WorldWideScience

Sample records for repetitive strain injuries

  1. Spierbelasting en RSI [Muscle load and repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Visser, B.; Huysmans, M.A.; Speklé, E.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of theories concerning the development of RSI (repetitive strain injury), related to muscle disorders. Movement is a noisy process. The level of noise is affected by factors such as fatigue and psychosocial stress. In order for precision movements to be made in such

  2. Too Much of a Good Thing: Prevention of Computer-Related Repetitive Strain Injuries among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examines computer use and repetitive strain injury (RSI) among children and young adults, emphasizing body-awareness training that teaches people to notice and feel body components; understand principles of relaxation, balance, and movement efficiency; and use economical and strain-free ways of accomplishing movements. Outlines elements of safety…

  3. Sensory dysfunction associated with repetitive strain injuries of tendinitis and focal hand dystonia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N; Wilson, F; Merzenich, M; Melnick, M; Scott, P; Oakes, A; McKenzie, A

    1996-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries are reaching epidemic levels among workers who perform heavy schedules of rapid alternating movements (eg., computer programmers, data entry workers) or repetitive, sustained, coordinated movements (eg., editors, writers, salespeople). The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with repetitive strain injury demonstrated degraded sensory motor performance with their hands. Sixty age-matched adults were recruited, with 15 each assigned to a healthy adult control group, a healthy musician control group, a tendinitis group, or a focal dystonia group. Four sensory motor subtests from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test were given to the subjects according to a standardized protocol. Using multiple one-factor analyses of variance in the parametric or nonparametric mode followed by post hoc pairwise testing, no significant differences were found between the healthy controls and the musician controls. On the test of kinesthesia, using the left hand, subjects with tendinitis performed significantly worse than controls and subjects with focal dystonia. Compared with controls, subjects with focal dystonia did significantly worse on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 1 and part 2). Subjects with focal dystonia also did significantly worse than subjects with tendinitis when using the left hand on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 2). When treating patients with repetitive strain injury, discriminative sensory motor skills must be carefully assessed and may need to be addressed as part of an effective treatment program.

  4. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  5. The sensory consequences of repetitive strain injury in musicians: focal dystonia of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N; Hamati, D; Melnick, M; Wilson, F; McKenzie, A

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals with repetitive strain injury (RSI) develop focal dystonia of the hand (FDh), a disorder of motor control manifested in a specific context during skilled, hand movements. This descriptive study was designed to determine if musicians with FDh had reduced tactile discrimination. Ten healthy adults and ten patients with FDh participated in the study. From the standardized Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, five subtests were selected to measure tactile discrimination. The Paired Wilcoxon Test was used to analyze, meaningful, planned pairwise differences by side and by group. The two groups performed similarly on the three tests measuring tactile motor perception (Finger Identification, Localization and Kinesthesia). However, those with FDh performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison group on two tactile perceptual tasks: (1) Graphesthesia, right affected (P < 0.003) and left unaffected (p < 0.005); and (2) Manual Form Perception (stereognosis) on the right affected (P < 0.002) and left unaffected (P < 0.002). It is possible that the somatosensory differences as measured by tactile discrimination tasks represent some degradation of the hand representation following prolonged, repetitive, near simultaneous sensory stimulation of adjacent digits. Tactile discrimination should be tested in patients with RSI to detect potential risks for developing FDh. Effective treatment of patients with RSI including FDh may need to target the somatosensory deficits in order to restore stress-free motor movements.

  6. Over bewegen, stress en mogelijke mechanismen achter de muisarm en andere vormen van repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galen, G.P. van; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Bloemsaat, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this review article on Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI) it is argued that mouse arms, cashier arms, writers cramp and many other forms of labour related complaints of pain and dysfunction of the upper extremities have a common ground in poor muscle stiffness regulation. After presenting an overvi

  7. Group training with healthy computing practices to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Erik; Gibney, Katherine H; Wilson, Vietta E

    2004-12-01

    This pilot study investigated whether group training, in which participants become role models and coaches, would reduce discomfort as compared to a nontreatment Control Group. Sixteen experimental participants participated in 6 weekly 2-hr group sessions of a Healthy Computing program whereas 12 control participants received no training. None of the participants reported symptoms to their supervisors nor were they receiving medical treatment for repetitive strain injury prior to the program. The program included training in ergonomic principles, psychophysiological awareness and control, sEMG practice at the workstation, and coaching coworkers. Using two-tailed t tests to analyze the data, the Experimental Group reported (1) a significant overall reduction in most body symptoms as compared to the Control Group and (2) a significant increase in positive work-style habits, such as taking breaks at the computer, as compared to the Control Group. This study suggests that employees could possibly improve health and work style patterns based on a holistic training program delivered in a group format followed by individual practice.

  8. Low sensitivity of three-phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI is subjective and solely based on clinical signs and physical examination. The aim of this paper was to assess the usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS in diagnosing RSI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (mean age 31.2 years; 47 males with clinical suspicion of RSI in the upper limbs were studied. A total of 127 joints with suspicion of RSI were studied. The shoulders, elbows and wrists were analyzed semi-quantitatively, using the shafts of the humeri and ulnae as references. The results were compared with a control group of 40 normal individuals. The patients’ signs and symptoms were used as the "gold standard" for calculating the probabilities. RESULTS: From visual analysis, abnormalities were observed in the flow phase for four joints, in the blood pool phase for 11 joints and in the delayed images for 26 joints. Visual analysis of the joints of the control group did not show any abnormalities. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that most of the patients’ joint ratios were normal. The exceptions were the wrists of patients with left-sided RSI (p = 0.0216. However, the sensitivity (9% and accuracy (41% were very low. CONCLUSION: TPBS with semi-quantitative analysis has very low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of RSI abnormalities in the upper limbs.

  9. [Work, exclusion, pain, suffering, and gender relations: a survey of female workers treated for repetitive strain injury at a public health clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ilidio Roda

    2006-06-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study based on patient records from a public health clinic and focusing on four therapeutic groups from 1995 to 1997. The study aimed to reconstruct the life and work history of women with repetitive strain injury (RSI) in relation to family, friends, company, workmates, health services, and impacts on daily life. The results corroborate the data in the scientific literature pointing to greater frequency of RSI among women, and allow us to list the needs related to the resulting biopsychosocial distress, suggesting the need for new research and intervention aimed at producing preventive and therapeutic technologies for such injuries.

  10. LER - lesão por esforços repetitivos: um conceito falho e prejudicial RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury: a questionable and harmful concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TEOTONIO DE OLIVEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de que movimentos repetitivos ou posturas prolongadas causam lesões não tem suporte científico. Os sintomas dolorosos e sensitivos apresentados pelos pacientes são melhor explicados como um fenômeno psicológico e psicossocial, como insatisfação e desadaptação no trabalho e desejo de obter benefícios. O conceito de lesões por esforços repetitivos é iatrogênico e de custo elevado para a sociedade, devendo ser abandonado.The hypothesis that repetitive movements and postures cause musculoskeletal injury is not supported by scientific data. The sensory and pain symptoms are better explained as of psychological and psychosocial nature, such as job insatisfaction or disajustment, with financial gains objectives. The repetitive strain injury concept is iatrogenic and costly to society, and must be abandonned.

  11. Erognomic education on housework for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI): a conceptual representation of therapists' clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O' Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2017-09-18

    Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed with line by line, focused and axial coding with constant data comparison throughout data collection. Therapists made clinical decisions based on their perceptions of their clients' behavior change in three stages: (i) listen; (ii) try; and (iii) persevere, bearing significant similarities to the transtheoretical theory of change. The study also showed that therapists may not have considered the full range of meanings that their clients attach to housework when interacting with them, a gap that needs to be addressed. The present study indicates the importance of therapists' understanding of the meanings that their clients attach to housework. Further research needs to address how to achieve this in a time-pressured clinical environment. Implications for Rehabilitation This study used qualitative research to demonstrate the process of translating therapists' tacit knowledge into an explicit form. It elucidates the following major implications for practice when therapists conduct ergonomic education to facilitate behavior change in housework for female homemakers with upper limb RSI:The conceptual framework of clinical reasoning constructed from the results can be used to increase therapists' awareness of how they make clinical decisions during an intervention. This framework can also be used for training new therapists. It is

  12. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  13. Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Dyhanne C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.

  14. LER - Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: uma reflexão sobre os aspectos psicossociais Repetitive Strain Injury: a reflection on psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elena Rodrigues Gravina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de contribuir para a compreensão dos fenômenos que envolvem as LER e sua relação com o mundo do trabalho, refletindo sobre a multiplicidade dos fatores, dando ênfase à dimensão psicossocial a partir de depoimentos de pessoas com LER. A opção foi pela metodologia qualitativa e, pelas características da pesquisa, o instrumental escolhido foi o estudo de caso. Foram realizadas entrevistas com quatro bancárias com diagnóstico de LER e que estavam afastadas do trabalho. As entrevistas foram realizadas individualmente utilizando-se um roteiro semi estruturado, em data e horários previamente marcados e tiveram a duração media de duas horas cada uma. As pessoas apresentaram: descrédito no adoecimento; insatisfação e revolta por não poder mais fazer coisas importantes para a vida pessoal; dificuldades em mostrar a doença e fazer com que os outros acreditem nela; falta de reconhecimento pelo trabalho realizado; perda de identidade; ansiedade pelo desconhecido; estado de estresse e esgotamento muito acentuado; limitações impostas pela doença. Em conclusão pode ser apresentado: interferência da organização do trabalho e das relações de trabalho no adoecimento; o sofrimento físico que antecede e precede o adoecimento; onipresença da dor e as limitações impostas em nível físico e mental que impossibilitam projetos de vida; dificuldades no diagnóstico e tratamento; comprometimento da vida pessoal e familiar.The aim of this study was contributing to the understanding of the phenomena that involves the Repetitive Straisn Injury (RSI and its relation with the work arena. It was carried out through the reflection on the multiplicity of factors and emphasis on the psychosocial dimension based on the statements of people affected by RSI. The qualitative method was used and the case study tool was chosen based on the characteristics of the research clerks on leave for RSI diagnosis were interviwed

  15. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  16. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  17. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  18. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Topic Repetitiveness after Traumatic Brain Injury: An Emergent, Jointly Managed Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Parker, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Topic repetitiveness is a common component of pragmatic impairment and a powerful contributor to social exclusion. Despite this, description, characterization and intervention remain underdeveloped. This article explores the nature of repetitiveness in traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case study of one individual after TBI provides the basis for a…

  20. Use of Long-Range Repetitive Element Polymorphism-PCR To Differentiate Bacillus anthracis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Brumlik, Michael J.; Szymajda, Urszula; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Redkar, Rajendra J.; Patra, Guy; Del Vecchio, Vito G.

    2001-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus anthracis is extremely monomorphic, and thus individual strains have often proven to be recalcitrant to differentiation at the molecular level. Long-range repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (LR REP-PCR) was used to differentiate various B. anthracis strains. A single PCR primer derived from a repetitive DNA element was able to amplify variable segments of a bacterial genome as large as 10 kb. We were able to characterize five genetically distinct groups by examining 10...

  1. An educational approach to an epidemic of repetitive motion injuries among office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halunen, L.J.

    1988-09-23

    Among office workers, repetitive motion injuries such as tendonitis, muscle fatigue, and nerve irritation (caused by poor posture and arm/hand positioning while performing repetitive tasks) are a fairly new phenomenon. Office workers and their managers are not prepared to respond properly to the identification and treatment of these injuries. We found an unusually high incidence within one department at a large research facility--the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory--and developed an educational approach to reduce the frequency and severity of these injuries. Our approach was to inform the workers and managers about the origins and severity of repetitive motion injuries and their effect on the work force. Classes in ergonomic adjustment of video workstations were scheduled for all personnel who had jobs that required heavy keyboard use. The individual's responsibility in reporting any symptoms of repetitive motion injury was emphasized. We stressed to management the seriousness of the problem, the desirability of obtaining improved equipment workers may need, or the possibility of arranging a lighter workload for those showing symptoms of repetitive motion injuries. We followed these classes and briefings with additional videotaped material and written guidelines, pamphlets, and articles for further study and discussion. Early results indicate that informed workers in a supportive environment detect symptoms earlier, and therefore recover more quickly; managers who understand the problem and are able to respond positively gain better labor relations as well as lower injury rates. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The accumulation of brain injury leads to severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Bai, Ruojing; Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Chen, Fanglian; Lei, Ping

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with long-term neurobehavioral sequela. The evidences have revealed that TBI is a risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative disease and both the single and repetitive brain injury can lead to the neurodegeneration. But whether the effects of accumulation play an important role in the neurodegenerative disease is still unknown. We utilized the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop the animal models of repetitive mild TBI and single mild TBI in order to detect the neurobehavioral changes. The results of neurobehavioral test revealed that the repetitive mild TBI led to more severe behavioral injuries than the single TBI. There were more activated microglia cells and astrocytes in the repetitive mild TBI group than the single TBI group. In consistent with this, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher and the expression of IL-10 was lower in the repetitive mild TBI group compared with the single TBI group. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the repetitive TBI group detected by ELISA and western blot. But the levels of total tau (Tau-5) and P-tau (ser202) seem no different between the two groups in most time point. In conclusion, repetitive mild TBI could lead to more severe neurobehavioral impairments and the effects of accumulation may be associated with the increased inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  4. Movement repetitions in physical and occupational therapy during spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, D; Eng, J J; Miller, W C; Krassioukov, A V; Verrier, M C

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week before discharge. PT and OT time, upper- and lower-extremity repetitions and changes in these outcomes over the course of rehabilitation stay. We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, the median upper-extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower-extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon-signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Repetitions of upper- and lower-extremity movements are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the course of inpatient rehabilitation stay.

  5. Trabalho artesanal, cadências infernais e lesões por esforços repetitivos: estudo de caso em uma comunidade de mariscadeiras na Ilha de Maré, Bahia Non-industrial labor, infernal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gilvane Lopes Pena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho artesanal persiste no país, cuja abordagem deve considerar particularidades sociais distintas das relações assalariadas. O objetivo foi analisar o processo de trabalho artesanal e suas relações com a saúde em uma comunidade de pescadores artesanais, particularmente nas atividades de pesca extrativa de mariscos. Estudar as cadências e contingenciamentos de tempo e outras condições de trabalho relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de patologias como lesões por esforços repetitivos - LER. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo, ou etnográfico, no período de 2005 a 2007, em uma comunidade de 800 habitantes, situada em Ilha de Maré - Bahia. Foram entrevistados 30 pescadores e familiares, observados as atividades no trabalho e os casos suspeitos de LER encaminhados para serviço ambulatorial especializado. Evidenciou-se a gravidade das condições de trabalho, em particular para enfermidades LER. Em um modo de extração de mariscos, verificou-se a frequência média de 10.200 movimentos repetitivos por hora, enquanto, para a atividade de digitador, a norma oficial estabelece o limite de 8.000 toques por hora. Concluiu-se que as mariscadeiras devem ser incluídas dentre os grupos sociais de riscos que realizam esforços excessivos e repetitivos do sistema músculo-esquelético nas atividades do trabalho.Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the

  6. Use of long-range repetitive element polymorphism-PCR to differentiate Bacillus anthracis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumlik, M J; Szymajda, U; Zakowska, D; Liang, X; Redkar, R J; Patra, G; Del Vecchio, V G

    2001-07-01

    The genome of Bacillus anthracis is extremely monomorphic, and thus individual strains have often proven to be recalcitrant to differentiation at the molecular level. Long-range repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (LR REP-PCR) was used to differentiate various B. anthracis strains. A single PCR primer derived from a repetitive DNA element was able to amplify variable segments of a bacterial genome as large as 10 kb. We were able to characterize five genetically distinct groups by examining 105 B. anthracis strains of diverse geographical origins. All B. anthracis strains produced fingerprints comprising seven to eight bands, referred to as "skeleton" bands, while one to three "diagnostic" bands differentiated between B. anthracis strains. LR REP-PCR fingerprints of B. anthracis strains showed very little in common with those of other closely related species such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides, suggesting relative heterogeneity among the non-B. anthracis strains. Fingerprints from transitional non-B. anthracis strains, which possessed the B. anthracis chromosomal marker Ba813, scarcely resembled those observed for any of the five distinct B. anthracis groups that we have identified. The LR REP-PCR method described in this report provides a simple means of differentiating B. anthracis strains.

  7. Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in Patients From Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a worldwide problem, especially in countries with high incidence of road traffic accidents such as Iran. Patients with a single occurrence of TBI have been shown to be at increased risk to sustain future TBI. Objectives The aim of this study was to present the incidence and characteristics of repeated TBI (RTBI in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods During one year, all admitted TBI patients with prior TBI history were enrolled into the study. In each patient, data such as age, gender, past medical history, injury cause, anatomic site of injury, TBI severity, clinical findings and CT scan findings were collected. Results RTBI comprised 2.5% of TBI cases (41 of 1629. The incidence of RTBI per 100,000 individuals per years was 9.7. The main cause of RTBI was road traffic accident (68.3%; 9.7 % of cases had preexisting seizure/epilepsy disorder; 36.6% of patients with RTBI had pervious ICU admission due to severe TBI. Ten patients had Glasgow coma scale (GCS ≤ 13 (24.4%. Seizure was seen in seven patients (17.1%. Thirty-nine percent of patients with RTBI had associated injuries. Eleven patients had abnormal CT scan findings (26.9%. Conclusions Considering the high incidence of trauma in developing countries, RTBI may also be more common compared with that of developed countries. This mandates a newer approach to preventive strategies, particularly in those with a previous experience of head injury.

  8. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  9. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  10. Repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction to differentiate close bacteria strains in acidic sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ming; YIN Hua-qun; LIU Yi; LIU Jie; LIU Xue-duan

    2008-01-01

    To study the diversity of bacteria strains newly isolated from several acid mine drainage(AMD) sites in China,repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR),a well established technology for diversity analysis of closely related bacteria strains,was conducted on 30 strains of bacteria Leptospirillum ferriphilium,8 strains of bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,as well as the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans type strain ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 23270.The results showed that,using ERIC and BOX primer sets,rep-PCR produced highly discriminatory banding patterns.Phylogenetic analysis based on ERIC-PCR banding types was made and the results indicated that rep-PCR could be used as a rapid and highly discriminatory screening technique in studying bacterial diversity,especially in differentiating bacteria within one species in AMD.

  11. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Lan; Guo, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Wu, Shi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen's method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  12. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-lan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen′s method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  13. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Radouil Tzekov; Clint Dawson; Megan Orlando; Benoit Mouzon; Jon Reed; James Evans; Gogce Crynen; Michael Mullan; Fiona Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue w...

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae large DNA repetitive elements RepMP1 show type specific organization among strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Musatovova

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the smallest self-replicating bacterium with a streamlined genome of 0.81 Mb. Complete genome analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of four large repetitive elements (designated RepMP1, RepMP2/3, RepMP4 and RepMP5 that are implicated in creating sequence variations among individual strains. Recently, we described RepMP1-associated sequence variations between reference strain M129 and clinical isolate S1 that involved three RepMP1-genes (i.e. mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138. Using PCR and sequencing we analyze 28 additional M. pneumoniae strains and demonstrate the existence of S1-like sequence variants in nine strains and M129-like variants in the remaining nineteen strains. We propose a series of recombination steps that facilitates transition from M129- to S1-like sequence variants. Next we examined the remaining RepMP1-genes and observed no other rearrangements related to the repeat element. The only other detected difference was varying numbers of the 21-nucleotide tandem repeats within mpn127, mpn137, mpn501 and mpn524. Furthermore, typing of strains through analysis of large RepMPs localized within the adhesin P1 operon revealed that sequence divergence involving RepMP1-genes mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138 is strictly type-specific. Once more our analysis confirmed existence of two highly conserved groups of M. pneumoniae strains.

  15. Clinical specificity of acute versus chronic self-injury: measurement and evaluation of repetitive non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Maura; Presaghi, Fabio; Cerutti, Rita

    2014-01-30

    Overall, previous studies on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in the general population have stressed the importance of differentiating between occasional and repetitive NSSI, examining different severity levels (e.g., frequency and variety of methods), as well as investigating the diverse psychopathological correlates of NSSI. However, existing NSSI measures have not been explicitly developed by to comply with the NSSI diagnostic criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The purpose of this study is to develop a measure of repetitive NSSI by considering its essential features, as described in the proposed DSM-5 as well as in other clinically relevant aspects emerging from case reports. Two independent samples of participants (N1=383 young adults and 251 adolescents; N2=953 adolescents) belonging to the general population were involved in the present study. The questionnaire showed satisfactory fit statistics and reliably discriminated between occasional and repetitive self-injurers (Area Under Curve, AUC=0.755). The pattern of correlations with psychopathological measures confirmed a more clinically-compromised profile for repetitive rather than occasional self-injurers.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinnitus after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter Michael; Landgrebe, Michael; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is a frequent symptom of traumatic brain injury, which is difficult to treat. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown beneficial effects in some forms of tinnitus. However, traumatic brain injury in the past has been considered as a relative contraindication for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the increased risk of seizures. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient suffering from severe tinnitus after traumatic brain injury with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse, who received 5 treatment series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (1 Hz stimulation protocol over left primary auditory cortex, 10 sessions of 2000 stimuli each, stimulation intensity 110% resting motor threshold). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was tolerated without any side effects and tinnitus complaints (measured by a validated tinnitus questionnaire and numeric rating scales) were improved in a replicable way throughout 5 courses of transcranial magnetic stimulation up to now.

  17. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Gidday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s therapeutic window – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances postischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious, but practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease.

  18. Perfil da demanda atendida em ambulatório de doenças profissionais e a presença de lesões por esforços repetitivos Profile of occupational disease outpatients and the presence of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Reis

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil do paciente atendido em ambulatório de doenças profissionais de um hospital geral e, em especial, o portador da condição patológica mais freqüente: as lesões por esforços repetitivos (LER. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as 565 fichas-resumo de atendimento ambulatorial em saúde do trabalhador, em 1996, em função de variáveis sociodemográficas, de características do trabalho e de diagnóstico. Foram adotados os seguintes procedimentos: descrição univariável de todas as variáveis; análise bivariada, utilizando-se o teste do qui-quadrado (chi² para variáveis categóricas; comparação de médias ou amplitudes para variável categórica e outra quantitativa; análise multivariada por meio de modelos log-linear, com transformação logit, para detectar os grupos com maior proporção de LER. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio no atendimento de pacientes do sexo feminino com menos de 40 anos, sendo que, nos casos de LER, esse predomínio mostrou-se mais acentuado. As ocupações agrupadas apareceram em ordem decrescente, na seqüência: administrativos, operários e prestadores de serviços, sendo 59,6% pertencentes ao ramo de atividade econômica de serviços. As LER corresponderam a 56% dos diagnósticos feitos nas primeiras consultas. CONCLUSÕES: Confirmou-se a tendência de mudança no perfil epidemiológico das demandas atendidas no ambulatório de doenças profissionais, no final da década de 80, quando emergiram as LER. Deslocaram-se para uma minoria as antigas doenças profissionais decorrentes da exposição a riscos químicos e físicos, em função daquelas relacionadas às condições ergonômicas inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile of outpatients seen at an occupational disease clinic of a general and repetitive strain injury (RSI patients by using multivariate analyze. METHODS: The first 565 visit registries for the year 1996 were assessed regarding their social and demographics

  19. Acute reduction of microglia does not alter axonal injury in a mouse model of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E; Brody, David L

    2014-10-01

    The pathological processes that lead to long-term consequences of multiple concussions are unclear. Primary mechanical damage to axons during concussion is likely to contribute to dysfunction. Secondary damage has been hypothesized to be induced or exacerbated by inflammation. The main inflammatory cells in the brain are microglia, a type of macrophage. This research sought to determine the contribution of microglia to axon degeneration after repetitive closed-skull traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) using CD11b-TK (thymidine kinase) mice, a valganciclovir-inducible model of macrophage depletion. Low-dose (1 mg/mL) valganciclovir was found to reduce the microglial population in the corpus callosum and external capsule by 35% after rcTBI in CD11b-TK mice. At both acute (7 days) and subacute (21 days) time points after rcTBI, reduction of the microglial population did not alter the extent of axon injury as visualized by silver staining. Further reduction of the microglial population by 56%, using an intermediate dose (10 mg/mL), also did not alter the extent of silver staining, amyloid precursor protein accumulation, neurofilament labeling, or axon injury evident by electron microscopy at 7 days postinjury. Longer treatment of CD11b-TK mice with intermediate dose and treatment for 14 days with high-dose (50 mg/mL) valganciclovir were both found to be toxic in this injury model. Altogether, these data are most consistent with the idea that microglia do not contribute to acute axon degeneration after multiple concussive injuries. The possibility of longer-term effects on axon structure or function cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, alternative strategies directly targeting injury to axons may be a more beneficial approach to concussion treatment than targeting secondary processes of microglial-driven inflammation.

