing in mTBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The longitudinal relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and perceived social support in survivors of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, A; Creamer, M; Forbes, D; McFarlane, A C; O'Donnell, M L; Silove, D; Steel, Z; Felmingham, K; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Bryant, R A

    2017-01-01

    Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury. Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event. Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point. Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.

  5. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  6. Which method of posttraumatic stress disorder classification best predicts psychosocial function in children with traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Addition of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity more accurately estimates disability and pain than fear avoidance measures alone after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.

  8. Epidermal growth factor regulates apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Anil Murat; Sozbilen, Murat Celal; Sevgili, Elvin; Dagci, Taner; Özyalcin, Halit; Armagan, Guliz

    2018-03-22

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to vascular damage and disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier which participates in secondary nerve injury. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an endogenous protein which regulates cell proliferation, growth and differention. Previous studies reported that EGF exerts neuroprotective effect in spinal cord after SCI. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying EGF-mediated protection in different regions of nervous system have not shown yet. In this study, we aimed to examine possible anti-apoptotic and protective roles of EGF not only in spinal cord but also in brain following SCI. Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups of seven animals each as follows: sham, trauma (SCI), SCI + EGF and SCI + methylprednisolone (MP) groups. The functional neurological deficits due to the SCI were assessed by behavioral analysis using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor test. The alterations in pro-/anti-apoptotic protein levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in spinal cord and frontal cortex. In our study, EGF promoted locomotor recovery and motor neuron survival of SCI rats. EGF treatment significantly decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 protein expressions both in spinal cord and brain when compared to SCI group. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased following EGF treatment similar to MP treatment. Our experiment also suggests that alteration of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax may result from decreased apoptosis following EGF treatment. As a conclusion, these results show, for the first time, that administration of EGF exerts its protection via regulating apoptotic and oxidative pathways in response to spinal cord injury in different regions of central nervous system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Borax partially prevents neurologic disability and oxidative stress in experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Emine Rabia; Gökce, Emre Cemal; Sönmez, Mehmet Akif; Namuslu, Mehmet; Gökce, Aysun; Bodur, A Said

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of borax on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (no ischemia/reperfusion), ischemia/reperfusion, and borax (ischemia/reperfusion + borax); each group was consist of 7 animals. Infrarenal aortic cross clamp was applied for 30 minutes to generate spinal cord ischemia. Animals were evaluated functionally with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scoring system and inclined-plane test. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status and to perform histopathological examination. At the 72nd hour after ischemia, the borax group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan and inclined-plane scores than those of ischemia/reperfusion group. Histopathological examination of spinal cord tissues in borax group showed that treatment with borax significantly reduced the degree of spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury disclosed by light microscopy. Xanthine oxidase activity and total oxidant status levels of the ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly higher than those of the sham and borax groups (P borax group were significantly higher than those of the ischemia/reperfusion group (P borax groups in terms of total antioxidant capacity levels (P > .05). The nitric oxide levels and nitric oxide synthase activity of all groups were similar (P > .05). Borax treatment seems to protect the spinal cord against injury in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model and improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of long- and short-term darbepoetin-α treatment on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial injury in ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Evrim Dursun; Hanikoglu, Aysegul; Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Beste; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications are the main cause of death in the world. Vascular injury in response to inflammation and enhanced oxidant stress promotes endothelial dysfunction and leads to atherosclerotic lesions. Low-dose treatment with darbepoetin-α may be a potential therapeutic tool for endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. In order to study the effect of darbepoetin-α on endothelial injury and atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-/- mice as the atherosclerotic mice model. We monitored atherosclerosis and plaque formation histochemically in ApoE knockout mice at early and late stages of atherosclerosis. Darbepoetin-α was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg to ApoE-/- mice. The results of 2 ApoE-/- mice groups injected with darbepoetin-α (early and late stages of atherosclerosis) were compared to the results of the corresponding saline injected ApoE-/- mice groups and the control (C57BL/6) mice. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride), inflammation (CRP, IL-6, histamine), endothelial injury (ICAM-1, selectin) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) were significantly increased in 4 atherosclerotic groups compared to the control group. Short-term darbepoetin-α had no marked effects on indicators of inflammation and endothelial injury in the ApoE knockout mice groups compared to the ApoE knockout mice not treated with darbepoetin-α, however, darbepoetin-α significantly decreased 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content. Long term darbepoetin-α treatment reduced oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice. This study contributes to understanding and elucidating the biochemical changes occurring during early and late stages of atherosclerosis development regarding lipid profile, inflammation, endothelial injury and oxidative stress markers.

  11. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Fein, Joel A.; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-01-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to

  12. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  13. Colchicine protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangrong Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Neutrophils play an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (IR induced skeletal muscle injury. Microtubules are required for neutrophil activation in response to various stimuli. This study aimed to investigate the effects of colchicine, a microtubule-disrupting agent, on skeletal muscle IR injury in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups: IR group, colchicine treated-IR (CO group and sham operation (SM group. Rats of both the IR and CO groups were subjected to 3 hr of ischemia by clamping the right femoral artery followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Colchicine (1 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally prior to hindlimb ischemia in the CO group. After 2 hr of reperfusion, we measured superoxide dismutase (SOD and myeloperoxidase (MPO activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β levels in the muscle samples. Plasma creatinine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were measured. We also evaluated the histological damage score and wet/dry weight (W/D ratio. Results: The histological damage score, W/D ratio, MPO activity, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in muscle tissues were significantly increased, SOD activity was decreased, and plasma CK and LDH levels were remarkably elevated in both the IR and CO groups compared to the SM group (P

  14. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  15. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  16. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress in NLRC5 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong; Ding, Tao; Ma, Chuan-Gen

    2017-11-18

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury could arise as a complication of liver surgery and transplantation. No specific therapeutic strategies are available to attenuate I/R injury. NOD-, LRR-and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5), a member of the NOD-like protein family, has been suggested to negatively regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through interacting with IKKα and blocking their phosphorylation. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been shown to attenuate liver injury. In the current study, we investigated the pre-treatment of DEX on hepatic I/R injury in wild type (WT) and NLRC5 knockout (NLRC5 -/- ) mice. Our results indicated that NLRC5 -/- showed significantly stronger histologic damage, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis after I/R compared to the WT group of mice, indicating the protective role of NLRC5 against liver I/R injury. Importantly, I/R-induced increase of NLRC5 was reduced by DEX pre-treatment. After hepatic I/R injury, WT and NLRC5 -/- mice pre-treated with DEX exhibited attenuated histological disruption, and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was associated with the inactivated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis was observed in DEX-treated mice with I/R injury, probably through enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reducing mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathways. In vitro, the results were further confirmed in WT and NLRC5 -/- hepatocytes pre-treated with or without DEX. Together, the findings illustrated that lack of NLRC5 resulted in severer liver I/R injury, which could be alleviated by DEX pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase by N-Acetyl Lysyltyrosylcysteine Amide Reduces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Inflammation, Neuronal Damage, and Neural Stem Cell Injury in a Murine Model of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Liang, Ye; Zheng, Shikan; Zhang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent oxidative stress plays a significant role in brain injury in stroke patients. We previously showed that N -acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel MPO inhibitor, significantly decreased infarct size, blood-brain barrier leakage, infiltration of myeloid cells, loss of neurons, and apoptosis in the brains of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. Inhibition of MPO also noticeably reduced neurologic severity scores of MCAO mice. Thus, our data support the idea that MPO-dependent oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in tissue injury in ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms of MPO-induced injury in stroke are still largely unknown. Here, we present new evidence showing that KYC treatment greatly reduced inflammation by decreasing the number of proinflammatory M1 microglial cells and N1 neutrophils in the brains of MCAO mice. KYC also markedly reduced the expression of high-mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, and nuclear factor- κ B in the brains of MCAO mice. Both neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs) were oxidatively injured by MPO-dependent oxidative stress in MCAO mice. Inhibiting MPO-dependent oxidative stress with KYC significantly reduced oxidative injury and apoptosis in neurons and NSCs. KYC treatment also protected transplanted exogenous NSCs in the brains of MCAO mice. Thus, our studies suggest that MPO-dependent oxidative stress directly injures brain tissues by oxidizing neurons and NSCs and increasing inflammation during stroke. Inhibition of MPO activity with KYC preserves neuronal function and helps the brain recover from injury after stroke. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Hydrogen alleviates hyperoxic acute lung injury related endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats through upregulation of SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Han, Wenjie; Hu, Huijun; Fan, Danfeng; Li, Yanbo; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Yan; Li, Mingxin; Pan, Shuyi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is a major clinical problem for patients undergoing supplemental oxygen therapy. Currently in clinical settings there exist no effective means of prevention or treatment methods. Our previous study found that: hydrogen could reduce HALI, as well as oxidative stress. This research will further explore the mechanism underlying the protective effect of hydrogen on oxygen toxicity. Rats were randomly assigned into three experimental groups and were exposed in a oxygen chamber for 60 continuous hours: 100% balanced air (control); 100% oxygen (HALI); 100% oxygen with hydrogen treatment (HALI + HRS). We examined lung function by wet to dry ratio of lung, lung pleural effusion and cell apoptosis. We also detected endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) by examining the expression of CHOP, GRP78 and XBP1. We further investigated the role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in HALI, which contributes to cellular regulation including ERS, by examining its expression after hydrogen treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor. Hydrogen could significantly reduce HALI by reducing lung edema and apoptosis, inhibiting the elevating of ERS and increased SIRT1 expression. By inhibition of SIRT1 expression, the effect of hydrogen on prevention of HALI is significantly weakened, the inhibition of the ERS was also reversed. Our findings indicate that hydrogen could reduce HALI related ERS and the mechanism of hydrogen may be associated with upregulation of SIRT1, this study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of hydrogen, which provides a new theoretical basis for clinical application of hydrogen.