  20. Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury induces ventriculomegaly and cortical thinning in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddeyne, Corey; Nichols, Joshua; Wu, Chen; Anderson, Trent

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) most frequently occurs in pediatric patients and remains a leading cause of childhood death and disability. Mild TBI (mTBI) accounts for nearly 75% of all TBI cases, yet its neuropathophysiology is still poorly understood. While even a single mTBI injury can lead to persistent deficits, repeat injuries increase the severity and duration of both acute symptoms and long-term deficits. In this study, to model pediatric repetitive mTBI (rmTBI) we subjected unrestrained juvenile animals (postnatal day 20) to repeat weight-drop impacts. Animals were anesthetized and subjected to sham injury or rmTBI once per day for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 14 days after injury revealed marked cortical atrophy and ventriculomegaly in rmTBI animals. Specifically, beneath the impact zone the thickness of the cortex was reduced by up to 46% and the area of the ventricles increased by up to 970%. Immunostaining with the neuron-specific marker NeuN revealed an overall loss of neurons within the motor cortex but no change in neuronal density. Examination of intrinsic and synaptic properties of layer II/III pyramidal neurons revealed no significant difference between sham-injured and rmTBI animals at rest or under convulsant challenge with the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Overall, our findings indicate that the neuropathological changes reported after pediatric rmTBI can be effectively modeled by repeat weight drop in juvenile animals. Developing a better understanding of how rmTBI alters the pediatric brain may help improve patient care and direct "return to game" decision making in adolescents.

  1. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2012-03-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are common in a number of sports and incidence rates have not declined in recent times. Additionally, the high rate of recurrent injuries suggests that our current understanding of HSI and re-injury risk is incomplete. Whilst the multifactoral nature of HSIs is agreed upon by many, often individual risk factors and/or causes of injury are examined in isolation. This review aims to bring together the causes, risk factors and interventions associated with HSIs to better understand why HSIs are so prevalent. Running is often identified as the primary activity type for HSIs and given the high eccentric forces and moderate muscle strain placed on the hamstrings during running these factors are considered to be part of the aetiology of HSIs. However, the exact causes of HSIs remain unknown and whilst eccentric contraction and muscle strain purportedly play a role, accumulated muscle damage and/or a single injurious event may also contribute. Potentially, all of these factors interact to varying degrees depending on the injurious activity type (i.e. running, kicking). Furthermore, anatomical factors, such as the biarticular organization, the dual innervations of biceps femoris (BF), fibre type distribution, muscle architecture and the degree of anterior pelvic tilt, have all been implicated. Each of these variables impact upon HSI risk via a number of different mechanisms that include increasing hamstring muscle strain and altering the susceptibility of the hamstrings to muscle damage. Reported risk factors for HSIs include age, previous injury, ethnicity, strength imbalances, flexibility and fatigue. Of these, little is known, definitively, about why previous injury increases the risk of future HSIs. Nevertheless, interventions put in place to reduce the incidence of HSIs by addressing modifiable risk factors have focused primarily on increasing eccentric strength, correcting strength imbalances and improving flexibility. The response to

  2. Creation of an ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain by 266 nm laser radiation and repetitive cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Minfeng; Wang, Shilong

    2014-11-01

    Laser radiation is an efficient approach for rapid improvement of industrial microbial phenotypes. To improve ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, a 266 nm laser radiation with the use of repetitive cultivation was explored in this work. After irradiated by 266 nm laser radiation and repetitive cultivation, a genetically stable SM4 strain was obtained. The SM4 strain could grow on YPD plate with extra 15% (v/v) ethanol. Moreover, the ethanol production performance of SM4 strain was 29.25% more than that of the wild type strain when they were cultivated in 5% (v/v) ethanol fermentation medium for 72 h. The DNA mutation was the possible characters for the phenotype of SM4 strain. Overall, the 266 nm laser radiation and repetitive cultivation approach might be a novel and useful for breeding fermentation microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Perez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of rehabilitation strategies after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to enhance the recovery of function. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is to strengthen the efficacy of the residual neuronal pathways. Noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in patients with motor disorders as a tool to modulate activity of corticospinal, cortical, and subcortical pathways to promote functional recovery. This article reviews a series of studies published during the last decade that used rTMS in the acute and chronic stages of paraplegia and tetraplegia in humans with complete and incomplete SCI. In the studies, rTMS has been applied over the arm and leg representations of the primary motor cortex to target 3 main consequences of SCI: sensory and motor function impairments, spasticity, and neuropathic pain. Although some studies demonstrated that consecutive sessions of rTMS improve aspects of particular functions, other studies did not show similar effects. We discuss how rTMS parameters and postinjury reorganization in the corticospinal tract, motor cortical, and spinal cord circuits might be critical factors in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using rTMS in patients with SCI. The available data highlight the limited information on the use of rTMS after SCI and the need to further understand the pathophysiology of neuronal structures affected by rTMS to maximize the potential beneficial effects of this technique in humans with SCI.

  4. Genetic diversity among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains using repetitive element polymorphism-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumlik, Michael J; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Spalletta, Ronald A; Patra, Guy; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (REP-PCR) is one of the tools that has been used to elucidate genetic diversity of related microorganisms. Using the MB1 primer, REP-PCR fingerprints from 110 Bacillus strains within the "B. cereus group" have identified eighteen distinct categories, while other more distantly related bacterial species fell within six additional categories. All Bacillus anthracis strains tested were found to be monomorphic by fluorophore-enhanced REP-PCR (FERP) fingerprinting using the MB1 primer. In contrast, other non- B. anthracis isolates displayed a high degree of polymorphism. Dendrogramic analysis revealed that the non- B. anthracis strains possessing the Ba813 chromosomal marker were divided into two clusters. One of the clusters shared identity with the B. cereus strains examined.

  5. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingLing- Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and there is lack of evidence of the satisfaction of PRP treatment in muscle injuries. Purposes: The study aimed to investigate the patient satisfaction in the administration of PRP treatment and rehabilitation program for acute hamstring strain injury. Methods: Participants (competitive, semi-competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring strain injury (Grade II were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into either the PRP treatment or rehabilitation program. Participants were required to attend weekly follow up assessment for recovery evaluation. All the participants were required to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18 at the end of study.  The questionnaire is divided into seven sub-scales: general satisfaction, technical quality, interpersonal manner, communication, financial aspect, time spent with doctor, accessibility and convenience. Results: Participants were 22.35 ± 3.41 years. Duration from injury to first presentation in clinic ranged from two to ten days. Mean duration of recovery was 5.64 weeks. No statistically significant difference in the patient satisfaction sub-scales score between the two groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PRP treatment is as satisfactory as conventional rehabilitation program in managing acute hamstring strain injury. Both  modalities are correspondingly safe and have high degree of satisfaction. Given the acceptable outcomes, patients are likely to

  6. Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a juvenile rat model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart were induced in juvenile rats. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO was applied 1 hour/day × 3 days at 2 atmosphere absolute consecutively, starting at 1 day after initial mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Neuropathology was assessed by multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and tissue immunohistochemistry. After repetitive mTBI, there were increases in T2-weighted imaging-defined cortical lesions and susceptibility weighted imaging-defined cortical microhemorrhages, correlated with brain tissue gliosis at the site of impact. HBO treatment significantly decreased the MRI-identified abnormalities and tissue histopathology. Our findings suggest that HBO treatment improves the cumulative tissue damage in juvenile brain following rmTBI. Such therapy regimens could be considered in adolescent athletes at the risk of repeated concussions exposures.

  7. Dynamics of a New Strain of the H1N1 Influenza A Virus Incorporating the Effects of Repetitive Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntani Pongsumpun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory disease caused by the Influenza A Virus is occurring worldwide. The transmission for new strain of the H1N1 Influenza A virus is studied by formulating a SEIQR (susceptible, exposed, infected, quarantine, and recovered model to describe its spread. In the present model, we have assumed that a fraction of the infected population will die from the disease. This changes the mathematical equations governing the transmission. The effect of repetitive contact is also included in the model. Analysis of the model by using standard dynamical modeling method is given. Conditions for the stability of equilibrium state are given. Numerical solutions are presented for different values of parameters. It is found that increasing the amount of repetitive contacts leads to a decrease in the peak numbers of exposed and infectious humans. A stability analysis shows that the solutions are robust.

  8. Effectiveness of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting for Helicobacter pylori strain differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, S Alison; Velapatiño, Billie; Kosek, Margaret; Santivañez, Livia; Dailidiene, Daiva; Quino, Willi; Balqui, Jacqueline; Herrera, Phabiola; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H

    2006-07-01

    We compared the robustness and discriminatory power of the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting methods for detecting cases of mixed Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian shantytown residents. H. pylori isolates from 63 participants were cultured, and five single colonies and a pool of additional colonies from each participant were analyzed by ERIC-PCR and by RAPD tests with four 10-nucleotide primers (one primer per reaction). There was 94% agreement between the ERIC and RAPD profiles in classifying sets of isolates as uniform versus closely related but not identical versus probably unrelated, indicating a high kappa statistic of 0.8942. Subtle differences in related ERIC or RAPD patterns likely reflect gene transfer between strains, recombination, and/or mutation, whereas markedly different patterns reflect infection by unrelated strains. At least half of infected shantytown residents seemed to carry more than one H. pylori strain, although in 19 of 31 persons, the strains were closely related. Three RAPD tests, each with a different primer, were needed to achieve the sensitivity of one ERIC test. ERIC-PCR constitutes a resource- and time-efficient method for H. pylori strain differentiation.

  9. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  10. Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Peter H.; Vásquez, Natalia; Craggs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI). If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex. PMID:24904326

  11. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Klemenhagen

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

  12. Preliminary guidelines for safe and effective use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dylan M; McKnight, Curtis A; Patel, Riddhi N; Kalnin, Andrew J; Mysiw, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects with TBI, particularly the risk of seizures. These risks can be minimized by careful selection of the rTMS protocol and exclusion criteria. In this article, we identify guidelines for safe use of rTMS in subjects with TBI based on a review of the literature and illustrate their application with a case study. Our subject is a 48-year-old man who sustained a severe TBI 5 years prior to beginning rTMS for the treatment of post-TBI depression. After a 4-week baseline period, we administered daily sessions of low-frequency stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 6 weeks. After stimulation, we performed monthly assessments for 3 months. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was our primary outcome measure. The stimulation was well tolerated and the patient reported no side effects. After 6 weeks of stimulation, the patient's depression was slightly improved, and these improvements continued through follow-up. At the end of follow-up, the patient's HAMD score was 49% of the average baseline score.

  13. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouil Tzekov

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL, tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A, microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B, collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3 and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1, APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the

  14. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzekov, Radouil; Dawson, Clint; Orlando, Megan; Mouzon, Benoit; Reed, Jon; Evans, James; Crynen, Gogce; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL), tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B), collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3) and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1), APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the involvement of

  15. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  16. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus 1R PCR assay for detection of Raoultella sp. isolates among strains identified as Klebsiella oxytoca in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, Sophie A; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Goldstein, Fred W; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2003-04-01

    The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus 1R PCR method, which provided recognizable profiles for reference strains of the three species of Raoultella and the two genetic groups of Klebsiella oxytoca, was applied to 19 clinical isolates identified as K. oxytoca. By this method, as confirmed by species-specific gene sequencing, two Raoultella ornithinolytica and two unclassifiable K. oxytoca isolates were identified.

  17. Evaluation of Axonal Strain as a Predictor for Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries Using Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Chiara; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-11-01

    Finite element (FE) models are often used to study the biomechanical effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measures based on mechanical responses, such as principal strain or invariants of the strain tensor, are used as a metric to predict the risk of injury. However, the reliability of inferences drawn from these models depends on the correspondence between the mechanical measures and injury data, as well as the establishment of accurate thresholds of tissue injury. In the current study, a validated anisotropic FE model of the human head is used to evaluate the hypothesis that strain in the direction of fibers (axonal strain) is a better predictor of TBI than maximum principal strain (MPS), anisotropic equivalent strain (AESM) and cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM). An analysis of head kinematics-based metrics, such as head injury criterion (HIC) and brain injury criterion (BrIC), is also provided. Logistic regression analysis is employed to compare binary injury data (concussion/no concussion) with continuous strain/kinematics data. The threshold corresponding to 50% of injury probability is determined for each parameter. The predictive power (area under the ROC curve, AUC) is calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The measure with the highest AUC is considered to be the best predictor of mTBI. Logistic regression shows a statistical correlation between all the mechanical predictors and injury data for different regions of the brain. Peaks of axonal strain have the highest AUC and determine a strain threshold of 0.07 for corpus callosum and 0.15 for the brainstem, in agreement with previously experimentally derived injury thresholds for reversible axonal injury. For a data set of mild TBI from the national football league, the strain in the axonal direction is found to be a better injury predictor than MPS, AESM, CSDM, BrIC and HIC.

  18. Oral verrucous carcinoma complicating a repetitive injury by the dental prosthesis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Laila; Omor, Youssef; Mouden, Karima; Mahdi, Youssef; Elkacemi, Hanan; Elmajjaoui, Sanaa; Latib, Rachida; Kebdani, Tayeb; Boujida, Mohamed Najib; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an unusual, well differentiated, and low-grade type of squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by benign histology and cytology but markedly invasive clinical behavior. They have a predilection for squamous mucosae, particularly those of the head and neck region. Many factors have been associated with its pathogenesis, including the presence of previous skin lesions; VC arising from a prosthesis injury is rare. Here we reported a case of VC of oral cavity a particularly very aggressive, arising from prosthesis injury. Regardless of the treatment modality, given new insights into the possible aggressivity of this tumor, radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy may be a more appropriate primary treatment compared with the significant local morbidity associated with surgery.

  19. Biceps Femoris Aponeurosis Size: A Potential Risk Factor for Strain Injury?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EVANGELIDIS, PAVLOS E; MASSEY, GARRY J; PAIN, MATTHEW T G; FOLLAND, JONATHAN P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSEA disproportionately small biceps femoris long head (BFlh) proximal aponeurosis has been suggested as a risk factor for hamstring strain injury by concentrating mechanical strain on the surrounding muscle tissue...

  20. Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T; Estrada, Jonathan B; Franck, Christian

    2016-08-02

    In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression.

  1. Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T.; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Franck, Christian

    2016-08-01

    In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression.

  2. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  3. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  4. Children's computer usage: are they at risk of developing repetitive strain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Erlynn Mae Ang; James, Christine A; Bear-Lehman, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the average time school children spend on computers and electronic games, the positions they assume, and any associated discomfort related to their use. A twenty three-point questionnaire was distributed to 476 children in first to eighth grade from three parochial schools in one of the New York City boroughs. The findings of this study suggest that children use the computer and electronic games differently than adults and that more boys than girls engage in electronic game playing. Results clearly indicated that children are experiencing discomfort from the use of computers or electronic games, and that the discomfort is largely concentrated in the neck region. Occupational therapy could be instrumental in terms of educating the children, their parents/guardians, and their teachers on proper body mechanics, applications of ergonomically suited workstations, and the use of rest/stretch breaks while engaged in computing and electronic game playing.

  5. An unusual variety of the extensor digiti muscles: report with notes on repetition strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt Pires, Maria Alexandre; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas de Lemos, Luís; Godinho, Carlos Eduardo; Pais, Diogo; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    In over 500 human cadaveric dissections of arms and forearms, performed to the present date, we find frequent anatomical variations, corresponding to classic descriptions. Last year, we found a singular anatomic variation of the extensor muscles of the forearm, which seems previously undescribed. It is our strong belief that gross anatomy studies, and gross dissection should be updated and reintroduced in modern anatomical studies, for teaching, research, or surgical training purposes. We detected a peculiar anatomical variant of the Superficial Extensor Digiti Muscles in the forearm of a human 73 year old male Caucasian cadaver. We clearly identified a thick bundle of muscular fibres, connecting the main muscular shafts of the Extensor Digiti Minimi, and the Extensor Digitorum Communis Muscles, in a perfectly defined muscular expansion, bridging obliquely downwards and outwards, between the two main muscular shafts. In our series, this is the first occurrence of such anatomical disposition. Anatomical variations of the extensor tendons to the fingers are frequently detected in the wrist, hand and fingers compartments. The careful analysis of the variants of muscular shafts in the forearm compartment, as commonly reported in the earliest anatomical descriptions will bring renewed light to the functional assessment of the extensor mechanism of the human fingers. In this sense, we reviewed the oldest anatomical descriptions, from the 16th century to the present date.

  6. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P < 0.002 for all). Previously injured hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Behavioral Recovery during Early Stage of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chung, Pil-Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yul; Chun, Min Ho

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.

  8. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  9. Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, C; Tengvar, M; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

    2000-10-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

  10. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon from the kneecap attaches to the shinbone. Patellofemoral syndrome. This is a softening or breaking down of kneecap cartilage. Squatting, kneeling, and climbing stairs and hills can aggravate pain around the knee. Shin splints. This term refers ...

  11. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're due for a break.) Try an ergonomic ("ergonomic" means specially designed for comfort) keyboard that has ... that allow for a good grip on the handle. Wear appropriate safety gear for your sport, such ...

  12. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  13. Physical strain in daily life of wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; van der Woude, L H; Hollander, A P

    Forty-three men (age 33 +/- 9 yr) with spinal cord injuries (SCI) were observed during a normal workday while heart rate was recorded continuously. Physical strain was estimated using the heart rate response expressed relative to the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The mean physical strain

  14. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  15. Effects of estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle strain injury and regeneration in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinFENG; Guo-zhenLI; ShengWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of estrogen on muscle damage and regeneration after acute passive gastrocnemius muscle strain injury in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: ovariectomized, strained and treated with low-dosage estradiol (20μg/d) (Elow), treated with high-dosage estradiol (200 lag/d) (Ehigh), treated with oil placebo (Oil), strained with no ovariectomy (Strain), and sham operated with no strain and no ovariectomy (Con). Muscle damage index [plasma creatine kinase (CK)], antioxidant indexes [glutathione (GSH), Vitamin E (Vit E), total antioxidant capability (TAC)], and muscle regeneration index (desmin) were investigated at 7d. RESULTS: The plasma CK activity increased but GSH, Vit E, and TAC levels decreased after muscle strain injury (Strain vs Con P<0.05). Plasma CK activity was the greatest while GSH, Vit E, and TAC were the lowest in the Oil group among the five groups (P<0.01). Plasma CK in the Ehigh and Strain groups was lower than that in the Elow group. Plasma GSH, Vit E, and TAC were higher in the Ehigh and Strain groups compared with the Elow group (P<0.05). The expression of desmin in the Ehigh and Strain groups was higher than that in the Elow group (P<0.01) while that in the Oil group was the lowest in all the five groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Endogenous estrogen in normal female rats or exogenous estrogen in ovariectomized rats could improve antioxidant capability in vivo, so that reduced muscle damage and accelerated muscle regeneration post gastronemius muscle strain injury.

  16. Effects of estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle strain injury and regeneration in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin FENG; Guo-zhen LI; Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of estrogen on muscle damage and regeneration after acute passive gastrocnemius muscle strain injury in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: ovariectomized,strained and treated with low-dosage estradiol (20 μg/d) (Elow), treated with high-dosage estradiol (200 μg/d) (Ehigh),treated with oil placebo (Oil), strained with no ovariectomy (Strain), and sham operated with no strain and no ovariectomy (Con). Muscle damage index [plasma creatine kinase (CK)], antioxidant indexes [glutathione (GSH),Vitamin E (Vit E), total antioxidant capability (TAC)], and muscle regeneration index (desmin) were investigated at7 d. RESULTS: The plasma CK activity increased but GSH, Vit E, and TAC levels decreased after muscle strain injury (Strain vs Con P<0.05). Plasma CK activity was the greatest while GSH, Vit E, and TAC were the lowest in the Oil group among the five groups (P<0.01). Plasma CK in the Ehigh and Strain groups was lower than that in the Elow group. Plasma GSH, Vit E, and TAC were higher in the Ehigh and Strain groups compared with the Elow group(P <0.05). The expression of desmin in the Ehigh and Strain groups was higher than that in the Elow group (P<0.01)while that in the Oil group was the lowest in all the five groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Endogenous estrogen in normal female rats or exogenous estrogen in ovariectomized rats could improve antioxidant capability in vivo, so that reduced muscle damage and accelerated muscle regeneration post gastronemius muscle strain injury.

  17. Hyperextension strain of ``whiplash`` injuries to the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olson, P.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Everson, L.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Winemiller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ``whiplash`` injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  18. A Military Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Because of sports injuries, automobile...head injury will be studied in the WRAIR PCI model using longitudinal and multi-modal designs to fully characterize the neuromotor, cognitive, emotional ...timeframe, the cumulative effects of which can produce long-lasting effects including physical, mental, emotional and cognitive impairments and may place our

  19. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-06-01

    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats.

  20. Inflammatory and epithelial responses in mouse strains that differ in sensitivity to hyperoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C J; Stripp, B R; Piedbeouf, B; Wright, T W; Mango, G W; Reed, C K; Finkelstein, J N

    1998-01-01

    The pulmonary response to various toxicants including bleomycin, ozone, ionizing radiation, and hyperoxia is highly variable among mouse strains. The current study tests the hypothesis that at a similar stage of injury, regardless of strain, expression of inflammatory cytokine and epithelial marker genes would be similar, indicating a common pathway of injury progression. Three strains of mice, C57B1/6J, 129/J, and C3H/HeJ, ranging from sensitive to resistant, were exposed to > 95% O2 for varying times. Ribonuclease protection was used to quantify changes in cytokine mRNA. Despite differences in the kinetics, each strain demonstrated similar hyperoxia-induced changes in the abundance of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 beta, IL-3, and tumor neucrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. For each strain, death was accompanied by similar increases in cytokine mRNAs above steady-state control levels. Other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-gamma, were unaltered in all strains at all times. In situ hybridization analysis of the epithelial markers, surfactant protein B (SPB), and clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) at the time of proinflammatory induction showed a similar pattern of expression in all strains. Increased SPB was detected in bronchiolar epithelium, while the number of type II cells expressing this message declined. Both the number of cells expressing CCSP as well as abundance per cell declined. These results suggest that although differences in acute sensitivity to hyperoxia exist between mouse strains, once initiated, acute epithelial cell injury and associated inflammatory changes follow the same pattern in all strains.