  19. Hippocampal Dysfunction Provoked by Mercury Chloride Exposure: Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative Stress, Tissue Injury and Nature of Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic metal, which can be found in its inorganic form in the environment. This form presents lower liposolubility and lower absorption in the body. In order to elucidate the possible toxicity of inorganic Hg in the hippocampus, we investigated the potential of low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2 to promote hippocampal dysfunction by employing a chronic exposure model. For this, 56 rats were exposed to HgCl2 (0.375 mg/kg/day via the oral route for 45 days. After the exposure period, the animals were submitted to the cognitive test of fear memory. The hippocampus was collected for the measurement of total Hg levels, analysis of oxidative stress, and evaluation of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and tissue injury. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic Hg promotes an increase in mercury levels in this region and damage to short- and long-term memory. Furthermore, we found that this exposure model provoked oxidative stress, which led to cytotoxicity and cell death by apoptosis, affecting astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampus. Our study demonstrated that inorganic Hg, even with its low liposolubility, is able to produce deleterious effects in the central nervous system, resulting in cognitive impairment and hippocampal damage when administered for a long time at low doses in rats.

  20. Overexpression of HIPK2 attenuates spinal cord injury in rats by modulating apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renbo; Shang, Jingbo; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Li; Xie, Donghui; Tu, Guanjun

    2018-04-09

    HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining. Overexpression of HIPK2 significantly elevated the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and reduced the mRNA expression of Nogo-A and RhoA in SCI rats. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays showed that overexpression of HIPK2 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Overexpression of HIPK2 also decreased expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and elevated expression of Bcl-2 in the SCI model, indicating that HIPK2 exhibited its protective activity by inhibiting SCI-induced apoptosis. Then, we measured the serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). We also determined the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β. HIPK2 overexpression reduced oxidative stress and the levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with SCI control animals. Additionally, acetylation of HIPK2 was reduced in SCI rats. Overexpression of HIPK2 could enhance autophagy by elevating the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II while autophagy is regarded as a beneficial regulator to improve spinal cord injury. Together, overexpression of HIPK2 improved contusive SCI induced pain by modulating oxidative stress, Bcl‑2 and Bax signaling, and

  1. Ebselen by modulating oxidative stress improves hypoxia-induced macroglial Müller cell and vascular injury in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sih Min; Deliyanti, Devy; Figgett, William A; Talia, Dean M; de Haan, Judy B; Wilkinson-Berka, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributor to glial and vascular cell damage in ischemic retinopathies. We hypothesized that ebselen via its ability to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augment nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) anti-oxidants would attenuate hypoxia-induced damage to macroglial Müller cells and also lessen retinal vasculopathy. Primary cultures of rat Müller cells were exposed to normoxia (21% O2), hypoxia (0.5% O2) and ebselen (2.5 μM) for up to 72 h. Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was induced in C57BL/6J mice while control mice were housed in room air. Mice received vehicle (saline, 5% dimethyl sulfoxide) or ebselen (10 mg/kg) each day between postnatal days 6-18. In cultured Müller cells, flow cytometry for dihydroethidium revealed that ebselen reduced the hypoxia-induced increase in ROS levels, whilst increasing the expression of Nrf2-regulated anti-oxidant genes, heme oxygenase 1, glutathione peroxidase-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone oxidoreductase 1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase. Moreover, in Müller cells, ebselen reduced the hypoxia-induced increase in protein levels of pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant-protein 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and the mRNA levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of Müller cell injury. Ebselen improved OIR by attenuating capillary vaso-obliteration and neovascularization and a concomitant reduction in Müller cell gliosis and GFAP. We conclude that ebselen protects against hypoxia-induced injury of retinal Müller cells and the microvasculature, which is linked to its ability to reduce oxidative stress, vascular damaging factors and inflammation. Agents such as ebselen may be potential treatments for retinopathies that feature oxidative stress-mediated damage to glia and the microvasculature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. PPARα agonist fenofibrate protects the kidney from hypertensive injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats via inhibition of oxidative stress and MAPK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaoyang; Shen, Ying H.; Li, Chuanbao; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Bu, Peili; Zhang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of hypertensive renal injury. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPARα) has antioxidant effect. In this study, we demonstrated that fenofibrate significantly reduced proteinuria, inflammatory cell recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins deposition in the kidney of SHRs without apparent effect on blood pressure. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we found that fenofibrate treatment markedly reduced oxidative stress accompanied by reduced activity of renal NAD(P)H oxidase, increased activity of Cu/Zn SOD, and decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK in the kidney of SHRs. Taken together, fenofibrate treatment can protect against hypertensive renal injury without affecting blood pressure by inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis via suppression of oxidative stress and MAPK activity.

  4. Repetitive control of an electrostatic microbridge actuator: theory and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Haiyu; Rahn, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic microactuators are used extensively in MEMS sensors, RF switches and microfluidic pumps. The high bandwidth operation required by these applications complicates the implementation of feedback controllers. This paper designs, proves stability and simulates a feedforward repetitive controller for an electrostatic microbridge. High residual stress creates tension in the microbridge that dominates bending stiffness so a pinned string model with uniform electrostatic force loading is used for model-based control. The control objective is to force the microbridge displacement to follow prescribed spatial and periodic time trajectories. Viscous damping ensures boundedness of the distributed transverse displacement in response to bounded inputs. The average displacement is measured by capacitive sensing and processed offline using a repetitive control algorithm that updates a high speed waveform generator's parameters. Simulations show that the performance depends on the amount of damping. With less than 1% damping in a representative microbridge structure, repetitive control reduces the midspan displacement overshoot by 83%

  5. Bone scanning in the evaluation of exercise-related stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, J.R. Jr.; Moniot, A.L.; Green, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy was used to evaluate 34 patients with the physical findings and history of stress fracture of the lower extremity. Of the 34, 21 had abnormal studies, 11 involving the femoral neck, 9 the tibia, and 1 the femur. All of these had abnormal scintiscans prior to or at the time of the appearance of radiographic changes. Of the 9 with abnormal tibial studies, radiographic changes never evolved in 3. No false negatives were found among the 13 with normal scintiscans

  6. Patterns of gene expression associated with recovery and injury in heat-stressed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Jonathan D; Ippolito, Danielle L; Rakesh, Vineet; Baer, Christine E; Dennis, William E; Helwig, Bryan G; Jackson, David A; Leon, Lisa R; Lewis, John A; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    Background The in vivo gene response associated with hyperthermia is poorly understood. Here, we perform a global, multiorgan characterization of the gene response to heat stress using an in vivo conscious rat model. Results We heated rats until implanted thermal probes indicated a maximal core temperature of 41.8?C (Tc,Max). We then compared transcriptomic profiles of liver, lung, kidney, and heart tissues harvested from groups of experimental animals at Tc,Max, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ...