  1. Changes in physical strain and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; Rozendaal, E P; Willemsen, E M; Hollander, A P; van der Woude, L H

    To determine longitudinal changes in physical capacity and physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 37 men with spinal cord injuries (C4/5-L5) performed an exercise test and various ADL on two occasions (T1 and T2; interval 34.5 +/- 1.5 months). Parameters of physical capacity were

  2. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silder, Amy [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Heiderscheit, Bryan C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); Thelen, Darryl G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Department of Radiology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves open field locomotor recovery after low but not high thoracic spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Nyssen, Yves; Scholtes, Felix; Multon, Sylvie; Rinkin, Charline; Weber, Géraldine; Bouhy, Delphine; Brook, Gary; Franzen, Rachelle; Schoenen, Jean

    2004-01-15

    Electromagnetic fields are able to promote axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used routinely in neuropsychiatric conditions and as an atraumatic method to activate descending motor pathways. After spinal cord injury, these pathways are disconnected from the spinal locomotor generator, resulting in most of the functional deficit. We have applied daily 10 Hz rTMS for 8 weeks immediately after an incomplete high (T4-5; n = 5) or low (T10-11; n = 6) thoracic closed spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats, using 6 high- and 6 low-lesioned non-stimulated animals as controls. Functional recovery of hindlimbs was assessed using the BBB locomotor rating scale. In the control group, the BBB score was significantly better from the 7th week post-injury in animals lesioned at T4-5 compared to those lesioned at T10-11. rTMS significantly improved locomotor recovery in T10-11-injured rats, but not in rats with a high thoracic injury. In rTMS-treated rats, there was significant positive correlation between final BBB score and grey matter density of serotonergic fibres in the spinal segment just caudal to the lesion. We propose that low thoracic lesions produce a greater functional deficit because they interfere with the locomotor centre and that rTMS is beneficial in such lesions because it activates this central pattern generator, presumably via descending serotonin pathways. The benefits of rTMS shown here suggest strongly that this non-invasive intervention strategy merits consideration for clinical trials in human paraplegics with low spinal cord lesions.

  4. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  5. Musculoskeletal Injuries: Description of an Under-Recognized Injury Problem Among Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    pain syndromes . Occup Environ Med 1998;55(4):264–71. 5. Yassi A. Repetitive strain injuries. Lancet 1997;349(9056): 943–7. 6. Yassi A. Work-related...Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25:197–203. 2. Brenner JS. Overuse injuries, overtraining, and burnout in child and adolescent athletes. Pediatrics

  6. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  7. Behavioural analysis and susceptibility to CNS injury of four inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, S J; Collins, F C; Rupniak, H T; Barnes, J C; Anderson, R

    1999-01-23

    Interpretation of data from gene targeting studies can be confounded by the inherent traits of the background inbred strains used in the generation of transgenic and null mutant mice. We have therefore compared the behaviour and response to CNS injury of four inbred strains commonly used in molecular genetic studies to produce models of neurological disease. Adult, male 129/Ola, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and FVB/N mice (2-4 months) were initially subjected to behavioural tests that comprised a neurological examination, determination of motor function and cognitive testing in the Morris water maze. Also the response to CNS injury following an acute kainic acid (KA) challenge (30 mg kg-1, i.p.) was determined. The 129/Ola and BALB/c strains showed significant motor deficits when compared with the C57BL/6 and FVB/N strains. In contrast, only the FVB/N strain showed evidence of apparent cognitive impairments in the water maze as evidenced by increased pathlengths to locate the escape platforms and impaired performance in a probe trial. In addition, the FVB/N strain showed the most severe seizure response and mortality rate (62%) following administration of KA (30 mg kg-1, i.p.). These behavioural changes were also associated with a greater degree of cell body and synaptophysin loss in the pyramidal CA3 hippocampal cell layer and astrogliosis 72-h post-dose. These data suggest that the FVB/N strain may not be the most suitable background strain for the development of new transgenic mice for the study of genes implicated in the learning and memory process.

  8. The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.

  9. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions.

  10. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R Ljubisavljevic

    Full Text Available Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS and intermittent (iTBS theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS. The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss

  11. Enhanced neurofibrillary tangle formation, cerebral atrophy, and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Yasumasa; Uryu, Kunihiro; Higuchi, Makoto; Longhi, Luca; Hoover, Rachel; Fujimoto, Scott; McIntosh, Tracy; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2005-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and repetitive TBI (rTBI) may culminate in dementia pugilistica (DP), a syndrome characterized by progressive dementia, parkinsonism, and the hallmark brain lesions of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by abnormal tau filaments and senile plaques (SPs) composed of Abeta fibrils. Previous study showed that mild rTBI (mrTBI) accelerated the deposition of Abeta in the brains of transgenic (Tg) mice (Tg2576) that over-express human Abeta precursor proteins with the familial AD Swedish mutations (APP695swe) and model of AD-like amyloidosis. Here, we report studies of the effects of mrTBI on AD-like tau pathologies in Tg mice expressing the shortest human tau isoform (T44) subjected to mrTBI, causing brain concussion without structural brain damage to simulate injuries linked to DP. Twelve-month-old Tg T44 (n = 18) and wild-type (WT; n = 24) mice were subjected to mrTBI (four times a day, 1 day per week, for 4 weeks; n = 24) or sham treatment (n = 18). Histopathological analysis of mice at 9 months after mrTBI revealed that one of the Tg T44 mice showed extensive telencephalic NFT and cerebral atrophy. Although statistical analysis of neurobehavioral tests at 6 months after mrTBI did not show any significant difference in any of groups of mice, the Tg T44 mouse with extensive NFT had an exceptionally low neurobehavioral score. The reasons for the augmentation of tau pathologies in only one T44 tau Tg mouse subjected to mrTBI remain to be elucidated.

  12. Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, Fanny; Côté, Isabelle; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Neuropathic pain often follows spinal cord injury (SCI). To compare the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over different motor cortex targets (hand vs leg area) versus sham stimulation on neuropathic pain and local neurophysiological changes in patients with SCI. A total of 16 patients with complete or incomplete motor SCI and chronic neuropathic pain participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized study. Three single sessions of sham or active rTMS (10 Hz, total of 2000 stimuli) were applied in random order over the hand or leg area with a minimal 2-week interval. THE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: were the numeric rating scale for pain sensation and parameters derived from motor mapping of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, including maximal amplitude of evoked response as well as map area, volume, and location. rTMS applied to either the hand or the leg area, but not sham stimulation, induced a significant but equivalent reduction in pain for the first 48 hours postintervention (P stimulation of the hand area (P = .04) but not for the other conditions. rTMS applied over the hand or leg motor cortex decreased neuropathic pain regardless of any change in cortical excitability, suggesting that the analgesic effect is not associated with local changes at the motor cortex level itself.

  13. Hypothermic protection in rat focal ischemia models: strain differences and relevance to "reperfusion injury".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yubo; Hashimoto, Megumi; Pulsinelli, William A; Nowak, Thaddeus S

    2004-01-01

    Hypothermic protection was compared in Long-Evans and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strains using transient focal ischemia, and in Wistar and SHR strains using permanent focal ischemia. Focal ischemia was produced by distal surgical occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and tandem occlusion of the ipsilateral common carotid artery (MCA/CCAO). Moderate hypothermia of 2 hours' duration was produced by systemic cooling to 32 degrees C, with further cooling of the brain achieved by reducing to 30 degrees C the temperature of the saline drip superfusing the exposed occlusion site. Infarct volume was determined from serial hematoxylin and eosin-stained frozen sections obtained routinely at 24 hours, or in some cases after 3 days' survival. In the SHR, moderate hypothermia was only effective when initiated before recirculation after a 90-minute occlusion period. In contrast, the same intervention was strikingly effective in the Long-Evans rat even when initiated after as long as 30-minute reperfusion after a 3-hour occlusion. This magnitude and duration of cooling was not protective in permanent MCA/CCAO in the SHR, but such transient hypothermia did effectively reduce infarct volume after permanent occlusions in Wistar rats. These results show striking differences in the temporal window for hypothermic protection among rat focal ischemia models. As expected, "reperfusion injury" in the Long-Evans strain is particularly responsive to delayed cooling. The finding that the SHR can be protected by hypothermia initiated immediately before recirculation suggests a rapidly evolving component of injury occurs subsequent to reperfusion in this model as well. Hypothermic protection after permanent occlusion in Wistar rats identifies a transient, temperature-sensitive phase of infarct evolution that is not evident in the unreperfused SHR. These observations confirm that distinct mechanisms can underlie the temporal progression of injury in rat stroke models, and emphasize

  14. Fibromialgia, LER, entre outras confusões diagnósticas Fibromyalgia, repetitive strain injury and other diagnostic confusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este é um típico caso de ocorrência comum na rotina médica em todas as regiões do país. Envolve uma jovem profissionalmente ativa, afastada há diversos anos do trabalho, alegando total ausência de melhora de sua sintomatologia, contrariamente a uma evidência científica. Relata quadro de dor difusa pelo corpo, erroneamente interpretada como conseqüência de seu trabalho, com múltiplos diagnósticos de lesões musculoesqueléticas, que vêm piorando, apesar da retirada das incriminadas sobrecargas biomecânicas laborais. O caso foi interpretado como uma doença, lato sensu, que não é reconhecida na literatura médica. A possibilidade de fibromialgia, reumatismo psicogênico e de simulação, envolvendo litígio trabalhista, é trazida em questão.This is a typical case, extremely common on daily practice, occuring in several areas of our country, involving a young female patient, active professionally, deviated from her job for several years, arguing total lack of efficacy on her treatment, conversely to scientific evidence. She complains of diffuse pain, erroneously interpreted as consequence of her job, with multiple specific diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions, which has becoming worse, despite of withdrawal of the incriminated biomechanical overloading. The case was interpreted as a disease, lato sensu, which is not recognized in the medical literature. The possibility of fibromyalgia, psicogenic rheumatism and simulation, involving litigation, is brought foward.

  15. The acute effects of local vibration therapy on ankle sprain and hamstring strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kimberly S; Barkley, Jacob E; Knapp, Danielle M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical muscle stimulation (BMS) applied directly to different segments of the body using the Swisswing device results in acute improvements in range of motion and perceived stiffness in physically active adults with acute or subacute ankle sprain and hamstring strain injuries. Two separate groups of individuals with grade I or II ankle sprain (n = 5; 21.2 +/- 1.9 years) or hamstring strain (Nn= 5; 20.6 +/- 1.8 year) underwent 20 minutes of a controlled therapy consisting of ice, compression, and elevation, and 10 minutes of segmental BMS using the Swisswing at 20 Hz. Ankle (dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion), hamstring flexibility, and subjective ratings of stiffness were assessed prior to control treatment (baseline), post-control treatment, and post-Swisswing treatment. Relative to the post-control condition, Swisswing treatment significantly (P < 0.03 for all) increased ankle dorsiflexion and eversion and hamstring flexibility, and significantly (P injury. Future research is needed to determine the duration of these effects and if repeated periods of segmental BMS therapy aid in long-term injury recovery.

  16. Relationship between physical strain during standardised ADL tasks and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Hollander, A P; van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1994-01-01

    To describe physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 44 men with spinal cord injuries (C4-L5) performed a set of standardised tasks. The physical strain was defined as the highest heart rate response expressed as a percentage of the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The physical

  17. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles.

  18. The effects of aponeurosis geometry on strain injury susceptibility explored with a 3D muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehorn, Michael R; Blemker, Silvia S

    2010-09-17

    In the musculoskeletal system, some muscles are injured more frequently than others. For example, the biceps femoris longhead (BFLH) is the most commonly injured hamstring muscle. It is thought that acute injuries result from large strains within the muscle tissue, but the mechanism behind this type of strain injury is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to build computational models to analyze the stretch distributions within the BFLH muscle and to explore the effects of aponeurosis geometry on the magnitude and location of peak stretches within the model. We created a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the BFLH based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. We also created a series of simplified models with a similar geometry to the MR-based model. We analyzed the stretches predicted by the MR-based model during lengthening contractions to determine the region of peak local fiber stretch. The peak along-fiber stretch was 1.64 and was located adjacent to the proximal myotendinous junction (MTJ). In contrast, the average along-fiber stretch across all the muscle tissue was 0.95. By analyzing the simple models, we found that varying the dimensions of the aponeuroses (width, length, and thickness) had a substantial impact on the location and magnitude of peak stretches within the muscle. Specifically, the difference in widths between the proximal and distal aponeurosis in the BFLH contributed most to the location and magnitude of peak stretch, as decreasing the proximal aponeurosis width by 80% increased peak average stretches along the proximal MTJ by greater than 60% while slightly decreasing stretches along the distal MTJ. These results suggest that the aponeurosis morphology of the BFLH plays a significant role in determining stretch distributions throughout the muscle. Furthermore, this study introduces the new hypothesis that aponeurosis widths may be important in determining muscle injury susceptibility.

  19. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  20. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  1. Comparison of a Commercially Available Repetitive-Element PCR System (DiversiLab) with PCR Ribotyping for Typing of Clostridium difficile Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C; Van Broeck, J; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B.; Delmée, M; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) method (DiversiLab system) to PCR ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR ribotype 027 isolates tested, different rep types could be distinguished. rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill, and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  2. Comparison of a Commercially Available Repetitive-Element PCR System (DiversiLab) with PCR Ribotyping for Typing of Clostridium difficile Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C.; Van Broeck, J.; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B; Delmée, M; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) method (DiversiLab system) to PCR ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR ribotype 027 isolates tested, different rep types could be distinguished. rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill, and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  3. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  4. Cerebrovascular injury caused by a high strain rate insult in the thorax

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased in documented incidence and public prominence in recent conflicts. Evidence for a thoracic mechanism of blast-induced TBI was recently reviewed and, while the totality is compelling, data from experiments isolating this mechanism is sparse. Notably, one recent study showed pericapillar haemorrhage in brain tissue from victims of single, fatal gunshot wounds to the chest. Here, qualitative results are reported for a small field study that isolated a thoracic mechanism for TBI caused by a high strain rate insult in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, mass 49-80 kg) in a natural environment. In each of three cases, petechiae were present on the surface of the frontal, occipital and/or left parietal lobes, along with capillary damage in the choroid plexus. The location of the projectile impact to the thorax seemed to affect the degree of damage. This may be due to the proximity to the great vessels. The data reported here provides direct evid...

  5. Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A

  6. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  7. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  8. Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, D A; Drezner, J; Shield, A; Williams, M; Webner, D; Sennett, B; Kapur, R; Cohen, M; Ulager, J; Cafengiu, A; Cronholm, P F

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to observe the incidence rates of hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) across different competition levels and ages during the Penn Relays Carnival. Over a 3-year period, all injuries treated by the medical staff were recorded. The type of injury, anatomic location, event in which the injury occurred, competition level, and demographic data were documented. Absolute and relative HSI (per 1000 participants) were determined, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated between sexes, competition levels, and events. Throughout the study period 48,473 athletes registered to participate in the Penn Relays Carnival, with 118 HSIs treated by the medical team. High school girls displayed lesser risk of HSI than high school boys (OR = 0.55, P = 0.021), and masters athletes were more likely than high school- (OR = 4.26, P < 0.001) and college-level (OR = 3.55, P = 0.001) athletes to suffer HSI. The 4 × 400-m relay displayed a greater likelihood of HSI compared with the 4 × 100-m relay (OR = 1.77, P = 0.008). High school boys and masters-level athletes are most likely to suffer HSI, and there is higher risk in 400-m events compared with 100-m events. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Military-Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and its BDPs, UCH-L1, SBDPs, and c-APP) will be evaluated following a single PCI injury in brain tissue, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum by...blocked in 5% milk , probed with rabbit anti-GFAP primary antibodies overnight, washed, probed with donkey anti-rabbit secondary antibodies for 2 hours and...neuroendocrine response, we screened serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for 29 distinct rat inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 1h, 24h and 14d

  10. ERIC-PCR技术对单增李斯特菌的溯源分析%Biotracing the source of Listeria monocytogenes strains by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海泉; 朱颖; 姜文洁; 孙晓红; 吴启华; 潘迎捷; 赵勇

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC )-PCR was used to genotype 17 strains of Listeria monocytogenes,which were isolated from pork samples of the three market,and we investigated the correlation between the genotype,regional distribution and prevalence among L monocytogenes strains. L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was used as positive control. The result showed that 17 isolates were identified as six special genotypes,and genotype IV was the dominant one as the main pollution group,which were isolated from the third market. The strains isolated from the first and second market were genotype I and genotype IV .respcetively. The result suggested that ERIC-PCR was suitable to investigate the biotracing of L. monocytogenes and it was a more rapid,efficient,and accurate molecular typing method than traditional serotyping methods.%以质控菌株ATCC 19115为对照,采用ERIC-PCR方法对从三个市场猪肉样品分离到的17株单增李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)进行了基因分型,探讨了单增李斯特菌基因型与区域分布及流行性的关联性.结果表明,17株单增李斯特菌菌株可分为六个主要基因类群,其中Ⅳ型菌株最多,为主要污染类群,而这些菌株来自于市场三;市场一和市场二分离到的菌株主要分别为Ⅰ型和Ⅳ型.因此,ERIC-PCR方法适用于对单增李斯特菌的溯源分析和流行病学调查,具有简单、方便、快捷、准确的特点.

  11. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  12. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  13. Induced response of tomato plants to injury by green and red strains of Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Ashihara, W.; Takafuji, A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the induced response of tomato plants to the green strain and the red strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We focused on the olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to volatiles from T. urticae-infested tomato leaves in a Y-tube olfactometer. Tomato leav

  14. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...

  15. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  16. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  17. The neural consequences of repetition: clinical implications of a learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N N; Melnick, M

    1997-01-01

    Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) are difficult to treat. Some individuals with RSIs may ultimately develop chronic pain syndromes or movement problems like focal hand dystonia (FDh), a disorder of motor control manifested in a specific context during skilled, hand tasks. This paper reports on the results of four neuroplasticity studies suggesting that repetitive hand opening and closing can lead to motor control problems, measurable somatosensory changes, and problems in graphesthesia and stereognosis. The experiments support a learning hypothesis for the origin of severe RSIs, particularly FDh. This degradation in the sensory representation of the hand may not only explain the therapeutic challenge of returning these patients to work, but also provide a foundation for developing more effective physical rehabilitation strategies. Implications and conjectures for the applications of this learning hypothesis to conditions of chronic pain are also discussed.

  18. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  19. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  20. Cerebrovascular Injury Caused by a High Strain Rate Insult in the Thorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    al. Severe lung contusion and death after high-velocity behind-armor blunt trauma: relation to protection level. Mil Med 2007; 172 1110-1116 13...of increasing risk developed by Courtney and Courtney9 and the Bowen curves for risk of blast-induced lung injury.2 Figure 1. Experimental conditions...involvement of nitric oxide. Brain Inj 2001; 15 593-612 6. Cooper GJ. Protection of the lung from blast overpressure by thoracic stress wave decouplers. J

  1. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  2. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  3. Imaging "brain strain" in youth athletes with mild traumatic brain injury during dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Katia J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wells, Greg; Fait, Philippe; Ptito, Alain; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

    2014-11-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common cause of injury in youth athletes. Much of what is known about the sequelae of mTBI is yielded from the adult literature, and it appears that it is mainly those with persistent post-injury symptoms who have ongoing cognitive and neural abnormalities. However, most studies have employed single-task paradigms, which may not be challenging enough to uncover subtle deficits. We sought to examine the neural correlates of dual-task performance in male athletes aged 9-15 years using a functional neuroimaging protocol. Participants included 13 youths with a history of mTBI three to six months prior to testing and 14 typically-developing controls. All participants completed a working memory task in isolation (single-task) and while completing a concurrent motor task (dual-task); neural activity during performance was then compared between groups. Although working memory performance was similar during the single-task condition, increased working memory load resulted in an altered pattern of neural activation in key working memory areas (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices) in youth with mTBI relative to controls. During the dual-task condition, accuracy was similar between groups but injured youth performed slower than typically-developing controls, suggesting a speed-accuracy tradeoff in the mTBI group only. The injured youths also exhibited abnormal recruitment of brain structures involved in both working memory and dual-tasking. These data show that the dual-task paradigm can uncover functional impairments in youth with mTBI who are not highly symptomatic and who do not exhibit neuropsychological dysfunction. Moreover, neural recruitment abnormalities were noted in both task conditions, which we argue suggests mTBI-related disruptions in achieving efficient cognitive control and allocation of processing resources.

  4. Prone position prevents regional alveolar hyperinflation and mechanical stress and strain in mild experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Cristina E; Garcia, Cristiane S N B; Xisto, Débora G; Nagato, Lilian K S; Lassance, Roberta M; Prota, Luiz Felipe M; Ornellas, Felipe M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-06-30

    Prone position may delay the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the mechanisms require better elucidation. In experimental mild acute lung injury (ALI), arterial oxygen partial pressure (Pa O2), lung mechanics and histology, inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta], and type III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA expressions were analysed in supine and prone position. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. In controls, saline was intraperitoneally injected while ALI was induced by paraquat. After 24-h, the animals were mechanically ventilated for 1-h in supine or prone positions. In ALI, prone position led to a better blood flow/tissue ratio both in ventral and dorsal regions and was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of alveolar aeration/tissue ratio reducing lung static elastance and viscoelastic pressure, and increasing end-expiratory lung volume and Pa O2. PCIII expression was higher in the ventral than dorsal region in supine position, with no regional changes in inflammatory markers. In conclusion, prone position may protect the lungs against VILI, thus reducing pulmonary stress and strain.

  5. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BAMCPA07-48, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjar, Fatemeh; Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; Leung, Kai P

    2016-07-07

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BAMCPA07-48, isolated from a combat injury wound. The closed genome sequence of this isolate is a valuable resource for pathogenome characterization of P. aeruginosa associated with wounds, which will aid in the development of a higher-resolution phylogenomic framework for molecular-guided pathogen-surveillance.

  7. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  8. Stress and strain analysis on the anastomosis site sutured with either epineurial or perineurial sutures after simulation of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of tensile stress and tensile strain at an anastomosis site under physiological stress is an important factor for the success of anastomosis following suturing in peripheral nerve injury treatment.Sciatic nerves from fresh adult cadavers were used to create models of sciatic nerve injury.The denervated specimens underwent epineurial and perineurial suturing.The elastic modulus (40.96 ± 2.59 MPa) and Poisson ratio (0.37 ± 0.02) of the normal sciatic nerve were measured by strain electrical measurement.A resistance strain gauge was pasted on the front,back,left,and right of the edge of the anastomosis site after suturing.Strain electrical measurement results showed that the stress and strain values of the sciatic nerve following perineurial suturing were lower than those following epineurial suturing.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sciatic nerve fibers were disordered following epineurial compared with perineurial suturing.These results indicate that the effect of perineurial suturing in sciatic nerve injury repair is better than that of epineurial suturing.

  9. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  10. High fluid shear strain causes injury in silver shark: Preliminary implications for Mekong hydropower turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, L. J. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera NSW Australia; Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Thorncraft, G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Phonekhampheng, O. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Boys, C. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay NSW Australia; Navarro, A. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Robinson, W. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Brown, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-09

    Fluid shear arises when two bodies of water, travelling at different velocities, intersect. Fish entrained at the interface of these two water masses will experience shear stress; which can be harmful. The stress magnitude is dependent on waterbody mass and velocity; with the fish impact largely related to body size. Elevated shear stress occurs where rapidly flowing water passes near spillways, across screens, within turbine draft tubes or other passage routes. A flume was used to determine critical tolerances of silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus) to different shear stress rates generated by a high velocity jet. Fish experienced higher levels of injury and mortality as shear stress was increased. Excessive shear forces had damaging impacts on fish. Mortality occurred at shear levels higher that 600/s. It is important that developers should attempt to model potential shear profiles expected during turbine passage in selected designs. These data will be critical to determine potential impacts on fish. If the likelihood of adverse impact is high, then alternative designs which have lower shear stress could be explored.