  7. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    Full Text Available Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion (P < 0.001 and acidity (P < 0.0001 and gastric ulcer index scores (P < 0.001. and augmented the gastric mucosal defense. Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels (P < 0.0001 induced by ethanol and also significantly attenuated ethanol induced inflammation and oxidative stress by the suppression of gastric MPO activity (P < 0.001, reducing the expression of NF-κB p65 and the increased MDA levels (P < 0.001. Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol.Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture. Keywords: Gastric ulcers, Pylorus ligation, Ethanol, Vanillin, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  8. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in High School and College Athletes for Reducing Stress and Injury, and Improving Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Haley; Olson, Bernadette L

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Student athletes experience a variety of stressors from school and social activities, as well as the additional demands of sport participation. Mindfulness-based interventions can help increase mental awareness and acceptance, as well as mitigate negative thoughts and emotions. The use of mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing thoughts of stress, injury reduction, and improving overall wellbeing. Does the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes aged 13-24 years reduce stress and injury as well as improve overall quality of life? The literature was searched for studies that investigated the use of mindfulness-based strategies for student-athletes specifically for reducing stress and injury and/or improving quality of life. The literature search returned 8 possible studies related to the clinical question and 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 randomized control trial, 2 nonrandomized control cohort studies). All 3 included studies demonstrated overall improved levels of mindfulness among student-athletes after the use of a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness-based interventions had positive effects for reducing negative thoughts and levels of perceived stress. The number of injury occurrences were found to decrease following the integration of a mindfulness-based intervention within an athletic population. Clinical Bottom Line: There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of mindfulness-based interventions with student-athletes for increasing mindfulness, managing negative emotions and perceived stress, as well as improving overall well-being. There is also current literature that advocates the use of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing injury, but further research is needed for support. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes will reduce stress and improve overall well-being as well as

  10. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  11. Fisetin Confers Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthi Shanmugam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion is considered an optimal treatment for AMI. Paradoxically, the procedure of reperfusion can itself cause myocardial tissue injury. Therefore, a strategy to minimize the reperfusion-induced myocardial tissue injury is vital for salvaging the healthy myocardium. Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (IRI using a Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. I/R produced significant myocardial tissue injury, which was characterized by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the perfusate and decreased indices of hemodynamic parameters. Furthermore, I/R resulted in elevated oxidative stress, uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IRI was associated with a loss of the mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, when the animals were pretreated with fisetin, it significantly attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial tissue injury, blunted the oxidative stress, and restored the structure and function of mitochondria. Mechanistically, the fisetin effects were found to be mediated via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, which was confirmed by a biochemical assay and molecular docking studies.

  12. Fisetin Confers Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Karthi; Ravindran, Sriram; Kurian, Gino A; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2018-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion is considered an optimal treatment for AMI. Paradoxically, the procedure of reperfusion can itself cause myocardial tissue injury. Therefore, a strategy to minimize the reperfusion-induced myocardial tissue injury is vital for salvaging the healthy myocardium. Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (IRI) using a Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. I/R produced significant myocardial tissue injury, which was characterized by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the perfusate and decreased indices of hemodynamic parameters. Furthermore, I/R resulted in elevated oxidative stress, uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IRI was associated with a loss of the mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, when the animals were pretreated with fisetin, it significantly attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial tissue injury, blunted the oxidative stress, and restored the structure and function of mitochondria. Mechanistically, the fisetin effects were found to be mediated via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3 β ), which was confirmed by a biochemical assay and molecular docking studies.

  13. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diallyl trisulfide ameliorates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in type 1 diabetic rats: role of SIRT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Shu; Tang, Xinlong; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Han, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuji; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Yinli; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan

    2017-07-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) protects against apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetic state, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Previously, we and others demonstrated that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activation inhibited oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during MI/R injury. We hypothesize that DATS reduces diabetic MI/R injury by activating SIRT1 signaling. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were subjected to MI/R surgery with or without perioperative administration of DATS (40 mg/kg). We found that DATS treatment markedly improved left ventricular systolic pressure and the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, reduced myocardial infarct size as well as serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, the myocardial apoptosis was also suppressed by DATS as evidenced by reduced apoptotic index and cleaved caspase-3 expression. However, these effects were abolished by EX527 (the inhibitor of SIRT1 signaling, 5 mg/kg). We further found that DATS effectively upregulated SIRT1 expression and its nuclear distribution. Additionally, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by DATS treatment. Moreover, DATS significantly activated Nrf-2/HO-1 antioxidant signaling pathway, thus reducing Nox-2/4 expressions. However, the ameliorative effects of DATS on oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis were inhibited by EX527 administration. Taken together, these data suggest that perioperative DATS treatment effectively ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic setting by enhancing cardiac SIRT1 signaling. SIRT1 activation not only upregulated Nrf-2/HO-1-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway but also suppressed PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress level, thus reducing myocardial apoptosis and eventually preserving cardiac function.

  15. A Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Blast Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Stress in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Adolescent Medicine, 160(12), 1300- 1301. Dubrovina, N.I. (2006). Effects of activation of D1 dopamine receptors on extinction of a conditioned passive... sexual behaviors of rats. Stress, 3(2), 97-106. Grippo, A.J., Beltz, T.G., & Johnson, A.K. (2003). Behavioral and cardiovascular changes in the...Sarkisova, K.Y., Kulikov, M.A., Midzyanovskaya, I.S., & Folomkina, A.A. (2008). Dopamine -dependent nature of depression-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats

  16. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK 100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  17. Effects of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on Alzheimer's disease in veterans, using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Hayes, Jacqueline; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Toga, Arthur W; Friedl, Karl E; Pacifico, Anthony; Sheline, Yvette; Yaffe, Kristine; Mohlenoff, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common problems resulting from military service, and both have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other causes. This study aims to use imaging techniques and biomarker analysis to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or PTSD resulting from combat or other traumas increase the risk for AD and decrease cognitive reserve in Veteran subjects, after accounting for age. Using military and Department of Veterans Affairs records, 65 Vietnam War veterans with a history of moderate or severe TBI with or without PTSD, 65 with ongoing PTSD without TBI, and 65 control subjects are being enrolled in this study at 19 sites. The study aims to select subject groups that are comparable in age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia are being excluded. However, a new study just beginning, and similar in size, will study subjects with TBI, subjects with PTSD, and control subjects with MCI. Baseline measurements of cognition, function, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; magnetic resonance images (structural, diffusion tensor, and resting state blood-level oxygen dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging); and amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) images with florbetapir are being obtained. One-year follow-up measurements will be collected for most of the baseline procedures, with the exception of the lumbar puncture, the PET imaging, and apolipoprotein E genotyping. To date, 19 subjects with TBI only, 46 with PTSD only, and 15 with TBI and PTSD have been recruited and referred to 13 clinics to undergo the study protocol. It is expected that cohorts will be fully recruited by October 2014. This study is a first step toward the design and statistical powering of an AD prevention trial using at-risk veterans as subjects, and provides the

  18. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Monty T; Moring, John C; Hale, Willie J; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Bryant, Richard A; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T; Villarreal, Robert; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Malach, Steffany L; Lara-Ruiz, Jose M; Isler, William; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-05-18

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure. The current study is the first large study to collect psychological and neuropsychological data from active duty service members within a few days after blast exposure. Recruitment for blast-injured TBI patients occurred at the Air Force Theater Hospital, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Joint Base Balad, Iraq. Patients were referred from across the combat theater and evaluated as part of routine clinical assessment of psychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms after exposure to an explosive blast. Four measures of neuropsychological functioning were used: the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE); the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS); the Headminder Cognitive Stability Index (CSI); and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4.0 (ANAM4). Three measures of combat exposure and psychological functioning were used: the Combat Experiences Scale (CES); the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M); and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS). Assessments were completed by a deployed clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or mental health technician. A total of 894 patients were evaluated. Data from 93 patients were removed from the data set for analysis because they experienced a head injury due to an event that was not an explosive blast (n = 84) or they were only assessed for psychiatric symptoms (n = 9). This resulted in a total of 801 blast-exposed patients for data

  20. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  1. Biomarkers of Cardiac Stress and Injury in Athletes: What Do They Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot

    2018-04-01

    Markers of myocardial stress, including troponin, creatine kinase, and brain natriuretic peptide are frequently elevated after endurance athletic pursuits. Here, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the potential mechanism of cardiac enzyme release in athletes and seek to determine the clinical implications of these findings. Recent studies have highlighted the potential adverse cardiac effects of long-term extreme endurance exercise. While troponin release occurs in a pattern distinct from ischemic damage, BNP release has been correlated with right ventricular dysfunction and is likely related to wall stress from prolonged increases in cardiac output. Higher intensity pre-race training regimes are associated with lower race-day enzyme release. While the holistic benefits of regular moderate exercise are indisputable, recent studies have raised concerns about the potential risks of extreme endurance exercise. Release of serum biomarkers suggesting myocardial damage was first described in the 1970s, yet our understanding of the implications of these findings remains incomplete. The mechanisms of release are complex but appear to be primarily physiological phenomena rather than pathologic.