  11. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  12. Improved biomechanical and biological outcomes in the MRL/MpJ murine strain following a full-length patellar tendon injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley, Andrea L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Kazemi, Namdar; Kenter, Keith; Gooch, Cynthia; Rowe, David W; Butler, David L; Shearn, Jason T

    2015-11-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries greatly affect the U.S. population and current clinical approaches fail to restore long-term native tissue structure and function. Tissue engineering is a strategy advocated to improve tendon healing; however, the field still needs to establish biological benchmarks for assessing the effectiveness of tissue-engineered structures. Investigating superior healing models, such as the MRL/MpJ, offers the opportunity to first characterize successful healing and then apply experimental findings to tissue-engineered therapies. This study seeks to evaluate the MRL/MpJ's healing response following a central patellar tendon injury compared to wildtype. Gene expression and histology were assessed at 3, 7, and 14 days following injury and mechanical properties were measured at 2, 5, and 8 weeks. Native patellar tendon biological and mechanical properties were not different between strains. Following injury, the MRL/MpJ displayed increased mechanical properties between 5 and 8 weeks; however, early tenogenic expression patterns were not different between the strains. Furthermore, expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, was not different between strains, suggesting an alternative mechanism may be driving the healing response. Future studies will investigate collagen structure and alignment of the repair tissue and characterize the complete healing transcriptome to identify mechanisms driving the MRL/MpJ response.

  13. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  14. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  15. Repetitive loading damages healing ligaments more than sustained loading demonstrated by reduction in modulus and residual strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Gail M; Bailey, Soraya J

    2012-10-11

    Healing ligaments have decreased strength compared to normal ligaments, leaving healing ligaments vulnerable to damage accumulation during normal daily activities at functional stresses. Rabbit medial collateral ligament gap scars after 14 weeks of healing were exposed to long-term creep and fatigue loading over a range of functional stresses. In addition to the 58 healing ligaments that underwent in vitro creep and fatigue testing, seven healing ligaments underwent only monotonic failure tests for comparison with residual strength tests that followed creep and fatigue testing. When exposed to repetitive loading during fatigue testing, healing ligaments exhibited modulus reduction earlier than when exposed to sustained loading during creep testing that was occasionally interrupted with unloading/reloading cycles to measure modulus. In other words, after the same loading duration, repetitive loading was more damaging than sustained loading. At modulus reduction, the increase in strain during fatigue was greater than or similar to that during creep. Healing ligaments that were damaged during long-term loading exhibited decreased strength and increased toe-region strain during subsequent residual strength tests. Normal daily activities that result in repetitive loading of a ligament healing from an injury will likely cause damage to accumulate faster than activities that result in sustained loading.

  16. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  17. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  18. Injury profile of employees at a specific beverage manufacturing company: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chetty

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on important information pertaining tothe prevalence of occupational injuries. At present very little data existson the prevalence of occupational injuries in South Africa.  A retrospective study was undertaken to detail the occupational injuries sustained by employees at a specific beverage manufacturing company.The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms, type, classification, anatomical site, frequency and time of injuries at this beverage company.The sample consisted of all employees that reported to the occupational health clinic with occupational injuries during the six-month review period i.e. July 2004-December 2004. Results of this review were computed in a self-complied injury data spreadsheet. The data was presented descriptively and the level of significance was set at 0.05.  Incorrect lifting of manual materials was reported as the most common mechanism of injury. Repetitive strain injuries were the most common type of injury. The spine/trunk was the site of 48 (66.7% of regions injuries with the most frequently injured regions being the back (43.1% and neck (22.2%. Most of the injuries were sustained during the month of December (27.8%. It is recommended that aggressive health promotion and injury prevention strategies be implemented to reduce the burden of occupational injuries at this specific beverage manufacturing company.

  19. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  20. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  1. Mechanization, the labor process, and injury risks in the Canadian meat packing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novek, J; Yassi, A; Spiegel, J

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, Canada's major manufacturing industries experienced considerable financial restructuring and technological transformation, largely in response to recessionary pressures. At the same time, the rate of lost-time injuries in Canadian manufacturing rose steadily. This article explores the relationship between these sets of factors. The meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of the interaction between industrial organization, the labor process, and the risk of workplace injuries. The authors suggest that the following factors have contributed to high and rising injury rates in the meat industry during the 1980s: consolidation into a smaller number of large, highly specialized, and mechanized plants; deteriorating labor relations in the face of falling profits; and an intensified labor process stressing line speedups and a growing risk of repetitive strain injuries. These observations are supported by a detailed analysis of the relationship between the labor process and workplace injuries at one packing plant considered typical for the industry.

  2. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  3. An analysis of sprain and strain injury data for the New Zealand meat processing industry from national and industry injury surveillance databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Bentley, T A; Vitalis, A; Macky, K

    2008-11-01

    Data on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in meat processing and the tasks in which they occur is limited in the literature. This paper provides a summary of such data from the New Zealand industry. Despite the high incidence of MSD in meat processing in New Zealand, little research has been undertaken to identify and assess high-risk tasks and develop interventions to address them. This paper reports on the initial stages of a 2-year government funded project to address these issues. Findings are presented from the analysis of data from two injury surveillance databases. Accident Compensation Corporation national data claims assisted in defining the industry and indicated factors for further assessment, including consideration of claimants' gender, ethnicity and geographical region. National Injury Database industry data claims helped to identify specific tasks in which MSD are more likely to occur by departments and for the two main animal species processed. These factors have helped shape the assessment of high-risk tasks currently undertaken in the meat processing industry.

  4. Restoration from Taishan Ganoderma after repetitive motion injury and repair of skeletal muscle micro-movement of Wushu athletes fatigue%从泰山赤灵芝对重复运动后骨骼肌微损伤修复探讨武术运动员的运动疲劳的恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 吕晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Discussion Taishan Ganoderma variation in rat skeletal muscle injury after high intensity micro repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)restoration,study of martial arts athletes in training to give appropriate treatment of skeletal muscle micro amount of Taishan Ganoderma lucidum drug intervention to help sport rehabilitation and sports injury fatigue recovery. Methods:Male 52 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group,the experimental group. Animal model of repetitive motion:Rats in a treadmill downhill running speed 18m/min,the slope of -16 degrees,the re-petitive motion of the high-intensity( exhaustive exercise). Set up an experimental group( feeding Taishan Ganoderma lu-cidum decoction),the control group,the same repeated exhaustive exercise,at the same time point the control group,the experimental group after the high-intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)femoral four muscle,while the experi-mental group therapeutic dose Taishan Ganoderma lucidum feeding study drug would affect the skeletal muscle micro-inju-ry variation of the repetitive motion of the high-intensity,observe the control group,the experimental group high intensity exercise( repetitive motion)under rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure study the variation. The results supplement Taishan Ganoderma repetitive motion training in rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure variation studies have shown that:the use of the same high - intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise ) TEM supplement Taishan Ganoderma lucidum rats,the process of bone the degree of muscle ultrastructural changes be seen that the rat quadriceps micro damage have significantly improved,but still showed irregular arrangement myofibrillar sarcomere incomplete,Z line thinning,muscle wire curl. Conclusion:intensity exercise skeletal muscle ultrastructure spectrum variation and skeletal muscle micro-injury or fatigue adaptive mechanism can complement the Taishan Ganoderma process,at the same time bring

  5. A structured multicomponent group programme for carers of people with acquired brain injury: Effects on perceived criticism, strain, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Dónal G; Rogan, Carol R; Richards, Helen L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a brief structured multicomponent group programme for carers of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) was effective in reducing carer distress, strain, and critical comments between carer and person with an ABI compared to a waiting list control condition. Waiting list controlled study. Pre- and post-test design with outcomes measured at induction, at the end of the intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up. One hundred and thirteen carers took part in the study: 75 carers in the intervention group and 38 in the waiting list control group (2:1 ratio). All participants completed assessments of caregiver strain (Caregiver Strain Index), perceived criticism towards and from the person with an ABI (Perceived Criticism Scale), and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The person with an ABI was also assessed on the Functional Independence Measure/Functional Assessment Measure. Using an intention to treat analysis, there were significant effects of group (intervention vs. waiting list control) at the 3-month follow-up on carers' perceptions of stress and strain resulting from caring, and perceptions of criticism received by the carer from the person with an ABI. A subsequent per-protocol analysis showed an additional reduction at 3 months in levels of criticism expressed towards the person with an ABI by the carer. There was no significant effect of the intervention on psychological distress. The structured multicomponent carers programme showed beneficial effects in terms of reducing carer strain and in the reduction of elements of perceived criticism at the 3-month follow-up; however, it did not significantly affect psychological distress in carers, suggesting the need for additional support for this group of carers. What is already known on this subject? A number of studies have suggested that carers of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) experience greater levels of carer burden and

  6. Analysis of vacA, cagA, and IS605 Genotypes and Those Determined by PCR Amplification of DNA between Repetitive Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Patients with Nonulcer Dyspepsia or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, Nathalie E. M.; Namavar, Ferry; Doorn, Leen-Jan; Durrani, Zarmina; Kuipers, Ernst J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The vacA s and m genotypes and the presence of cagA and IS605 were determined in Helicobacter pylori strains from patients with mono- and multiple infections. Surprisingly, these genetic markers were not associated with nonulcer dyspepsia or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The presence of cagA correlated with the presence of the vacA s1 allele (P < 0.05), whereas the presence of IS605 was associated with the presence of the s2 allele (P < 0.05).

  7. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  8. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  9. A taxonomically unique Acinetobacter strain with proteolytic and hemolytic activities recovered from a patient with a soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzara, Marisa; Traglia, German Matías; Krizova, Lenka; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Bakai, Romina; Tuduri, Alicia; Vay, Carlos; Nemec, Alexandr; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. A47, has been recovered from several soft tissue samples from a patient undergoing reconstructive surgery owing to a traumatic amputation. The results of 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene comparative sequence analyses showed that A47 does not belong to any of the hitherto-known taxa and may represent an as-yet-unknown Acinetobacter species. The recognition of this novel organism contributes to our knowledge of the taxonomic complexity underlying infections caused by Acinetobacter.

  10. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  11. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury%重复功能性磁刺激联合腹直肌电刺激对颈髓损伤患者肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 袁华; 牟翔; 杜起; 毛利; 惠楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury.Methods Twenty-five patients with cervical spinal cord injury were randomized into an experimental group (n =13) and a control group (n =12).The control group was given comprehensive rehabilitation treatment,including upper limb movements,standing training and training of respiratory function,while the experimental group was given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and abdominal muscle electrical stimulation in addition to the comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The patients' maximum lung capacity (VC),forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1),peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and tidal volume (VT) were measured at the outset and after 3 months of treatment.Results The lung function indexes increased in both groups after treatment,but each index improved significantly more in the experimental group,on average,than in the control group.Conclusion As a supplement to routine respiratory function training,repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal intermediate frequency electrical stimulation can improve the pulmonary ventilation function of patients with middle and lower cervical spinal cord injury.%目的 观察重复功能性磁刺激(rFMS)联合腹直肌电刺激对中、低位颈髓损伤(CSCI)患者肺通气功能的影响.方法 共选取25例中、低位CSCI患者,采用随机数字表法将其分为治疗组及对照组.对照组给予上肢主动运动、站立训练、呼吸功能训练等综合康复治疗,治疗组在此基础上辅以rFMS及腹直肌中频电刺激.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后对2组患者肺功能[包括最大肺活量(VC)、1秒钟用力呼气量(FEV1)、呼气峰值流速(PEF)及潮气量(VT)等指标]进行评定.结果 2组患者分别经3个

  12. Effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes recovery of cognitive function and functional independence in patients with traumatic brain injury%低频重复经颅磁刺激对脑外伤患者认知功能和功能独立的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄居科; 麦荣康; 陈尚杰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in improving the memory function and quality of life of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods Sixty patients with brain injury were randomly divided into the treatmem group and control group. The patients in the control group received conventional treatments (including medications, acupuncture and exercise training), and those in the treatment group were given additional low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment. Scores of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and Functional independence Measure (FIM) were recorded before and after the treatments and compared between the two groups. Results The patients in both of the groups showed significant improvements in RBMT and FIM scores after the treatments (P<0.05). The improvements in RBMT and FIM scores after the treatments differed significantly between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can significantly improve the cognitive function and functional independence of patients with traumatic brain injury.%目的 观察低频重复经颅磁刺激改善脑外伤患者的认知功能和功能独立的作用.方法 将60例脑损伤患者按随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组(各30例),均给予常规治疗.治疗组在此基础上应用低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗,连续治疗5 d为1个疗程,疗程之间间隔2d,连续4个疗程.观察两组患者治疗前后Rivermead行为记忆评分(RBMT)和功能独立性评分(FIM).结果 两组患者治疗后RBMT评分(治疗组:17.72±5.69,对照组:16.86±4.82)和FIM评分(治疗组:75.19±16.55,对照组:59.86±15.27)均较治疗前(治疗组:13.97±4.37,对照组:14.25±4.51;治疗组:43.21±12.62,对照组:45.79±13.97)有明显改善,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组治疗前后RBMT评分差值(3.68±2.06 vs 2.71±1.17)和FIM评分差值(31.86±10.89 vs 18.71

  13. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  14. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  15. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  16. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  17. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  18. Rowing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  19. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  20. 重复经颅磁刺激对不完全性脊髓损伤患者运动和步行功能的疗效%Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor and Ambulation Function for Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘钰; 郄淑燕; 刘畅; 甄巧霞; 刘晓磊; 丁永红; 杨等; 邰志红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor and ambulatory function in incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Methods 18 incomplete SCI patients (AIS D) were randomized to treatment group (n=10) and control group (n=8). The treatment group received rTMS while the control group received sham stimulation for 2 weeks. All the patients re-ceived routine rehabilitation. They were assessed with Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), 10 m Walking Test for Walking Speed, modi-fied Ashworth scale (MAS), Walking Index for SCI Scale II(WISCI II), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) before and after treatment, and followed up for 2 weeks after treatment. Results The treatment group significantly improved in LEMS, walking speed, and SCIM after treatment and during follow up (P0.05)。结论 rTMS可进一步改善不完全性脊髓损伤患者的下肢运动功能。

  1. The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Hickey, Jack; Duhig, Steven J; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most common injury type in Australian football, and the rate of recurrence has been consistently high for a number of years. Long-lasting neuromuscular inhibition has been noted in previously injured athletes, but it is not known if this influences the athlete's adaptive response to training. To determine if elite Australian footballers with a prior unilateral HSI (previously injured group) display less improvement in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training compared with athletes without a history of HSIs (control group). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 99 elite Australian footballers (17 with a history of unilateral HSIs in the previous 12-month period) participated in this study. Eccentric hamstring strength was assessed at the start and end of preseason training using an instrumented Nordic hamstring device. The change in eccentric strength across the preseason was determined in absolute terms and normalized to the start of preseason strength. The start of preseason strength was used as a covariate to control for differences in starting strength. The left and right limbs in the control group showed no difference in absolute or relative change (left limb: 60.7 ± 72.9 N and 1.28 ± 0.34 N, respectively; right limb: 48.6 ± 83.8 N and 1.24 ± 0.43 N, respectively). Similarly, the injured and uninjured limbs in the previously injured group showed no difference in either absolute or relative change (injured limb: 13.1 ± 57.7 N and 1.07 ± 0.18 N, respectively; uninjured limb: 14.7 ± 54.0 N and 1.07 ± 0.22 N, respectively). The previously injured group displayed significantly less increase in eccentric hamstring strength across the preseason (absolute change, 13.9 ± 55.0 N; relative change, 1.07 ± 0.20 N) compared with the control group (absolute change, 54.6 ± 78.5 N; relative change, 1.26 ± 0.39 N) for both absolute and relative measures (P < .001), even after controlling for differences

  2. Risk Factors for Injury Among Japanese Collegiate Players of American Football Based on Performance Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Junta; Watanabe, Yuya; Kimura, Misaka; Fujisawa, Yoshihiko; Hojo, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Yasuhiro; Higashi, Shinsuke; Kuzuhara, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Iguchi, J, Watanabe, Y, Kimura, M, Fujisawa, Y, Hojo, T, Yuasa, Y, Higashi, S, and Kuzuhara, K. Risk factors for injury among Japanese collegiate players of American football based on performance test results. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3405-3411, 2016-The purpose of this study was to identify how risk factors for injury during American football are related to players' physical strength as determined using typical performance tests. One hundred 53 Japanese collegiate players of American football were recruited for this study. Eight potential risk factors were evaluated: position (skill vs. lineman), body mass index, back squat one-repetition maximum, vertical jump height, power, height, body weight, and previous injury. Using multivariate Cox regression, we examined how these factors were associated with knee sprain, ankle sprain, and hamstring strain. We recorded 63 injuries (17 knee sprains, 23 ankle sprains, and 23 hamstring strains). Players with higher power were at significantly greater risk for knee sprains (p = 0.04), those with low power had a significantly higher incidence of ankle sprain (p = 0.01), and vertical jump height was a significant predictor of hamstring strain (p = 0.02). We identified several independent predictors of injuries associated with American football. Our findings may contribute to the development of effective screening tests and prevention exercises.

  3. 重复无创肢体缺血预适应对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用%Protective effects of repetition limb ischemic preconditioning on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 宋二飞; 张轩萍; 梁月琴; 张明升

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究重复多次无创肢体缺血预适应对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用.方法 SD大鼠24只随机分为对照组、单次无创肢体预适应(LPC)组、反复无创后肢缺血预适应(RLPC)组各8只,观察重复无创性肢体缺血预适应对大鼠心脏缺血再灌注损伤的作用.通过颈动脉插管法测定大鼠的平均动脉压(MAP),肢体Ⅱ导联记录心电图以分析心率、心律失常情况.实验结束后采血测定血清中的丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)的活性,留取心脏染色测定各组梗死面积.结果 与对照组相比,LPC组和RLPC组可以减小梗死面积,减轻心律失常情况,血清MDA浓度降低,SOD,GSH-PX的活性增加.但LPC组和RLPC组差异无统计学意义.结论 RLPC对大鼠缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用与LPC相似.%Objective To determine the protective effects of repetition limb ischemic preconditioning (RLPC) on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control group (group C), limb ischemic preconditioning group (group LPC) and repetition limb ischemic preconditioning group (group RLPC), respectively, thus allowing for determination of the protective effects of RLPC on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured via cervical catheterization, and incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was monitored based on lead II electrocardiogram and the heart rate. The levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were assayed at the end of study. Furthermore, the size of myocardial infarction was assessed by pathologic staining. Results Compared with control group, both LPC and RLPC resulted in reduced size of myocardial infarction, incidence of cardiac arrhythmia and serum MDA yet increased activity of SOD and GSH-PX. However, the difference in groups LPC and RLPC did not

  4. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  5. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  6. A CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS LESÕES POR ESFORÇO REPETITIVO (LER E A CONSEQÜENTE RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL IMPUTADA AO EMPREGADOR (THE PRESENCE OF REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY (RSI AND THE CONSEQUENT CIVIL RESPONSIBILITY IMPUTE OF EMPLOYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Colman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho aborda questões sobre acidentes de trabalho, especificamente as Lesões por Esforço Repetitivo, suas implicações sociais e a dificuldade da prova quanto à extensão e caracterização de tais lesões pelo perito. Nas Lesões por Esforço Repetitivo pode-se ressalvar a dificuldade de ser comprovada a sua incidência. A responsabilidade decorrente dos acidentes de trabalho produzida pela manifestação das Lesões por Esforço Repetitivo constitui-se em responsabilidade civil. Destaca-se o ônus que a Previdência Social sofre em virtude dos acidentes de trabalho. Analisa-se a possibilidade da simulação do empregado que ingressa no Judiciário pleiteando indenização nos casos em que a perícia constata uma seqüela decorrente da Lesão por Esforço Repetitivo sem a análise de um exame complementar objetivo. O uso da termografia infravermelha torna-se um diagnóstico complementar objetivo para a análise do perito. Desta forma, o magistrado deixaria de julgar baseado na análise subjetiva da dor conforme os laudos do perito e passaria para uma análise objetiva da dor na busca da justiça e pacificação social.Abstract: This work broaches the question of the accident of working, specific the RSI, your social implicate and the difficult of proof as much as extension and characterize of lesion by expert. In the RSI is difficulty detachment to confirm your existence. The responsibility of employer result of the accident of working produce of manifestation of RSI constitute in the civil responsibility. Appraise the spent that Social Foresight sofrer of accident of working. Study the possibility of simulate to employce that propose in the justice want indemnity when the expertise appreciate a lesion consequent of RSI haven’t analysis objective complement examination. The use telethermography is an objective complement examination of expert analysis. So, the judge let judge with the analyses subject of pain alike experts and it will pass to objective analyses of pain to search of justice and social peace.

  7. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  8. Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryndyak, Volodymyr P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Montgomery, Beverly [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ross, Sharon A. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ► Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ► The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ► The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of

  9. Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249

  10. Stigmatization of repetitive hand use in newspaper reports of hand illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

    2008-03-01

    Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was assessed for stigmatization of activities involving repetitive hand use as well as for stigmatization of patients who use their hand repetitively. One hundred and twenty-four articles on hand illnesses were identified. Of these, 65.3% of articles stigmatized activities involving repetitive hand use, including 96.6% of articles discussing overuse injury of the hand, 90% of articles discussing tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and 51.8% of articles discussing carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient stigmatization was documented in 30.6% of the newspaper articles. Stigmatizing statements were most commonly made by journalists (94.8%), followed by patients (3.1%), and physicians (2.1%). Language that stigmatizes repetitive hand use and patients who use their hand repetitively is prevalent among US newspaper articles. Both health professionals and journalists reporting health-related news should be more sensitive to the use of stigmatizing language and provide a more balanced, measured, and evidenced-based account of hand illnesses.

  11. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  12. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  13. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  14. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  15. Neck Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or upper arms. Muscle strain or tension often causes neck pain. The problem is usually overuse, such as from ... or accidents, including car accidents, are another common cause of neck pain. Whiplash, a soft tissue injury to the neck, ...

  16. Injury in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  17. Neuroprotective Strategies after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    inflammatory response. A third commonly used weight-drop model is the ‘impact acceleration’ model developed by Marmarou and colleagues ( Foda & Marmarou...1994; Marmarou, Foda , van den Brink, Campbell, Kita & Demetriadou, 1994). The head is placed on a foam bed that allows freedom of movement and...small vessel changes ( Foda & Marmarou, 1994; Marmarou et al., 1994). 7 Tang and colleagues (Tang, Noda, Hasegawa & Nabeshima, 1997b; Tang, Noda

  18. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  19. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  20. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  1. Decreased microvascular cerebral blood flow assessed by diffuse correlation spectroscopy after repetitive concussions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Erin M; Miller, Benjamin F; Golinski, Julianne M; Sadeghian, Homa; McAllister, Lauren M; Vangel, Mark; Ayata, Cenk; Meehan, William P; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive concussions are associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction that can be attenuated by increasing the time intervals between concussions; however, biomarkers of the safest rest interval between injuries remain undefined. We hypothesize that deranged cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a candidate biomarker for vulnerability to repetitive concussions. Using a mouse model of human concussion, we examined the effect of single and repetitive concussions on cognition and on an index of CBF (CBFi) measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy. After a single mild concussion, CBFi was reduced by 35±4% at 4 hours (Pconcussions spaced 1 day apart, CBFi was also reduced from preinjury levels 4 hours after each concussion but had returned to preinjury levels by 72 hours after the final concussion. Interestingly, in this repetitive concussion model, lower CBFi values measured both preinjury and 4 hours after the third concussion were associated with worse performance on the Morris water maze assessed 72 hours after the final concussion. We conclude that low CBFi measured either before or early on in the evolution of injury caused by repetitive concussions could be a useful predictor of cognitive outcome.