  2. The roles of social stress and decision-making in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heather T; Andover, Margaret S; Armey, Michael F

    2015-10-30

    Research suggests that individuals with a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) do not have difficulty generating alternatives to social problems but choose more negative solutions, suggesting a deficit in decision-making. However, studies report no significant differences in risky decision-making on a performance-based task among individuals with and without NSSI histories. A limitation of these studies is that decision-making was only assessed at baseline. As individuals with a history of NSSI typically self-injure when experiencing negative emotions, decision-making ability may become impaired specifically in the presence of these emotions. The aim of the current study was to investigate decision-making ability among individuals with and without NSSI histories both at baseline and following a distressing social exclusion task. We compared individuals with (n=48) and without (n=72) NSSI histories on the Iowa Gambling Task, a behavioral measure of risky decision-making, before and after exclusion or inclusion on the Cyberball task. Results indicated no significant group differences in performance regardless of condition. When participants were grouped by racial/ethnic minority status, results indicated that non-Hispanic White individuals with a history of NSSI exhibited deterioration in risky decision-making ability following social exclusion. Potential explanations for these findings and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quercitrin offers protection against brain injury in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Chan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is one of the primary flavonoid compounds present in vegetables and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercitrin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced brain injury and further to elucidate its probable mechanisms. ICR mice received CCl4 intraperitoneally with or without quercitrin co-administration for 4 weeks. Our data showed that quercitrin significantly suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reduced tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity, enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction in mouse brains. Quercitrin also prevented CCl4 induced cerebral function disorders associated with its ability to inhibit the activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NR2B). In addition, western blot analysis showed that quercitrin suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Taken together, our findings suggested that quercitrin may be a potential candidate to be developed as a neuroprotective agent.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with acute burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibran, E.; Adil, S.E.R.; Rao, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk of PTSD in patients with acute burn incidents. Method: This was an observational prospective cross-sectional study conducted in admitted patients in Burns Ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi during a period of 6 months from January 1 to June 30, 2011. Data was collected through questionnaire having socio demographic variables and the Impact of Event-Scale (IES-R) was used to determine the risk of PTSD. Results: Out of 145 patients, 12 (77.3%) were at risk of PTSD with 75 (66.9%) males and 37 (33%) females. Out of these 112 cases, 50% belonged to age group 16-29 years. All burn patients with more than 60% total body surface area (TBSA) involved in injury were at risk. Conclusion: The study reports an astronomic number of burns patients with PTSD risk. PTSD drastically affects the quality of life. The earlier this disorder is diagnosed and assessed; better chances are there for enhanced treatment and better recovery. (author)

  5. H2S Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Reducing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, known as the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, has received increasing attention because of its diverse effects, including angiogenesis, vascular relaxation and myocardial protection.We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI induced by endotoxemia. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided in six groups: (1 Control group; (2 GYY4137treatment group; (3 L-NAME treatment group; (4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment group; (5 LPS with GYY4137 treatment group; and (6 LPS with L-NAME treatment group. The lungs were analysed by histology, NO production in the mouse lungs determined by modified Griess (Sigma-Aldrich reaction, cytokine levels utilizing commercialkits, and protein abundance by Western blotting. Results: GYY4137, a slowly-releasing H2S donor, improved the histopathological changes in the lungs of endotoxemic mice. Treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, increased anti-oxidant biomarkers such as thetotal antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and theactivities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD but decreased a marker of peroxynitrite (ONOO- action and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT in endotoxemic lung. L-NAME administration also suppressed inflammation in endotoxemic lung, as evidenced by the decreased pulmonary levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and myeloperoxidase (MPO and the increased level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. GYY4137 treatment reversed endotoxin-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogenperoxide (H2O2 and 3-NT and an increase in the antioxidant biomarker ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione(GSH/GSSG ratio and T-AOC, CAT and SOD activity. GYY4137 also attenuated endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, treatment with GYY4137 inhibited inducible NOS (iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO production in the

  6. Repetitive learning control of continuous chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua

    2004-01-01

    Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller

  7. Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication mechanisms. To cope with the induced stress and the changes in the redox environment, organisms elicit transient responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to counteract toxic effects of radiation. Metabolic pathways are induced during and shortly after the exposure. Depending on radiation dose, dose-rate and quality, these protective mechanisms may or may not be sufficient to cope with the stress. When the harmful effects exceed those of homeostatic biochemical processes, induced biological changes persist and may be propagated to progeny cells. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play critical roles in many cellular functions. In irradiated cells, levels of these reactive species may be increased due to perturbations in oxidative metabolism and chronic inflammatory responses, thereby contributing to the long-term effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on genomic stability. Here, in addition to immediate biological effects of water radiolysis on DNA damage, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in the delayed outcomes of ionization radiation. Defects in mitochondrial functions lead to accelerated aging and numerous pathological conditions. Different types of radiation vary in their linear energy transfer (LET) properties, and we discuss their effects on various aspects of mitochondrial physiology. These include short and long-term in vitro and in vivo effects on mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial protein import and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22182453

  8. Cooccurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Pronovost, Peter J; Needham, Dale M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the cooccurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury treated in an ICU. Prospective cohort study, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-acute lung injury. Thirteen medical and surgical ICUs in four hospitals. Survivors among 520 patients with acute lung injury. The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥ 8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186 of 196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of suprathreshold general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms ranged from 38% to 44%, 26% to 33%, and 22% to 24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had suprathreshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority of survivors (59%) with any suprathreshold symptoms were above threshold for two or more types of symptoms (i.e., general anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up had suprathreshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher Short-Form-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during follow-up. The majority

  9. Contributions to Executive Dysfunction in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurick, Sarah M; Crocker, Laura D; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark; Keller, Amber V; Trenova, Liljana S; Boyd, Briana L; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Rodgers, Carie S; Schiehser, Dawn M; Aupperle, Robin L; Jak, Amy J

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and executive function (EF) difficulties are prevalent in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. We evaluated the contributions of injury variables, lower-order cognitive component processes (processing speed/attention), and psychological symptoms to EF. OEF/OIF Veterans (N = 65) with PTSD and history of mTBI were administered neuropsychological tests of EF and self-report assessments of PTSD and depression. Those impaired on one or more EF measures had higher PTSD and depression symptoms and lower processing speed/attention performance than those with intact performance on all EF measures. Across participants, poorer attention/processing speed performance and higher psychological symptoms were associated with worse performance on specific aspects of EF (eg, inhibition and switching) even after accounting for injury variables. Although direct relationships between EF and injury variables were equivocal, there was an interaction between measures of injury burden and processing speed/attention such that those with greater injury burden exhibited significant and positive relationships between processing speed/attention and inhibition/switching, whereas those with lower injury burden did not. Psychological symptoms as well as lower-order component processes of EF (attention and processing speed) contribute significantly to executive dysfunction in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI. However, there may be equivocal relationships between injury variables and EF that warrant further study. Results provide groundwork for more fully understanding cognitive symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI that can inform psychological and cognitive interventions in this population.

  10. Protective effect of gallic acid and Syzygium cumini extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Karine Santos; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; da Silva, Thainan Paz; Borges, Raphaela Maleski; Boligon, Aline; Pigatto, Aline; Athayde, Margareth Lynde; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antibacterial effects; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action in the immune system are not yet completely elucidated. This study evaluates the in vitro effect of gallic acid and aqueous S. cumini leaf extract (ASc) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activities, cell viability and oxidative stress parameters in lymphocytes exposed to 2, 2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH). Lymphocytes were incubated with ASc (100 and 500 µg/ml) and gallic acid (50 and 200 µM) at 37 °C for 30 min followed by incubation with AAPH (1 mM) at 37 °C for 2 h. After the incubation time, the lymphocytes were used for determinations of ADA, DPP-IV and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, lipid peroxidation, protein thiol (P-SH) group levels and cellular viability by colorimetric methods. (i) HPLC fingerprinting of ASc revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic and ellagic acids; (ii) for the first time, ASc reduced the AAPH-induced increase in ADA activity, but no effect was observed on DPP-IV activity; (iii) ASc increased P-SH groups and cellular viability and decreased LDH activity, but was not able to reduce the AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation; (iv) gallic acid showed less protective effects than ASc. ASc affects the purinergic system and may modulate adenosine levels, indicating that the extract of this plant exhibits immunomodulatory properties. ASc also may potentially prevent the cellular injury induced by oxidative stress, highlighting its cytoprotective effects.

  11. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress by an imidazopyridine derivative X22 prevents heart injury from obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yali; Zhong, Peng; Peng, Kesong; Xu, Zheng; Chen, Xuemei; Lu, Kongqin; Chen, Gaozhi; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of obesity-related complications and cardiovascular disease. Benzimidazole and imidazopyridine compounds are a class of compounds with a variety of activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer. X22 is an imidazopyridine derivative we synthesized and evaluated previously for anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. However, its ability to alleviate obesity-induced heart injury via its anti-inflammatory actions was unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of X22 using cell culture studies and a high-fat diet rat model. We observed that palmitic acid treatment in cardiac-derived H9c2 cells induced a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis and hypertrophy. All of these changes were inhibited by treatment with X22. Furthermore, oral administration of X22 suppressed high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis in rat heart tissues and decreased serum lipid concentration. We also found that the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions of X22 were associated with Nrf2 activation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibition, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study indicate that X22 may be a promising cardioprotective agent and that Nrf2 and NF-κB may be important therapeutic targets for obesity-related complications. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman; Al Shahrani, Hamoud; Al Masri, Nasser; Al Faraidi, Ahmed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Arshaduddin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion ( P  Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels ( P  Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol. Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture.

  13. Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Elbogen, Eric B; Dedert, Eric A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hair, Lauren P; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans who reported a recent history of engaging in cutting, hitting, or burning themselves were significantly more likely to report making violent threats and engaging in violent acts, including the use of a knife or gun, in the past year than veterans without NSSI. NSSI was uniquely associated with interpersonal violence after controlling for a variety of dispositional, historical, contextual, and clinical risk factors for violence, including age, race, socio-economic status, marital status, employment status, combat exposure, alcohol misuse, depression, PTSD symptom severity, and reported difficulty controlling violence. These findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans with PTSD should review NSSI history when conducting a risk assessment of violence. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Influences of physicochemical stresses on injury and inactivation behaviour of Listeria innocua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima A. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many minimally processed foods depend on a combination of inhibitory factors to reduce the hazard of foodborne illness. Therefore, inactivation of Listeria innocua was studied according to a 24 factorial experiment designed to draw conclusions about temperature (52.5 °C and 65.0 °C, pH (4.5 and 7.5, water activity (aw=0.95 and 0.99 and solute type (NaCl and glycerol effects. Three different recovery media were used to assess injured cells. Survival data were fitted with a Gompertz-based model and kinetic parameters (shoulder, maximum inactivation rate – kmax, and tail were estimated. Results showed that shoulder was affected by temperature, pH and combined effects; kmax was influenced by all factors and their combinations; and tail was affected by aw, temperature and aw/pH combination. Results demonstrated the potential occurrence of microbial cross-protection survival techniques between the various stresses, e.g. heat and osmolarity. Indeed, this work clearly established that, to avoid hazards, Listeria inactivation must be evaluated with a maximum of environmental factors that undergo alterations. Only thus, appropriate food preservation treatments can be developed and consequently, the safety of food products can be assured.

  15. Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents following accidental child injury: evaluation of the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijel, Els P M; Gigengack, Maj R; Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Heij, Hugo A; Goslings, J Carel; Bloemers, Frank W; Luitse, Jan S K; Boer, Frits; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-05-12

    Children and their parents are at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following injury due to pediatric accidental trauma. Screening could help predict those at greatest risk and provide an opportunity for monitoring so that early intervention may be provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP) in a mixed-trauma sample in a non-English speaking country (the Netherlands). Children aged 8-18 and one of their parents were recruited in two academic level I trauma centers. The STEPP was assessed in 161 children (mean age 13.9 years) and 156 parents within one week of the accident. Three months later, clinical diagnoses and symptoms of PTSD were assessed in 147 children and 135 parents. We used the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV - Child and Parent version, the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to estimate the Areas Under the Curve as a measure of performance and to determine the optimal cut-off score in our sample. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The aim was to maximize both sensitivity and negative predictive values. PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of the children; 10% of their parents scored above the cut-off point for PTSD. At the originally recommended cut-off scores (4 for children, 3 for parents), the sensitivity in our sample was 41% for children and 54% for parents. Negative predictive values were 92% for both groups. Adjusting the cut-off scores to 2 improved sensitivity to 82% for children and 92% for parents, with negative predictive values of 92% and 96%, respectively. With adjusted cut-off scores, the STEPP performed well: 82% of the children and 92% of the parents with a subsequent positive diagnosis were identified correctly. Special attention in the screening procedure is required because of a

  16. Protective Role of Dietary Curcumin in the Prevention of the Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Alcohol with respect to Hepatic Injury and Antiatherogenic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Varatharajalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an antioxidant compound found in Asian spices, was evaluated for its protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis, liver injury, antiatherogenic markers, and antioxidant status in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli low menhaden (2.7% of total calories from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and Lieber-deCarli high menhaden (13.8% of total calories from ω-3 PUFA alcohol-liquid (5% diets supplemented with or without curcumin (150 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with curcumin protected against high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and increase in liver injury markers, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Curcumin upregulated paraoxonase 1 (PON1 mRNA and caused significant increase in serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities as compared to high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol group. Moreover, treatment with curcumin protected against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant glutathione and decreasing the lipid peroxidation adduct 4-hydroxynonenal. These results strongly suggest that chronic ethanol in combination with high ω-3 PUFA exacerbated hepatosteatosis and liver injury and adversely decreases antiatherogenic markers due to increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione. Curcumin supplementation significantly prevented these deleterious actions of chronic ethanol and high ω-3 PUFA. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin may have therapeutic potential to protect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and atherosclerosis.

  17. Polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis protects H9c2 cells against oxidative injury and endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating the ATF6 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ling, Chun; Bai, Ming; Peng, Yu; Sun, Shaobo; Li, Yingdong; Zhang, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Angelica sinensis exerts various pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. This study aimed to investigate the active ingredients in A. sinensis with antioxidant properties and whether A. sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) protects H9c2 cells against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Methods The ingredients of A. sinensis and their targets and related pathways were determined using web-based databases. Markers of oxidative stress, cell viability, apoptosis, and ER stress-related signalling pathways were measured in H9c2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ASP. Results The ingredient-pathway-disease network showed that A. sinensis exerted protective effects against oxidative injury through its various active ingredients on regulation of multiple pathways. Subsequent experiments showed that ASP pretreatment significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. ASP pretreatment inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced reactive oxygen species generation, lactic dehydrogenase release, and malondialdehyde production. ASP exerted beneficial effects by inducing activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and increasing ATF6 target protein levels, which in turn attenuated ER stress and increased antioxidant activity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that ASP, a major water-soluble component of A. sinensis, exerts protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in H9c2 cells by activating the ATF6 pathway, thus ameliorating ER and oxidative stress.

  18. Re-examination of the Controversial Coexistence of Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Misdiagnosis and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Robert J.; Ruff, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated wi...

  19. Haben repetitive DNA-Sequenzen biologische Funktionen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Maliyakal E.; Knöchel, Walter

    1983-05-01

    By DNA reassociation kinetics it is known that the eucaryotic genome consists of non-repetitive DNA, middle-repetitive DNA and highly repetitive DNA. Whereas the majority of protein-coding genes is located on non-repetitive DNA, repetitive DNA forms a constitutive part of eucaryotic DNA and its amount in most cases equals or even substantially exceeds that of non-repetitive DNA. During the past years a large body of data on repetitive DNA has accumulated and these have prompted speculations ranging from specific roles in the regulation of gene expression to that of a selfish entity with inconsequential functions. The following article summarizes recent findings on structural, transcriptional and evolutionary aspects and, although by no means being proven, some possible biological functions are discussed.

  20. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 .s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (U.S.)