  2. Ultraviolet excimer laser ablation: the effect of wavelength and repetition rate on in vivo guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, J.; Kibbi, A.G.; Farinelli, W.; Boll, J.; Tan, O.T.

    1987-06-01

    Multiple dermatologic conditions that are currently treated with traditional cold-knife surgery are amenable to laser therapy. The ideal surgical treatment would be precise and total removal of abnormal tissue with maximal sparing of remaining structures. The ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser is capable of such precise tissue removal due to the penetration depth of 193 nm and 248 nm irradiation of 1 micron per pulse. This type of ablative tissue removal requires a high repetition rate for efficient lesional destruction. Excimer laser radiation at 193 nm is capable of high repetition rates, which are necessary while 248 nm radiation causes increasing nonspecific thermal injury as the laser repetition rate is increased.

  3. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  4. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  5. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  6. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  7. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  8. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  9. Biomechanics of whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo

    2009-10-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains

  10. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aysegul Gunduz; Hatice Kumru; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhib-its satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the effcacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in im-proving the spasticity post-stroke, more prospective cohort studies involving large sample sizes are needed.

  11. Experimental study on strain rate imaging in rabbits' myocardium after crush injury%应变率成像对家兔挤压伤后心肌受损评价的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小今; 熊杰; 胡宗海; 郭进春; 陶杰; 梁燕; 廖明松; 邓旦; 陈重

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨兔挤压伤后不同时间点的心肌应变率,评估挤压伤后心脏继发损伤.方法 新西兰家兔42只,雌雄不拘,应用自制挤压器具按标准制作挤压伤模型,42只家兔随机分为对照组、解压即刻、解压后6、12、24、48、72 h共7组,每组6只,每只家兔均连续检测挤压前及解压后不同时间点左室心肌应变和应变率等情况.结果 左室心肌感兴趣区域的应变和应变率在解压后12h至24 h降至最低(P<0.01);72 h后逐渐恢复并相对稳定在一定水平,但与对照组比较,左室心肌应变和应变率仍降低(P<0.05).结论 挤压伤伤后12~24 h是心肌受损的达峰时间段,超声应变率成像能较精准、客观地评价心肌收缩性能.%Objective To study the rabbits' cardiac secondary damaged after crush injury at different time point by strain rate imaging.Methods Forty-two New Zealand rabbbits,female and male not confined,were random divided into seven groups including control group,and other six groups,including loosed pressure immediately,and at 6,12,24,48,and 72 hours after crush injury,and the left ventricular myocardial efficiency were detected by strain rate imaging consecutively at different time point.Results The left ventricular myocardial strain and strain rate of the region of interestwere decreased lowest after loosed pressure 12 to 24 h(P <0.01),and which were rised gradually after 72 h.Conclusions The rabbits' left ventriclular myocardial efficiency are obvious decreased after crush injury,and after loosed pressure 12 to 24 h are peak time.The left ventricular myocardial efficiency can be evaluated precisely and objectively by strain rate imaging.

  12. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  13. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  14. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes – translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions amongst professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally-timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  15. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes - translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Prins, Mayumi L; Ferriero, Donna M; Basso, D Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  16. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  18. Reversal learning in C58 mice: Modeling higher order repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Curry-Pochy, Lisa S; Shafer, Robin; Rudy, Joseph; Lewis, Mark H

    2017-08-14

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule. In addition, the effect of environmental enrichment on performance of this task was assessed as this rearing condition markedly reduces repetitive sensory-motor behavior in C58 mice. Little difference was observed between C58 and control mice under a 100% schedule of reinforcement. The 80%/20% probabilistic schedule of reinforcement generated substantial strain differences, however. Importantly, no strain difference was observed in acquisition, but C58 mice were markedly impaired in their ability to reverse their pattern of responding from the previously high density reinforcement side. Environmental enrichment did not impact acquisition under the probabilistic reinforcement schedule, but enriched C58 mice performed significantly better than standard housed C58 mice in reversal learning. Thus, C58 mice exhibit behaviors that reflect both repetitive sensory motor behaviors as well as behavior that reflects resistance to change. Moreover, both clusters of repetitive behavior were attenuated by environmental enrichment. Such findings, along with the reported social deficits in C58 mice, increase the translational value of this mouse model to autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do variations in mast cell hyperplasia account for differences in radiation-induced lung injury among different mouse strains, rats and nonhuman primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Julian D; Medhora, Meetha; Jackson, Isabel L; Cline, J Mark; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2013-08-01

    The role of mast cell infiltrates in the pathology of radiation damage to the lung has been a subject of continuing investigation over the past four decades. This has been accompanied by a number of proposals as to how mast cells and the secretory products thereof participate in the generation of acute inflammation (pneumonitis) and the chronic process of collagen deposition (fibrosis). An additional pathophysiology examines the possible connection between mast cell hyperplasia and pulmonary hypertension through the release of vasoactive mediators. The timing and magnitude of pneumonitis and fibrosis are known to vary tremendously among different genetic mouse strains and animal species. Therefore, we have systematically compared mast cell numbers in lung sections from nine mouse strains, two rat strains and nonhuman primates (NHP) after whole thorax irradiation (WTI) at doses ranging from 10-15 Gy and at the time of entering respiratory distress. Mice of the BALB/c strain had a dramatic increase in interstitial mast cell numbers, similar to WAG/Rij and August rats, while relatively low levels of mast cell infiltrate were observed in other mouse strains (CBA, C3H, B6, C57L, WHT and TO mice). Enumeration of mast cell number in five NHPs (rhesus macaque), exhibiting severe pneumonitis at 17 weeks after 10 Gy WTI, also indicated a low response shared by the majority of mouse strains. There appeared to be no relationship between the mast cell response and the strain-dependent susceptibility towards pneumonitis or fibrosis. Further investigations are required to explore the possible participation of mast cells in mediating specific vascular responses and whether a genetically diverse mast cell response occurs in humans.

  20. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M S; Milla, J Madera; De Durana, A López Diaz; Martínez, C A Cordente; Romo, G Rodríguez; Quintana, M Sillero; Molinuevo, J Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  1. In vitro biomechanical strain regulation of fibroblast wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thanh V; Hicks, Michael R; Standley, Paul R

    2013-11-01

    Strain-directed therapy such as vacuum compression and manual manipulative therapies are clinically effective, but their cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To determine the effects of modeled myofascial release (MFR) on fibroblast wound healing and to investigate the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating these responses. Using an in vitro scratch wound strain model, the authors investigated human fibroblast wound healing characteristics in response to injurious repetitive motion strain (RMS) and MFR. Secretion of NO was induced with interleukin-1β and sodium nitroprusside and inhibited with NO synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate (L-NMMA) to determine the effects of NO on wound healing. Protein microarray was also performed to evaluate the expression of intracellular protein and activation of protein kinase G (PKG), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), protein kinase C (PKC), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the downstream effectors in the NO pathway. Fibroblasts that received RMS resulted in reduced wound closure rates (vs nonstrain, Pfibroblast wound healing. However, strained fibroblasts appeared to express increased sensitivity to NO. The authors also observed a 12.2% increase in NO secretion, an increase in PKG activation, and a downregulation of PKC and PI3K inhibitory domain in the combined strain group. If clinically translatable, these data suggest that mechanical strain such as vacuum compression therapy and manual manipulative therapy may modify PKC and PI3K to sensitize fibroblasts to NO and improve wound healing by promoting cell proliferation and migration by means of PKC and PKG signaling.

  2. Long-Term Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Consequences of Repetitive Concussion and Head-Impact Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Thomas; McCrea, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Initially, interest in sport-related concussion arose from the premise that the study of athletes engaged in sports associated with high rates of concussion could provide insight into the mechanisms, phenomenology, and recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Over the last decade, concerns have focused on the possibility that, for some athletes, repetitive concussions may raise the long-term risk for cognitive decline, neurobehavioral changes, and neurodegenerative disease. First conceptualized as a discrete event with variable recovery trajectories, concussion is now viewed by some as a trigger of neurobiological events that may influence neurobehavioral function over the course of the life span. Furthermore, advances in technology now permit us to gain a detailed understanding of the frequency and intensity of repetitive head impacts associated with contact sports (eg, football, ice hockey). Helmet-based sensors can be used to characterize the kinematic features of concussive impacts, as well as the profiles of typical head-impact exposures experienced by athletes in routine sport participation. Many large-magnitude impacts are not associated with diagnosed concussions, whereas many diagnosed concussions are associated with more modest impacts. Therefore, a full understanding of this topic requires attention to not only the effects of repetitive concussions but also overall exposure to repetitive head impacts. This article is a review of the current state of the science on the long-term neurocognitive and neurobehavioral effects of repetitive concussion and head-impact exposure in contact sports.

  3. Repetitive methylene blue-mediated photoantimicrobial chemotherapy changes the susceptibility and expression of the outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2013-12-01

    Since bacterial multidrug efflux pumps mediate intracellular photosensitizer methylene blue, a change in the expression alters the susceptibility to photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which may occur following repetitive sublethal challenges. We performed 10 consecutive, methylene blue-mediated PACT on one antibiotic-sensitive strain and three antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Following each therapy, the surviving bacteria were collected for subsequent PACT. The susceptibility was compared for the pre- and the post-treated strains following repetitive PACT. To explore the existence of efflux pumps, one of the inhibitors, namely Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride (PAβN 25 μg/ml), was added. Profiles of outer membrane proteins were obtained for the pre-treated and the post-treated strains. The susceptibility of PACT did not correlate with the antibiotic sensitivity. Following ten PACT, there was no significant change in susceptibility for three tested strains, except for one antibiotic-resistant strain, for which the 10th generation became less susceptible than the original one. With 2-D electrophoresis, a change in the expression of outer membrane proteins was observed. PAβN successfully increased the phototoxicity in all tested strains, especially the less PACT-susceptible 10th generation of the antibiotic-resistant strain. Following repetitive challenges, PACT had a consistent antimicrobial effect on three strains; however, one antibiotic-resistant strain, which was the most vulnerable to PACT, became more resistant after consecutive challenges. In addition, the post-PACT strain had different expression of outer membrane proteins, providing further evidence view that repetitive PACT with methylene blue could change the expression of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  5. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  6. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  7. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; Childers, Brandon M; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; Leung, Kai P

    2014-11-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important infectious agent of surgical sites and combat wounds. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance are common impediments to the healing of chronic infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of a highly multidrug-resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, isolated from a combat wound of a soldier.

  8. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  9. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  10. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  11. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  12. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  13. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  14. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  15. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  16. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  17. Traumatic bilateral ECCA injury in a roller coaster enthusiast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlfeld, Kurt R; Roozrokh, Hootan C

    2002-07-01

    Vascular and trauma surgeons have seen a marked increase in the incidence of traumatic injury of the ECCA. Making the diagnosis is straightforward, but requires a high index of suspicion. This patient's injury is from hyperextension/flexion trauma that occurred from repetitive rides on roller coasters.

  18. Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Pai, Pei-ying; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Liao, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats. This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. These experiments were designed for an 8-week trial period. The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. Key probiotics-related pathway molecules were analyzed using western blotting. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Western blot analysis demonstrated that key components of the TGF/MMP2/MMP9 fibrosis pathways and ERK5/uPA/ANP cardiac hypertrophy pathways were significantly suppressed in probiotic groups compared to the HF group. Autophagy balance is very important in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we observed that the beclin-1/LC3B/Atg7 autophagy pathway in HF was increased after probiotic supplementation was significantly decreased. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of probiotics may attenuate cardiomyocyte fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy and the autophagy-signaling pathway in obese rats.

  19. The Injury Profile of an Australian Specialist Policing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Silk, Aaron

    2016-03-25

    This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars) over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower) may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.

  20. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  1. Distinct Effects of Contraction-Induced Injury In Vivo on Four Different Murine Models of Dysferlinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Roche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the DYSF gene, encoding dysferlin, cause muscular dystrophies in man. We compared 4 dysferlinopathic mouse strains: SJL/J and B10.SJL-Dysfim/AwaJ (B10.SJL, and A/J and B6.A-Dysfprmd/GeneJ (B6.A/J. The former but not the latter two are overtly myopathic and weaker at 3 months of age. Following repetitive large-strain injury (LSI caused by lengthening contractions, all except B6.A/J showed ~40% loss in contractile torque. Three days later, torque in SJL/J, B10.SJL and controls, but not A/J, recovered nearly completely. B6.A/J showed ~30% torque loss post-LSI and more variable recovery. Pre-injury, all dysferlinopathic strains had more centrally nucleated fibers (CNFs and all but A/J showed more inflammation than controls. At D3, all dysferlinopathic strains showed increased necrosis and inflammation, but not more CNFs; controls were unchanged. Dystrophin-null DMDmdx mice showed more necrosis and inflammation than all dysferlin-nulls. Torque loss and inflammation on D3 across all strains were linearly related to necrosis. Our results suggest that (1 dysferlin is not required for functional recovery 3 days after LSI; (2 B6.A/J mice recover from LSI erratically; (3 SJL/J and B10.SJL muscles recover rapidly, perhaps due to ongoing myopathy; (4 although they recover function to different levels, all 4 dysferlinopathic strains show increased inflammation and necrosis 3 days after LSI.

  2. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  3. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  4. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  5. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  6. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  7. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  8. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  9. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  10. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  11. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  12. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  13. Material characterization at high strain by adapted tensile tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2012-01-01

    The strength of materials at high strain levels has been determined using the so-called Continuous-Bendingunder- Tension (CBT) test. This is a modified tensile test where the specimen is subjected to repetitive bending at the same time. This test enables to create high levels of uniform strain. A

  14. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  15. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  16. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  17. Microbial radio-resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium in egg increases due to repetitive irradiation with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfai, Adiam T.; Beamer, Sarah K.; Matak, Kristen E. [West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26508 (United States); Jaczynski, Jacek, E-mail: Jacek.Jaczynski@mail.wvu.ed [West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26508 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Ionizing radiation improves food safety. However, foodborne pathogens develop increased resistance in response to sub-lethal stresses such as heat, pH, antibiotics, etc. Therefore, it is hypothesized that foodborne pathogens may develop increased radio-resistance to electron beam (e-beam) radiation. The objective was to determine if D{sub 10}-value for Salmonella Typhimurium in de-shelled raw egg (egg white and yolk mixed together) increases due to repetitive processing with e-beam at sub-lethal doses. Survivors were enumerated on non-selective (TSA) and selective (XLD) media. Survivors from the highest dose were isolated and used in subsequent e-beam cycle. This process was repeated four times for a total of five e-beam cycles. D{sub 10}-values for S. Typhimurium enumerated on TSA and XLD following each e-beam cycle were calculated as inverse reciprocal of the slope of survivor curves. D{sub 10}-values for the ATCC strain were 0.59{+-}0.031 and 0.46{+-}0.022 kGy on TSA and XLD, respectively. However, following the fifth e-beam cycle, the respective D{sub 10}-values increased (P<0.05) to 0.69{+-}0.026 and 0.61{+-}0.029 kGy, respectively. S. Typhimurium showed a trend (P>0.05) to develop radio-resistance faster on selective media, likely due to facilitated selection of radio-resistant cells within microbial population following each e-beam cycle. For all five e-beam cycles, S. Typhimurium had higher (P<0.05) D{sub 10}-values on non-selective media, indicating that sub-lethal injury followed by cellular repair and recovery are important for radio-resistance and inactivation of this microorganism. This study demonstrated that e-beam efficiently inactivates S. Typhimurium in raw egg; however, similar to other inactivation techniques and factors affecting microbial growth, S. Typhimurium develops increased radio-resistance if repetitively processed with e-beam at sub-lethal doses.

  18. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  19. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  20. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  1. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  2. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  3. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  4. Overview of thigh injuries in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleget, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Thigh injuries include musculotendinous strains of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliotibial band (ITB), and bony injuries to the shaft of the femur. There is scant information in the literature regarding thigh injuries in dance, which appear to range from 5% to 16% of total injury incidence. Hamstring strains and ITB syndrome are the most commonly reported thigh injuries. Hamstring injuries occur most frequently during slow stretching when the dancer's hip is flexed and knee extended. Uniquely in dancers, adductor injury occurs concurrently with hamstring injuries in approximately one-third of cases. Snapping of the ITB at the lateral hip and knee may result from imbalance of thigh muscle strength and flexibility. To date no quadriceps strain injuries or stress injuries to the shaft of the femur have been reported in the dance medicine literature. As dancers notoriously underestimate time needed to return to dance, it can be suggested that early return to work is a contributing factor to chronic injury. Further research is needed regarding the incidence and nature of injury to the thigh among dancers.

  5. Laser-induced retinal damage threshold for repetitive-pulse exposure to 100-microsecs pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    and is inde pendent of the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). When the injury mechanism is thermal denaturation, the pulses do interact , with the peak...energy incident on the cornea that passes through the pupil of the eye. TIE is expressed in this paper as the energy per pulse in the pulse train. 3...given in the guidelines as the corneal irradiance (J∕cm2), was multi plied by the area of a 7 mm pupil to give the allowable TIE. CP is a multiplicative

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    resulting from repetitive, cumulative microtrauma (e.g., tendonitis, stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome )" (DoD Injury Surveillance and 10...chronic injuries such as low back pain and repetitive trauma disorders among the US military and civilian populations are a function of physical and...sufficient biomechanical stress on their lumbar region to cause enough physical pain to warrant a medical visit. Sub-hypothesis 3 It was not anticipated

  7. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  8. A High Power and High Repetition Rate Modelocked Ti-Sapphire Laser for Photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker

    2001-07-01

    A high power cw mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser has been constructed to drive the Jefferson Lab polarized photoinjector and provide > 500 mW average power with 50 ps pulsewidths at 499 MHz or 1497 MHz pulse repetition rates. This laser allows efficient, high current synchronous photoinjection for extended periods of time before intrusive steps must be taken to restore the quantum efficiency of the strained layer GaAs photocathode. The use of this laser has greatly enhanced the maximum high polarization beam current capability and operating lifetime of the Jefferson Lab photoinjector compared with previous performance using diode laser systems. A novel modelocking technique provides a simple means to phase-lock the optical pulse train of the laser to the accelerator and allows for operation at higher pulse repetition rates to {approx} 3 GHz without modification of the laser cavity. The laser design and characteristics are described below.

  9. Do DNA extraction methods and Taq polimerase quality improve the double repetitive element (DRE PCR typing method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains? Os métodos de extração de DNA e a qualidade DA Taq polimerase podem melhorar a tipagem molecular de M. tuberculosis por DRE-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Rodrigues Cavalcanti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Double repetitive element (DRE PCR amplification is a simple Mycobacterium tuberculosis typing method, however amplification failure or poor resolution of bands commit its efficacy. In order to verify if whether or not these features could be minimized by improving DNA extraction procedures or Taq polymerise quality, DRE-PCR was performed on 24 M. tuberculosis DNA samples extracted by heat-shock, mechanical and enzymatic methods applying conventional and hot start Taq pol. We demonstrated that when dealing with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DRE-PCR typing method, Taq pol of better quality might be more important to improve amplification than the DNA extraction method.Amplificação de duplo elemento repetido (DRE por PCR é um método simples para tipagem de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, entretanto falha ou a baixa resolução das bandas na amplificação compromete a eficiência do método. Com o objetivo de verificar se estes problemas podem ou não ser minimizados pela utilização de diferentes procedimentos de extração de DNA ou de qualidades de Taq polimerase, DRE-PCR foi ensaiado em 24 amostras de DNA de M. tuberculosis extraídos pelos métodos de choque-térmico, - mecânico e enzimático utilizando Taq polimerase convencional e hot start Taq pol. Foi demonstrado que a qualidade da Taq pol utilizada talvez seja mais importante para uma melhor amplificação que o método de extração de DNA empregado.

  10. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  11. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  12. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  13. Respiratory Plasticity Following Spinal Injury: Role of Chloride-Dependent Inhibitory Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    injuries . In the last year, we performed experiments to test the specific hypothesis that cervical spinal contusion injuries (CSC) and repetitive...blot analyses, prepare a manuscript for publication and begin work on Specific Aims 1c, 1d, 2c. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Injury , Treatment ...functional recovery from chronic cervical spinal injuries . In this project period, we will test the specific hypothesis that cervical spinal contusion

  14. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  15. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  16. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  17. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies when necessary. Muscle Strains and Ligament Sprains Muscle strains and Ligament sprains are the most common injuries that cause back pain in the young athlete. They can be caused by athletic overuse, ...

  18. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  19. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  20. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  1. Effects of repetitive stress during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on chronic Chagas' disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2009-03-01

    The effect of repetitive stress during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) on the chronic phase of ensuing Chagas' disease was the focus of this investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in Wistar rats the influence of repetitive stress during the acute phase of infection (7 days) with the Y strain of T. cruzi on the chronic phase of the infection (at 180 days). Exposure to ether vapor for 1 min twice a day was used as a stressor. Repetitive stress enhanced the number of circulating parasites and cardiac tissue disorganization, from a moderate to a severe diffuse mononuclear inflammatory process and the presence of amastigote burden in the cardiac fibers. Immunological parameters revealed that repetitive stress triggered a reduced concanavalin A induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro with major effects on the late chronic phase. Serum interleukin-12 concentration decreased in both stressed and infected rats in the early phase of infection although it was higher on 180 days post-infection. These results suggest that repetitive stress can markedly impair the host's immune system and enhance the pathological process during the chronic phase of Chagas' disease.

  2. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  3. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  4. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Up to Date Additional Content Medical News Birth Injury By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, Professor of ... Problems in Newborns Overview of Problems in Newborns Birth Injury Prematurity Postmaturity Small for Gestational Age (SGA) ...

  5. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes 50th National Poison Prevention Week Small, Shiny and Dangerous: ACEP Puts the Spotlight on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & Sports Injuries Safety Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury ...

  6. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursitis . Symptoms of bursitis in the knee include warmth, tenderness, swelling, and pain on the front of ... injury without the aid of a television screen. Physical Therapy Depending on the type of knee injury ...

  7. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  8. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000029.htm Spinal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... move anyone who you think may have a spinal injury, unless it is absolutely necessary. For example, if ...

  9. Genital injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each side of a bar, such as a monkey bar or the middle of a bicycle Symptoms ... Names Scrotal trauma; Straddle injury; Toilet seat injury Images Female reproductive anatomy Male reproductive anatomy Normal female ...

  10. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  11. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  12. Acute traumatic injuries in automotive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M; Baker, S P; Li, G; Smith, G S

    1998-10-01

    Motor vehicle manufacturing, with its varied tasks, challenging work environment, and diverse worker populations, presents many hazards to employees. This study examined routinely collected surveillance data from a major motor vehicle manufacturer to identify injury types, high-risk workers, causes of injury, and factors associated with work loss. Injury and personnel data were used to calculate injury rates. Injury data were from the routinely collected medical and safety surveillance system on occupational injuries. The number of persons working in the plants was estimated using year-end personnel reports. Key word searches supplementing the analyses provided insight into the specific circumstances of injury. The most common injuries were sprains/strains (39% of the total), lacerations (22%), and contusions (15%). Forty-nine percent of the injuries resulted in one or more lost or restricted workdays; 25% resulted in 7 or more lost or restricted workdays. The injuries most likely to result in work loss were amputations, hernias and fractures. Sprains/strains accounted for 65% of all lost workdays. Injury rates ranged from 13.8 per 100 person-years at stamping plants to 28.7 at parts depots. Even within similar types of plants, injury rates varied widely, with a twofold difference among the individual assembly plants in overall injury rates. Injury surveillance systems with descriptive data on injury events shed light on the circumstances under which certain types of injuries occur and can provide the basis for preventive interventions. Sources of variation and potential biases are discussed, providing guidance for those interested in designing and using surveillance systems for occupational injuries.