  1. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed

  2. STRESS FRACTURE OF THE ULNA IN A BREAK-DANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Break dancing is a popular activity in teenagers and is associated with severe trauma to bones and tissues. We report the first known case of a break dancer with an ulnar stress fracture. Such injuries occur in a variety of sports due to substantial stress on the ulna and repetitive excessive rotation of the forearm. In this study we describe a patient who experienced an ulnar stress fracture during break dancing training. The diagnosis was established by history and physical examination. Initial radiographic findings were negative. However, radiographs taken 3 months after initial presented revealed callus formation over the ulnar shaft. This suggested that readjustment is required in break dancing training protocols. It is important to increase awareness of this injury among physicians to expedite the diagnosis and to prevent the possibility of conversion to an overt fracture in the future

  3. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  4. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xin, Danqing; Wang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Tiantian; Bai, Xuemei; Li, Tong; Xie, Yunkai; Xue, Hao; Bo, Shishi; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H 2 S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H 2 S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H 2 S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H 2 S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl 4 twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl 4 -intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl 4 -treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl 4 -induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: → The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared. → These effects were

  6. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  7. Repetitive trauma and nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, E J; Hentz, V R

    1988-01-01

    Repetitive movement of the upper extremity, whether recreational or occupational, may result in various neuropathies, the prototype of which is the median nerve neuropathic in the carpal canal. The pathophysiology of this process is incompletely understood but likely involves both mechanical and ischemic features. Experimentally increased pressures within the carpal canal produced reproducible progressive neuropathy. Changes in vibratory (threshold-type) sensibility appears to be more sensitive than two-point (innervation density-type) sensibility. The specific occupational etiologies of carpal neuropathy are obscured by methodologic and sociological difficulties, but clearly some occupations have high incidences of CTS. History and physical examination are usually sufficient for the diagnosis, but diagnostic assistance when required is available through electrophysiological testing, CT scanning, and possibly MRI. Each of these tests has limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. Treatment by usual conservative means should be combined with rest from possible provocative activities. Surgical release of the carpal canal is helpful in patients failing conservative therapy. Occupational modifications are important in both treatment and prevention of median neuropathy due to repetitive trauma.

  8. Opposing effects of traumatic brain injury on excitatory synaptic function in the lateral amygdala in the absence and presence of preinjury stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca C; Acheson, Shawn K; Qadri, Laura H; Dawson, Alina A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Moore, Scott D; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Dawson, Hana N

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among young adults and is highly prevalent among recently deployed military personnel. Survivors of TBI often experience cognitive and emotional deficits, suggesting that long-term effects of injury may disrupt neuronal function in critical brain regions, including the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and fear memory. Amygdala hyperexcitability has been reported in both TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder patients, yet little is known regarding the effects of combined stress and TBI on amygdala structure and function at the neuronal level. The present study seeks to determine how the long-term effects of preinjury foot-shock stress and TBI interact to influence synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) of adult male C57BL/6J mice by using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology 2-3 months postinjury. In the absence of stress, TBI resulted in a significant increase in membrane excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in LA pyramidal-like neurons. Foot-shock stress in the absence of TBI also resulted in increased sEPSC activity. In contrast, when preinjury stress and TBI occurred in combination, sEPSC activity was significantly decreased compared with either condition alone. There were no significant differences in inhibitory activity or total dendritic length among any of the treatment groups. These results demonstrate that stress and TBI may be contributing to amygdala hyperexcitability via different mechanisms and that these pathways may counterbalance each other with respect to long-term pathophysiology in the LA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adjusting tidal volume to stress index in an open lung condition optimizes ventilation and prevents overdistension in an experimental model of lung injury and reduced chest wall compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Gutierrez, Andrea; Tusman, Gerardo; Carbonell, Jose; García, Marisa; Piqueras, Laura; Compañ, Desamparados; Flores, Susanie; Soro, Marina; Llombart, Alicia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-13

    The stress index (SI), a parameter derived from the shape of the pressure-time curve, can identify injurious mechanical ventilation. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting tidal volume (VT) to a non-injurious SI in an open lung condition avoids hypoventilation while preventing overdistension in an experimental model of combined lung injury and low chest-wall compliance (Ccw). Lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavages using warm saline solution, and Ccw was reduced by controlled intra-abdominal air-insufflation in 22 anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated pigs. After injury animals were recruited and submitted to a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration trial to find the PEEP level resulting in maximum compliance. During a subsequent four hours of mechanical ventilation, VT was adjusted to keep a plateau pressure (Pplat) of 30 cmH2O (Pplat-group, n = 11) or to a SI between 0.95 and 1.05 (SI-group, n = 11). Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain a 'normal' PaCO2 (35 to 65 mmHg). SI, lung mechanics, arterial-blood gases haemodynamics pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology were analyzed. In addition Computed Tomography (CT) data were acquired at end expiration and end inspiration in six animals. PaCO2 was significantly higher in the Pplat-group (82 versus 53 mmHg, P = 0.01), with a resulting lower pH (7.19 versus 7.34, P = 0.01). We observed significant differences in VT (7.3 versus 5.4 mlKg(-1), P = 0.002) and Pplat values (30 versus 35 cmH2O, P = 0.001) between the Pplat-group and SI-group respectively. SI (1.03 versus 0.99, P = 0.42) and end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PTP) (17 versus 18 cmH2O, P = 0.42) were similar in the Pplat- and SI-groups respectively, without differences in overinflated lung areas at end- inspiration in both groups. Cytokines and histopathology showed no differences. Setting tidal volume to a non-injurious stress index in an open lung condition improves

  10. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  11. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Tao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of total flavonoids (TFs from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-1 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease.

  12. Adiponectin protects rat myocardium against chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiao Ding

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5-6% for 8 hours/day, for 5 weeks. Subsequent CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction was measured by echocardiograph. Compared with the normal control (NC group, rats in the CIH-exposed group experienced elevated levels of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic volume and depressed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening (p<0.05. However, when adiponectin (Ad was added in CIH + Ad group, we saw a rescue in the elevations of the aforementioned left ventricular function (p<0.05. To assess critical cardiac injury, we detected myocardial apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL analysis. It was showed that the apoptosis percentage in CIH group (2.948% was significantly higher than that in NC group (0.4167% and CIH + Ad group (1.219% (p<0.05. Protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-12 validated our TUNEL results (p<0.05. Mechanistically, our results demonstrated that the proteins expressed with endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS were significantly elevated under CIH conditions, whereas Ad supplementation partially decreased them. Overall, our results suggested that Ad augmentation could improve CIH

  13. Influence of post-traumatic stress disorder on neuroinflammation and cell proliferation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Acosta

    Full Text Available Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Further examination of neurogenic niches revealed a significant downregulation of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but not DCX-positive neuronally migrating cells in the neurogenic subgranular zone and subventricular zone for both TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Comparisons of levels of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis between TBI alone and TBI+PTSD revealed that PTSD did not exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of TBI. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain, which, under the conditions of the present approach, was not intensified by PTSD, at least within our time window and within the examined areas of the brain. Although the PTSD manipulation employed here did not exacerbate the pathological effects of TBI, the observed long

  14. Influence of post-traumatic stress disorder on neuroinflammation and cell proliferation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sandra A; Diamond, David M; Wolfe, Steven; Tajiri, Naoki; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Hernandez, Diana G; Sanberg, Paul R; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Further examination of neurogenic niches revealed a significant downregulation of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but not DCX-positive neuronally migrating cells in the neurogenic subgranular zone and subventricular zone for both TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Comparisons of levels of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis between TBI alone and TBI+PTSD revealed that PTSD did not exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of TBI. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain, which, under the conditions of the present approach, was not intensified by PTSD, at least within our time window and within the examined areas of the brain. Although the PTSD manipulation employed here did not exacerbate the pathological effects of TBI, the observed long-term inflammation and suppressed

  15. Osthol attenuates neutrophilic oxidative stress and hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury via inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Fong; Yu, Huang-Ping; Chung, Pei-Jen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress caused by neutrophils is an important pathogenic factor in trauma/hemorrhagic (T/H)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osthol, a natural coumarin found in traditional medicinal plants, has therapeutic potential in various diseases. However, the pharmacological effects of osthol in human neutrophils and its molecular mechanism of action remain elusive. In this study, our data showed that osthol potently inhibited the production of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and reactive oxidants derived therefrom as well as expression of CD11b in N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils. However, osthol inhibited neutrophil degranulation only slightly and it failed to inhibit the activity of subcellular NADPH oxidase. FMLP-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) was inhibited by osthol. Notably, osthol increased the cAMP concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in activated neutrophils. PKA inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of osthol, suggesting that these are mediated through cAMP/PKA-dependent inhibition of ERK and Akt activation. Furthermore, the activity of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, but not PDE3 or PDE7, was significantly reduced by osthol. In addition, osthol reduced myeloperoxidase activity and pulmonary edema in rats subjected to T/H shock. In conclusion, our data suggest that osthol has effective anti-inflammatory activity in human neutrophils through the suppression of PDE4 and protects significantly against T/H shock-induced ALI in rats. Osthol may have potential for future clinical application as a novel adjunct therapy to treat lung inflammation caused by adverse circulatory conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Neuroinflammation and Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, David M.; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Hernandez, Diana G.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Further examination of neurogenic niches revealed a significant downregulation of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but not DCX-positive neuronally migrating cells in the neurogenic subgranular zone and subventricular zone for both TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Comparisons of levels of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis between TBI alone and TBI+PTSD revealed that PTSD did not exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of TBI. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain, which, under the conditions of the present approach, was not intensified by PTSD, at least within our time window and within the examined areas of the brain. Although the PTSD manipulation employed here did not exacerbate the pathological effects of TBI, the observed long-term inflammation and suppressed

  17. Spiritually Integrated Cognitive Processing Therapy: A New Treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder That Targets Moral Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle; Haynes, Kerry; Rivera, Natalia R; Koenig, Harold G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder, and current treatments leave the majority of patients with unresolved symptoms. Moral injury (MI) may be one of the barriers that interfere with recovery from PTSD, particularly among current or former military service members. Objective Given the psychological and spiritual aspects of MI, an intervention that addresses MI using spiritual resources in addition to psychological resources may be particularly effective in treating PTSD. To date, there are no existing empirically based individual treatments for PTSD and MI that make explicit use of a patient’s spiritual resources, despite the evidence that spiritual beliefs/activities predict faster recovery from PTSD. Method To address this gap, we adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), an empirically validated treatment for PTSD, to integrate clients’ spiritual beliefs, practices, values, and motivations. We call this treatment Spiritually Integrated CPT (SICPT). Results This article describes this novel manualized therapeutic approach for treating MI in the setting of PTSD for spiritual/religious clients. We provide a description of SICPT and a brief summary of the 12 sessions. Then, we describe a case study in which the therapist helps a client use his spiritual resources to resolve MI and assist in the recovery from PTSD. Conclusion SICPT may be a helpful way to reduce PTSD by targeting MI, addressing spiritual distress, and using a client’s spiritual resources. In addition to the spiritual version (applicable for those of any religion and those who do not identify as religious), we have also developed 5 religion-specific manuals (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism) for clients who desire a more religion-specific approach. PMID:29497585

  18. Upregulation of NOX2 and NOX4 Mediated by TGF-β Signaling Pathway Exacerbates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Oxidative Stress Injury

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    Zheng Lou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemic stroke is still one of the leading debilitating diseases with high morbidity and mortality. NADPH oxidase (NOX-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of ROS generation is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of transforming growth beta (TGF-β signals in ROS generation. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to I/R injury, and PC-12 cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and/or treated with activin receptor-like kinase (ALK5 inhibitor Sb505124 or siRNA against ALK5. Brain damage was evaluated using neurological scoring, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, infarct volume measurement, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity measurement. Expression of TGF-β and oxidative stress-related genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; NOX activity and ROS level were measured using spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Results: I/R contributed to severe brain damage (impaired neurological function, brain infarction, tissue edema, apoptosis, TGF-β signaling activation (upregulation of ALK5, phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 and oxidative stress (upregulation of NOX2/4, rapid release of ROS [oxidative burst]. However, Sb505124 significantly reversed these alterations and protected rats against I/R injury. As in the animal results, H/R also contributed to TGF-β signaling activation and oxidative stress. Likewise, the inhibition of ALK5 or ALK5 knockdown significantly reversed these alterations in PC-12 cells. Other than ALK5 knockdown, ALK5 inhibition had no effect on the expression of ALK5 in PC-12 cells. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrated that TGF-β signaling activation is involved in the regulation of NOX2/NOX4 expression and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury.

  19. Physiological studies on photochemical oxidant injury in rice plants. III. Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) and water metabolism in water-stressed rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Ota, Y.

    1981-12-01

    Several experiments were carried out to determine the effects of exogenously applied ABA on water metabolism, and to clarify the endogenous ABA relationships in ozone-sensitivity under different soil water content in rice plants. The rice plants were cultivated in soil with 60, 80, and 100% of maximum water holding capacity and under submerged condition. The results of the experiments were as follows: ozone injury was reduced with increasing ABA content of which production was increased under water stress conditions. Under water stressed conditions, the rate of water loss was decreased with increasing concentration of ABA applied exogenously. It may be assumed that the ozone-sensitivity is closely related to the stomatal closure caused by the increased ABA content due to water stress. 5 references, 4 tables.

  20. Pilot study of association of catechol-O-methyl transferase rs4680 genotypes with acute kidney injury and tubular stress after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Christian; Kube, Johanna; Haase-Fielitz, Anja; Dittrich, Annemarie; Schanze, Denny; Zenker, Martin; Kuppe, Hermann; Hetzer, Roland; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mertens, Peter R; Haase, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association of genetic variants of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes with acute kidney injury (AKI) and tubular stress after open heart surgery. We genotyped 195 patients for the COMT-Val158Met polymorphism and measured creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and midkine. We analyzed the association between such polymorphisms and these kidney-related variables. Nonsignificantly more COMT LL patients developed RIFLE-AKI compared with non-LL patients (p = 0.11). Compared with HL and HH patients, LL patients who developed AKI had lower increases in serum creatinine. COMT LL patients had less pronounced release of tubular stress biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: p = 0.045, midkine: p = 0.072). COMT genotype may associate with different patterns of renal functional changes and tubular stress biomarker release response after open heart surgery.

  1. Sources of Confusion in the Determination of ASTM Repetitive Member Factors for the Allowable Properties of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Verrill; D. Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that there should be an upward repetitive member allowable property adjustment. ASTM D245 (2011c) and ASTM D1990 (2011b) specify a 1.15 factor for allowable bending stress. This factor is also listed in ASTM D6555 (2011a, Table 1). In this technical note, sources of confusion regarding appropriate repetitive member factors are identified. This...

  2. Mudanças no trabalho e na vida de bancários portadores de Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: LER Cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de bancarios portadores de Lesiones por Esfuerzos Repetitivos: LER Changes in the work and life of bank employees with Repetitive Strain Injury: RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse

    2001-01-01

    fuera de él. El desafío está en garantizar los derechos de estos trabajadores.Nowadays, Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI has been one of the most serious problems concerning workers' health. Aiming at analyzing the main changes in the work and life of RSI bearers from an RSI Bearers Association in Cascavel - Paraná, we developed this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were applied to nine bank employees. The first symptoms had appeared during the period of automation and introduction of new technology in the Brazilian financial system, which was when changes in work organization took place. The main elements in this process were the increase in work load, use of computers, overtime work, absence of intervals, monotony, repetitive actions, intense work and productivity control, pressure and tension. The aggravation of injuries affected productivity and caused dependence to carry out activities at work and out of it. A challenge lies in ensuring these worker's rights.

  3. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...

  4. Combat veterans, mental health issues, and the death penalty: addressing the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Anthony E

    2009-05-01

    More than 1.5 million Americans have participated in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past seven years. Some of these veterans have subsequently committed capital crimes and found themselves in our nation's criminal justice system. This Essay argues that combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury at the time of their offenses should not be subject to the death penalty.Offering mitigating evidence regarding military training, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury presents one means that combat veterans may use to argue for their lives during the sentencing phase of their trials. Alternatively, Atkins v. Virginia and Roper v. Simmons offer a framework for establishing a legislatively or judicially created categorical exclusion for these offenders, exempting them from the death penalty as a matter of law. By understanding how combat service and service-related injuries affect the personal culpability of these offenders, the legal system can avoid the consequences of sentencing to death America's mentally wounded warriors, ensuring that only the worst offenders are subject to the ultimate punishment.

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7 relieved renal injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis

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    W. Lu

    Full Text Available We aimed to study the renal injury and hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH and the protective effects mediated by angiotensin 1-7 [Ang(1-7]. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 180-200 g to normoxia control, CIH, Ang(1-7-treated normoxia, and Ang(1-7-treated CIH groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was monitored at the start and end of each week. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA was recorded. CTGF and TGF-β were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Tissue parameters of oxidative stress were also determined. In addition, renal levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrotyrosine, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and ELISA. TUNEL assay results and cleaved caspase 3 and 12 were also determined. Ang(1-7 induced a reduction in SBP together with a restoration of RSNA in the rat model of CIH. Ang(1-7 treatment also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced renal tissue inflammation, ameliorated mesangial expansion, and decreased renal fibrosis. Thus, Ang(1-7 treatment exerted renoprotective effects on CIH-induced renal injury and was associated with a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Ang(1-7 might therefore represent a promising therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-related hypertension and renal injury.