  13. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  14. Iconicity in Discourse: The Case of Repetition in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minako

    This analysis of repeated utterances in Japanese conversational discourse focuses on repetition as an expression of iconicity. In the analysis of a 30-minute conversation among 4 Japanese speakers, the iconic meanings expressed by both reduplication and conversational repetition are highlighted. The iconicity characteristic of conversational data…

  15. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  16. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to t

  17. On the Functions of Lexical Repetition in English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical repetition, as a cohesive device of an English text, can help make up a cohesive and coherent text. Therefore, in English textual learning, it is helpful for students to know about different patterns and functions of lexical repetition to improve their English level and ability.

  18. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  19. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  20. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Chengying; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb comprising a single soliton in an anomalous dispersion silicon nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency tuning. The contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and from thermal effects are evaluated both experimentally and theoretically; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in repetition rate. The relationship between the changes in repetition rate and pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ~50 fs.

  1. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  2. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2017-02-15

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb composed of a single soliton in an anomalous group velocity dispersion silicon-nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency. By comparing operation in the soliton and non-soliton states, the contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and the thermal effects are evaluated; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in the repetition rate, similar to silica cavities. The relationship between the changes in the repetition rate and the pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ∼50  fs.

  3. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  4. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  5. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  6. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  7. Gymnastics injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis J; Nassar, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the distribution and determinants of injury rates as reported in the pediatric gymnastics injury literature, and to suggest measures for the prevention of injury and directions for further research. An extensive search of Pubmed was conducted using the Text and MeSH words "gymnastics" and "injury" and limited to the pediatric population (0-18 years). The review focused on studies using denominator-based designs and on those published in the English language. Additional references were obtained from hand searches of the reference lists. Unpublished injury data from the USA Gymnastics National Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships during 2002-04 were also analyzed. Comparison of study results was compromised due to the diversity of study populations, variability of injury definition across studies, and changes in rules and equipment across years. Notwithstanding, this review of the literature reveals a reasonably consistent picture of pediatric gymnastics injuries. The incidence and severity of injuries is relatively high, particularly among advanced level female gymnasts. Body parts particularly affected by injury vary by gender and include the ankle, knee, wrist, elbow, lower back, and shoulder. Ankle sprains are a particular concern. Overuse and nonspecific pain conditions, particularly the wrist and low back, occur frequently among advanced-level female gymnasts. Factors associated with an increased injury risk among female gymnasts include greater body size and body fat, periods of rapid growth, and increased life stress. Above all, this overview of the gymnastics injury literature underscores the need to establish large-scale injury surveillance systems designed to provide current and reliable data on injury trends in both boys and girls gymnastics, and to be used as a basis for analyzing injury risk factors and identifying dependable injury preventive measures.

  8. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  9. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  10. Year 2008 whitewater injury survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILIOS DIAFAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to gather retrospective data on paddling style, equipment, and acute and chronic/overuseinjuries in hard shell whitewater canoe and kayak paddlers, to compare injury rates and patterns in different groups of paddlers, and to evaluate the incidence in paddlers of self-reported giardia infection. During summer and fall of 2008, a surveywasdistributed at riverside, through paddle club bulletins, andwas posted on the Internet. Three hundred nineteen useablesurveys were returned reporting 388 acute and 285 chronic in-juries. Shoulder, wrist/hand, and elbow/forearm were the mostcommon sites of injury. Sprain/strain was the most common(26% known acute injury, followed by laceration and contusion(each 17%. Tendinitis was the most common (44% knownchronic injury diagnosis, followed by sprain/strain (27%. Forty-seven percent of acute and 36% of chronically injured paddlers sought medical attention. Giardia infection was reported in14%. It is concluded that shoulder and wrist/hand areas were the most common injured sites in this survey. Sprains, tendinitis, lacerations, and contusions were the most common known injury diagnoses. Injuries due to portage were common. Giardia infection may be common in whitewater paddlers.

  11. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  12. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  13. Injury in the National Basketball Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C.; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team’s athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Conclusion: Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play. PMID:23015949

  14. [Rehabilitation Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Various novel stroke rehabilitative methods have been developed based on findings in basic science and clinical research. Recently, many reports have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves function in stroke patients by altering the excitability of the human cortex. The interhemispheric competition model proposes that deficits in stroke patients are due to reduced output from the affected hemisphere and excessive interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected hemisphere to the affected hemisphere. The interhemispheric competition model indicates that improvement in deficits can be achieved either by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere using excitatory rTMS or by decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere using inhibitory rTMS. Recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neural connections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairments. Artificially modulating the neural network by rTMS may induce a more suitable environment for use-dependent plasticity and also may interfere with maladaptive neural activation, which weakens function and limits recovery. There is potential, therefore, for rTMS to be used as an adjuvant therapy for developed neurorehabilitation techniques in stroke patients.

  15. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  17. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  18. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  19. Implementation of a Consensus Set of Hypervariable Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Loci in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Alberto; Tafaj, Silva; Battaglia, Simone; Alagna, Riccardo; Bardhi, Donika; Kapisyzi, Perlat; Bala, Silvana; Haldeda, Migena; Borroni, Emanuele; Hafizi, Hasan; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2016-02-01

    This study shows that the addition of a consensus 4-locus set of hypervariable mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci to the spoligotyping-24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing strategy is a well-standardized approach that can contribute to an improvement of the true cluster definition while retaining high typeability in non-Beijing strains.

  20. Evolution of microstructure and texture in copper during repetitive extrusion-upsetting and subsequent annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.; Shu, D. Y.; Lin, J.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture in copper has been studied during repetitive extrusion-upsetting (REU) to a total von Mises strain of 4.7 and during subsequent annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the texture is significantly altered by each deformation pass....... A duplex ⟨001⟩ + ⟨111⟩ fiber texture with an increased ⟨111⟩ component is observed after each extrusion pass, whereas the ⟨110⟩ fiber component dominates the texture after each upsetting pass. During REU, the microstructure is refined by deformation-induced boundaries. The average cell size after a total...... strain of 4.7 is measured to be ∼0.3μm. This refined microstructure is unstable at room temperature as is evident from the presence of a small number of recrystallized grains in the deformed matrix. Pronounced recrystallization took place during annealing at 200 °C for 1 h with recrystallized grains...

  1. Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following volar plate injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Daniels, Alan H; Kamal, Robin N; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.

  2. Repetitive energy transfer from an inductive energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of a research program aimed at finding practical ways to transfer energy repetitively from an inductive energy store to various loads are discussed. The objectives were to investigate and develop the high power opening switches and transfer circuits needed to enable high-repetition-rate operation of such systems, including a feasibility demonstration at a current level near 10 kA and a pulse repetition rate of 1-10 kpps with a 1-ohm load. The requirements of nonlinear, time-varying loads, such as the railgun electromagnetic launcher, were also addressed. Energy storage capability is needed for proper power conditioning in systems where the duty factor of the output pulse train is low. Inductive energy storage is attractive because it has both a high energy storage density and a fast discharge capability. By producing a pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW at a pulse repetition rate of 5 kpps in a one-ohm load system, this research program was the first to demonstrate fully-controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy storage and transfer system with survivable switches. Success was made possible by using triggered vacuum gap switches as repetitive, current-zero opening switches and developing several new repetitive transfer circuits using the counterpulse technique.

  3. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  4. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized.

  5. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  6. Effect of repetitive loading on the mechanical properties of synthetic hernia repair materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Braden J; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-09-01

    Hernia repair materials undergo repeated loading while in the body, and the impact on mechanical properties is unknown. It was hypothesized that exposure to repetitive loading would lead to decreased tensile strength and increased strain, and that these differences would become more pronounced with greater loading and unloading sequences. Polypropylene, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, composite barrier, and partially absorbable meshes were evaluated. Twenty specimens (7.5 × 7.5 cm) were prepared from each material. Five specimens were subjected to ball burst testing to determine baseline biomechanical properties. Cycles of 10, 100, and 1,000 loading sequences were also performed (n = 5 each). BardMesh (CR Bard/Davol), Dualmesh (WL Gore), and Prolene (Ethicon) exhibited significantly reduced tensile strength; BardMesh, Proceed (Ethicon), Prolene, ProLite (Atrium Medical), ProLite Ultra (Atrium Medical), and Ultrapro (Ethicon) exhibited significantly increased strain after exposure to 1,000 cycles compared with their baseline properties. BardMesh and Prolene demonstrated both reduced tensile strength and increased strain values after 1,000 cycles, suggesting that repetitive loading has the greatest effects on these materials. In addition, BardMesh and Prolene exhibited progressively worsening effects as the number of cycles was increased. Deterioration of the tensile strength of the mesh or an increase in the ability of the mesh material to stretch (ie, increased strain values) could potentially lead to hernia recurrence or a poor functional result. However, the results of this study should not be interpreted to mean that hernia repair materials will fail in the body after only 10, 100, or 1,000 cycles. The conditions used in this study were more extreme than most physiologic scenarios and were intended as a pilot investigation into how the mechanical properties of hernia repair materials are affected by in vitro cyclic testing. Copyright © 2011 American College

  7. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  8. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  9. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  11. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  12. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  13. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  14. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  15. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  16. Hospital strain colonization by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Blum-Menezes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin and mucous membranes of healthy subjects are colonized by strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis showing a high diversity of genomic DNA polymorphisms. Prolonged hospitalization and the use of invasive procedures promote changes in the microbiota with subsequent colonization by hospital strains. We report here a patient with prolonged hospitalization due to chronic pancreatitis who was treated with multiple antibiotics, invasive procedures and abdominal surgery. We studied the dynamics of skin colonization by S. epidermidis leading to the development of catheter-related infections and compared the genotypic profile of clinical and microbiota strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. During hospitalization, the normal S. epidermidis skin microbiota exhibiting a polymorphic genomic DNA profile was replaced with a hospital-acquired biofilm-producer S. epidermidis strain that subsequently caused repetitive catheter-related infections.

  17. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  18. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  19. The repetition effect in building and construction works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Haugbølle, Kim

    are then applied on the Public Transport Authorities' main account structure of units and costs, and a method for assessing the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition for each account is described. Finally, the report summarises the core conditions necessary to take into consideration in relation......This report summarises the results from the work undertaken for the Public Transport Authority on the effect of learning and repetition in building and construction works. The results are applied by the Public Transport Authority in a new budgeting model, while the agency investigates...... the establishment of a new railway between Copenhagen and Ringsted. Drawing on an extensive literature review, the effect of repetition is determined to be in the range of 6-12 %. Further, the report identifies a series of factors affecting the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition. These factors...

  20. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed.

  1. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  2. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  3. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  4. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  5. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  6. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.

  7. Linear- and Repetitive-Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  8. Linear- and Repetitive Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  9. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  10. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  11. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  12. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and shooting require protective goggles or full face mask wear at all times. Do fireworks still cause eye injuries? Each year hundreds of individuals (often children) sustain ...

  13. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  14. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  15. Force and repetition in cycling: possible implications for iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin C; Reisinger, Kim D; Tillman, Mark D

    2003-03-01

    This study examined force and repetition during simulated distance cycling with regard to how they may possibly influence the on-set of the overuse injury at the knee called iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS). A 3D motion analysis system was used to track lower limb kinematics during cycling. Forces between the pedal and foot were collected using a pressure-instrumented insole that slipped into the shoe. Ten recreational athletes (30.6+/-5.5 years) with no known history of ITBFS participated in the study. Foot-pedal force, knee flexion angle and crank angle were examined as they relate to the causes of ITBFS. Specifically, foot-pedal force, repetition and impingement time were calculated and compared with the same during running. A minimum knee flexion angle of approximately 33 degrees occurred at a crank angle of 170 degrees. The foot-pedal force at this point was 231 N. This minimum knee flexion angle falls near the edge of the impingement zone of the iliotibial band (ITB) and the femoral epicondyle, and is the point at which ITBFS is aggravated causing pain at the knee. The foot-pedal forces during cycling are only 18% of those occurring during running while the ITB is in the impingement zone. Thus, repetition of the knee in the impingement zone during cycling appears to play a more prominent role than force in the on-set of ITBFS. The results also suggest that ITBFS may be further aggravated by improper seat position (seat too high), anatomical differences, and training errors while cycling.

  16. Adaptations to isolated shoulder fatigue during simulated repetitive work. Part II: Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison C; Tse, Calvin T F; Keir, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    The shoulder allows kinematic and muscular changes to facilitate continued task performance during prolonged repetitive work. The purpose of this work was to examine changes during simulated repetitive work in response to a fatigue protocol. Participants performed 20 one-minute work cycles comprised of 4 shoulder centric tasks, a fatigue protocol, followed by 60 additional cycles. The fatigue protocol targeted the anterior deltoid and cycled between static and dynamic actions. EMG was collected from 14 upper extremity and back muscles and three-dimensional motion was captured during each work cycle. Participants completed post-fatigue work despite EMG manifestations of muscle fatigue, reduced flexion strength (by 28%), and increased perceived exertion (∼3 times). Throughout the post-fatigue work cycles, participants maintained performance via kinematic and muscular adaptations, such as reduced glenohumeral flexion and scapular rotation which were task specific and varied throughout the hour of simulated work. By the end of 60 post-fatigue work cycles, signs of fatigue persisted in the anterior deltoid and developed in the middle deltoid, yet perceived exertion and strength returned to pre-fatigue levels. Recovery from fatigue elicits changes in muscle activity and movement patterns that may not be perceived by the worker which has important implications for injury risk.

  17. Selection of strains for shiitake production in axenic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Maciel, William Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira E Santos, Débora Marques; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom consumption is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the implementation of new production methods, it is also important to increase productivity, quality and reduce production costs. In this study, six commercial Lentinula edodes strains were characterized for genetic diversity (rep-PCR analysis) and mushroom production (yield, number and weight of individual mushrooms) using different substrates and cultural conditions. All strains showed genetic differences by repetitive element palindromic based-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The richest substrate resulted in the greatest production under both environmental conditions. Strains LE4 and LE6 produced the majority of their mushrooms earlier than the other strains. The highest number of mushrooms was observed in the LE6 strain while the highest weights of individual mushrooms were observed in the LE4 strain. Controlled environmental conditions resulted in superior production for all strains, except for LE4, which had empirically greater yield in the semi-controlled environmental condition.

  18. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  19. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism as a genetic marker for typing Mycobacterium avium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, M P; Palenque, E; Guerrero, C; Garcia, M J

    1995-05-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to study 75 clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium avium. Two repetitive insertion sequences, IS1311 and IS900, were used as DNA probes. Although less than 25% of isolates showed RFLP patterns with IS900, all strains gave banding patterns with IS1311. M. avium strains isolated from patients with AIDS exhibited marked polymorphism with both probes.

  20. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  1. Military Airborne Training Injuries and Injury Risk Factors, Fort Bragg North Carolina, June-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the upper body. The most common injury/anatomic locations combinations were closed head injuries/ concussions (n=74), ankle fractures (n=21), ankle...landing zone, high winds 158/1,780= 88.8/1,000 Kragh & Taylor 19968 Concussions , fractures, contusions, sprains, strains, lacerations 1...location combinations were closed head injuries/ concussions (n=74), ankle fractures (n=21), ankle sprains (n=20), low back sprains (n=14), hip contusions

  2. Pathophysiology of Acute Exercise-Induced Muscular Injury: Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Acute muscular injury is the most common injury affecting athletes and those participating in exercise. Nearly everyone has experienced soreness after unaccustomed or intense exercise. Clinically, acute strains and delayed-onset muscle soreness are very similar. The purpose of this paper is to review the predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, structural changes, and biochemical changes associated with these injuries. Laboratory and clinical findings are discussed to help athletic trainer...

  3. Injury Prevention Survey: Army Awareness Assessment and Needs Analysis, 9 July - 26 August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    lifting, extreme conditioning, agility/stretching, as well as road marching. Injuries of greatest interest included muscle strains and tears and...prevention tactics for back and knee injuries, especially sprained/torn muscles and tendonitis would address customer needs.  Re-injury...Help Fight the #1 Threat to Military Medical Readiness” Did you know that common bone and muscle injuries

  4. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  5. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  6. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

  7. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Berthier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI and 18FDG-PET in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral

  8. Molecular typing among beef isolates of Escherichia coli using consensus repetitive intergenic enterobacteria-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoolkifli, Nurliyana Wan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd

    2013-11-01

    Genomic DNA of Escherichia coli were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-Polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the presence of Shiga toxin gene-I (Stx1) and Shiga toxin gene-2 (Stx2). These isolates were originated from imported raw beef which are come from two countries namely Australia and India. The isolation of E. coli was conducted by using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMBA). A total of 94 strains had been isolated from 30 samples of imported raw beefand 42 strains had been detected positively E. coli by doing biochemical tests. All strains had been tested and the results of biochemical tests showed that 3 strains were from Australia samples while the other 39 strains were from India samples. The biochemical tests used are Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test and Citrate test. All the 42 strains were examined for Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) gene detection by two pair primers which are stx2F (5'-TTCTTCGGTATCCTATTCCC-3'), stx2R (5'-ATGCATCTCTGGTCATTGTA-3'), stx1F (5'-CAGTTAATGTGGTGGCGAAG-3'), and stx1R (5'-CTGTCACAGTAACAACCGT-3'). The results showed that none of the strains are positive for Shiga toxin gene. Application of ERIC-PCR method towards E. coli had successfully shown the high diversity polymorphism in 21 different genome types of DNA with primers ERIC1R (5'- CACTTAGGGGTCCTCGAATGTA- 3') and ERIC2R (5'- AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGACGC- 3').

  9. Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A

    2003-08-01

    Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates.

  10. RPERT: Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project with a specified/certain duration including repetitive identical activities by using program evaluation and review technique is the most essential part in construction areas since the activities were had optimistic, most likely and pessimistic durations. This paper focuses on the calculation of expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project within a specified/certain duration (contract duration by using Line Of Balance technique (LOB in case of single or multiple number of crews integrated with Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique (RPERT, which is a simplified software, will generate the expected project completion probability of a specified/certain duration (contract duration. RPERT software is designed by java programming code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Viewing the expected project completion probability according to a set of specified durations per each identical activity (optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic time in the analyzed project; (2 Providing seamless integration with available project time calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of RPERT, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; and (4 A processing module. At the end, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of proposed software (RPERT, by using probabilistic calculations for repetitive construction projects.

  11. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  12. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  13. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  14. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline.When you injure your ACL, it can be a partial or full tear. Other injuries can occur at the same time. These include ...

  15. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.

  16. Traumatic musculotendinous injuries of the knee: diagnosis with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencardino, J T; Rosenberg, Z S; Brown, R R; Hassankhani, A; Lustrin, E S; Beltran, J

    2000-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of acute traumatic musculotendinous injuries of the knee. Three discrete categories of acute injuries to the musculotendinous unit can be defined: muscle contusion, myotendinous strain, and tendon avulsion. Among the quadriceps muscles, the rectus femoris is the most susceptible to injury at the myotendinous junction due to its superficial location, predominance of type II fibers, eccentric muscle action, and extension across two joints. Among the muscles of the pes anserinus, the sartorius is the most susceptible to strain injury due to its superficial location and biarticular course. The classic fusiform configuration of the semimembranosus along with a propensity for eccentric actions also make it prone to strain injury. MR imaging findings associated with rupture of the iliotibial tract include discontinuity and edema, which are best noted on coronal images. The same mechanism of injury that tears the arcuate ligament from its fibular insertion can also result in avulsion injury of the biceps femoris. The gastrocnemius muscle is prone to strain injury due to its action across two joints and its superficial location. Injuries of the muscle belly and myotendinous junction of the popliteus are far more common than tendinous injuries.

  17. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo.

  18. ROBUST REPETITIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVING RATE SMOOTHNESS OF TEST TURNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu; ZENGMing; SUBao-ku

    2005-01-01

    A robust repetitive control scheme is used to improve the rate smoothness of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driven test turntable. The method synthesizes variable structure control (VSC) laws and repetitive control (RC) laws in a complementary manner. The VSC strategy can stabilize the system and suppress uncertainties, such as the aperiodic disturbance and noises, while RC strategy can eliminate the periodic rate fluctuation in a steady state. The convergence of the repetitive learning process is also guaranteed by VSC. A general nonlinear system model is discussed. The model can be considered as an extension of BLDCMs. The stability and asymptotic position tracking performance are validated by using Lyapunov functions. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the rate smoothness.

  19. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  20. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  1. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation. E.E. Castrillon W1, 2, Xinwen Zhou 3, P. Svensson1, 2, 4 1 Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Aarhus University, Denmark2 Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... (SCON)3 Department of Dentistry, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 4 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden  Background: Contingent electrical stimulation (CES) of the facial skin has been shown to reduce electromyographic (EMG......) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  2. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  3. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  4. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  5. Comparison of automated repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction and spa typing versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Chow, Barbara L; Lloyd, Tracie; Gregson, Daniel B

    2011-01-01

    Automated repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (DiversiLab, bioMérieux, St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada) and single locus sequence typing of the Staphylococcus protein A (spa) gene with spa-type assignment by StaphType RIDOM software were compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as the "gold standard" method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) typing. Fifty-four MRSA isolates were typed by all methods: 10 of known PFGE CMRSA type and 44 clinical isolates. Correct assignment of CMRSA type or cluster occurred for 47 of 54 (87%) of the isolates when using a rep-PCR similarity index (SI) of ≥95%. Rep-PCR gave 7 discordant results [CMRSA1 (3), CMRSA2 (1), CMRSA4 (1), and CMRSA10 (2)], and some CMRSA clusters were not distinguished (CMRSA10/5/9, CMRSA 7/8, and CMRSA3/6). Several spa types occurred within a single PFGE or repetitive PCR types among the 19 different spa types found. spa type t037 was shared by CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 strains, and CMRSA9 and most CMRSA10 strains shared spa type t008. Time to results for PFGE, repetitive PCR, and spa typing was 3-4 days, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. The annual costs of using spa or repetitive PCR were 2.4× and 1.9× higher, respectively, than PFGE but routine use of spa typing would lower annual labor costs by 0.10 full-time equivalents compared to PFGE. Repetitive PCR is a good method for rapid outbreak screening, but MRSA isolates that share the same repetitive PCR or PFGE patterns can be distinguished by spa typing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  7. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  8. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  9. Risk factors for hand-wrist disorders in repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    (wrist pain and palpation tenderness) were determined in 3123 employees in 19 industrial settings. With the use of questionnaires and video recordings of homogenous work tasks number of wrist movements, hand force requirements and wrist position were analysed as risk factors for hand-wrist disorders......OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk of hand-wrist disorders related to repetitive movements, use of hand force and wrist position in repetitive monotonous work. METHODS: Using questionnaires and physical examinations, the prevalence and incidence of hand-wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis...... were less consistent. Working with the hand in a non-neutral position could not be identified as a risk factor...

  10. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  11. Medium Repetition Rate TEA Laser For Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bruno

    1987-09-01

    The design and performance of an inexpensive compact repetitively pulsed TEA CO2 laser is described. The device uses a modified corona preionization technique and a fast transverse gas flow to achieve high repetition rates. An output energy of 500 mJ per pulse and an out-put power of 6.2W at 40Hz have been obtained. Due to the small energy needed for preionization, the efficiency of the device is high, whereas the gas dissociation is low when compared with commercial laser systems. This results in the relatively small fresh laser gas exchange of 20 ltr h-1 for long term operation.

  12. Convention, Repetition and Abjection: The Way of the Gothic

    OpenAIRE

    Łowczanin Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs Deleuze and Kristeva in an examination of certain Gothic conventions. It argues that repetition of these conventions- which endows Gothicism with formulaic coherence and consistence but might also lead to predictability and stylistic deadlock-is leavened by a novelty that Deleuze would categorize as literary “gift.” This particular kind of “gift” reveals itself in the fiction of successive Gothic writers on the level of plot and is applied to the repetition of the genre’s m...

  13. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...

  14. A Brief Account on the Functions of Rhetorical Repetition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuping

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that using rhetoric devices precisely is of great importance for the English Learners, if they want to write good articles. Repetition is one of the rhetoric devices that is frequently used in English writing. This paper gives a brief account on the four functions of repetition by presenting some typical examples, focusing the reader's attention on the significance of this device in the English writing. The following are the four functions: an effective means of emphasis; making anidea clear and easier; generating emotional force; heightening a certain atmosphere.

  15. Comparison of four molecular methods to type Salmonella Enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Pitondo-Silva, André; Bergamini, Alzira M M; Falcão, Juliana P

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR), multilocus variable-number of tanden-repeat analysis (MLVA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for typing 188 Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different sources isolated over a 24-year period in Brazil. PFGE and ERIC-PCR were more efficient than MLVA for subtyping the strains. However, MLVA provided additional epidemiological information for those strains. In addition, MLST showed the Brazilian strains as belonging to the main clonal complex of S. Enteritidis, CC11, and provided the first report of two new STs in the S. enterica database but could not properly subtype the strains. Our results showed that the use of PFGE or ERIC-PCR together with MLVA is suitable to efficiently subtype S. Enteritidis strains and provide important epidemiological information.

  16. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Neuropathological Legacy of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Johnson, Victoria E; Smith, Douglas H; Stewart, William

    2016-05-23

    Almost a century ago, the first clinical account of the punch-drunk syndrome emerged, describing chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae occurring in former boxers. Thereafter, throughout the twentieth century, further reports added to our understanding of the neuropathological consequences of a career in boxing, leading to descriptions of a distinct neurodegenerative pathology, termed dementia pugilistica. During the past decade, growing recognition of this pathology in autopsy studies of nonboxers who were exposed to repetitive, mild traumatic brain injury, or to a single, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, has led to an awareness that it is exposure to traumatic brain injury that carries with it a risk of this neurodegenerative disease, not the sport or the circumstance in which the injury is sustained. Furthermore, the neuropathology of the neurodegeneration that occurs after traumatic brain injury, now termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is acknowledged as being a complex, mixed, but distinctive pathology, the detail of which is reviewed in this article.

  17. Chapter 5 mantram repetition: an evidence-based complementary practice for military personnel and veterans in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jill E; Weinrich, Sally; Allard, Carolyn B; Beck, Danielle; Johnson, Brian D; Holt, Lindsay Cosco

    2014-01-01

    Today in the digital age, with our advances in modern technology and communication, there are additional stressors for our military personnel and Veterans. Constant dangers exist both on and off the battlefield, unlike prior wars that had clearly-defined war zones. In addition, medical advances have assisted in saving the lives of many more gravely injured troops than ever previously possible. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan come to an end, large numbers of service men and women are returning home with multiple injuries. This group of Veterans has significantly higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury than ever before reported. Although existing PTSD therapies have been found to be highly effective for many Veterans, there is a substantial minority unsatisfactorily treated. Mantram repetition, an innovative, complementary, evidence-based treatment, is proving to be successful for these new Veterans. When used regularly it helps with "road rage, impatience, anger, frustration, and being out of control." A mantram is a brief, sacred word or phrase that embodies divine power or the greatest positive energy one can imagine (Easwaran, 2008a). Mantram repetition is a simple, quick, personal, portable, and private complementary practice that may be used as an adjunct to current treatments for PTSD. Growing research evidence supports mantram repetition's value for dissemination and adoption in the 21st century. This chapter summarizes Mantram Program research conducted from 2003 to 2014. It describes the health-related benefits of the Mantram Program in various populations. The current research focuses on benefits for managing psychological distress and promoting quality of life in Veterans. Future areas for research are suggested.

  18. Low-load high-repetition resistance training improves strength and gait speed in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of 26 weeks of low-load high-repetition resistance training (BodyPump™) on maximal strength, gait speed, balance and self-reported health status in healthy, active middle-aged and older adults. Two-group randomised control trial. Sixty-eight apparently healthy, active adults aged over 55 years completed either 26 weeks of BodyPump™ training (PUMP) or served as control participants (CON). The BodyPump™ group (n = 32, age = 66 ± 4 years) trained twice per week for 26 weeks while the control group (n = 36, age = 66 ± 5 years) continued with their normal activities. Leg-press and Smith-machine bench-press one repetition maximum (1RM), gait speed, balance, and self-reported health status were all assessed at baseline and follow-up. Significant group-by-time interactions in favour of the BodyPump™ group were found for leg-press 1RM (PUMP + 13%, CON + 3%, p = 0.007, partial eta(2) = 0.11), Smith-machine bench-press 1RM (PUMP + 14%, CON +5%, p = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.18), normal gait speed (PUMP + 23%, CON +9 %, p = 0.028, partial eta(2) = 0.08) and single leg balance right (PUMP + 24%, CON - 7%, p = 0.006, partial eta(2) = 0.12). There were no group-by-time interactions for health status measures. Three participants in the BodyPump™ group withdrew from training due to injury or fear of injury related to training. Low-load high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ is effective at improving maximal strength, gait speed and some aspects of standing balance in adults over 55 years. The training was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  20. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breno de A R Alvares, João; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-04-26

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength was assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size=0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; effect size=0.60), eccentric work (18%; effect size=0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; effect size=0.80). The NHE programme led also to increased fascicle length (22%; effect size=2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; effect size=1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training programme (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  1. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  2. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

  3. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS.

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  5. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  6. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  7. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  8. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  9. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  10. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  11. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  12. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  13. Piriform spider silk sequences reveal unique repetitive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David J; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2010-11-08

    Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple, and repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces, has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species: A. trifasciata , N. clavipes , and N. cruentata . The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif, where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6-8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species, with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA is larger than 11 kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the piriform sequences form an ortholog group.

  14. Focus on form through task repetition in TBLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Guchte, M.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Bimmel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners’ attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where

  15. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  16. Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  17. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  18. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  19. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  1. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  2. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  3. Evaluation of Head and Brain Injury Risk Functions Using Sub-Injurious Human Volunteer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Erin J; Gabler, Lee F; McGhee, James S; Olszko, Ardyn V; Chancey, V Carol; Crandall, Jeff R; Panzer, Matthew B

    2017-08-15

    Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of 14 existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers. Six degrees-of-freedom head kinematics data were obtained for 335 sled tests involving subjects in frontal, lateral, and oblique sled conditions up to 16 Gs peak sled acceleration. A review of the medical reports associated with each individual test indicated no clinical diagnosis of mild or moderate brain injury in any of the cases evaluated. Kinematic-based head and brain injury risk probabilities were calculated directly from the kinematic data, while strain-based risks were determined through finite element model simulation of the 335 tests. Several injury risk functions substantially over predict the likelihood of concussion and diffuse axonal injury; proposed maximum principal strain-based injury risk functions predicted nearly 80 concussions and 14 cases of severe diffuse axonal injury out of the 335 non-injurious cases. This work is an important first step in assessing the efficacy of existing brain risk functions and highlights the need for more predictive injury assessment models.

  4. Finite-Repetition threshold for infinite ternary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Badkobeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exponent of a word is the ratio of its length over its smallest period. The repetitive threshold r(a of an a-letter alphabet is the smallest rational number for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most r(a. This notion was introduced in 1972 by Dejean who gave the exact values of r(a for every alphabet size a as it has been eventually proved in 2009. The finite-repetition threshold for an a-letter alphabet refines the above notion. It is the smallest rational number FRt(a for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most FRt(a and that contains a finite number of factors with exponent r(a. It is known from Shallit (2008 that FRt(2=7/3. With each finite-repetition threshold is associated the smallest number of r(a-exponent factors that can be found in the corresponding infinite word. It has been proved by Badkobeh and Crochemore (2010 that this number is 12 for infinite binary words whose maximal exponent is 7/3. We show that FRt(3=r(3=7/4 and that the bound is achieved with an infinite word containing only two 7/4-exponent words, the smallest number. Based on deep experiments we conjecture that FRt(4=r(4=7/5. The question remains open for alphabets with more than four letters. Keywords: combinatorics on words, repetition, repeat, word powers, word exponent, repetition threshold, pattern avoidability, word morphisms.

  5. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  6. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  7. A New Revised DNA Cramp Tool Based Approach of Chopping DNA Repetitive and Non-Repetitive Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Hari Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vogue tremendous amount of data generated day by day by the living organism of genetic sequences and its accumulation in database, their size is growing in an exponential manner. Due to excessive storage of DNA sequences in public databases like NCBI, EMBL and DDBJ archival maintenance is tedious task. Transmission of information from one place to another place in network management systems is also a critical task. So To improve the efficiency and to reduce the overhead of the database need of compression arises in database optimization. In this connection different techniques were bloomed, but achieved results are not bountiful. Many classical algorithms are fails to compress genetic sequences due to the specificity of text encoded in dna and few of the existing techniques achieved positive results. DNA is repetitive and non repetitive in nature. Our proposed technique DNACRAMP is applicable on repetitive and non repetitive sequences of dna and it yields better compression ratio in terms of bits per bases. This is compared with existing techniques and observed that our one is the optimum technique and compression results are on par with existing techniques.

  8. Sports injuries in adolescents' ball games: soccer, handball and basketball.

    OpenAIRE

    Yde, J; Nielsen, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and leg 10 per cent, and tendinitis/apophysitis 12 per cent. The most serious injuries were four fractures, one anterior cruciate ligament ru...

  9. Injuries in Australian Rules Football: An Overview of Injury Rates, Patterns, and Mechanisms Across All Levels of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Richard; Finch, Caroline F; Samra, David; Baquie, Peter; Cardoso, Tanusha; Hope, Danielle; Orchard, John W

    2017-08-01

    The nature of Australian rules football (Australian football) predisposes both unique and common injuries compared with those sustained in other football codes. The game involves a combination of tackling, kicking, high-speed running (more than other football codes), and jumping. Two decades of injury surveillance has identified common injuries at the professional level (Australian Football League [AFL]). To provide an overview of injuries in Australian rules football, including injury rates, patterns, and mechanisms across all levels of play. A narrative review of AFL injuries, football injury epidemiology, and biomechanical and physiological attributes of relevant injuries. The overall injury incidence in the 2015 season was 41.7 injuries per club per season, with a prevalence of 156.2 missed games per club per season. Lower limb injuries are most prevalent, with hamstring strains accounting for 19.1 missed games per club per season. Hamstring strains relate to the volume of high-speed running required in addition to at times having to collect the ball while running in a position of hip flexion and knee extension. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are also prevalent and can result from contact and noncontact incidents. In the upper limb, shoulder sprains and dislocations account for 11.5 missed games per club per season and largely resulted from tackling and contact. Concussion is less common in AFL than other tackling sports but remains an important injury, which has notably become more prevalent in recent years, theorized to be due to a more conservative approach to management. Although there are less injury surveillance data for non-AFL players (women, community-level, children), many of these injuries appear to also be common across all levels of play. An understanding of injury profiles and mechanisms in Australian football is crucial in identifying methods to reduce injury risk and prepare players for the demands of the game.

  10. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms.

  11. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-03-09

    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements.

  12. Rabbit lung injury induced by explosive decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of rabbit lunginjury caused by explosive decompression. Methods: A total of 42 rabbits and 10 rats were served as the experimental animals. A slow recompressiondecompression test and an explosive decompression test were applied to the animals, respectively. And the effects of the given tests on the animals were discussed. Results: The slow recompression-decompression did not cause an obvious lung injury, but the explosive decompression did cause lung injuries in different degrees. The greater the decompression range was, the shorter the decompression duration was, and the heavier the lung injuries were. Conclusions: Explosive decompression can cause a similar lung injury as shock wave does. The primary mechanical causes of the lung injury might be a tensile strain or stress in the alveolar wall and the pulmonary surface's impacts on the inside wall of the chest.

  13. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari S; Shrestha, Bishnu K; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E; Barphagha, Inderjit K; Rush, Milton C; Melanson, Rebecca A; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  14. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S Karki

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  15. Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR. PMID:23028972

  16. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2016-12-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with VT = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH2O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional VT for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by VT-PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with VT and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury.

  17. Predictors for traumatic brain injuries evaluated through accident reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Svein

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate all the 58 available NFL cases and compare various predictors for mild traumatic brain injuries using a detailed and extensively validated finite element model of the human head. Global injury measures such as magnitude in angular and translational acceleration, change in angular velocity, head impact power (HIP) and HIC were also investigated with regard to their ability to predict the intracranial pressure and strains associated with injury. The brain material properties were modeled using a hyperelastic and viscoelastic constitutive law. Also, three different stiffness parameters, encompassing a range of published brain tissue properties, were tested. 8 tissue injury predictors were evaluated for 6 different regions, covering the entire cerebrum, as well as for the whole brain. In addition, 10 head kinematics based predictors were evaluated both for correlation with injury as well as with strain and pressure. When evaluating the results, a statistical correlation between strain, strain rate, product of strain and strain rate, Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (CSDM), strain energy density, maximum pressure, magnitude of minimum pressure, as well as von Mises effective stress, with injury was found when looking into specific regions of the brain. However, the maximal pressure in the gray matter showed a higher correlation with injury than other evaluated measures. On the other hand, it was possible, through the reconstruction of a motocross accident, to re-create the injury pattern in the brain of the injured rider using maximal principal strain. It was also found that a simple linear combination of peak change in rotational velocity and HIC showed a high correlation (R=0.98) with the maximum principal strain in the brain, in addition to being a significant predictor of injury. When applying the rotational and translational kinematics separately for one of the cases, it was found that the translational kinematics contribute

  18. Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A

    2010-07-01

    Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.

  19. 76 FR 44489 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) system into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying...; Classification of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic......

  20. Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C

    2016-08-20

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.

  1. Genomic fingerprinting Acinetobacter baumannii: amplification of multiple inter-repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, C; Lynch, M; Cullen, C; Cryan, B; Greer, P; Fanning, S

    1995-09-01

    Acinetobacter species are important nosocomial pathogens. A rapid and sensitive identification system, capable of providing strain identity at the genetic level, is required to identify outbreak strains and facilitate the early implementation of infection control procedures. Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) elements, have been identified in numerous bacteria and these genomic sequences provide useful targets for DNA amplification. A method for amplifying inter-REP DNA sequences, REP-multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling (REP-MAAP), is described and applied to 29 Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical samples. Amplified polymorphic DNA patterns were demonstrated for all isolates and those displaying identical REP-MAAP patterns were considered identical at the genetic level. In the spring of 1993, 10 intensive care unit patients had endotracheal colonization with A. baumannii (five with REP-MAAP I and five with REP-MAAP II patterns). These findings suggested nosocomial transmission of organisms which was terminated by standard infection control measures. No further A. baumannii were detected until the winter of 1993 when isolates of different REP-MAAP groups emerged, suggesting that factors other than nosocomial transmission were implicated.

  2. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  3. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  4. Perseveration and other repetitive verbal behaviors: functional dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W

    2004-11-01

    This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.

  5. Fine tuning of micropillar cavity modes through repetitive oxidations

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Morten P; Snijders, Henk; Truong, Tuan-Ahn; Petroff, Pierre M; Bouwmeester, Dirk; van Exter, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive wet thermal oxidations of a tapered oxide aperture in a micropillar structure are demonstrated. After each oxidation step the con?fined optical modes are analyzed at room temperature. Three regimes are identi?fied. First, the optical con?finement increases when the aperture oxidizes towards the center. Then, the cavity modes shift by more than 30 nm, when the taper starts to oxidize through the center, leading to a decrease in the optical path length. Finally, the resonance frequency levels o?f, when the aperture is oxidized all the way through the micropillar, but confi?ned optical modes with a high quality factor remain. This repetitive oxidation technique therefore enables precise control of the optical cavity volume or wavelength.

  6. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  7. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text.

  8. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: emotion, complexity, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli, Laura; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing, and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6-s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion and composition were independent, supporting the hypothesis that these oculomotor indices reflect enhanced information seeking. Experiment 2 tested an orienting hypothesis by repeatedly presenting the same pictures. Although repetition altered specific scan patterns, emotional, compared to neutral, picture viewing continued to prompt oculomotor differences, suggesting that motivationally relevant cues enhance information seeking in appetitive and defensive contexts. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Repetitive transients extraction algorithm for detecting bearing faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wangpeng; Ding, Yin; Zi, Yanyang; Selesnick, Ivan W.

    2017-02-01

    Rolling-element bearing vibrations are random cyclostationary. This paper addresses the problem of noise reduction with simultaneous components extraction in vibration signals for faults diagnosis of bearing. The observed vibration signal is modeled as a summation of two components contaminated by noise, and each component composes of repetitive transients. To extract the two components simultaneously, an approach by solving an optimization problem is proposed in this paper. The problem adopts convex sparsity-based regularization scheme for decomposition, and non-convex regularization is used to further promote the sparsity but preserving the global convexity. A synthetic example is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach for repetitive feature extraction. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed method are further demonstrated by applying to compound faults and single fault diagnosis of a locomotive bearing. The results show the proposed approach can effectively extract the features of outer and inner race defects.

  10. Comparison of exogenous surfactant therapy, mechanical ventilation with high end-expiratory pressure and partial liquid ventilation in a model of acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hartog (Anneke); G.F. Vazquez de Anda; D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); U. Kaisers; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); R. Schnabel; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe have compared three treatment strategies, that aim to prevent repetitive alveolar collapse, for their effect on gas exchange, lung mechanics, lung injury, protein transfer into the alveoli and surfactant system, in a model of acute lung injury. In adult r

  11. Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Waterston, Michael L.; Pack, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary t...

  12. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...

  13. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schram Christensen; Jesper Lundbye-Jensen; Michael James Grey; Alexandra Damgaard Vejlby; Bo Belhage; Jens Bo Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was...

  14. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: Emotion, complexity, and repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli,Laura; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6 s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion a...

  15. Route to 100 TW Ti: Sapphire laser at repetitive mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Hao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a 100 TW-class femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser running at repetition rate of 0.1 Hz by adding a stage amplifier in the 20 TW/10 Hz laser facility (XL-II. Pumping the new stage amplifier with the 25 J green Nd:glass laser, we successfully upgraded the laser energy to 3.4 J with duration of 29 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 117 TW.

  16. Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: Verbal Repetition, Mnemonics, and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Jane Lee; Johnson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of using verbal repetition and first-letter acronyms to teach a common marketing framework was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 345 undergraduate students were exposed to the framework using one of four conditions: control, verbal repetition, acronym, and verbal repetition plus acronym in a traditional learning…

  17. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  18. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  19. On the repetitive operation of a self-switched transversely excited atmosphere CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pallavi Raote; Gautam Patil; J Padma Nilaya; D J Biswas

    2010-11-01

    The repetition rate capability of self-switched transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) CO2 laser was studied for different gas flow configurations. For an optimized gas flow configuration, repetitive operation was achieved at a much smaller gas replenishment factor between two successive pulses when compared with repetitive systems energized by conventional pulsers.

  20. Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

    2010-01-01

    Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

  1. FBFN-based adaptive repetitive control of nonlinearly parameterized systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli Sun; Hong Cai; Fu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive repetitive control scheme is presented for a class of nonlinearly parameterized systems based on the fuzzy ba-sis function network (FBFN). The parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. To attenuate chattering effectively, the discontinuous control term is approximated by an adaptive PI control structure. The bound of the discontinuous control term is assumed to be unknown and estimated by an adaptive mecha-nism. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive repeti-tive control law is proposed to guarantee the closed-loop stability and the tracking performance. By means of FBFNs, which avoid the nonlinear parameterization from entering into the adaptive repetitive control, the control er singularity problem is solved. The proposed approach does not require an exact structure of the sys-tem dynamics, and the proposed control er is utilized to control a model of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor subject to significant disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The simula-tion results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A referential theory of the repetition-induced truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Rom, Sarah C

    2017-03-01

    People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory truth effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge truth based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced truth effect follows. Five experiments test this theory. Experiment 1-3 show that both the amount and the coherence of references for a repeated statement influence judged truth. Experiment 4 shows that people also judge new statements more likely "true" when they share references with previously presented statements. Experiment 5 realizes theoretically predicted conditions under which repetition should not influence judged truth. Based on these data, we discuss how the theory relates to other explanations of repetition-induced truth and how it may integrate other truth-related phenomena and belief biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schram Christensen

    Full Text Available Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, and a control area (posterior parietal cortex. Magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex produced a movement sensation that was significantly greater than stimulation over the control region. Movement sensation after dorsal premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement.

  4. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  5. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  6. Repetition suppression: a means to index neural representations using BOLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the human brain gives rise to complex cognitive processes remains one of the biggest challenges of contemporary neuroscience. While invasive recording in animal models can provide insight into neural processes that are conserved across species, our understanding of cognition more broadly relies upon investigation of the human brain itself. There is therefore an imperative to establish non-invasive tools that allow human brain activity to be measured at high spatial and temporal resolution. In recent years, various attempts have been made to refine the coarse signal available in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), providing a means to investigate neural activity at the meso-scale, i.e. at the level of neural populations. The most widely used techniques include repetition suppression and multivariate pattern analysis. Human neuroscience can now use these techniques to investigate how representations are encoded across neural populations and transformed by relevant computations. Here, we review the physiological basis, applications and limitations of fMRI repetition suppression with a brief comparison to multivariate techniques. By doing so, we show how fMRI repetition suppression holds promise as a tool to reveal complex neural mechanisms that underlie human cognitive function. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574308

  7. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  8. Associations between repetitive questioning, resistance to change, temper outbursts and anxiety in Prader-Willi and Fragile-X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, K; Oliver, C; Humphreys, G

    2009-03-01

    The behavioural phenotypes of Prader-Willi (PWS) and Fragile-X (FraX) syndromes both comprise repetitive behaviours with differences between the profiles. In this study we investigated the context and antecedents to the repetitive behaviours and the association with other behavioural phenotypic characteristics in order to generate testable hypotheses regarding the cause of the behaviours. The parents or carers of 46 children with PWS (mean age 14.1 years; 20 girls), and 33 boys with FraX (mean age 13.11 years) were interviewed about their children's repetitive behaviour in a semi-structured format. Children showed negative emotional behaviour (PWS: 87.0%; FraX: 79.4%) and repetitive questions (PWS: 78.3%; FraX: 73.5%) following changes in routine or expectations. Significantly more temper outbursts were reported to follow changes in children with PWS (89.1%) compared with boys with FraX (41.2%) (chi(2) = 20.93; P < 0.001). Anxiety that was frequently associated with repetitive and self-injurious behaviours in boys with FraX, followed changes in significantly more boys with FraX (76.5%) compared with children with PWS (6.5%) (chi(2) = 43.19, P < 0.001). On the basis of these reports and existing literature, we hypothesise that decreases in predictability are aversive to children with PWS and FraX. We also hypothesise that these children have a propensity to show a syndrome-related pattern of behaviour (temper outbursts in PWS and displays of anxiety in FraX) when an event in the environment has this aversive property. We hypothesise that questions may be reinforcing to children in their own right by increasing the predictability of the environment. We outline how a specific cognitive deficit in the endophenotypes associated with both PWS and FraX could be investigated as a potential explanation for the hypothesised aversive properties of decreased predictability.

  9. University men's ice hockey: rates and risk of injuries over 6-years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, N; Lloyd-Smith, R; Lorenz, T; Niven, B; Michel, M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the injury rates of a Men's Varsity Ice Hockey team over six-years. Data on ice hockey injury rates and profile continue to increase in the hope of assisting with injury prevention. The University of British Columbia Men's Varsity team has been followed prospectively over a six-year period. All student-athletes completed a preseason medical examinations and physiological assessments. The team physician evaluated each injury and the team therapist completed the injury report forms and the attendance records for each player. A total of 46215 player exposures were recorded. The combined injury rate was 3.70 injuries/1000 player game and practice exposures. A statistically significantly higher risk of injury was observed during games and the greatest risk of injury was observed during the second period. Forwards sustained greater percentage of injuries compared to defensemen and goalies. Sprains and strains accounted for 40% of all injuries, followed by concussions (13%). Non-contact injuries were most common, while the anatomy sustaining the most injuries was the head/neck/face region. A high percentage of the recorded injuries required less than seven days to return to full activity. The risk of injury for university ice hockey players is greater during games and is dependant on playing position. Players are prone to sprains and strains, which may not involve any contact. Concussion and knee joint injury rates continue to cause concern.

  10. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  11. Injuries and medical issues in synchronized Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Spectators of the Olympic Games can enjoy a wide variety of sports, including strength, team, timed, endurance, and artistic sports. In the Olympic program, there are two synchronized events: synchronized diving and synchronized swimming. The precision of the synchronization of the athlete's movements and skills is an added feature of entertainment. Synchronized athletes have additional training requirements to perfect the synchronization of their skills. The physical demands on the athlete from the repetition of training required for the perfection of synchronization result in injuries unique to these sports. Although both traumatic and overuse injuries occur, overuse injuries are more common. As these disciplines are artistic, judged sports, these athletes also are susceptible to eating disorders and the female athlete triad. This article reviews the training regimen of these athletes and outlines the injuries and health concerns that are common in the synchronized sports.

  12. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend

  13. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  14. Spine injuries in the sport of gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, David; Lemmen, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Injury in gymnastics is not an uncommon occurrence, and an injury of the spine frequently is a source of pain in a gymnast. Because of the unique demands of this sport, which repetitively place significant forces across the spine, it becomes clear why the spine commonly is injured. Potential causes of back pain in a gymnast include spondylolysis, Scheuermann's disease, intervertebral disc pathology, and mechanical sources of pain. Much of the diagnostic workup and management of spondylolysis lesions remains controversial, but a successful management strategy can be developed for the safe return of a gymnast to the mat. Mechanical sources of pain are common and should be addressed. Psychosocial etiologies of back pain also exist in these athletes. Rehabilitation strategies should focus on improvement in the strength and function of the trunk and lumbar spine and the correction of biomechanical deficits with a goal of pain-free transition back to gymnastic-specific activities.

  15. Sprains and Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrestling put people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can increase the risk of hand and forearm strains. Elbow strains sometimes occur in people who participate in ...

  16. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  17. Comparison of amounts and types of practice during rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacobson Kimberley, PhD, PT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired neurological deficits may capitalize on cortical reorganization to recover functional skills that have been lost. Research in neuroplasticity proposes that a high number of repetitions may lead to cortical reorganization. The purposes of this study were to quantify the number and type of activities performed by patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI and stroke in physical and occupational therapy sessions to determine whether (1 the number of repetitions approaches the numbers in neuroplasticity research, (2 there were differences based on patient diagnosis, and (3 patient or therapist characteristics affected the type or amount of activities performed. Forty-eight patient and forty provider subjects participated. One hundred seven therapy sessions were observed. Data from therapy sessions were counted and categorized. Neither patient group approached the total number of repetitions neuroplasticity research suggests may be required for neuroplastic change. Repetitions per session did not differ between groups. Subjects with TBI performed more repetitions per minute in three categories (total upper-limb repetitions, gait steps, and transfers than subjects with stroke. Therapists with 15 years of neurological therapy experience instructed patients in fewer functional repetitions per minute than did therapists with 5 to 15 years of experience.

  18. Assessment and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collaboration 8. Special Reporting Requirements A Quad Chart is attached . 9. APPENDICES Two abstracts are attached . Assessment and treatment of...characterized shock tube exposures of mice to repetitive blast overpressure Combined functional, morphological, and neurobiological assessments Functional...disorders. Despite the high incidence of auditory dysfunction resulting from blast injuries, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these blast

  19. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chen (Ruoqing); A.R. Wallin (Amanda Regodón); A. Sjölander (Arvid); U. Valdimarsdóttir (Unnur); W. Ye (Weimin); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); K. Fall (Katja); C. Almqvist (Catarina); K. Czene (Kamila); F. Fang (Fang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children witho

  20. Contraction induced muscle injury: towards personalized training and recovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givli, Sefi

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscles can be injured by their own contractions. Such contraction-induced injury, often accompanied by delayed onset of muscle soreness, is a leading cause of the loss of mobility in the rapidly increasing population of elderly people. Unlike other types of muscle injuries which hurt almost exclusively those who are subjected to intensive exercise such as professional athletes and soldiers in training, contraction induced injury is a phenomenon which may be experienced by people of all ages while performing a variety of daily-life activities. Subjects that experience contraction induced injury report on soreness that usually increases in intensity in the first 24 h after the activity, peaks from 24 to 72 h, and then subsides and disappears in a few days. Despite their clinical importance and wide influence, there are almost no studies, clinical, experimental or computational, that quantitatively relate between the extent of contraction induced injury and activity factors, such as number of repetitions, their frequency and magnitude. The lack of such quantitative information is even more emphasized by the fact that contraction induced injury can be used, if moderate and controlled, to improve muscle performance in the long term. Thus, if properly understood and carefully implemented, contraction induced injury can be used for the purpose of personalized training and recovery programs. In this paper, we review experimental, clinical, and theoretical works, attempting towards drawing a more quantitative description of contraction induced injury and related phenomena.

  1. Force time-history affects fatigue accumulation during repetitive handgrip tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael W; Hodder, Joanne N; Wells, Ryan; Potvin, Jim R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with a higher risk of workplace injury, in particular during repetitive tasks. This study aimed to identify the effect of a complex force-time history (a task with multiple different submaximal effort levels) on fatigue accumulation and recovery during a handgrip task. We measured surface electromyography of the brachioradialis (BRD) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) of ten right hand dominant females with no history of upper limb injury while they performed a complex submaximal visually targeted gripping task. The task consisted of 15%, 30%, 45%, 30%, and 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) plateaus. Each plateau was held for 15s, followed by a 3s MVC and 3s of rest. The "pyramid" was repeated until fatigue criteria were met. Grip force, average EMG and mean power frequency (MnPF) for first cycle and fatigued last cycle, were compared. Post-plateau peak grip force was on average 20.5% MVC lower during the last cycle (pMVC after the first 15% MVC plateau (from baseline), by 5.3% MVC after the 30% MVC plateau and 6.8% MVC after the 45% MVC plateau. Further accumulation of fatigue after the second 30% MVC plateau however was minimal, only decreasing by 1.6% MVC. Recovery appeared to occur during the last 15% MVC plateau with an increase in post plateau grip force of 1.6% MVC. Interestingly, MnPF parameters confirmed significant fatigue accumulation during the back end of a force pyramid. We conclude that in a pattern of contractions with ascending, then descending force intensity, voluntary force recovery was present when the preceding force was of a lower intensity. These findings indicate preceding demands play a role in fatigue accumulation during complex tasks.

  2. Assessing maladaptive repetitive thought in clinical disorders: A critical review of existing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtani, Suraj; Moulds, Michelle L

    2017-04-01

    Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology. This review highlights problems with the content validity of existing instruments; for example, confounds between repetitive thought and symptomatology, metacognitive beliefs, and affect. This review also builds on previous reviews by including newer transdiagnostic measures of repetitive thinking. We hope that this review will help to expand our understanding of repetitive thinking beyond the mood and anxiety disorders, and suggest ways forward in the measurement of repetitive thinking in individuals with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of football (soccer) injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falese, Lavinia; Della Valle, Pietro; Federico, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on football (soccer) injuries are needed to assess both the magnitude of the problem and the effectiveness of preventive programmes. However, few data are available for Italy, which hosts one of the main football leagues in Europe. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of football injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A. Information about injury location, type, date of occurrence and duration of absence was obtained from www.football-lineups.com , a free collaborative international database on football. Overall, 363 injuries occurred throughout the two seasons affecting 286 players. The most commonly reported injuries were thigh-strain and knee injury, which accounted for 42% and 19% of all injuries, respectively. Injury incidence increased with age and was particularly higher from August to October. Results suggest that injury prevention strategies should be introduced from the preseason to reduce the risk of injuries, especially muscle strains.

  4. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains.

  5. [Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Higher Brain Function Deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukichi

    2016-12-01

    The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere. The concept of paradoxical functional facilitation (Kapur, 1996) has important clinical implications when coupled with rTMS applications. In addition to conventional rTMS (c-rTMS), other clinically relevant protocols of patterned rTMS (p-rTMS) have been developed: the theta burst stimulation (TBS), the paired associative stimulation (PAS), and the quadripulse stimulation (QPS). TBS is commonly used in the rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke USN and those with non-fluent aphasia because of its prolonged beneficial effects and the short duration of stimulation. TBS may be considered an effective and safe protocol of rTMS. We foresee broader clinical applications of p-rTMS (TBS) and c-rTMS in the treatment of various neurological deficits.

  6. Effects of repetitive low-level blast exposure on visual systems and ocular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Capó-Aponte, OD, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether repetitive exposure to low-level blasts during military breacher training produces acute and cumulative damage to the ocular tissues or visual system. The effects of low-level blast exposure on high-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, oculomotor function, color vision, visual field (VF, pupillary light reflex, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD, macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cup-to-disc ratio were assessed using a battery of standard clinical ophthalmic tests administered 10 times over a 2-year period. Data from nine male breacher instructors (Cadre were compared with data from four male breacher engineers (Control. The Cadre group showed higher vertical deviation at near than the Control group over time. The VF mean deviation on the left eye tended to be worse in the Cadre group throughout the study, suggesting a decrease in VF sensitivity (Cadre: –0.20 +/– 0.15 dB; Control: 1.05 +/– 0.15 dB; p = 0.03. The Cadre group had a reduced ECD (right eye: Cadre 2,478 cells/mm2 vs Control 2,808 cells/mm2, p = 0.02; left eye: Cadre 2,562 cells/mm2 vs Control 2,892 cells/mm2, p = 0.03. These results suggest that even low-level primary blast has the potential to produce occult eye injury.

  7. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature.

  8. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  9. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Peroneal Tendon Injuries What Are the Peroneal Tendons? A tendon is a band of tissue that ... protect them from sprains. Causes & Symptoms of Peroneal Tendon Injuries Peroneal tendon injuries may be acute (occurring ...

  10. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  12. Wounds and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  13. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  14. Refined repetitive sequence searches utilizing a fast hash function and cross species information retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Jeff

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for small tandem/disperse repetitive DNA sequences streamlines many biomedical research processes. For instance, whole genomic array analysis in yeast has revealed 22 PHO-regulated genes. The promoter regions of all but one of them contain at least one of the two core Pho4p binding sites, CACGTG and CACGTT. In humans, microsatellites play a role in a number of rare neurodegenerative diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1. SCA1 is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the coding sequence of the gene. In bacterial pathogens, microsatellites are proposed to regulate expression of some virulence factors. For example, bacteria commonly generate intra-strain diversity through phase variation which is strongly associated with virulence determinants. A recent analysis of the complete sequences of the Helicobacter pylori strains 26695 and J99 has identified 46 putative phase-variable genes among the two genomes through their association with homopolymeric tracts and dinucleotide repeats. Life scientists are increasingly interested in studying the function of small sequences of DNA. However, current search algorithms often generate thousands of matches – most of which are irrelevant to the researcher. Results We present our hash function as well as our search algorithm to locate small sequences of DNA within multiple genomes. Our system applies information retrieval algorithms to discover knowledge of cross-species conservation of repeat sequences. We discuss our incorporation of the Gene Ontology (GO database into these algorithms. We conduct an exhaustive time analysis of our system for various repetitive sequence lengths. For instance, a search for eight bases of sequence within 3.224 GBases on 49 different chromosomes takes 1.147 seconds on average. To illustrate the relevance of the search results, we conduct a search with and without added annotation terms for the

  15. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF HEART IN VIRAL MYOCARDITIS CAUSED BY REPETITIVE INFECTION OF CVB3m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphological changes of heart in viral myocarditis caused by repetitive infection of CVB3m. Methods 4-week-old mice were infected four times intraperitoneally with a timedependent dose and killed at the 10th,30th and 60th day after the final infection respectively, then we examined the heart changes and collagen hyperplasia by HE, VG stain and IHC. Results Heart damage appeared very serious at the tenth day, even there were small necrotic foci at the day of 30th, but we could not see any injury of heart 2 months later after final infection. Collagen turned up at the tenth day and there was much more collagen in heart and increased PCVA, CVF index at the sixtieth day. The IHC of collagen demonstrated the collagen Ⅰ hyperplasia was much obvious compared to collagen Ⅲ. Conclusion It strongly indicated that repetitive infection of CVB3m could lead to heart fibrosis and ventricular remodeling, which resulted in decreased systolic and diastolic function of heart.

  16. Spectroscopic Investigation of a Repetitively-Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Benjamin T.

    This work reports on an investigation of a repetitively-pulsed nanosecond discharge (RPND) in helium over a range of 0.3-16.0 Torr. The discharge was studied experimentally via laser-absorption spectroscopy and opticals emission spectroscopy measurements. In concert with the experimental campaign, a global model of a helium plasma was developed with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations. The global model was then used to predict the population kinetics and emissions of the RPND. Synthesis of the results provided new data and insights on the development of the RPND. Among the results were direct measurements of the triplet metastable states during the excitation period. This period was found to be unexpectedly long at low pressures (less than or equal to 1.0 Torr), suggesting an excess in high-energy electrons as compared to an equilibrium distribution. Other phenomena such as a prominent return stroke and additional energy deposition by reflections in the transmission line were also identified. Estimates of the electric field and electron temperatures were obtained for several conditions. Furthermore, several optical methods for electron temperature measurement were evaluated for application to the discharge. Based on the global model simulations, the coronal model was found to apply to the line ratio of the 33S-23Po and 31S-2 1Po transitions, however further work is needed to ascertain its applicability to experimental discharges. These results provide new insight on the development of the repetitively-pulsed nanosecond discharge. Specifically, they reveal new information about the excited state dynamics within the discharge, the non-equilibrium nature of its electrons, and several avenues for future studies. This study extends the present understanding of repetitively-pulsed discharges, and advances the knowledge of energy coupling between electric fields and plasmas.

  17. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  18. Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Dvořák, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Background FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. PMID:25878077

  19. Effective constitutive relations for large repetitive frame-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    Effective mechanical properties for large repetitive framelike structures are derived using combinations of strength of material and orthogonal transformation techniques. Symmetry considerations are used in order to identify independent property constants. The actual values of these constants are constructed according to a building block format which is carried out in the three consecutive steps: (1) all basic planar lattices are identified; (2) effective continuum properties are derived for each of these planar basic grids using matrix structural analysis methods; and (3) orthogonal transformations are used to determine the contribution of each basic set to the overall effective continuum properties of the structure.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...... over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...

  1. REDUCTION APPROACHES FOR VIBRATION CONTROL OF REPETITIVE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-min; SUN Dong-chang; WANG Da-jun; WEI Jian-ping; TONG Li-yong; WANG Quan

    2006-01-01

    The reduction approaches are presented for vibration control of symmetric,cyclic periodic and linking structures. The condensation of generalized coordinates, the locations of sensors and actuators, and the relation between system inputs and control forces are assumed to be set in a symmetric way so that the control system posses the same repetition as the structure considered. By employing proper transformations of condensed generalized coordinates and the system inputs, the vibration control of an entire system can be implemented by carrying out the control of a number of sub-structures, and thus the dimension of the control problem can be significantly reduced.

  2. A Linguistic Analysis of a Textual Repetition in Homer's Iliad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto MANCO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Homer's Iliad can be detected some contiguous repetitions in the text (in the same verse or away from each other in an irrelevant way. They appear different from one another but they are related from semantic and morphological issues. An example is provided by the use of the form Hectōr in conjunction with schesō, the alternative form of ecsō. We argue that this cohesion is not a coincidence and we try to suggest an explanation.

  3. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovic, N N; Shapiro, C M; Ong, A

    2007-08-01

    The case report describes a distinct variant of non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) arousal parasomnia, sleepwalking type, featuring repetitive abrupt arousals, mostly from slow-wave sleep, and various automatisms and semi-purposeful behaviours. The frequency of events and distribution throughout the night presented as a continuous status of parasomnia ('status parasomnicus'). The patient responded well to treatment typically administered for adult NREM parasomnias, and after careful review of the clinical presentation, objective findings and treatment outcome, sleep-related epilepsy was ruled out in favour of parasomnia.

  4. Background music for repetitive task performance of severely retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J S

    1976-11-01

    Environmental manipulation in the form of specific tempo background music was used to assist in the habilitation of severely retarded persons. Thirty institutionalized retarded males were tested on a repetitive manual performance task judged to be similar to the type of tasks found in sheltered workshops. Each subject received each of the background treatments noncontingently: no music, slow tempo music, regular tempo music, fast tempo music. The results indicated that the regular tempo of background music facilitated the greatest improvement in performance, suggesting that the effect of music on performance is more complex than the issue of contingent presentation.

  5. Repetitively Pulsed Electric Laser Acoustic Studies. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    INGARD ET AL. SEP 83 UNCLASSIFIED APHAL-IR-83-2858-VOL-1 F336i5 86-C 2848 F/ 0/ 8, EEEmohEEEomhiE EohEEmhohEEEEE mhhhmmomhhlm...TR-83-2058, Vol 9, 0 REPETITIVELY PULSED ELECTRIC LASER ACOUSTIC STUDIES Volume I K. U. INGARD , CHARLES F. MCMILLAN uDEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICS AND...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) K.U. Ingard and Charles F. McMillan F33615.80-C-2040 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT

  6. High voltage high repetition rate pulse using Marx topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes Marx topology using MOSFET transistors. Marx circuit with 10 stages has been done, to obtain pulses about 5.5KV amplitude, and the width of the pulses was about 30μsec with a high repetition rate (PPS > 100), Vdc = 535VDC is the input voltage for supplying the Marx circuit. Two Ferrite ring core transformers were used to control the MOSFET transistors of the Marx circuit (the first transformer to control the charging MOSFET transistors, the second transformer to control the discharging MOSFET transistors).

  7. About the Infinite Repetition of Histories in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alfonseca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two different proposals, one by Ellis and Brundrit, based on classical relativistic cosmology, the other by Garriga and Vilenkin, based on the DH interpretation of quantum mechanics, both concluding that, in an infinite universe, planets and beings must be repeated an infinite number of times. We point to possible shortcomings in these arguments. We conclude that the idea of an infinite repetition of histories in space cannot be considered strictly speaking a consequence of current physics and cosmology. Such ideas should be seen rather as examples of «ironic science» in the terminology of John Horgan.

  8. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism as a genetic marker for typing Mycobacterium avium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, M P; Palenque, E; Guerrero, C; Garcia, M J

    1995-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to study 75 clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium avium. Two repetitive insertion sequences, IS1311 and IS900, were used as DNA probes. Although less than 25% of isolates showed RFLP patterns with IS900, all strains gave banding patterns with IS1311. M. avium strains isolated from patients with AIDS exhibited marked polymorphism with both probes. PMID:7615764

  9. Sport injuries in the paediatric and adolescent patient: a growing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerssemakers, Steven P. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Fotiadou, Anastasia N.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario

    2009-05-15

    With an increasing number of paediatric and adolescent athletes presenting with injuries due to overuse, a greater demand is put on clinicians and radiologists to assess the specific type of injury. Repetitive forces applied to the immature skeleton cause a different type of injury than those seen in adults due to the differences in vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system, especially at the site of the growth cartilage. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors all play a role in the development of overuse injuries. MRI plays a key role in imaging overuse injuries due to its high potential for depicting cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures. Sport-specific biomechanics are described, since this knowledge is essential for adequate MRI assessment. An overview of several sport-related injuries is presented, based on anatomical location. (orig.)

  10. Injuries in orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, F

    1986-09-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  11. Hierarchical and Multifunctional Three-dimensional Network of Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor and Strain Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Mailing address: Department of Chemistry , Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang- dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea - Phone: +82-2-2220-0945...irrecoverable loss of junctions among CNTs when repetitive strain is applied to the film. Furthermore, various surfactants , mixing parameters, and CNT volume

  12. Biomechanics of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbulut, Deniz U

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that 85% of the neck injuries caused by car accidents are the result of rear-end collisions. This type of injury is called a whiplash injury, and its mechanisms are not completely understood due to the limited ability to diagnose them using X-ray or MRI. Biomechanical studies including research on injury mechanisms, injury criteria, neck kinematics and injury epidemiology were reviewed to investigate the details of whiplash injuries. Many different injury mechanisms has been studied and identified such as hyperextension of the neck, facet joint impingement, spine column pressure, and muscle strains. Possible injury criterions have been reported as The Neck Injury Criterion (NIC), Nij criterion, IV-NIC criterio, Nkm criterion, NDC criterion.

  13. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  14. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  15. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  16. Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury...

  17. Bottle microresonator broadband and low repetition rate frequency comb generator

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoyrin, V

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of broadband and low repetition rate frequency comb generator which has the shape of an elongated and nanoscale-shallow optical bottle microresonator created at the surface of an optical fiber. The free spectral range (FSR) of the broadband azimuthal eigenfrequency series of this resonator is the exact multiple of the FSR of the dense and narrowband axial series. The effective radius variation of the microresonator is close to a parabola with a nanoscale height which is greater or equal to lambda/2pi*n0 (here lambda is the characteristic radiation wavelength and n0 is the refractive index of the microresonator material). Overall, the microresonator possesses a broadband, small FSR, and accurately equidistant spectrum convenient for the generation of a broadband and low repetition rate optical frequency comb. It is shown that this comb can be generated by pumping with a cw laser, which radiation frequency matches a single axial eigenfrequency of the microresonator, or, alternatively, by p...

  18. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  19. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  20. Hemodynamic Profiles of Functional and Dysfunctional Forms of Repetitive Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Brosschot, Jos F; Lonigro, Antonia; Medea, Barbara; Van Diest, Ilse; Thayer, Julian F

    2017-04-01

    The ability of the human brain to escape the here and now (mind wandering) can take functional (problem solving) and dysfunctional (perseverative cognition) routes. Although it has been proposed that only the latter may act as a mediator of the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease, both functional and dysfunctional forms of repetitive thinking have been associated with blood pressure (BP) reactivity of the same magnitude. However, a similar BP reactivity may be caused by different physiological determinants, which may differ in their risk for cardiovascular pathology. To examine the way (hemodynamic profile) and the extent (compensation deficit) to which total peripheral resistance and cardiac output compensate for each other in determining BP reactivity during functional and dysfunctional types of repetitive thinking. Fifty-six healthy participants randomly underwent a perseverative cognition, a mind wandering, and a problem solving induction, each followed by a 5-min recovery period while their cardiovascular parameters were continuously monitored. Perseverative cognition and problem solving (but not mind wandering) elicited BP increases of similar magnitude. However, perseverative cognition was characterized by a more vascular (versus myocardial) profile compared to mind wandering and problem solving. As a consequence, BP recovery was impaired after perseverative cognition compared to the other two conditions. Given that high vascular resistance and delayed recovery are the hallmarks of hypertension the results suggest a potential mechanism through which perseverative cognition may act as a mediator in the relationship between stress and risk for developing precursors to cardiovascular disease.