  6. Delayed radiation injury of gut-exposed and gut-shielded mice. I. The decrement in resistance to continuous gamma-ray stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Archuleta, R.F.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.

    1977-02-01

    Two mouse strains (RF/J and C57B1/6J) were exposed to x-ray doses totaling 400, 800, or 1200 rad. Total doses were given in 200-rad fractions at 7-day intervals to the whole body, gut only, or gut shielded. Animals treated as above (conditioned) were divided into 2 groups to form a two-part investigation. X-ray-conditioned and control mice were subjected to a continuous gamma-ray stress (challenge exposure) 28 days after the last x-ray dose. Delayed injury was measured as a reduction in mean after-survival (MAS) time and was observed in whole-body, gut-conditioned, and gut-shielded groups. The cause of death was attributed to hemopoietic hypoplasia in all groups. MAS reduction in all conditioned groups in both strains was linear with dose within the dose range used. Delayed injury per volume dose (measured as a reduction in MAS) was independent of the tissue initially conditioned with an acute dose of x rays. Thus, delayed injury per unit weight of gut tissue exposed was equal to that of either whole-body or gut-shielded radiation injury. Comparative weight loss observations during the continuous gamma-ray challenge exposure revealed a decrement in metabolic processes associated with body weight maintenance. This decrement was seen in all x-ray-conditioned groups

  7. Detection of focal hypoxic-ischemic injury and neuronal stress in a rodent model of unilateral MCA occlusion/reperfusion using radiolabeled annexin V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari, Carina; Goris, Michael L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Karabiyikoglu, Murat; Yenari, Midori Anne [Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Tait, Jonathan F. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, WA 98195-7110, Seattle (United States); Blankenberg, Francis G. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Hospital, CA 94305, Stanford (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, 725 Welch Road, Room 1673, CA 94305, Palo Alto (United States)

    2004-05-01

    In this study we wished to determine whether technetium-99m annexin V, an in vivo marker of cellular injury and death, could be used to noninvasively monitor neuronal injury following focal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion injury. Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (along with four controls) underwent left (unilateral) MCA intraluminal beaded thread occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. One hour following tail vein injection of 5-10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V, animals underwent either single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or autoradiography followed by immunohistochemical analyses. There was abnormal, bilateral, multifocal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V in each cerebral hemisphere as seen by both SPECT and autoradiography at 4 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of occlusion. The average maximal annexin V uptake at 4 h was 310%{+-}85% and 365%{+-}151% above control values (P<0.006) within the right and left hemispheres, respectively, peaking on day 3 with values of 925%{+-}734% and 1,194%{+-}643% (P<0.03) that decreased by day 7 to 489%{+-}233% and 785%{+-}225% (P<0.01). Total lesional volume of the left hemisphere was 226%, 261%, and 451% (P<0.03) larger than the right at 4, 24, and 72 h after injury, respectively. Annexin V localized to the cytoplasm of injured neurons ipsilateral to the site of injury as well as to otherwise normal-appearing neurons of the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by dual fluorescent microscopy. It is concluded that there is abnormal bilateral, multifocal annexin V uptake, greater on the left than on the right side, within 4 h of unilateral left MCA ischemic injury and that the uptake peaks at 3 days and decreases by 7 days after injury. This pattern suggests that neuronal stress may play a role in the response of the brain to focal injury and be responsible for annexin V uptake outside the region of ischemic insult. (orig.)

  8. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  9. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennhauser Felix H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to identify factors that contribute to fathers' PTSS. Methods Sixty-nine fathers of children newly diagnosed with either cancer, type I diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy and 70 fathers of children suffering from an unintentional injury completed questionnaires at 4–6 weeks (Time 1 and six months (Time 2 after diagnosis or injury. Results Noticeable PTSD rates were found in fathers of children with a chronic disease (26% at Time 1 and 21% at Time 2, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than rates found in fathers of children with unintentional injuries (12% at Time 1 and 6% at Time 2, respectively. Within six months after the child's diagnosis or accident a decrease in severity of PTSS was observed in both groups. Significant predictors of PTSS at Time 2 were the father's initial level of PTSS, the child's medical condition (injuries vs. chronic diseases and functional status, the father's use of dysfunctional coping strategies, and father's level of neuroticism. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fathers with initially high PTSS levels are at greater risk to experience PTSS at follow-up, particularly fathers of children with a chronic disease. Sensitizing health care professionals to the identification of PTSS symptoms but also to indicators of neuroticism and the use of specific coping strategies early in the treatment course is essential for the planning and implementation of adequate intervention strategies.

  10. The legal aspects involving repetitive strain injuries (RSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Techy, Antonio; Siena, Cesar; Helfenstein Junior, Milton [UNIFESP

    2009-01-01

    No relacionamento entre médico e paciente, além da boa prática da medicina, o médico está obrigado a conhecer e cumprir as leis, normas e convenções que podem garantir direitos a uns e gerar obrigações a outros, com base nas informações criadas e perenizadas em prontuários, atestados e pareceres, que servirão de referência às decisões de entidades públicas ou privadas na concessão ou na recusa de direitos e deveres legais. Apontamos como os médicos devem se comportar em relação aos pacientes ...

  11. The Developmental Trajectory of Nonword Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiat, Shula

    2006-01-01

    In line with the original presentation of nonword repetition as a measure of phonological short-term memory (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989), the theoretical account Gathercole (2006) puts forward in her Keynote Article focuses on phonological storage as the key capacity common to nonword repetition and vocabulary acquisition. However, evidence that…

  12. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  13. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  14. Caffeic acid, a phenol found in white wine, modulates endothelial nitric oxide production and protects from oxidative stress-associated endothelial cell injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Migliori

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated that endothelium dependent vasodilatation is impaired in cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases because of oxidant stress-induced nitric oxide availability reduction. The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by food containing phenols, was correlated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and delayed progression toward end stage chronic renal failure. Previous studies demonstrated that both red and white wine exert cardioprotective effects. In particular, wine contains Caffeic acid (CAF, an active component with known antioxidant activities.The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of low doses of CAF on oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury.CAF increased basal as well as acetylcholine-induced NO release by a mechanism independent from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. In addition, low doses of CAF (100 nM and 1 μM increased proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited leukocyte adhesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia or by the uremic toxins ADMA, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. The biological effects exerted by CAF on endothelial cells may be at least in part ascribed to modulation of NO release and by decreased ROS production. In an experimental model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, CAF significantly decreased tubular cell apoptosis, intraluminal cast deposition and leukocyte infiltration.The results of the present study suggest that CAF, at very low dosages similar to those observed after moderate white wine consumption, may exert a protective effect on endothelial cell function by modulating NO release independently from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. CAF-induced NO modulation may limit cardiovascular and kidney disease progression associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial injury.

  15. An exploratory study of the association of acute posttraumatic stress, depression, and pain to cognitive functioning in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jessica S; Meares, Susanne; Batchelor, Jennifer; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined whether psychological distress and pain affect cognitive functioning in the acute to subacute phase (up to 30 days postinjury) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current study explored whether acute posttraumatic stress, depression, and pain were associated with performance on a task of selective and sustained attention completed under conditions of increasing cognitive demands (standard, auditory distraction, and dual-task), and on tests of working memory, memory, processing speed, reaction time (RT), and verbal fluency. At a mean of 2.87 days (SD = 2.32) postinjury, 50 adult mTBI participants, consecutive admissions to a Level 1 trauma hospital, completed neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of acute posttraumatic stress, depression, and pain. A series of canonical correlation analyses was used to explore the relationships of a common set of psychological variables to various sets of neuropsychological variables. Significant results were found on the task of selective and sustained attention. Strong relationships were found between psychological variables and speed (r(c) = .56, p = .02) and psychological variables and accuracy (r(c) = .68, p = .002). Pain and acute posttraumatic stress were associated with higher speed scores (reflecting more correctly marked targets) under standard conditions. Acute posttraumatic stress was associated with lower accuracy scores across all task conditions. Moderate but nonsignificant associations were found between psychological variables and most cognitive tasks. Acute posttraumatic stress and pain show strong associations with selective and sustained attention following mTBI. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry.