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Sample records for repetitive stimulation imaging

  1. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Evaluation of Neural Network Development in Patients Undergoing Therapeutic Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation following Stroke

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    Naoki Yamada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate plastic changes in cerebral white matter structures using diffusion tensor imaging following a 15-day stroke rehabilitation program. We compared the detection of cerebral plasticity between generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA, a novel tool for investigating white matter structures, and fractional anisotropy (FA. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS of 2400 pulses applied to the nonlesional hemisphere and 240 min intensive occupation therapy (OT daily over 15 days. Motor function was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT. Patients underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on admission and discharge, from which bilateral FA and GFA values in Brodmann area (BA 4 and BA6 were calculated. Motor function improved following treatment (p<0.001. Treatment increased GFA values for both the lesioned and nonlesioned BA4 (p<0.05, p<0.001, resp.. Changes in GFA value for BA4 of the lesioned hemisphere were significantly inversely correlated with changes in WMFT scores (R2=0.363, p<0.05. Our findings indicate that the GFA may have a potentially more useful ability than FA to detect changes in white matter structures in areas of fiber intersection for any such future investigations.

  2. Priming Hand Motor Training with Repetitive Stimulation of the Fingertips; Performance Gain and Functional Imaging of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin; Ladda, Aija Marie; Roschka, Sybille; Platz, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R

    Application of repetitive electrical stimulation (rES) of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception and sensorimotor performance in healthy individuals. To increase motor performance by priming the effects of active motor training (arm ability training; AAT) using rES. We compared the performance gain for the training increase of the averaged AAT tasks of both hands in two groups of strongly right-handed healthy volunteers. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) before and after AAT was assessed using three tasks for each hand separately: finger sequence tapping, visually guided grip force modulation, and writing. Performance during fMRI was controlled for preciseness and frequency. A total of 30 participants underwent a two-week unilateral left hand AAT, 15 participants with 20 minutes of rES priming of all fingertips of the trained hand, and 15 participants without rES priming. rES-primed AAT improved the trained left-hand performance across all training tasks on average by 32.9%, non-primed AAT improved by 29.5%. This gain in AAT performance with rES priming was predominantly driven by an increased finger tapping velocity. Functional imaging showed comparable changes for both training groups over time. Across all participants, improved AAT performance was associated with a higher contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) fMRI activation magnitude during the grip force modulation task. This study highlights the importance of S1 for hand motor training gain. In addition, it suggests the usage of rES of the fingertips for priming active hand motor training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

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    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

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    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  5. A Review of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Use in Psychiatry

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    Onur Durmaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique first introduced by Barker et al. in 1985. The principle of rTMS is based on a cortical neuronal transmembrane potential stimulated by a pulsative magnetic field. This magnetic field is induced by a direct electrical current sent through a circular coil. rTMS is an effective and widely used therapeutic stimulation method for psychiatric disorders, primarily for unipolar depression. Cost-effectiveness, minor side effects and well-tolerated profile of rTMS with no need to hospitalization for administation are the prominent features of this method. Beside the information for depression, rTMS has been reported to have some remarkable impacts in alleviating symptoms of anxiety disorders. Although data regarding efficacy of rTMS in anxiety disorders is conflicting, there are positive outcomes about generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder whereas results of rTMS treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder are generally not favorable. Since low frequency stimulation techniques have been found to be effective in treatment of auditory hallucinations, methodological similarity in concerned studies could be accepted as a supportive aspect of efficacy. Additionally, high frequency stimulation techniques applied to prefrontal area have a potential to impact negative symptoms of schizophrenia. With improving novel techniques of this stimulation method, rTMS is being used increasingly in psychiatric disorders. However, some issues concerning rTMS treatment such as maintenance or prophilactic therapy procedures, duration of effect are remain unclear. Hence, we conclude that multicenter sham controlled studies including similar designs, sociodemographic and clinical variables, methodological protocols with larger sample sizes and studies guieded by imaging methods are warranted to determinate efficacy and side effects of rTMS use

  6. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Grey, Michael James

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement...... and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  7. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A potential therapy for cognitive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, C; Sherrard, R M; Belmin, J

    2017-03-01

    Considering the limited effectiveness of drugs treatments in cognitive disorders, the emergence of noninvasive techniques to modify brain function is very interesting. Among these techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate cortical excitability and have potential therapeutic effects on cognition and behaviour. These effects are due to physiological modifications in the stimulated cortical tissue and their associated circuits, which depend on the parameters of stimulation. The objective of this article is to specify current knowledge and efficacy of rTMS in cognitive disorders. Previous studies found very encouraging results with significant improvement of higher brain functions. Nevertheless, these few studies have limits: a few patients were enrolled, the lack of control of the mechanisms of action by brain imaging, insufficiently formalized technique and variability of cognitive tests. It is therefore necessary to perform more studies, which identify statistical significant improvement and to specify underlying mechanisms of action and the parameters of use of the rTMS to offer rTMS as a routine therapy for cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Navigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation After Stroke.

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    Chervyakov, Alexander V; Poydasheva, Alexandra G; Lyukmanov, Roman H; Suponeva, Natalia A; Chernikova, Ludmila A; Piradov, Michael A; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, delivered in different modes, on motor impairments and functional limitations after stroke. The study sample included 42 patients (58.5 ± 10.7 years; 26 males) who experienced a single unilateral stroke (1-12 months previously) in the area of the middle cerebral artery. Patients completed a course of conventional rehabilitation, together with 10 sessions of navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or sham stimulation. Stimulation was scheduled five times a week over two consecutive weeks in an inpatient clinical setting. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups and received sham stimulation (n = 10), low-frequency (1-Hz) stimulation of the nonaffected hemisphere (n = 11), high-frequency (10-Hz) stimulation of the affected hemisphere (n = 13), or sequential combination of low- and high-frequency stimulations (n = 8). Participants were evaluated before and after stimulation with clinical tests, including the arm and hand section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, modified Ashworth Scale of Muscle Spasticity, and Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living. Participants in the three groups receiving navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation showed improvements in arm and hand functions on the Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment Scale. Ashworth Scale of Muscle Spasticity and Barthel Index scores were significantly reduced in groups receiving low- or high-frequency stimulation alone. Including navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a conventional rehabilitation program positively influenced motor and functional recovery in study participants, demonstrating the clinical potential of the method. The results of this study will be used for designing a large-scale clinical trial.

  9. Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms of repetitive magnetic stimulation

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    Florian eMüller-Dahlhaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous clinical studies, which have investigated the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in various brain diseases, our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying rTMS-based therapies remains limited. Thus, a deeper understanding of rTMS-induced neural plasticity is required to optimize current treatment protocols. Studies in small animals or appropriate in vitro preparations (including models of brain diseases provide highly useful experimental approaches in this context. State-of-the-art electrophysiological and live-cell imaging techniques that are well established in basic neuroscience can help answering some of the major questions in the field, such as (i which neural structures are activated during TMS, (ii how does rTMS induce Hebbian plasticity, and (iii are other forms of plasticity (e.g., metaplasticity, structural plasticity induced by rTMS? We argue that data gained from these studies will support the development of more effective and specific applications of rTMS in clinical practice.

  11. Assessment of Vascular Stent Heating with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

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    Varnerin, Nicole; Mirando, David; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Cardenas, Jesus; Cunningham, David A; Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Beall, Erik; Plow, Ela B

    2017-05-01

    A high proportion of patients with stroke do not qualify for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) clinical studies due to the presence of metallic stents. The ultimate concern is that any metal could become heated due to eddy currents. However, to date, no clinical safety data are available regarding the risk of metallic stents heating with rTMS. We tested the safety of common rTMS protocols (1 Hz and 10 Hz) with stents used commonly in stroke, nitinol and elgiloy. In our method, stents were tested in gelled saline at 2 different locations: at the center and at the lobe of the coil. In addition, at each location, stent heating was evaluated in 3 different orientations: parallel to the long axis of coil, parallel to the short axis of the coil, and perpendicular to the plane of the coil. We found that stents did not heat to more than 1°C with either 1 Hz rTMS or 10 Hz rTMS in any configuration or orientation. Heating in general was greater at the lobe when the stent was oriented perpendicularly. Our study represents a new method for ex vivo quantification of stent heating. We have found that heating of stents was well below the Food and Drug Administration standards of 2°C. Thus, our study paves the way for in vivo testing of rTMS (≤10 Hz) in the presence of implanted magnetic resonance imaging-compatible stents in animal studies. When planning human safety studies though, geometry, orientation, and location relative to the coil would be important to consider as well. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  13. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

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    Mehmet Ağırman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSPP is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by progressive spasticity of lower extremities. Spasticity is a major cause of long-term disability in HSPP and significantly affects the functional life of patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although the positive impacts of rTMS for spasticity have been reported, no study has been found on HSPP. We present two HSPP patients treated with low frequency rTMS (20 minutes at a frequency of 1 Hz (1200 pulses, for a period of 10 treatment sessions.

  14. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

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    Mehmet Ağırman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSPP is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by progressive spasticity of lower extremities. Spasticity is a major cause of long-term disability in HSPP and significantly affects the functional life of patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although the positive impacts of rTMS for spasticity have been reported, no study has been found on HSPP. We present two HSPP patients treated with low frequency rTMS (20 minutes at a frequency of 1 Hz (1200 pulses, for a period of 10 treatment sessions

  15. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

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    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis.

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    Zhang, Yingli; Liang, Wei; Yang, Shichang; Dai, Ping; Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Changhong

    2013-10-05

    This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hallucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "TMS", "repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation", and "hallucination". Selected studies were randomized controlled trials assessing therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hallucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hallucination item, and Hallucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. All data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overall mean weighted effect size for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistically significant (MD = -0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found between active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sham stimulation for

  17. Use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment in psychiatry.

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    Aleman, André

    2013-08-01

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory-verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. The present review briefly describes the background of this novel treatment modality and summarizes evidence from clinical trials into the efficacy of rTMS for depression and hallucinations. Evidence for efficacy in depression is stronger than for hallucinations, although a number of studies have reported clinically relevant improvements for hallucinations too. Different stimulation parameters (frequency, duration, location of stimulation) are discussed. There is a paucity of research into other psychiatric disorders, but initial evidence suggests that rTMS may also hold promise for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. It can be concluded that rTMS induces alterations in neural networks relevant for psychiatric disorders and that more research is needed to elucidate efficacy and underlying mechanisms of action.

  18. Left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

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    Holi, Matti M; Eronen, Markku; Toivonen, Kari; Toivonen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri; Naukkarinen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    In a double-blind, controlled study, we examined the therapeutic effects of high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on schizophrenia symptoms. A total of 22 chronic hospitalized schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to 2 weeks (10 sessions) of real or sham rTMS. rTMS was given with the following parameters: 20 trains of 5-second 10-Hz stimulation at 100 percent motor threshold, 30 seconds apart. Effects on positive and negative symptoms, self-reported symptoms, rough neuropsychological functioning, and hormones were assessed. Although there was a significant improvement in both groups in most of the symptom measures, no real differences were found between the groups. A decrease of more than 20 percent in the total PANSS score was found in 7 control subjects but only 1 subject from the real rTMS group. There was no change in hormone levels or neuropsychological functioning, measured by the MMSE, in either group. Left prefrontal rTMS (with the used parameters) seems to produce a significant nonspecific effect of the treatment procedure but no therapeutic effect in the most chronic and severely ill schizophrenia patients.

  19. Effects of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with corticobasal syndrome.

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    Civardi, Carlo; Pisano, Fabrizio; Delconte, Carmen; Collini, Alessandra; Monaco, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Corticobasal syndrome is characterized by asymmetric cortical sensorimotor dysfunction and parkinsonism; an altered cortical excitability has been reported. We explored with transcranial magnetic stimulation the motor cortical excitability in corticobasal syndrome, and the effects of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. With transcranial magnetic stimulation, we studied two corticobasal syndrome patients. We determined bilaterally from the first dorsal interosseous muscle: relaxed threshold, and contralateral and ipsilateral silent period. We also evaluated the contralateral silent period after active/sham slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the most affected side. At T0 the silent period was bilaterally short. On the most affected side, active slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induced a short lasting prolongation of the contralateral silent period. In corticobasal syndrome, transcranial magnetic stimulation showed a reduction cortical inhibitory phenomenon potentially reversed transiently by slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator with controllable pulse parameters

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    Peterchev, Angel V.; Murphy, David L.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses influence the physiological effect of TMS. However, available TMS devices allow very limited adjustment of the pulse parameters. We describe a novel TMS device that uses a circuit topology incorporating two energy storage capacitors and two insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules to generate near-rectangular electric field pulses with adjustable number, polarity, duration, and amplitude of the pulse phases. This controllable pulse parameter TMS (cTMS) device can induce electric field pulses with phase widths of 10-310 µs and positive/negative phase amplitude ratio of 1-56. Compared to conventional monophasic and biphasic TMS, cTMS reduces energy dissipation up to 82% and 57% and decreases coil heating up to 33% and 41%, respectively. We demonstrate repetitive TMS trains of 3000 pulses at frequencies up to 50 Hz with electric field pulse amplitude and width variability less than the measurement resolution (1.7% and 1%, respectively). Offering flexible pulse parameter adjustment and reduced power consumption and coil heating, cTMS enhances existing TMS paradigms, enables novel research applications and could lead to clinical applications with potentially enhanced potency.

  1. A clinical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation service in Australia: 6 years on.

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    Galletly, Cherrie A; Clarke, Patrick; Carnell, Benjamin L; Gill, Shane

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable research evidence for the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. However, there is little information about its acceptability and outcomes in clinical settings. This naturalistic study reports on a clinical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation service that has been running in Adelaide, South Australia (SA), for 6 years. During this time, 214 complete acute courses were provided to patients with treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder. Patients received either sequential bilateral or right unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment involving either 18 or 20 sessions given over 6 or 4 weeks respectively. Data included patient demographic details, duration of depression, and medication at the beginning of their repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation course. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Of those undergoing a first-time acute treatment course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (N = 167), 28% achieved remission, while a further 12% met the criteria for a response to treatment. Most patients (N = 123, 77%) had previously been treated with five or more antidepressant medications, and 77 (47%) had previously received electroconvulsive therapy. Referral rates remained high over the 6 years, indicating acceptance of the treatment by referring psychiatrists. There were no significant adverse events, and the treatment was generally well tolerated. In all, 41 patients (25%) had a second course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and 6 (4%) patients had a third course; 21 patients subsequently received maintenance repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. This naturalistic study showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was well accepted by both psychiatrists and patients, and has good efficacy and safety. Furthermore

  2. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    ) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  3. An evaluation of factors affecting duration of treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression

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    Roni Broder Cohen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of repetitive transcranialmagnetic stimulation in patients with major depression who weresubmitted to this treatment during the period from 2000 to 2006.Methods: A retrospective study with 204 patients who underwenttreatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, collectingdata from those who experienced remission (defined as a HDRS scoreequal to or lower than 7. The patients were followed for up to 6 monthsafter treatment. Mean duration of remission for this cohort of patientswas 70.2 (± 58.4 days. Results: The only variable associated withthe duration of remission in the linear regression model was numberof repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that the greater the number of sessions, the longerthe duration of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation effects.Consequently, future research investigating the effects of repetitivetranscranial magnetic stimulation should explore this variable in orderto maximize the therapeutic effects of this new brain stimulationtechnique.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders A meta-analysis***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingli Zhang; Wei Liang; Shichang Yang; Ping Dai; Lijuan Shen; Changhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hal ucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. DATA SOURCES: Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were “transcranial magnetic stimulation”, “TMS”, “repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation”, and “hal ucination”. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies were randomized control ed trials assessing therapeutic ef-ficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hal ucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hal ucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hal ucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hal ucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hal ucination item, and Hal ucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. RESULTS: Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. Al data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overal mean weighted effect size for repeti-tive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistical y significant (MD =-0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P =0.005). No significant differences were found

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to improve mood and motor function in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, R.C.G.; Siebner, H.R.; Bakker, M.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that can produce lasting changes in excitability and activity in cortical regions underneath the stimulation coil (local effect), but also within functionally connected cortical or subcortical regions

  6. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: a Novel Approach for Treating Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Michou, Emilia; Raginis-Zborowska, Alicja; Watanabe, Masahiro; Lodhi, Taha; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, a technique used to produce human central neurostimulation, has attracted increased interest and been applied experimentally in the treatment of dysphagia. This review presents a synopsis of the current research for the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on dysphagia. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the effects of rTMS and the results from studies on both healthy volunteers and dysphagic p...

  7. A feasible repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation clinical protocol in migraine prevention.

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    Zardouz, Shawn; Shi, Lei; Leung, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This case series was conducted to determine the clinical feasibility of a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol for the prevention of migraine (with and without aura). Five patients with migraines underwent five repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions separated in 1- to 2-week intervals for a period of 2 months at a single tertiary medical center. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the left motor cortex with 2000 pulses (20 trains with 1s inter-train interval) delivered per session, at a frequency of 10 Hz and 80% resting motor threshold. Pre- and post-treatment numerical rating pain scales were collected, and percent reductions in intensity, frequency, and duration were generated. An average decrease in 37.8%, 32.1%, and 31.2% were noted in the intensity, frequency, and duration of migraines post-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively. A mean decrease in 1.9±1.0 (numerical rating pain scale ± standard deviation; range: 0.4-2.8) in headache intensity scores was noted after the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. The tested repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol is a well-tolerated, safe, and effective method for migraine prevention.

  8. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on rectal function and emotion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Yuuichi; Morishita, Joe; Kano, Michiko; Mori, Takayuki; Izumi, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin; Tsutsui, Kenichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    A previous brain imaging study demonstrated activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during visceral nociception, and this activation was associated with anxiety. We hypothesized that functional modulation of the right DLPFC by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reveal the actual role of right DLPFC in brain-gut interactions in humans. Subjects were 11 healthy males aged 23.5±1.4 (mean±spin echo (SE)) years. Viscerosensory evoked potential (VEP) with sham (0 mA) or actual (30 mA) electrical stimulation (ES) of the rectum was taken after sham, low frequency rTMS at 0.1 Hz, and high frequency rTMS at 10 Hz to the right DLPFC. Rectal tone was measured with a rectal barostat. Visceral perception and emotion were analyzed using an ordinate scale, rectal barostat, and VEP. Low frequency rTMS significantly reduced anxiety evoked by ES at 30 mA (p<0.05). High frequency rTMS-30 mA ES significantly produced more phasic volume events than sham rTMS-30 mA ES (p<0.05). We successfully modulated the gastrointestinal function of healthy individuals through rTMS to the right DLPFC. Thus, rTMS to the DLPFC appears to modulate the affective, but not direct, component of visceral perception and motility of the rectum. (author)

  9. Treating Clinical Depression with Repetitive Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using the Brainsway H1-coil

    OpenAIRE

    Feifel, David; Pappas, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuron...

  10. Facilitation of speech repetition accuracy by theta burst stimulation of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restle, Julia; Murakami, Takenobu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    The posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in the left hemisphere is thought to form part of the putative human mirror neuron system and is assigned a key role in mapping sensory perception onto motor action. Accordingly, the pIFG is involved in motor imitation of the observed actions of others but it is not known to what extent speech repetition of auditory-presented sentences is also a function of the pIFG. Here we applied fMRI-guided facilitating intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS), or depressant continuous TBS (cTBS), or intermediate TBS (imTBS) over the left pIFG of healthy subjects and compared speech repetition accuracy of foreign Japanese sentences before and after TBS. We found that repetition accuracy improved after iTBS and, to a lesser extent, after imTBS, but remained unchanged after cTBS. In a control experiment, iTBS was applied over the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), a region not involved in sensorimotor processing of auditory-presented speech. Repetition accuracy remained unchanged after iTBS of MOG. We argue that the stimulation type and stimulation site specific facilitating effect of iTBS over left pIFG on speech repetition accuracy indicates a causal role of the human left-hemispheric pIFG in the translation of phonological perception to motor articulatory output for repetition of speech. This effect may prove useful in rehabilitation strategies that combine repetitive speech training with iTBS of the left pIFG in speech disorders, such as aphasia after cerebral stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2014-03-25

    Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates the impact of a negative mood induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möbius, M.; Lacomblé, L.M.T.; Meyer, T.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Gielkens, T.; Becker, E.S.; Tendolkar, I.; Eijndhoven, P.F.P. van

    2017-01-01

    High frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been found to alleviate depressive symptoms. However, the mechanisms driving these effects are still poorly understood. In the current study, we tested the idea that this

  13. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...

  14. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

  15. Accelerated high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances motor activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Arfani, Anissa; Parthoens, Joke; Demuyser, Thomas; Servaes, Stijn; De Coninck, Mattias; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Dam, Debby; Wyckhuys, Tine; Baeken, Chris; Smolders, Ilse; Staelens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) is currently accepted as an evidence-based treatment option for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Additionally, HF-rTMS showed beneficial effects on psychomotor retardation in patients. The classical HF-rTMS paradigms however

  16. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Clinical Applications in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2013-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by several disabling symptoms for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A method that may modulate brain activity and be viable for use in clinical practice is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). It is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main stimulation parametters, the factors that influence individual responses to rTMS and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. The findings showed that rTMS can improve some symptoms associated with these conditions and might be useful for promoting cortical plasticity in patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, these changes are transient and it is premature to propose these applications as realistic therapeutic options, even though the rTMS technique has been evidenced as a potential modulator of sensorimotor integration and neuroplasticity. Functional imaging of the region of interest could highlight the capacity of rTMS to bring about plastic changes of the cortical circuitry and hint at future novel clinical interventions. Thus, we recommend that further studies clearly determine the role of rTMS in the treatment of these conditions. Finally, we must remember that however exciting the neurobiological mechanisms might be, the clinical usefulness of rTMS will be determined by its ability to provide patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders with safe, long-lasting and substantial improvements in quality of life. PMID:25610279

  17. Repetitive low-frequency stimulation reduces epileptiform synchronization in limbic neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, G; Panuccio, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2005-01-01

    Deep-brain electrical or transcranial magnetic stimulation may represent a therapeutic tool for controlling seizures in patients presenting with epileptic disorders resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In keeping with this clinical evidence, we have reported that repetitive electrical stimuli delivered at approximately 1 Hz in mouse hippocampus-entorhinal cortex (EC) slices depress the EC ability to generate ictal activity induced by the application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or Mg(2+)-free medium (Barbarosie, M., Avoli, M., 1997. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J. Neurosci. 17, 9308-9314.). Here, we confirmed a similar control mechanism in rat brain slices analyzed with field potential recordings during 4AP (50 microM) treatment. In addition, we used intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recordings to quantify the intensity and spatial characteristics of this inhibitory influence. IOSs reflect the changes in light transmittance throughout the entire extent of the slice, and are thus reliable markers of limbic network epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that in the presence of 4AP, the IOS increases, induced by a train of electrical stimuli (10 Hz for 1 s) or by recurrent, single-shock stimulation delivered at 0.05 Hz in the deep EC layers, are reduced in intensity and area size by low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive stimulation of the subiculum; these effects were observed in all limbic areas contained in the slice. Second, by testing the effects induced by repetitive subicular stimulation at 0.2-10 Hz, we identified maximal efficacy when repetitive stimuli are delivered at 1 Hz. Finally, we discovered that similar, but slightly less pronounced, inhibitory effects occur when repetitive stimuli at 1 Hz are delivered in the EC, suggesting that the reduction of IOSs seen during repetitive stimulation is pathway dependent as well as activity dependent. Thus, the activation of limbic networks at low frequency

  18. Bilateral somatosensory evoked potentials following intermittent theta-burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Azra; Ziluk, Angela; Nelson, Aimee J

    2010-08-05

    Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation that may alter cortical excitability in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The present study investigated the effects of iTBS on subcortical and early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded over left, iTBS stimulated SI and the right-hemisphere non-stimulated SI. SEPs were recorded before and at 5, 15, and 25 minutes following iTBS. Compared to pre-iTBS, the amplitude of cortical potential N20/P25 was significantly increased for 5 minutes from non-stimulated SI and for 15 to 25 minutes from stimulated SI. Subcortical potentials recorded bilaterally remained unaltered following iTBS. We conclude that iTBS increases the cortical excitability of SI bilaterally and does not alter thalamocortical afferent input to SI. ITBS may provide one avenue to induce cortical plasticity in the somatosensory cortex.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects strategic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Kahn, René S; Sanfey, Alan G; Aleman, André

    2005-11-07

    Although decision-making is typically seen as a rational process, emotions play a role in tasks that include unfairness. Recently, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offers experienced as unfair in the Ultimatum Game was suggested to subserve goal maintenance in this task. This is restricted to correlational evidence, however, and it remains unclear whether the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is crucial for strategic decision-making. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in order to investigate the causal role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in strategic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. The results showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in an altered decision-making strategy compared with sham stimulation. We conclude that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is causally implicated in strategic decision-making in healthy human study participants.

  20. Enhanced accuracy in novel mirror drawing after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced proprioceptive deafferentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Christensen, Lars O.D.; Lee, Ji-hang

    2004-01-01

    a performance benefit. In this study, we tested whether deafferentation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve mirror tracing skills in normal subjects. Hand trajectory error during novel mirror drawing was compared across two groups of subjects that received either 1 Hz r......TMS over the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the hand or sham stimulation. Mirror tracing was more accurate after rTMS than after sham stimulation. Using a position-matching task, we confirmed that rTMS reduced proprioceptive acuity and that this reduction was largest when the coil was placed...

  1. Repetitive nerve stimulation as a diagnostic aid for distinguishing cervical spondylotic amyotrophy from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaojun; Jin, Xiang; Zhu, Yu; Lu, Feizhou; Jiang, Jianyuan; Xia, Xinlei

    2017-07-01

    To identify and compare the features of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) decrements in repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) in patients with cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) and in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cohort consisted of 43 CSA (distal-type to proximal-type ratio: 27-16) and 35 ALS patients. Five muscles, including abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), biceps brachii (BB), middle deltoid (Del), and upper trapezius (Trap), were tested by 3-Hz RNS. Decrements greater than cutoff values (APB > 5.8%; ADM > 4.8%; BB > 5.2%; Del > 6%; Trap > 5.1%) determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were defined as abnormal, and the conventional criterion (≥10%) was also considered. A significant CMAP decrement (>cutoff values) was recorded from at least one tested muscle in 91.4% of ALS patients, and was most common in the proximal muscle, a finding that differed significantly from CSA patients (32.6%, P  0.05). The application of RNS, especially in proximal muscles, may provide a simple accurate and noninvasive supplementary test for distinguishing CSA from ALS, even in the early stage of these diseases. A combination of RNS, needle EMG, clinical features and cervical magnetic resonance imaging may yield sufficient diagnostic information to differentiate CSA and ALS.

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  3. Non-invasive mapping of calculation function by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Stefanie; Tanigawa, Noriko; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-11-01

    Concerning calculation function, studies have already reported on localizing computational function in patients and volunteers by functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, the development of accurate repetitive navigated TMS (rTMS) with a considerably higher spatial resolution opens a new field in cognitive neuroscience. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the feasibility of rTMS for locating cortical calculation function in healthy volunteers, and to establish this technique for future scientific applications as well as preoperative mapping in brain tumor patients. Twenty healthy subjects underwent rTMS calculation mapping using 5 Hz/10 pulses. Fifty-two previously determined cortical spots of the whole hemispheres were stimulated on both sides. The subjects were instructed to perform the calculation task composed of 80 simple arithmetic operations while rTMS pulses were applied. The highest error rate (80 %) for all errors of all subjects was observed in the right ventral precentral gyrus. Concerning division task, a 45 % error rate was achieved in the left middle frontal gyrus. The subtraction task showed its highest error rate (40 %) in the right angular gyrus (anG). In the addition task a 35 % error rate was observed in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus. Lastly, the multiplication task induced a maximum error rate of 30 % in the left anG. rTMS seems feasible as a way to locate cortical calculation function. Besides language function, the cortical localizations are well in accordance with the current literature for other modalities or lesion studies.

  4. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Treatment in Enduring Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-03-01

    This case series examined the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in five women with enduring anorexia nervosa. Participants received ~20 sessions of neuronavigated high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Body mass index, eating disorder (ED) symptoms and mood were assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment, at 6-month and 12-month follow-up (FU). Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was obtained from participants and carers. From pre-treatment to post-treatment, ED and affective symptoms improved significantly, and body mass index remained stable. Further improvements in ED symptoms/mood were seen at 6-month FU with 3/5 and 2/5 participants deemed 'recovered' on the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, respectively. However, most participants had lost some weight, and therapeutic effects on psychopathology had waned by 12-month FU. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was encouraging. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was well tolerated, and preliminary evidence is provided for its therapeutic potential in anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Repetition blindness for natural images of objects with viewpoint changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eBuffat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, observers sometimes fail to report the second occurrence of a target. This phenomenon is referred to as repetition blindness (RB. We report an RSVP experiment with photographs in which we manipulated object viewpoints between the first and second occurrences of a target (0-, 45-, or 90-degree changes, and spatial frequency content. Natural images were spatially filtered to produce low, medium, or high spatial-frequency stimuli. RB was observed for all filtering conditions. Surprisingly, for full-spectrum images, RB increased significantly as the viewpoint reached 90 degrees. For filtered images, a similar pattern of results was found for all conditions except for medium spatial-frequency stimuli. These findings suggest that object recognition in RSVP are subtended by viewpoint-specific representations for all spatial frequencies except medium ones.

  7. Simultaneous effect of chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on RCBF and RCMR in depressive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschina, W.; Conca, A.; Fritzsche, H.; Koenig, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The basic principle of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is the electromagnetic induction: depending on the field strength (up to 2 Tesla) neurons are frequency-dependent stimulated or inhibited. This method allows a non-invasive and painless investigation of sensomotoric and higher cortical functions. Brain imaging studies can visualize cerebral perfusion and metabolism, as they are influenced by rTMS. The aim of our study was to analyze the patterns of regional cerebral glucose uptake rate (rCMRGIu) and regional 99m Tc HMPAO uptake rate (rCBF) simultaneously during a treatment course of rTMS at low frequency. Four drug resistant depressed patients underwent 10 rTMS as add-on measure over 14 days. One day before and one day alter TMS series 511 KeV SPECT with 18 F-FDG and 99m Tc HMPAO simultaneous measurements were carried out. We used a standard double-head camera with a 511 keV-collimator. The two isotope doses were injected simultaneously. Acquisition was done with a double-isotope, there-window technique, where the third window was used for the registration of compton scatter. After applying Chang's attenuation correction and a simultaneous reorientation of the two datasets, a semiquantitative evaluation with 16 regions per hemisphere was performed. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common changes of rCBF and rCMRGlu pattern were found in the upper frontal regions bilaterally in terms of increased uptake rates and in the left orbitofrontal cortex in terms of decreased uptake rates of both isotopes compared to controls. Furthermore, the lateralization pattern of rCBF and rCMRGlu after rTMS treatment revealed marked differences. Thus, despite no relevant changes of lateralization on the glucose uptake were observed, a clear right-sided preponderance of rCBF also in areas remote from the stimulation side was described. Therapeutic rTMS seems to influence distinct, cortical regions affecting r

  8. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in drug resistant depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kang, Bong Joo; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Moon, Hyun Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has recently been clinically applied in the treatment of drug resistant depressed patients. There are mixed findings about the efficacy of rTMS on depression. Furthermore, the influence of rTMS on the physiology of the brain is not clear. We prospectively evaluated changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between pre- and post-rTMS treatment in patients with drug resistant depression. Twelve patients with drug-resistant depression (7 male, 5 female; age range; 19∼ 52 years; mean age: 29.3 ± 9.3 years) were given rTMS on right prefrontal lobe with low frequency (1 Hz) and on left prefrontal lobe with high frequency (20 Hz), with 20-minute-duration each day for 3 weeks. Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT was obtained before and after rTMS treatment. The changes of cerebral perfusion were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM; t=3.14, uncorrected ρ < 0.01, voxel = 100). Following areas showed significant increase in rCBF after 3 weeks rTMS treatment: the cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus of right temporal lobe, precuneus, and left lateral globus pallidus. Significant decrement was noted in the precental and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, and fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased and decreased rCBF in the specific brain regions in drug-resistant depressed patients. Further analyses correlating clinical characteristics and treatment paradigm with functional imaging data may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of drug-resistant patients

  9. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in drug resistant depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kang, Bong Joo; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Moon, Hyun Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has recently been clinically applied in the treatment of drug resistant depressed patients. There are mixed findings about the efficacy of rTMS on depression. Furthermore, the influence of rTMS on the physiology of the brain is not clear. We prospectively evaluated changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between pre- and post-rTMS treatment in patients with drug resistant depression. Twelve patients with drug-resistant depression (7 male, 5 female; age range; 19{approx} 52 years; mean age: 29.3 {+-} 9.3 years) were given rTMS on right prefrontal lobe with low frequency (1 Hz) and on left prefrontal lobe with high frequency (20 Hz), with 20-minute-duration each day for 3 weeks. Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT was obtained before and after rTMS treatment. The changes of cerebral perfusion were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM; t=3.14, uncorrected {rho} < 0.01, voxel = 100). Following areas showed significant increase in rCBF after 3 weeks rTMS treatment: the cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus of right temporal lobe, precuneus, and left lateral globus pallidus. Significant decrement was noted in the precental and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, and fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased and decreased rCBF in the specific brain regions in drug-resistant depressed patients. Further analyses correlating clinical characteristics and treatment paradigm with functional imaging data may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of drug-resistant patients.

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Behm, Frédérique M; Preud'homme, Xavier; Krystal, Andrew D

    2011-10-15

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown strong correlations between cue-elicited craving for cigarettes and activation of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a noninvasive means to reversibly affect brain cortical activity, which can be applied to testing hypotheses about the causal role of SFG in modulating craving. Fifteen volunteer smokers were recruited to investigate the effects of rTMS on subjective responses to smoking versus neutral cues and to controlled presentations of cigarette smoke. On different days, participants were exposed to three conditions: 1) high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; 2) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; and 3) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the motor cortex (control condition). Craving ratings in response to smoking versus neutral cues were differentially affected by the 10-Hz versus 1-Hz SFG condition. Craving after smoking cue presentations was elevated in the 10-Hz SFG condition, whereas craving after neutral cue presentations was reduced. Upon smoking in the 10-Hz SFG condition, ratings of immediate craving reduction as well as the intensity of interoceptive airway sensations were also attenuated. These results support the view that the SFG plays a role in modulating craving reactivity; moreover, the results suggest that the SFG plays a role in both excitatory and inhibitory influences on craving, consistent with prior research demonstrating the role of the prefrontal cortex in the elicitation as well as inhibition of drug-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in cervical dystonia: effect of site and repetition in a randomized pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    Full Text Available Dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing due to sustained muscle contraction, which leads to pain and significant disability. New therapeutic targets are needed in this disorder. The objective of this randomized, sham-controlled, blinded exploratory study is to identify a specific motor system target for non-invasive neuromodulation and to evaluate this target in terms of safety and tolerability in the cervical dystonia (CD population. Eight CD subjects were given 15-minute sessions of low-frequency (0.2 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the primary motor cortex (MC, dorsal premotor cortex (dPM, supplementary motor area (SMA, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and a sham condition with each session separated by at least two days. The Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS score was rated in a blinded fashion immediately pre- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes included physiology and tolerability ratings. The mean change in TWSTRS severity score by site was 0.25 ± 1.7 (ACC, -2.9 ± 3.4 (dPM, -3.0 ± 4.8 (MC, -0.5 ± 1.1 (SHAM, and -1.5 ± 3.2 (SMA with negative numbers indicating improvement in symptom control. TWSTRS scores decreased from Session 1 (15.1 ± 5.1 to Session 5 (11.0 ± 7.6. The treatment was tolerable and safe. Physiology data were acquired on 6 of 8 subjects and showed no change over time. These results suggest rTMS can modulate CD symptoms. Both dPM and MC are areas to be targeted in further rTMS studies. The improvement in TWSTRS scores over time with multiple rTMS sessions deserves further evaluation.

  12. Comparative study of ipsilesional and contralesional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations for acute infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kosuke; Kudo, Yosuke; Sugawara, Eriko; Nakamizo, Tomoki; Amari, Kazumitsu; Takahashi, Koji; Tanaka, Osamu; Endo, Miho; Hayakawa, Yuko; Johkura, Ken

    2018-01-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is reported to improve chronic post-stoke hemiparesis. However, application of rTMS during the acute phase of post-stroke has not fully been investigated. We investigated the safety and the efficacy of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) of the affected motor cortex and 1-Hz stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere during the acute phase in patients with hemiparesis due to capsular infarction. Twenty one patients who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to receive, starting within 7days after stroke onset and for a period of 10days, iTBS of the affected motor cortex hand area (n=8), 1-Hz stimulation of the unaffected motor cortex hand area (n=7), or sham stimulation (n=6). Upper limb motor function was evaluated before rTMS and 12weeks after onset of the stroke. Evaluation was based on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), grip strength, and motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Both iTBS applied to the affected motor cortex hand area and 1-Hz stimulation applied to the unaffected motor cortex hand area enhanced motor recovery. In comparison to sham stimulation, iTBS increased the SIAS finger-function test score, and 1-Hz stimulation decreased the MAS wrist and finger score. Ipsilesional iTBS and contralesional 1-Hz stimulation applied during the acute phase of stroke have different effects: ipsilesional iTBS improves movement of the affected limb, whereas contralesional 1-Hz stimulation reduces spasticity of the affected limb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pressure pain thresholds increase after preconditioning 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.

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    Moloney, Tonya M; Witney, Alice G

    2014-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS) for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST) through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (ppain thresholds (ppain. This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia.

  14. Bilateral somatosensory evoked potentials following intermittent theta-burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Ziluk Angela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation that may alter cortical excitability in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The present study investigated the effects of iTBS on subcortical and early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs recorded over left, iTBS stimulated SI and the right-hemisphere non-stimulated SI. SEPs were recorded before and at 5, 15, and 25 minutes following iTBS. Results Compared to pre-iTBS, the amplitude of cortical potential N20/P25 was significantly increased for 5 minutes from non-stimulated SI and for 15 to 25 minutes from stimulated SI. Subcortical potentials recorded bilaterally remained unaltered following iTBS. Conclusion We conclude that iTBS increases the cortical excitability of SI bilaterally and does not alter thalamocortical afferent input to SI. ITBS may provide one avenue to induce cortical plasticity in the somatosensory cortex.

  15. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A Case Report.

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    Chung, So Won; Park, Shin Who; Seo, Young Jae; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Chan Ho; Lim, Jong Youb

    2017-02-01

    A 57-year-old man who was diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome showed severe impairment of cognitive function and a craving for alcohol, even after sufficient supplementation with thiamine. After completing 10 sessions of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 100% of the resting motor threshold over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dramatic improvement in cognitive function and a reduction in craving for alcohol were noted. This is the first case report of the efficacy of a high-frequency rTMS in the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a neuropsychiatric tool: present status and future potential.

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    Post, R M; Kimbrell, T A; McCann, U D; Dunn, R T; Osuch, E A; Speer, A M; Weiss, S R

    1999-03-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation of a major motor seizure to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, it carries the potentially important clinical advantages of not requiring anesthesia and of avoiding side effects such as transient memory loss. Preclinical studies on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal and amygdala slices, as well as clinical data from neuroimaging studies, have provided encouraging clues for potential frequency-dependent effects of rTMS. Preliminary evidence from position emission tomography (PET) scans suggests that higher frequency (20 Hz) stimulation may increase brain glucose metabolism in a transsynaptic fashion, whereas lower frequency (1 Hz) stimulation may decrease it. Therefore, the ability of rTMS to control the frequency as well as the location of stimulation, in addition to its other advantages, has opened up new possibilities for clinical explorations and treatments of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  17. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Handwriting in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Bubblepreet K. Randhawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson disease (PD is characterized by hypometric movements resulting from loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PD leads to decreased activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA; the net result of these changes is a poverty of movement. The present study determined the impact of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the SMA on a fine motor movement, handwriting (writing cursive “l”s, and on cortical excitability, in individuals with PD. Methods. In a cross-over design, ten individuals with PD were randomized to receive either 5 Hz or control stimulation over the SMA. Immediately following brain stimulation right handed writing was assessed. Results. 5 Hz stimulation increased vertical size of handwriting and diminished axial pressure. In addition, 5 Hz rTMS significantly decreased the threshold for excitability in the primary motor cortex. Conclusions. These data suggest that in the short term 5 Hz rTMS benefits functional fine motor task performance, perhaps by altering cortical excitability across a network of brain regions. Further, these data may provide the foundation for a larger investigation of the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation over the SMA in individuals with PD.

  18. Contact heat-evoked temporal summation: tonic versus repetitive-phasic stimulation.

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    Granot, Michal; Granovsky, Yelena; Sprecher, Elliot; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Yarnitsky, David

    2006-06-01

    Temporal summation (TS) is usually evoked by repetitive mechanical or electrical stimuli, and less commonly by tonic heat pain. The present study aimed to examine the TS induction by repetitive-phasic versus tonic heat pain stimuli. Using 27 normal volunteers, we compared the extent of summation by three calculation methods: start-to-end pain rating difference, percent change, and double-logarithmic regression of successive ratings along the stimulation. Subjects were tested twice, and the reliability of each of the paradigms was obtained. In addition, personality factors related to pain catastrophizing and anxiety level were also correlated with the psychophysical results. Both paradigms induced significant TS, with similar increases for the repetitive-phasic and the tonic paradigms, as measured on 0-100 numerical pain scale (from 52.9+/-11.7 to 80.2+/-15.5, p<0.001; and from 38.5+/-13.3 to 75.8+/-18.3, p<0.001, respectively). The extent of summation was significantly correlated between the two paradigms, when calculated by absolute change (r=0.543, p=0.004) and by regression (r=0.438, p=0.025). Session-to-session variability was similar for both paradigms, relatively large, yet not biased. As with other psychophysical parameters, this poses some limitations on TS assessment in individual patients over time. The extent of TS induced by both paradigms was found to be associated with anxiety level and pain catastrophizing. Despite some dissimilarity between the repetitive-phasic and the tonic paradigms, the many similarities suggest that the two represent a similar physiological process, even if not precisely the same. Future clinical applications of these tests will determine the clinical relevance of the TS paradigms presented in this study.

  19. Effects of Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

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    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Min Su; Chang, Won Hyuk; Oh, Su Mi; Kim, Yun Kwan; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    Optimal protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on post-stroke dysphagia remains uncertain with regard to its clinical efficacy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of high-frequency rTMS at the bilateral motor cortices over the cortical representation of the mylohyoid muscles in the patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled study with a blinded observer. Thirty-five stroke patients were randomly divided into three intervention groups: the bilateral stimulation group, the unilateral stimulation group, and the sham stimulation group. For the bilateral stimulation group, 500 pulses of 10 Hz rTMS over the ipsilesional and 500 pulses of 10 Hz rTMS over the contralesional motor cortices over the cortical areas that project to the mylohyoid muscles were administered daily for 2 consecutive weeks. For the unilateral stimulation group, 500 pulses of 10 Hz rTMS over the ipsilesional motor cortex over the cortical representation of the mylohyoid muscle and the same amount of sham rTMS over the contralesional hemisphere were applied. For the sham stimulation group, sham rTMS was applied at the bilateral motor cortices. Clinical swallowing function and videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were assessed before the intervention (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1) and 3 weeks after the intervention (T2) using Clinical Dysphagia Scale (CDS), Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (DOSS), Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), and Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS). There were significant time and intervention interaction effects in the CDS, DOSS, PAS, and VDS scores (p dysphagia therapies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

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    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  1. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

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    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  2. Treating Clinical Depression with Repetitive Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using the Brainsway H1-coil.

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    Feifel, David; Pappas, Katherine

    2016-10-04

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuronal pathways that lie deeper in the targeted brain areas than those reached by conventional rTMS coils. dTMS is considered to be low-risk and well tolerated, making it a viable treatment option for people who have not responded to medication or psychotherapy trials for their depression. Randomized, sham-control studies have demonstrated that dTMS produces significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than sham dTMS treatment in patients with major depression that has not responded to antidepressant medication. In this paper, we will review the methodology for treating major depression with dTMS using an H1-coil.

  3. Pressure pain thresholds increase after preconditioning 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.

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    Tonya M Moloney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary motor cortex (M1 is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. METHOD: 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. RESULTS: Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (p<0.001 with a parallel increase in pressure pain thresholds (p<0.01. In contrast, anodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS resulted in a corresponding decrease in cortical excitability (p<0.05, with no significant effect on pressure pain. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia.

  4. Optimal timing of pulse onset for language mapping with navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Krieg, Sandro M; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Picht, Thomas; Tanigawa, Noriko; Houde, John; Sollmann, Nico; Meyer, Bernhard; Vajkoczy, Peter; Berger, Mitchel S; Ringel, Florian; Nagarajan, Srikantan

    2014-10-15

    Within the primary motor cortex, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been shown to yield maps strongly correlated with those generated by direct cortical stimulation (DCS). However, the stimulation parameters for repetitive nTMS (rTMS)-based language mapping are still being refined. For this purpose, the present study compares two rTMS protocols, which differ in the timing of pulse train onset relative to picture presentation onset during object naming. Results were the correlated with DCS language mapping during awake surgery. Thirty-two patients with left-sided perisylvian tumors were examined by rTMS prior to awake surgery. Twenty patients underwent rTMS pulse trains starting at 300 ms after picture presentation onset (delayed TMS), whereas another 12 patients received rTMS pulse trains starting at the picture presentation onset (ONSET TMS). These rTMS results were then evaluated for correlation with intraoperative DCS results as gold standard in terms of differential consistencies in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) statistics. Logistic regression analysis by protocols and brain regions were conducted. Within and around Broca's area, there was no difference in sensitivity (onset TMS: 100%, delayed TMS: 100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (onset TMS: 100%, delayed TMS: 100%), and positive predictive value (PPV) (onset TMS: 55%, delayed TMS: 54%) between the two protocols compared to DCS. However, specificity differed significantly (onset TMS: 67%, delayed TMS: 28%). In contrast, for posterior language regions, such as supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, and posterior superior temporal gyrus, early pulse train onset stimulation showed greater specificity (onset TMS: 92%, delayed TMS: 20%), NPV (onset TMS: 92%, delayed TMS: 57%) and PPV (onset TMS: 75%, delayed TMS: 30%) with comparable sensitivity (onset TMS: 75%, delayed TMS: 70%). Logistic regression analysis also confirmed the greater fit of the predictions by rTMS that had the

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation in lumbosacral spondylotic pain.

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    Lo, Yew L; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Huerto, Antonio P; George, Jane M

    2011-07-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is a degenerative disorder of the spine, whereby pain is a prominent feature that poses therapeutic challenges even after surgical intervention. There are no randomized, placebo-controlled studies utilizing repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation (SMS) in pain associated with lumbar spondylosis. In this study, we utilize SMS technique for patients with this condition in a pilot clinical trial. We randomized 20 patients into SMS treatment or placebo arms. All patients must have clinical and radiological evidence of lumbar spondylosis. Patients should present with pain in the lumbar region, localized or radiating down the lower limbs in a radicular distribution. SMS was delivered with a Medtronic R30 repetitive magnetic stimulator (Medtronic Corporation, Skovlunde, Denmark) connected to a C-B60 figure of eight coil capable of delivering a maximum output of 2 Tesla per pulse. The coil measured 90 mm in each wing and was centered over the surface landmark corresponding to the cauda equina region. The coil was placed flat over the back with the handle pointing cranially. Each patient on active treatment received 200 trains of five pulses delivered at 10 Hz, at an interval of 5 seconds between each train. "Sham" SMS was delivered with the coil angled vertically and one of the wing edges in contact with the stimulation point. All patients tolerated the procedure well and no side effects of SMS were reported. In the treatment arm, SMS had resulted in significant pain reduction immediately and at Day 4 after treatment (P lumbar spondylosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled setting. The novel findings support the potential of this technique for future studies pertaining to neuropathic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Focal hand dystonia: individualized intervention with repeated application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Schmidt, Rebekah L; Carey, James R; Gillick, Bernadette

    2015-04-01

    To examine for individual factors that may predict response to inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in focal hand dystonia (FHD); to present the method for determining optimal stimulation to increase inhibition in a given patient; and to examine individual responses to prolonged intervention. Single-subject design to determine optimal parameters to increase inhibition for a given subject and to use the selected parameters once per week for 6 weeks, with 1-week follow-up, to determine response. Clinical research laboratory. A volunteer sample of subjects with FHD (N = 2). One participant had transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition, and the other had responses within normative limits. There were 1200 pulses of 1-Hz rTMS delivered using 4 different stimulation sites/intensity combinations: primary motor cortex at 90% or 110% of resting motor threshold (RMT) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) at 90% or 110% of RMT. The parameters producing the greatest within-session increase in cortical silent period (CSP) duration were then used as the intervention. Response variables included handwriting pressure and velocity, subjective symptom rating, CSP, and short latency intracortical inhibition and facilitation. The individual with baseline transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition responded favorably to the repeated intervention, with reduced handwriting force, an increase in the CSP, and subjective report of moderate symptom improvement at 1-week follow-up. The individual with normative baseline responses failed to respond to the intervention. In both subjects, 90% of RMT to the PMd produced the greatest lengthening of the CSP and was used as the intervention. An individualized understanding of neurophysiological measures can be an indicator of responsiveness to inhibitory rTMS in focal dystonia, with further work needed to determine likely responders versus nonresponders. Copyright

  7. Is there potential for repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment of OCD?

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    Zaman, Rashid; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-09-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common and highly debilitating psychiatric disorder. Amongst OCD sufferers are a significant number (40-60%) of so-called non-responders who do not fully respond to commonly available treatments, which include medications (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors-SSRIs) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Modern 'neuromodulatory' techniques such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) potentially offer alternative forms of treatment for OCD patients who either do not respond to, or are unable or unwilling to take SSRIs and undergo CBT. Although shown to be effective in treatment resistant OCD, DBS requires invasive neurosurgical procedures with associated risks. On the other hand, rTMS and tDCS are non-invasive forms of treatment, which are largely risk free, but the evidence of their efficacy so far is somewhat limited, with only small number of published studies. In this brief survey we will address the potential of rTMS as a therapeutic tool for OCD and review the published literature on the cortical targets for rTMS used so far. We will also discuss some of the newer variants of rTMS techniques only a few of which have been employed so far, and speculate whether there might be a place for rTMS as a standard treatment in OCD, along side CBT, SSRIs and DBS.

  8. Effective treatment of narcolepsy-like symptoms with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Lai, Jian-bo; Han, Mao-mao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with disrupted sleep-architecture. Clinical management of narcolepsy lies dominantly on symptom-driven pharmacotherapy. The treatment role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for narcolepsy remains unexplored. Patient concerns: In this paper, we present a case of a 14-year-old young girl with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. Diagnoses: After excluding other possible medical conditions, this patient was primarily diagnosed with narcolepsy. Interventions: The patient received 25 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Outcomes: The symptoms of EDS and cataplexy significantly improved after rTMS treatment. Meanwhile, her score in the Epworth sleep scale (ESS) also remarkably decreased. Lessons: This case indicates that rTMS may be selected as a safe and effective alternative strategy for treating narcolepsy-like symptoms. Well-designed researches are warranted in future investigations on this topic. PMID:29145290

  9. A case of cerebral reversible vasoconstriction syndrome triggered by repetition transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mamiko; Yamate, Koji; Hayashi, Hiromi; Miura, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Yasutaka

    2017-08-31

    A 75-year-old man was admitted for combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy. Five days after the initiation of rTMS, he developed hypotension and temporary exacerbation of the right hemiplegia with thunderclap headache. MRA showed segmental stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery, which findings were improved at 9 days after the onset of the headache. He was diagnosed as having the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). The rTMS was recognized as safe rehabilitation treatment. However, it is necessary to recognize that RCVS can become one of the precipitants. This is the first report of RCVS triggered by rTMS.

  10. Influence of repetitive UVA stimulation on skin protection capacity and antioxidant efficacy.

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    Rohr, Mathias; Rieger, Ingrid; Jain, Anil; Schrader, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Topically applied antioxidants (AOs) are widely used in cosmetic products - especially in day and sun care - to help reduce oxidative stress caused by exogenous influences such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite several advances in recent years, little is known about the duration of protective effects by application of topical AOs, AO protection capacity (APC) or the activation of an endogenous protection capacity (EPC). By measuring oxidative-stress-induced photon emission of human skin in vivo with the ICL-S method (induced chemiluminescence of human skin), the protective effect of daily AO treatment for 2 weeks was examined on 4 consecutive days after treatment. UVA-dose-independent effects were investigated by decay curve intersection point analysis. In addition, chemiluminescence signal integration was used to investigate the influence of different UVA doses for stimulation on the determined APC as well as the modulation of the EPC by repetitive UVA stimulation both forming the skin protection capacity (SPC). The SPC showed a strong dependency on the UVA dose used for stimulation. AO pretreatment was more effective against lower UVA doses. Over the course of 4 days, the AO-induced SPC did not change significantly for a given UVA dose. Analyzing the decay curve intersection point for 2 different UVA doses, however, revealed a decrease in SPC with time. In addition, we found that a repetitive UVA irradiation of 1 J/cm(2) caused a statistically significant protective effect against UVA irradiation by stimulation of endogenous mechanisms. Topically supplemented AOs provide a protective effect against oxidative stress for at least 3 days, supporting their widespread use in cosmetic products. Especially their interaction with cutaneous protective mechanisms should be investigated in more detail for maximal protection, as endogenous defense mechanisms are already triggered by 2 low-dose UVA irradiations within 24 h. In summary, the in vivo measurement of UVA

  11. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography

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    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F. Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the Δ[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level.

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces oscillatory power changes in chronic tinnitus

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    Martin eSchecklmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is associated with neuroplastic changes in auditory and non-auditory cortical areas. About ten years ago, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of auditory and prefrontal cortex was introduced as potential treatment for tinnitus. The resulting changes in tinnitus loudness are interpreted in the context of rTMS induced activity changes (neuroplasticity. Here, we investigate the effect of single rTMS sessions on oscillatory power to probe the capacity of rTMS to interfere with tinnitus-specific cortical plasticity. We measured 20 patients with bilateral chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy controls comparable for age, sex, handedness, and hearing level with a 63-channel EEG system. Educational level, intelligence, depressivity and hyperacusis were controlled for by analysis of covariance. Different rTMS protocols were tested: Left and right temporal and left and right prefrontal cortices were each stimulated with 200 pulses at 1Hz and with an intensity of 60% stimulator output. Stimulation of central parietal cortex with 6-fold reduced intensity (inverted passive-cooled coil served as sham condition. Before and after each rTMS protocol five minutes of resting state EEG were recorded. The order of rTMS protocols was randomized over two sessions with one week interval in between.Analyses on electrode level showed that people with and without tinnitus differed in their response to left temporal and right frontal stimulation. In tinnitus patients left temporal rTMS decreased frontal theta and delta and increased beta2 power, whereas right frontal rTMS decreased right temporal beta3 and gamma power. No changes or increases were observed in the control group. Only non-systematic changes in tinnitus loudness were induced by single sessions of rTMS.This is the first study to show tinnitus-related alterations of neuroplasticity that were specific to stimulation site and oscillatory frequency. The observed effects can be interpreted

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces oscillatory power changes in chronic tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecklmann, Martin; Lehner, Astrid; Gollmitzer, Judith; Schmidt, Eldrid; Schlee, Winfried; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is associated with neuroplastic changes in auditory and non-auditory cortical areas. About 10 years ago, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of auditory and prefrontal cortex was introduced as potential treatment for tinnitus. The resulting changes in tinnitus loudness are interpreted in the context of rTMS induced activity changes (neuroplasticity). Here, we investigate the effect of single rTMS sessions on oscillatory power to probe the capacity of rTMS to interfere with tinnitus-specific cortical plasticity. We measured 20 patients with bilateral chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy controls comparable for age, sex, handedness, and hearing level with a 63-channel electroencephalography (EEG) system. Educational level, intelligence, depressivity and hyperacusis were controlled for by analysis of covariance. Different rTMS protocols were tested: Left and right temporal and left and right prefrontal cortices were each stimulated with 200 pulses at 1 Hz and with an intensity of 60% stimulator output. Stimulation of central parietal cortex with 6-fold reduced intensity (inverted passive-cooled coil) served as sham condition. Before and after each rTMS protocol 5 min of resting state EEG were recorded. The order of rTMS protocols was randomized over two sessions with 1 week interval in between. Analyses on electrode level showed that people with and without tinnitus differed in their response to left temporal and right frontal stimulation. In tinnitus patients left temporal rTMS decreased frontal theta and delta and increased beta2 power, whereas right frontal rTMS decreased right temporal beta3 and gamma power. No changes or increases were observed in the control group. Only non-systematic changes in tinnitus loudness were induced by single sessions of rTMS. This is the first study to show tinnitus-related alterations of neuroplasticity that were specific to stimulation site and oscillatory frequency. The observed effects can be

  14. Poststroke dysphagia rehabilitation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a noncontrolled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, E; Leroi, A M

    2009-06-01

    Poststroke dysphagia is frequent and significantly increases patient mortality. In two thirds of cases there is a spontaneous improvement in a few weeks, but in the other third, oropharyngeal dysphagia persists. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is known to excite or inhibit cortical neurons, depending on stimulation frequency. The aim of this noncontrolled pilot study was to assess the feasibility and the effects of 1-Hz rTMS, known to have an inhibitory effect, on poststroke dysphagia. Seven patients (3 females, age = 65 +/- 10 years), with poststroke dysphagia due to hemispheric or subhemispheric stroke more than 6 months earlier (56 +/- 50 months) diagnosed by videofluoroscopy, participated in the study. rTMS at 1 Hz was applied for 20 min per day every day for 5 days to the healthy hemisphere to decrease transcallosal inhibition. The evaluation was performed using the dysphagia handicap index and videofluoroscopy. The dysphagia handicap index demonstrated that the patients had mild oropharyngeal dysphagia. Initially, the score was 43 +/- 9 of a possible 120 which decreased to 30 +/- 7 (p study demonstrated that rTMS is feasible in poststroke dysphagia and improves swallowing coordination. Our results now need to be confirmed by a randomized controlled study with a larger patient population.

  15. Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for medication-resistant burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Y; Badran, B W; Gonzales, T S; George, M S

    2015-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a persistent and chronic burning sensation in the mouth in the absence of any abnormal organic findings. The pathophysiology of BMS is unclear and its treatment is not fully established. Although antidepressant medication is commonly used for treatment, there are some medication-resistant patients, and a new treatment for medication-resistant BMS is needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technology approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression. Recent studies have found beneficial effects of TMS for the treatment of pain. A case of BMS treated successfully with daily left prefrontal rTMS over a 2-week period is reported here. Based on this patient's clinical course and a recent pain study, the mechanism by which TMS may act to decrease the burning pain is discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivity – implications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  17. [Treatment of chronic tinnitus with neuronavigated repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjung, T; Steffens, T; Langguth, B; Eichhammer, P; Marienhagen, J; Hajak, G; Strutz, J

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic tinnitus is a frequent and debilitating disorder of largely unknown pathophysiology. Focal brain activation in the auditory cortex has recently been demonstrated in chronic tinnitus. Low-frequency rTMS can reduce cortical hyperexcitability. In 12 patients with chronic tinnitus, fusion of [18F]deoxyglucose-PET and structural MRI (T1, MPRAGE) scans allowed the area of increased metabolic activity in the auditory cortex to be exactly identified; this area was selected as the target for rTMS. A neuronavigational system adapted for TMS positioning enabled the relative positions of the figure-8 coil and the target area to be monitored. Repetitive TMS (110% motor threshold; 1 Hz; 2000 stimuli per day over 5 days) was performed using a placebo-controlled crossover design. A sham coil system was used for the placebo stimulation. Treatment outcome was assessed with a specific tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller). In all 12 patients an asymmetrically increased metabolic activation of the gyrus of Heschl was detected. The tinnitus score was significantly improved after 5 days of active rTMS, an effect not seen after placebo stimulation. These preliminary results show that neuronavigated rTMS may improve our understanding and treatment of chronic tinnitus.

  18. Safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luisa Santos; Müller, Vanessa Teixeira; da Mota Gomes, Marleide; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy remain with pharmacologically intractable seizures. An emerging therapeutic modality for seizure suppression is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Despite being considered a safe technique, rTMS carries the risk of inducing seizures, among other milder adverse events, and thus, its safety in the population with epilepsy should be continuously assessed. We performed an updated systematic review on the safety and tolerability of rTMS in patients with epilepsy, similar to a previous report published in 2007 (Bae EH, Schrader LM, Machii K, Alonso-Alonso M, Riviello JJ, Pascual-Leone A, Rotenberg A. Safety and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: a review of the literature. Epilepsy Behav. 2007; 10 (4): 521-8), and estimated the risk of seizures and other adverse events during or shortly after rTMS application. We searched the literature for reports of rTMS being applied on patients with epilepsy, with no time or language restrictions, and obtained studies published from January 1990 to August 2015. A total of 46 publications were identified, of which 16 were new studies published after the previous safety review of 2007. We noted the total number of subjects with epilepsy undergoing rTMS, medication usage, incidence of adverse events, and rTMS protocol parameters: frequency, intensity, total number of stimuli, train duration, intertrain intervals, coil type, and stimulation site. Our main data analysis included separate calculations for crude per subject risk of seizure and other adverse events, as well as risk per 1000 stimuli. We also performed an exploratory, secondary analysis on the risk of seizure and other adverse events according to the type of coil used (figure-of-8 or circular), stimulation frequency (≤ 1 Hz or > 1 Hz), pulse intensity in terms of motor threshold (stimulator output for speech arrest, clinically arising from the region of

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  20. The influence of low-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory for words but not for faces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrdlantová, L.; Horáček, J.; Dockery, C.; Lukavský, Jiří; Kopeček, M.; Preiss, M.; Novák, T.; Höschl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-128 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : face memory * verbal memory * repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/54/54_123.pdf

  1. Partial clinical response to 2 weeks of 2 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the right parietal cortex in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Laman, D.M.; Honk, E.J. van; Vergouwen, A.C.M.; Koerselman, F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this treatment study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right parietal cortex in depression. In a double-blind, sham-controlled design ten consecutive sessions of 2 Hz rTMS (inter-pulse interval 0.5 s) at 90% motor

  2. Factors influencing the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Ye; Tao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Barker first used transcranial magnetic stimulation in 1985 in human brain function research. Since then, it has gradually been developed into a secure and non-invasive treatment method for neurological diseases. In 1994, Pascual Leone first used it for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and observed an improvement in the motor symptoms of most of the patients. Recent studies have confirmed that both motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD could be improved through biochemical, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Different therapeutic applications can be achieved by adjusting the stimulation parameters. Physical factors affecting the therapeutic effect include the shape and size of the coil, array orientation, materials and intensity, frequency of stimulus, etc.; the biological factors include stimulating targets, baseline, circadian rhythms, cerebral cortex thickness, and so on. This paper will review these factors and provide a reference for future research.

  3. Factors influencing the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Ye; Tao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Barker first used transcranial magnetic stimulation in 1985 in human brain function research. Since then, it has gradually been developed into a secure and non-invasive treatment method for neurological diseases. In 1994, Pascual Leone first used it for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease(PD) and observed an improvement in the motor symptoms of most of the patients. Recent studies have confirmed that both motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD could be improved through biochemical, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Different therapeutic applications can be achieved by adjusting the stimulation parameters.Physical factors affecting the therapeutic effect include the shape and size of the coil, array orientation, materials and intensity, frequency of stimulus, etc.; the biological factors include stimulating targets, baseline, circadian rhythms, cerebral cortex thickness, and so on. This paper will review these factors and provide a reference for future research.

  4. Efficacy of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia : results of a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, J. J.; Bais, L.; van Es, F. D.; Visser, B. G. J.; Reinink, E.; Bakker, B.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Aleman, A.; Knegtering, H.

    Background. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3

  5. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  6. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25{+-}2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% {+-} 1.3% and 10.6% {+-} 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% {+-} 4.5% vs. 6.6% {+-} 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release.

  7. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25±2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% ± 1.3% and 10.6% ± 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% ± 4.5% vs. 6.6% ± 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release

  8. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging

  9. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging.

  10. 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the ipsilesional sensory cortex enhances motor learning after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Brodie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is critical for motor learning, and thus to neurorehabilitation after stroke. Whether enhancing sensory feedback by applying excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the ipsilesional primary sensory cortex (IL-S1 might enhance motor learning in chronic stroke has yet to be investigated. The present study investigated the effects of 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 paired with skilled motor practice on motor learning, hemiparetic cutaneous somatosensation, and motor function. Individuals with unilateral chronic stroke were pseudo-randomly divided into either Active or Sham 5 Hz rTMS groups (n=11/group. Following stimulation, both groups practiced a Serial Tracking Task (STT with the hemiparetic arm; this was repeated for 5 days. Performance on the STT was quantified by response time, peak velocity, and cumulative distance tracked at baseline, during the 5 days of practice, and at a no-rTMS retention test. Cutaneous somatosensation was measured using two-point discrimination. Standardized sensorimotor tests were performed to assess whether the effects might generalize to impact hemiparetic arm function. The active 5Hz rTMS + training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in STT performance [response time (F1,286.04=13.016, p< 0.0005, peak velocity (F1,285.95=4.111, p=0.044, and cumulative distance (F1,285.92=4.076, p=0.044] and cutaneous somatosensation (F1,21.15=8.793, p=0.007 across all sessions compared to the sham rTMS + training group. Measures of upper extremity motor function were not significantly different for either group. Our preliminary results suggest that, when paired with motor practice, 5Hz rTMS over IL-S1 enhances motor learning related change in individuals with chronic stroke, potentially as a consequence of improved cutaneous somatosensation, however no improvement in general upper extremity function was observed.

  11. Repetitive magnetic stimulation improves retinal function in a rat model of retinal dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Tzameret, Adi; Levi, Nir; Kalish, Sapir; Sher, Ifat; Zangen, Avraham; Belkin, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with retinal dystrophies affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration is characterized by photoreceptor cell death and concomitant remodeling of remaining retinal cells. Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation (RMS) is a non-invasive technique that creates alternating magnetic fields by brief electric currents transmitted through an insulated coil. These magnetic field generate action potentials in neurons, and modulate the expression of neurotransmitter receptors, growth factors and transcription factors which mediate plasticity. This technology has been proven effective and safe in various psychiatric disorders. Here we determined the effect of RMS on retinal function in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model for retinal dystrophy. Four week-old RCS and control Spargue Dawley (SD) rats received sham or RMS treatment over the right eye (12 sessions on 4 weeks). RMS treatment at intensity of at 40% of the maximal output of a Rapid2 stimulator significantly increased the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses by up to 6- or 10-fold in the left and right eye respectively, 3-5 weeks following end of treatment. RMS treatment at intensity of 25% of the maximal output did not significant effect b-wave responses following end of treatment with no adverse effect on ERG response or retinal structure of SD rats. Our findings suggest that RMS treatment induces delayed improvement of retinal functions and may induce plasticity in the retinal tissue. Furthermore, this non-invasive treatment may possibly be used in the future as a primary or adjuvant treatment for retinal dystrophy.

  12. Long-lasting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates electroencephalography oscillation in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Ziyuan; Yang, Yi; Guo, Yongkun; Xu, Ruxiang; Gao, Xiaorong; Li, Xiaoli; He, Jianghong

    2017-10-18

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Timely and accurate assessments of its modulation effects are very useful. This study evaluated rTMS modulation effects on electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation in patients with chronic DOC. Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of DOC lasting more than 3 months were recruited. All patients received one session of 10-Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and then 12 of them received consecutive rTMS treatment everyday for 20 consecutive days. Resting-state EEGs were recorded before the experiment (T0) after one session of rTMS (T1) and after the entire treatment (T2). The JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scale scores were also recorded at the time points. Our data showed that application of 10-Hz rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex decreased low-frequency band power and increased high-frequency band power in DOC patients, especially in minimal conscious state patients. Considering the correlation of the EEG spectrum with the consciousness level of patients with DOC, quantitative EEG might be useful for assessment of the effect of rTMS in DOC patients.

  13. Chronic treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation inhibits seizure induction by electroconvulsive shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, A; Hirschmann, S; Dolberg, O T; Dannon, P N; Grunhaus, L

    1999-03-15

    Studies in laboratory animals suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) increase seizure inhibition acutely. This study was designed to explore whether chronic rTMS would also have seizure inhibition properties. To this purpose we administered rTMS (Magstim Rapid) and sham rTMS twice daily (2.5 T, 4-sec train duration, 20 Hz) to two groups of 10 rats for 16 days. The rTMS coil was a 50-mm figure-8 coil held directly over the rat's head. Raters were blind to experimental groups. On days 11, 17, and 21 (5 days after the last rTMS) ECS was administered with a Siemens convulsator using three electrical charge levels. Variables examined were the presence or absence of seizures and seizure length (measured from the initiation of the tonic contraction until the end of the limb movement). At day 11 rTMS had no effect on seizures, and both rTMS and sham rTMS animals convulsed equally. At day 17, however, rTMS-treated animals convulsed significantly less (both at presence/absence of seizures, and at seizure length) than sham rTMS animals. At day 21 the effects of rTMS had disappeared. These findings suggest that rTMS administered chronically leads to changes in seizure threshold similar to those reported for ECS and ECT; however, these effects were short-lived.

  14. The application of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Zhuo-hua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the application value of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and electrophysiological research. Methods Fifty-six PD patients treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital from September 2010 to September 2012 were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A (N = 28 and group B (N = 28. Patients in group A were given conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training, while patients in group B were given low frequency rTMS on the basis of conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training. After 3 weeks, the scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, resting threshold (RT, cortical latent period, nerve root latent period, central motor conduction time (CMCT and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between 2 groups. Results After intervention, the emotion, ability of daily living and motor function of patients in group B was obviously improved, and the scores of UPDRS in group B were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05. Conclusion The effect of low frequency rTMS in the treatment for PD is evident, safe and reliable, and with less adverse reaction. It can be used as a noninvasive physical treatment measure for PD.

  15. Complex repetitive behavior: punding after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Bernardi, Silvia; Raglione, Laura Maria; Marini, Paolo; Ammannati, Franco; Sorbi, Sandro; Ramat, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    "Punding" is the term used to describe a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive purposeless movements, such as taking apart mechanical objects, handling common objects as if they were new and entertaining, constantly picking at oneself, etc. As a phenomenon with both impulsive and compulsive features, the phenomenology of punding is currently being questioned. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, we screened a population of Parkinson's disease (PD) outpatients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). We conducted a patient-and-relative-completed survey with 24 consecutive patients in an academic outpatient care center, using a modified version of a structured interview. Patients were administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Five (20.8%) of the 24 subjects were identified as punders, including three men (60%) and two women. The punders were comparable to the non-punders in terms of clinical and demographic factors. The punder and non-punder groups only differed statistically with regard to the length of time from DBS implantation. Those findings suggest that punding might be induced by STN DBS, and its rate of occurrence in DBS population seems to be more common than previously suspected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combining near-infrared spectroscopy with electroencephalography and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Näsi, Tiina; Kotilahti, Kalle; Mäki, Hanna; Nissilä, Ilkka; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the usability of a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device in multimodal measurements. We combined NIRS with electroencephalography (EEG) to record hemodynamic responses and evoked potentials simultaneously, and with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to repetitive TMS (rTMS). Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to 3, 6, and 12 s stimuli consisting of pattern-reversing checkerboards were successfully recorded in the NIRS/EEG measurement, and ipsi- and contralateral hemodynamic responses to 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz rTMS in the NIRS/TMS measurement. In the NIRS/EEG measurements, the amplitudes of the hemodynamic responses increased from 3- to 6-s stimulus, but not from 6- to 12-s stimulus, and the VEPs showed peaks N75, P100, and N135. In the NIRS/TMS measurements, the 2-Hz stimulus produced the strongest hemodynamic responses compared to the 0.5- and 1-Hz stimuli. In two subjects oxyhemoglobin concentration decreased and in one increased as a consequence of the 2-Hz rTMS. To locate the origin of the measured NIRS responses, methods have to be developed to investigate TMS-induced scalp muscle contractions. In the future, multimodal measurements may prove useful in monitoring or treating diseases such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Factor Analysis of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Temporoparietal Junction for Tinnitus

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    Hui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated factors that contribute to suppression of tinnitus after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Methods. A total of 289 patients with tinnitus underwent active 1 Hz rTMS in the left temporoparietal region. A visual analog scale (VAS was used to assess tinnitus loudness. All participants were interviewed regarding age, gender, tinnitus duration, laterality and pitch, audiometric parameters, sleep, and so forth. The resting motor thresholds (RMTs were measured in all patients and 30 age- and gender-matched volunteers. Results. With respect to different factors that contribute to tinnitus suppression, we found improvement in the following domains: shorter duration, normal hearing (OR: 3.25, 95%CI: 2.01–5.27, p=0.001, and without sleep disturbance (OR: 2.51, 95%CI: 1.56–4.1, p=0.005 adjusted for age and gender. The patients with tinnitus lasting less than 1 year were more likely to show suppression of tinnitus (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.48–5.19, p=0.002 compared to those with tinnitus lasting more than 5 years. Tinnitus patients had significantly lower RMTs compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusion. Active low-frequency rTMS results in a significant reduction in the loudness of tinnitus. Significant tinnitus suppression was shown in subjects with shorter tinnitus duration, with normal hearing, and without sleep disturbance.

  18. Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reduces synaptic depression during repetitive stimulation.

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    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  19. Factor Analysis of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Temporoparietal Junction for Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Wang, Meiye; Li, Ming; Yin, Shankai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated factors that contribute to suppression of tinnitus after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Methods. A total of 289 patients with tinnitus underwent active 1 Hz rTMS in the left temporoparietal region. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess tinnitus loudness. All participants were interviewed regarding age, gender, tinnitus duration, laterality and pitch, audiometric parameters, sleep, and so forth. The resting motor thresholds (RMTs) were measured in all patients and 30 age- and gender-matched volunteers. Results. With respect to different factors that contribute to tinnitus suppression, we found improvement in the following domains: shorter duration, normal hearing (OR: 3.25, 95%CI: 2.01–5.27, p = 0.001), and without sleep disturbance (OR: 2.51, 95%CI: 1.56–4.1, p = 0.005) adjusted for age and gender. The patients with tinnitus lasting less than 1 year were more likely to show suppression of tinnitus (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.48–5.19, p = 0.002) compared to those with tinnitus lasting more than 5 years. Tinnitus patients had significantly lower RMTs compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusion. Active low-frequency rTMS results in a significant reduction in the loudness of tinnitus. Significant tinnitus suppression was shown in subjects with shorter tinnitus duration, with normal hearing, and without sleep disturbance. PMID:27847647

  20. A Retrospective Chart Review of 10 Hz Versus 20 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression

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    Kristie L. DeBlasio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective chart review to examine the progress of patients with depression who received different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. rTMS is a safe and effective alternative treatment for patients with various psychological and medical conditions. During treatment, a coil delivering a time-varying magnetic pulse placed over the scalp penetrates the skull, resulting in clinical improvement. There were 47 patients and three distinct treatment groups found: 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and a separate group who received both frequencies (10/20 Hz. The primary outcome indicator was the difference in Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II scores. Secondary outcomes included categorical indicators of remission, response, and partial response rates as assessed with the BDI-II. In all 3 groups, the majority of patients had depression that remitted, with the highest rate occurring in the 20 Hz group. There were similar response rates in the 10 Hz and 20 Hz groups. There were no patients in the 10/20 Hz group whose depression responded and the highest partial response and nonresponse rates occurred in this group. Although within-group differences were significant from baseline to end of treatment, there were no between-group differences.

  1. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

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    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Therapy in Parkinson Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Shuster, Jonathan J; Chung, Jae Woo; Vaillancourt, David E; Patten, Carolynn; Ostrem, Jill; Okun, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy as an effective treatment for the control of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. The objective of the study is to quantify the overall efficacy of this treatment. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We reviewed the literature on clinical rTMS trials in Parkinson disease since the technique was introduced in 1980. We used the following databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Patients with Parkinson disease who were participating in prospective clinical trials that included an active arm and a control arm and change in motor scores on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as the primary outcome. We pooled data from 21 studies that met these criteria. We then analyzed separately the effects of low- and high-frequency rTMS on clinical motor improvements. The overall pooled mean difference between treatment and control groups in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score was significant (4.0 points, 95% confidence interval, 1.5, 6.7; P = .005). rTMS therapy was effective when low-frequency stimulation (≤ 1 Hz) was used with a pooled mean difference of 3.3 points (95% confidence interval 1.6, 5.0; P = .005). There was a trend for significance when high-frequency stimulation (≥ 5 Hz) studies were evaluated with a pooled mean difference of 3.9 points (95% confidence interval, -0.7, 8.5; P = .08). rTMS therapy demonstrated benefits at short-term follow-up (immediately after a treatment protocol) with a pooled mean difference of 3.4 points (95% confidence interval, 0.3, 6.6; P = .03) as well as at long-term follow-up (average follow-up 6 weeks) with mean difference of 4.1 points (95% confidence interval, -0.15, 8.4; P = .05). There were insufficient data to statistically analyze the effects of rTMS when we specifically examined bradykinesia, gait, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia using quantitative methods. rTMS therapy in patients with Parkinson

  3. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

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    Sonia Dollfus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS. Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI. After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

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    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  5. PERIPHERAL APPLICATION OF REPETITIVE PULSE MAGNETIC STIMULATION ON JOINT CONTRACTURE FOR MOBILITY RESTORATION: CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED STUDY

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    Efthimios J. Kouloulas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint contracture is a limitation in the passive or active range of motion (ROM of a joint, where in addition to the mobility limiting factor the pain is also present. Repetitive pulsed Magnetic Stimulation (rPMS appears to be an effective, non-invasive and safety solution for treating this condition. Therefore aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rPMS in treating joint contracture. Methods: 30 subjects with joint contracture in the knee were enrolled in this study and divided respectively into Treatment and Control group. The treatment group were delivered with rPMS therapy. The control group was delivered with conventional physiotherapy method (ultrasound. The primary outcome measurements were: 1. Mobility evaluation by goniometry (ROM in degrees while performing flexion and Patient Functional Assessment Questionnaire (PFAQ for ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL and 2. Pain evaluation by 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain perception. Absence of adverse events was set as a secondary measure. Results: The results of the study show statistical difference (p<0.05 between the levels of improvement of all studied parameters while comparing between both groups. The results suggest greater immobility restoration and pain relieving effect of the rPMS in comparison to conventional physiotherapy method. Conclusion: rPMS an effective and safe non-invasive method for mobility restoration and pain relief in case of joint contractures. This study suggests the method as beneficial and quality of life ameliorating among patients suffering from immobilized joints accompanied by pain.

  6. Accelerometer-based automatic voice onset detection in speech mapping with navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitikainen, Anne-Mari; Mäkelä, Elina; Lioumis, Pantelis; Jousmäki, Veikko; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2015-09-30

    The use of navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in mapping of speech-related brain areas has recently shown to be useful in preoperative workflow of epilepsy and tumor patients. However, substantial inter- and intraobserver variability and non-optimal replicability of the rTMS results have been reported, and a need for additional development of the methodology is recognized. In TMS motor cortex mappings the evoked responses can be quantitatively monitored by electromyographic recordings; however, no such easily available setup exists for speech mappings. We present an accelerometer-based setup for detection of vocalization-related larynx vibrations combined with an automatic routine for voice onset detection for rTMS speech mapping applying naming. The results produced by the automatic routine were compared with the manually reviewed video-recordings. The new method was applied in the routine navigated rTMS speech mapping for 12 consecutive patients during preoperative workup for epilepsy or tumor surgery. The automatic routine correctly detected 96% of the voice onsets, resulting in 96% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Majority (63%) of the misdetections were related to visible throat movements, extra voices before the response, or delayed naming of the previous stimuli. The no-response errors were correctly detected in 88% of events. The proposed setup for automatic detection of voice onsets provides quantitative additional data for analysis of the rTMS-induced speech response modifications. The objectively defined speech response latencies increase the repeatability, reliability and stratification of the rTMS results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniela; Tavakoli, Sason

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in treating individuals with behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. A number of applications of rTMS to different regions of the left and right prefrontal cortex have been used to treat these disorders, but no study of treatment for MDD with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been conducted with application of rTMS to both the left and right prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that applying low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before applying it to the left DLPFC for the treatment of depression would be anxiolytic in patients with MDD with GAD. Thirteen adult patients with comorbid MDD and GAD received treatment with rTMS in an outpatient setting. The number of treatments ranged from 24 to 36 over 5 to 6 weeks. Response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline, and remission was defined as a score of anxiety symptoms on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale and depressive symptoms on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-21). At the end of the treatment period, for the GAD-7 scale, 11 out of 13 (84.6%) patients' anxiety symptoms were in remission, achieving a score of depressive symptoms. In this small pilot study of 13 patients with comorbid MDD and GAD, significant improvement in anxiety symptoms along with depressive symptoms was achieved in a majority of patients after bilateral rTMS application.

  8. [Hospital production cost of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverrigaray, F; Bulteau, S; Machon, L O; Riche, V P; Mauduit, N; Tricot, R; Sellal, O; Sauvaget, A

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in resistant depression with mild to moderate intensity. This indication has not yet been approved in France. The cost and medico-economic value of rTMS in psychiatry remains unknown. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess rTMS cost production analysis as an in-hospital treatment for depression. The methodology, derived from analytical accounts, was validated by a multidisciplinary task force (clinicians, public health doctors, pharmacists, administrative officials and health economist). It was pragmatic, based on official and institutional documentary sources and from field practice. It included equipment, staff, and structure costs, to get an estimate as close to reality as possible. First, we estimated the production cost of rTMS session, based on our annual activity. We then estimated the cost of a cure, which includes 15 sessions. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. The hospital production cost of a cure for treating depression was estimated at € 1932.94 (€ 503.55 for equipment, € 1082.75 for the staff, and € 346.65 for structural expenses). This cost-estimate has resulted from an innovative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach. It is slightly higher but more comprehensive than the costs estimated by the few international studies. However, it is limited due to structure-specific problems and activity. This work could be repeated in other circumstances in order to obtain a more general estimate, potentially helpful for determining an official price for the French health care system. Moreover, budgetary constraints and public health choices should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Suppression of motor cortical excitability in anesthetized rats by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Paul A Muller

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a widely-used method for modulating cortical excitability in humans, by mechanisms thought to involve use-dependent synaptic plasticity. For example, when low frequency rTMS (LF rTMS is applied over the motor cortex, in humans, it predictably leads to a suppression of the motor evoked potential (MEP, presumably reflecting long-term depression (LTD -like mechanisms. Yet how closely such rTMS effects actually match LTD is unknown. We therefore sought to (1 reproduce cortico-spinal depression by LF rTMS in rats, (2 establish a reliable animal model for rTMS effects that may enable mechanistic studies, and (3 test whether LTD-like properties are evident in the rat LF rTMS setup. Lateralized MEPs were obtained from anesthetized Long-Evans rats. To test frequency-dependence of LF rTMS, rats underwent rTMS at one of three frequencies, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz. We next tested the dependence of rTMS effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR, by application of two NMDAR antagonists. We find that 1 Hz rTMS preferentially depresses unilateral MEP in rats, and that this LTD-like effect is blocked by NMDAR antagonists. These are the first electrophysiological data showing depression of cortical excitability following LF rTMS in rats, and the first to demonstrate dependence of this form of cortical plasticity on the NMDAR. We also note that our report is the first to show that the capacity for LTD-type cortical suppression by rTMS is present under barbiturate anesthesia, suggesting that future neuromodulatory rTMS applications under anesthesia may be considered.

  10. Pharmacological Mechanisms of Cortical Enhancement Induced by the Repetitive Pairing of Visual/Cholinergic Stimulation.

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    Jun-Il Kang

    Full Text Available Repetitive visual training paired with electrical activation of cholinergic projections to the primary visual cortex (V1 induces long-term enhancement of cortical processing in response to the visual training stimulus. To better determine the receptor subtypes mediating this effect the selective pharmacological blockade of V1 nicotinic (nAChR, M1 and M2 muscarinic (mAChR or GABAergic A (GABAAR receptors was performed during the training session and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded before and after training. The training session consisted of the exposure of awake, adult rats to an orientation-specific 0.12 CPD grating paired with an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain for a duration of 1 week for 10 minutes per day. Pharmacological agents were infused intracortically during this period. The post-training VEP amplitude was significantly increased compared to the pre-training values for the trained spatial frequency and to adjacent spatial frequencies up to 0.3 CPD, suggesting a long-term increase of V1 sensitivity. This increase was totally blocked by the nAChR antagonist as well as by an M2 mAChR subtype and GABAAR antagonist. Moreover, administration of the M2 mAChR antagonist also significantly decreased the amplitude of the control VEPs, suggesting a suppressive effect on cortical responsiveness. However, the M1 mAChR antagonist blocked the increase of the VEP amplitude only for the high spatial frequency (0.3 CPD, suggesting that M1 role was limited to the spread of the enhancement effect to a higher spatial frequency. More generally, all the drugs used did block the VEP increase at 0.3 CPD. Further, use of each of the aforementioned receptor antagonists blocked training-induced changes in gamma and beta band oscillations. These findings demonstrate that visual training coupled with cholinergic stimulation improved perceptual sensitivity by enhancing cortical responsiveness in V1. This enhancement is mainly mediated by n

  11. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reducing spasticity in patients suffering from HTLV-1-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mostafa; Nafissi, Shahriar; Jamal-Omidi, Shirin; Amiri, Motahareh; Fatehi, Farzad

    2014-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 has been implicated in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Regarding its endemicity in Iran and the role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in reducing spasticity (as primary outcome) and pain, muscle power, and quality of life (as secondary outcomes) in patients suffering from HAM/TSP. In this pretest-posttest study, nine definite patients with HAM/TSP (according to WHO guidelines) were recruited. All patients underwent five consecutive daily sessions of active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (each session consisting of 20 trains of 10 pulses at 5 Hz and an intensity of 90% of resting motor threshold for the biceps brachii muscle). Main outcome measures including spasticity (by modified Ashworth scale), pain (by visual analog scale), muscle power, and quality of life (by SF 36) were measured before the study and days 5, 7, 30 after the termination of the sessions. Seven (77.8%) females and 2 (22.2%) males were recruited with the mean age of 52 ± 12.67 years, and the mean duration of the disease was 5 ± 3.94. Comparison of the repeated measures showed a statistically significant decrease in pain and spasticity in lower limbs. The decrement in spasticity was persistent even 30 days after the intervention; however, the pain reduction was seen only 5 days after the procedure. No change in quality of life, and muscle power was detected. It seems that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation could decrease spasticity and pain in patients with HAM/TSP, and this effect could persistently continue by 1 month, but it did not influence patients' muscle power and quality of life, and it could be used as an adjuvant therapy in patients suffering from human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated HAM/TSP.

  12. Evaluating the role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in memory-guided response with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Massihullah; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays an important role in working memory, including the control of memory-guided response. In this study, with 24 subjects, we used high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate the role of the dlPFC in memory-guided response to two different types of spatial working memory tasks: one requiring a recognition decision about a probe stimulus (operationalized with a yes/no button press), another requiring direct recall ...

  13. Correlating subcortical interhemispheric connectivity and cortical hemispheric dominance in brain tumor patients: A repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Tussis, Lorena; Maurer, Stefanie; Hauck, Theresa; Negwer, Chiara; Bauer, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between transcallosal interhemispheric connectivity (IC) and hemispheric language lateralization by using a novel approach including repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) calculation, and rTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI FT). 31 patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and rTMS language mapping. Cortical language-positive rTMS spots were used to calculate HDRs (HDR: quotient of the left-sided divided by right-sided naming error rates for corresponding left- and right-sided cortical regions) and to create regions of interest (ROIs) for DTI FT. Then, fibers connecting the rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were tracked, and the correlation of IC to HDRs was calculated via Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Fibers connecting rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were detected in 12 patients (38.7%). Within the patients in which IC was detected, the mean number of subcortical IC fibers ± standard deviation (SD) was 138.0 ± 346.5 (median: 7.5; range: 1-1,217 fibers). Regarding rs for the correlation of HDRs and fiber numbers of patients that showed IC, only moderate correlation was revealed. Our approach might be beneficial and technically feasible for further investigation of the relationship between IC and language lateralization. However, only moderate correlation was revealed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased...... probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during exercise even if some MNs failed to discharge by the brain stimulus. Here we used a modified TST (Quadruple stimulation; QuadS and Quintuple stimulation; QuintS) to examine the influence of fatiguing exercise on second and third MN discharges after......, reflecting that a greater proportion of spinal MNs were activated 2 or 3 times by the transcranial stimulus. The size of QuadS responses did not return to pre-contraction levels during 10 min observation time indicating long-lasting increase in excitatory input to spinal MNs. In addition, the post...

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus botulinum toxin injection in chronic migraine prophylaxis: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehata HS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatem S Shehata, Eman H Esmail, Ahmad Abdelalim, Shaimaa El-Jaafary, Alaa Elmazny, Asmaa Sabbah, Nevin M Shalaby Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background: Chronic migraine is a prevalent disabling disease, with major health-related burden and poor quality of life. Long-term use of preventive medications carries risk of side effects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A injection as preventive therapies for chronic migraine. Methods: A pilot, randomized study was conducted on a small-scale sample of 29 Egyptian patients with chronic migraine, recruited from Kasr Al-Aini teaching hospital outpatient clinic and diagnosed according to ICHD-III (beta version. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups; 15 patients received BTX-A injection following the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy injection paradigm and 14 patients were subjected to 12 rTMS sessions delivered at high frequency (10 Hz over the left motor cortex (MC, M1. All the patients were requested to have their 1-month headache calendar, and they were subjected to a baseline 25-item (beta version Henry Ford Hospital Headache Disability Inventory (HDI, Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and visual analogue scale assessment of headache intensity. The primary efficacy measures were headache frequency and severity; secondary measures were 25-item HDI, HIT-6, and number of acute medications. Follow-up visits were scheduled at weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after baseline visit. Results: A reduction in all outcome measures was achieved in both the groups. However, this improvement was more sustained in the BTX-A group, and both the therapies were well tolerated. Conclusion: BTX-A injection and rTMS have favorable efficacy and safety profiles in chronic migraineurs. rTMS is of comparable efficacy to BTX-A injection in chronic migraine

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging by visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yukiko; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hashida, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated functional magnetic resonance images obtained in 8 healthy subjects in response to visual stimulation using a conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging system with multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging. Activation in the visual cortex was clearly demonstrated by the multi-slice experiment with a task-related change in signal intensity. In addition to the primary visual cortex, other areas were also activated by a complicated visual task. Multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging offers high temporal resolution and allows the three-dimensional analysis of brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a useful noninvasive method of mapping brain function. (author)

  17. Repetitive Imaging of Reporter Gene Expression in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Richard

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomographic imaging is emerging as a powerful technology to monitor reporter transgene expression in the lungs and other organs. However, little information is available about its usefulness for studying gene expression over time. Therefore, we infected 20 rats with a replication-deficient adenovirus containing a fusion gene encoding for a mutant Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase and an enhanced green fluorescent protein. Five additional rats were infected with a control virus. Pulmonary gene transfer was performed via intratracheal administration of vector using a surfactant-based method. Imaging was performed 4–6 hr, and 4, 7, and 10 days after gene transfer, using 9-(4-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutylguanine, an imaging substrate for the mutant kinase. Lung tracer uptake assessed with imaging was moderately but significantly increased 4–6 hr after gene transfer, was maximal after 4 days, and was no longer detectable by 10 days. The temporal pattern of transgene expression measured ex vivo with in vitro assays of thymidine kinase activity and green fluorescent protein was similar to imaging. In conclusion, positron emission tomography is a reliable new tool to evaluate the onset and duration of reporter gene expression noninvasively in the lungs of intact animals.

  18. Differential Effects of HRAS Mutation on LTP-Like Activity Induced by Different Protocols of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileone, Michele; Ranieri, Federico; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante; Musumeci, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disorder due to a G12S amino acid substitution in HRAS protoncogene. Previous studies have shown that Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS), a repetitive brain stimulation protocol inducing motor cortex plasticity by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with brain stimulation, leads to an extremely pronounced motor cortex excitability increase in CS patients. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) represents a protocol able to induce motor cortex plasticity by trains of stimuli at 50 Hz. In healthy subjects PAS and iTBS produce similar after-effects in motor cortex excitability. Experimental models showed that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways differently affect LTP induced by different patterns of repetitive synaptic stimulation. We aimed to compare iTBS-induced after-effects on motor cortex excitability with those produced by PAS in CS patients and to observe whether HRAS mutation differentially affects two different forms of neuromodulation protocols. We evaluated in vivo after-effects induced by PAS and iTBS applied over the right motor cortex in 4 CS patients and in 21 healthy age-matched controls. Our findings confirmed HRAS-dependent extremely pronounced PAS-induced after-effects and showed for the first time that iTBS induces no change in MEP amplitude in CS patients whereas both protocols lead to an increase of about 50% in controls. CS patients are characterized by an impairment of iTBS-related LTP-like phenomena besides enhanced PAS-induced after-effects, suggesting that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways have a differential influence on PAS- and iTBS-induced plasticity in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  20. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Ota, Erika; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-06-23

    Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. To assess the effect of rPMS for improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (November 2016), Embase Ovid (August 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in Ebsco (August 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (August 2016), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) Ovid (August 2016), Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker) (August 2016), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (October 2016), and ICHUSHI Web (October 2016). We also searched five ongoing trial registries, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. Two review authors independently assessed

  1. Contralesional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for chronic hemiparesis in subcortical paediatric stroke: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Adam; Chen, Robert; Friefeld, Sharon; Gunraj, Carolyn; Pontigon, Anne-Marie; Deveber, Gabrielle

    2008-06-01

    Arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) can cause disabling hemiparesis in children. We aimed to test whether contralesional, inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect interhemispheric inhibition to improve hand function in chronic subcortical paediatric AIS. Patients were eligible for this parallel, randomised trial if they were in the SickKids Children's Stroke Program and had subcortical AIS more than 2 years previously, had transcallosal sparing, were more than 7 years of age, had hand motor impairment, had no seizures or dyskinesia, and were taking no drugs that alter cortical excitability. Patients were paired for age and weakness and were randomised within each pair to sham treatment or inhibitory, low-frequency rTMS over contralesional motor cortex (20 min, 1200 stimuli) once per day for 8 days. An occupational therapist did standardised tests of hand function at days 1 (baseline), 5, 10, and 17 (1 week post-treatment), and the primary outcomes were changes in grip strength and the Melbourne assessment of upper extremity function (MAUEF) between baseline and day 10. Patients, parents, and occupational therapists were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was per protocol. Ten patients with paediatric stroke were enrolled (median age 13.25 [IQR 10.08-16.78] years, mean time post-stroke 6.33 [SD 3.56] years): four with mild weakness, two with moderate weakness, and four with severe weakness. A repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and the effect of treatment on grip strength (p=0.03). At day 10, grip strength was 2.28 (SD 1.01) kg greater than baseline in the rTMS group and 2.92 (1.20) kg less than baseline in the sham group (p=0.009). Benefits in mean grip strength persisted at day 17 (2.63 [0.56] kg greater than baseline with rTMS and 1.00 [0.70] kg less than baseline with sham treatment; p=0.01). Day 10 MAUEF score improved by more in the rTMS group than in the sham group (7.25 [3.8] vs 0.79 [1

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is effective following repeated courses in the treatment of major depressive disorder--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Grunhaus, Leon

    2003-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively new treatment modality for psychiatric patients. rTMS was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depression. However, longitudinal outcome studies have not yet been published. Relapse rates are higher in depressed patients and most of them do not respond to the same treatment with similar success. In this report we present a patient, who experienced relapse with the various conventional drug treatments, but responded well to rTMS at three different points in time. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Short-term adaptations in spinal cord circuits evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: possible underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to induce adaptations in cortical neuronal circuitries. In the present study we investigated whether rTMS, through its effect on corticospinal pathways, also produces adaptations at the spinal level, and what the neuronal mechanisms...... that the depression of the H-reflex by rTMS can be explained, at least partly, by an increased presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferents. In contrast, rTMS had no effect on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition from ankle dorsiflexors to plantarflexors. We conclude that a train of rTMS may modulate transmission...

  4. Additional biological therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: repetitive transcranical magnetic stimulation of 1 Hz helps to reduce methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Niederhofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties characterize attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of this case report is to signal the possible therapeutic effectiveness of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days was applied on the impending scalp in the motor additional area of a patient suffering from combined type ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH. We saw a significant improvement, especially according to criteria associated with hyperactivity. The improvement lasted for at least three weeks and suggested the final reduction in dosage of MPH.to 10 mg.

  5. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with 18 F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. 18 F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. 18 F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  6. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Tian, Mei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. {sup 18}F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct-current stimulation in neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy: a randomized sham-controlled comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Nadine; Ayache, Samar S; Ciampi De Andrade, Daniel; Mhalla, Alaa; Baudic, Sophie; Jazat, Frédérique; Ahdab, Rechdi; Neves, Danusa O; Sorel, Marc; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-06-01

    No study has directly compared the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in neuropathic pain (NP). In this 2-centre randomised double-blind sham-controlled study, we compared the efficacy of 10-Hz rTMS and anodal 2-mA tDCS of the motor cortex and sham stimulation contralateral to the painful area (3 daily sessions) in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy. Average pain intensity (primary outcome) was evaluated after each session and 5 days later. Secondary outcomes included neuropathic symptoms and thermal pain thresholds for the upper limbs. We used an innovative design that minimised bias by randomly assigning patients to 1 of 2 groups: active rTMS and tDCS or sham rTMS and tDCS. For each treatment group (active or sham), the order of the sessions was again randomised according to a crossover design. In total, 51 patients were screened and 35 (51% women) were randomized. Active rTMS was superior to tDCS and sham in pain intensity (F = 2.89 and P = 0.023). Transcranial direct-current stimulation was not superior to sham, but its analgesic effects were correlated to that of rTMS (P = 0.046), suggesting common mechanisms of action. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation lowered cold pain thresholds (P = 0.04) and its effect on cold pain was correlated with its analgesic efficacy (P = 0.006). However, rTMS had no impact on individual neuropathic symptoms. Thus, rTMS is more effective than tDCS and sham in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy and may modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain.

  8. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  10. High-Frequency Repetitive Sensory Stimulation as Intervention to Improve Sensory Loss in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marianne; Dinse, Hubert R; Mainka, Tina; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS). For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS) enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS) to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high- or low-frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45 min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial two-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in four patients by ≥30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all four patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  11. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation as intervention to improve sensory loss in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDavid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals, or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS. For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high or low frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial 2-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in 4 patients by 30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all 4 patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  12. Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Concurrent Upper Limb Repetitive Task Practice for Poststroke Motor Recovery: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgrave, Jessica N; Moore, Lucy; Oyekunle, Tosin; Ebrahim, Maryam; Falidas, Konstantinos; Snowdon, Nicola; Ali, Ali; Majid, Arshad

    2018-03-23

    Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has the potential to enhance the effects of physiotherapy for upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Noninvasive, transcutaneous auricular branch VNS (taVNS) may have similar benefits, but this has not been evaluated in stroke recovery. We sought to determine the feasibility of taVNS delivered alongside upper limb repetitive task-specific practice after stroke and its effects on a range of outcome measures evaluating limb function. Thirteen participants at more than 3 months postischemic stroke with residual upper limb dysfunction were recruited from the community of Sheffield, United Kingdom (October-December 2016). Participants underwent 18 × 1-hour sessions over 6 weeks in which they made 30-50 repetitions of 8-10 arm movements concurrently with taVNS (NEMOS; Cerbomed, Erlangen, Germany, 25 Hz, .1-millisecond pulse width) at maximum tolerated intensity (mA). An electrocardiogram and rehabilitation outcome scores were obtained at each visit. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of taVNS to participants. Median time after stroke was 1.16 years, and baseline median/interquartile range upper limb Fugl-Meyer (UFM) score was 63 (54.5-99.5). Participants attended 92% of the planned treatment sessions. Three participants reported side effects, mainly fatigue, but all performed mean of more than 300 arm repetitions per session with no serious adverse events. There was a significant change in the UFM score with a mean increase per participant of 17.1 points (standard deviation 7.8). taVNS is feasible and well-tolerated alongside upper limb repetitive movements in poststroke rehabilitation. The motor improvements observed justify a phase 2 trial in patients with residual arm weakness. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of major depressive disorder: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). rTMS is a noninvasive way to stimulate nerve cells in areas of the brain. During rTMS, an electrical current passes through a wire coil placed over the scalp. The current induces a magnetic field that produces an electrical field in the brain that then causes nerve cells to depolarize, resulting in the stimulation or disruption of brain activity. Researchers have investigated rTMS as an option to treat MDD, as an add-on to drug therapy, and, in particular, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients with treatment-resistant depression. The advantages of rTMS over ECT for patients with severe refractory depression are that general anesthesia is not needed, it is an outpatient procedure, it requires less energy, the simulation is specific and targeted, and convulsion is not required. The advantages of rTMS as an add-on treatment to drug therapy may include hastening of the clinical response when used with antidepressant drugs. The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to March 2004. Some early meta-analyses suggested rTMS might be effective for the treatment of MDD (for treatment-resistant MDD and as an add-on treatment to drug therapy for patients not specifically defined as treatment resistant). There were, however, several crucial methodological limitations in the included studies that were not critically assessed. These are discussed below. Recent meta-analyses (including 2 international health technology assessments) have done evidence-based critical analyses of studies that have assessed rTMS for MDD. The 2 most recent health technology assessments (from the Oxford Cochrane Collaboration and the Norwegian Centre for Health Technology

  14. Asynchronous recruitment of low-threshold motor units during repetitive, low-current stimulation of the human tibial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jesse C; Clair-Auger, Joanna M; Lagerquist, Olle; Collins, David F

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons receive a barrage of inputs from descending and reflex pathways. Much of our understanding about how these inputs are transformed into motor output in humans has come from recordings of single motor units during voluntary contractions. This approach, however, is limited because the input is ill-defined. Herein, we quantify the discharge of soleus motor units in response to well-defined trains of afferent input delivered at physiologically-relevant frequencies. Constant frequency stimulation of the tibial nerve (10-100 Hz for 30 s), below threshold for eliciting M-waves or H-reflexes with a single pulse, recruited motor units in 7/9 subjects. All 25 motor units recruited during stimulation were also recruited during weak (recruited more units (n = 3/25 at 10 Hz; n = 25/25 at 100 Hz) at shorter latencies (19.4 ± 9.4 s at 10 Hz; 4.1 ± 4.0 s at 100 Hz) than lower frequencies. When a second unit was recruited, the discharge of the already active unit did not change, suggesting that recruitment was not due to increased synaptic drive. After recruitment, mean discharge rate during stimulation at 20 Hz (7.8 Hz) was lower than during 30 Hz (8.6 Hz) and 40 Hz (8.4 Hz) stimulation. Discharge was largely asynchronous from the stimulus pulses with "time-locked" discharge occurring at an H-reflex latency with only a 24% probability. Motor units continued to discharge after cessation of the stimulation in 89% of trials, although at a lower rate (5.8 Hz) than during the stimulation (7.9 Hz). This work supports the idea that the afferent volley evoked by repetitive stimulation recruits motor units through the integration of synaptic drive and intrinsic properties of motoneurons, resulting in "physiological" recruitment which adheres to Henneman's size principle and results in relatively low discharge rates and asynchronous firing.

  15. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  16. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation improves temporal discrimination in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Antelmi, Elena; Palladino, Raffaele; Tinazzi, Michele; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-01-01

    High frequency electrical stimulation of an area of skin on a finger improves two-point spatial discrimination in the stimulated area, likely depending on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex. However, it is unknown whether improvement also applies to temporal discrimination. Twelve young and ten elderly volunteers underwent the stimulation protocol onto the palmar skin of the right index finger. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) was evaluated before and immediately after stimulation as well as 2.5h and 24h later. There was a significant reduction in somatosensory temporal threshold only on the stimulated finger. The effect was reversible, with STDT returning to the baseline values within 24h, and was smaller in the elderly than in the young participants. High frequency stimulation of the skin focally improves temporal discrimination in the area of stimulation. Given previous suggestions that the perceptual effects rely on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex, our results are consistent with the idea that the timing of sensory stimuli is, at least partially, encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex. Such a protocol could potentially be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate physiological decline in the elderly or in other disorders of sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Technology rTMS is a noninvasive way to stimulate nerve cells in areas of the brain. During rTMS, an electrical current passes through a wire coil placed over the scalp. The current induces a magnetic field that produces an electrical field in the brain that then causes nerve cells to depolarize, resulting in the stimulation or disruption of brain activity. Researchers have investigated rTMS as an option to treat MDD, as an add-on to drug therapy, and, in particular, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients with treatment-resistant depression. The advantages of rTMS over ECT for patients with severe refractory depression are that general anesthesia is not needed, it is an outpatient procedure, it requires less energy, the simulation is specific and targeted, and convulsion is not required. The advantages of rTMS as an add-on treatment to drug therapy may include hastening of the clinical response when used with antidepressant drugs. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to March 2004. Summary of Findings Some early meta-analyses suggested rTMS might be effective for the treatment of MDD (for treatment-resistant MDD and as an add-on treatment to drug therapy for patients not specifically defined as treatment resistant). There were, however, several crucial methodological limitations in the included studies that were not critically assessed. These are discussed below. Recent meta-analyses (including 2 international health technology assessments) have done evidence-based critical analyses of studies that have assessed rTMS for MDD. The 2 most recent health technology assessments (from the

  18. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during exercise on short repetition time MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Mamoru; Anno, Izumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kuno, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Itai, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    There have been many reports on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle signal intensities based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These images were obtained using T 2 -weighted MR images. The purpose of this study was to observe muscles during exercise while shortening the repetition time (TR) on spin echo images. In addition, inactive and active muscles were differentiated in the same manner. T 2 values of the tibialis anterior m. were calculated from TR=400 ms to TR=3000 ms. These values were mostly constant and didn't depend upon TR. Increases in signal intensities of the exercise muscles could be observed on the short TR (600 ms) MR images since the changes of the signal intensities mainly depend upon T 2 values. Thus, the T 2 value is useful as a quantitative index to assess the exercise muscle even on the short TR MR images. (author)

  19. Empathy moderates the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on costly punishment.

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    Martin Brüne

    Full Text Available Humans incur considerable costs to punish unfairness directed towards themselves or others. Recent studies using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is causally involved in such strategic decisions. Presently, two partly divergent hypotheses are discussed, suggesting either that the right DLPFC is necessary to control selfish motives by implementing culturally transmitted social norms, or is involved in suppressing emotion-driven prepotent responses to perceived unfairness. Accordingly, we studied the role of the DLPFC in costly (i.e. third party punishment by applying rTMS to the left and right DLPFC before playing a Dictator Game with the option to punish observed unfair behavior (DG-P. In addition, sham stimulation took place. Individual differences in empathy were assessed with the German version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Costly punishment increased (non-significantly upon disruption of the right--but not the left--DLPFC as compared to sham stimulation. However, empathy emerged as a highly significant moderator variable of the effect of rTMS over the right, but not left, DLPFC, suggesting that the right DLPFC is involved in controlling prepotent emotional responses to observed unfairness, depending on individual differences in empathy.

  20. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Rehabilitation of Communication and Deglutition Disorders: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadenz, Camila Dalbosco; Moreira, Tais de Campos; Capobianco, Dirce Maria; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on rehabilitation aspects related to communication and swallowing functions. A search was conducted on PubMed, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, and ASHA electronic databases. Studies were judged according to the eligibility criteria and analyzed by 2 independent and blinded researchers. We analyzed 9 studies: 4 about aphasia, 3 about dysphagia, 1 about dysarthria in Parkinson's disease and 1 about linguistic deficits in Alzheimer's disease. All aphasia studies used low-frequency rTMS to stimulate Broca's homologous area. High-frequency rTMS was applied over the pharyngoesophageal cortex from the left and/or right hemisphere in the dysphagia studies and over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the Parkinson's and Alzheimer's studies. Two aphasia and all dysphagia studies showed a significant improvement of the disorder, compared to the sham group. The other 2 studies related to aphasia found a benefit restricted to subgroups with a severe case or injury on the anterior portion of the language cortical area, respectively, whereas the Alzheimer's study demonstrated positive effects specific to auditory comprehension. There were no changes for vocal function in the Parkinson's study. The benefits of the technique and its applicability in neurogenic disorders related to communication and deglutition are still uncertain. Therefore, other randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the optimal stimulation protocol for each disorder studied and its real effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjung, Tobias; Eichhammer, Peter; Langguth, Berthold; Jacob, Peter; Marienhagen, Joerg; Hajak, Goeran; Wolf, Stephan R; Strutz, Juergen

    2005-04-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanisms of idiopathic tinnitus remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrated focal brain activation in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to reduce cortical hyperexcitability. Fusing of the individual PET-scan with the structural MRI-scan (T1, MPRAGE) allowed us to identify exactly the area of increased metabolic activity in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. With the use of a neuronavigational system, this target area was exactly stimulated by the figure 8-shaped magnetic coil. In a prospective study, rTMS (110% motor threshold; 1 Hz; 2000 stimuli/day over 5 days) was performed using a placebo controlled cross-over design. Patients were blinded regarding the stimulus condition. For the sham stimulation a specific sham-coil system was used. Fourteen patients were followed for 6 months. Treatment outcome was assessed with a specific tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller). Tertiary referral medical center. Increased metabolic activation in the auditory cortex was verified in all patients. After 5 days of verum rTMS, a highly significant improvement of the tinnitus score was found whereas the sham treatment did not show any significant changes. The treatment outcome after 6 months still demonstrated significant reduction of tinnitus score. These preliminary results demonstrate that neuronavigated rTMS offers new possibilities in the understanding and treatment of chronic tinnitus.

  2. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the underlying neural mechanisms of human motor learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Nitzan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rapid development in the research of the physiological brain mechanisms underlying human motor learning and memory. While conventional memory research performed on animal models uses intracellular recordings, microfusion of protein inhibitors to specific brain areas and direct induction of focal brain lesions, human research has so far utilized predominantly behavioural approaches and indirect measurements of neural activity. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a safe non-invasive brain stimulation technique, enables the study of the functional role of specific cortical areas by evaluating the behavioural consequences of selective modulation of activity (excitation or inhibition) on memory generation and consolidation, contributing to the understanding of the neural substrates of motor learning. Depending on the parameters of stimulation, rTMS can also facilitate learning processes, presumably through purposeful modulation of excitability in specific brain regions. rTMS has also been used to gain valuable knowledge regarding the timeline of motor memory formation, from initial encoding to stabilization and long-term retention. In this review, we summarize insights gained using rTMS on the physiological and neural mechanisms of human motor learning and memory. We conclude by suggesting possible future research directions, some with direct clinical implications.

  3. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Intensive Swallowing Rehabilitation for Chronic Stroke Dysphagia: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Momosaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and feasibility of a 6-day protocol of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic poststroke dysphagia. In-hospital treatment was provided to 4 poststroke patients (age at treatment: 56-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 24-37 months with dysphagia. Over 6 consecutive days, each patient received 10 sessions of rTMS at 3 Hz applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex bilaterally, followed by 20 min of intensive swallowing rehabilitation exercise. The swallowing function was evaluated by the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS, Modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MMASA, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS, laryngeal elevation delay time (LEDT and Repetitive Saliva-Swallowing Test (RSST on admission and at discharge. All patients completed the 6-day treatment protocol and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the treatment. The combination treatment improved laryngeal elevation delay time in all patients. Our proposed protocol of rTMS plus swallowing rehabilitation exercise seems to be safe and feasible for chronic stroke dysphagia, although its efficacy needs to be confirmed in a large number of patients.

  4. Effective treatment of narcolepsy-like symptoms with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-Bo; Han, Mao-Mao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with disrupted sleep-architecture. Clinical management of narcolepsy lies dominantly on symptom-driven pharmacotherapy. The treatment role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for narcolepsy remains unexplored. In this paper, we present a case of a 14-year-old young girl with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. After excluding other possible medical conditions, this patient was primarily diagnosed with narcolepsy. The patient received 25 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The symptoms of EDS and cataplexy significantly improved after rTMS treatment. Meanwhile, her score in the Epworth sleep scale (ESS) also remarkably decreased. This case indicates that rTMS may be selected as a safe and effective alternative strategy for treating narcolepsy-like symptoms. Well-designed researches are warranted in future investigations on this topic.

  5. Asynchronous recruitment of low-threshold motor units during repetitive, low-current stimulation of the human tibial nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons receive a barrage of inputs from descending and reflex pathways. Much of our understanding about how these inputs are transformed into motor output in humans has come from recordings of single motor units during voluntary contractions. This approach, however, is limited because the input is ill-defined. Herein, we quantify the discharge of soleus motor units in response to well-defined trains of afferent input delivered at physiologically-relevant frequencies. Constant frequency stimulation of the tibial nerve (10-100 Hz for 30 s, below threshold for eliciting M-waves or H-reflexes with a single pulse, recruited motor units in 7/9 subjects. All 25 motor units recruited during stimulation were also recruited during weak (<10% MVC voluntary contractions. Higher frequencies recruited more units (n=3/25 at 10 Hz; n=25/25 at 100 Hz at shorter latencies (19.4±9.4 s at 10 Hz; 4.1±4.0 s at 100 Hz than lower frequencies. When a second unit was recruited, the discharge of the already active unit did not change, suggesting that recruitment was not due to increased synaptic drive. After recruitment, mean discharge rate during stimulation at 20 Hz (7.8 Hz was lower than during 30 Hz (8.6 Hz and 40 Hz (8.4 Hz stimulation. Discharge was largely asynchronous from the stimulus pulses with time-locked discharge occurring at an H-reflex latency with only a 24% probability. Motor units discharged after the stimulation ended in 89% of trials, although at a lower rate (5.8 Hz than during the stimulation (7.9 Hz. This work supports the idea that the afferent volley evoked by repetitive stimulation recruits motor units through the integration of synaptic drive and intrinsic properties of motoneurons, resulting in physiological recruitment which adheres to Henneman's size principle and results in relatively low discharge rates and asynchronous firing.

  6. Acute rCBF changes in depressed patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haindl, W.; Loo, C.; Mitchell, P.; Sachdev, P.; Zheng, X.; Som, S.; Walker, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Electroconvulsant therapy (ECT) is very effective in treatment resistant severe depression with response rates of 70-90%. However, ECT has major limitations including the need for anaesthesia, memory difficulties and public apprehension about its use. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used as a diagnostic technique in neurology with recent reports of potential benefit in depressed patients. In this study, 5 patients (3 females, 2 males aged 36-66 years, mean 48.6 years) with major depression underwent SPET brain scanning using a Picker 3000 triple-headed camera. Each patient had a baseline rCBF scan with 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAO injected intravenously during sham rTMS. On the following day, each patient received another 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAo during rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a Magstim Super Rapid magnetic stimulator with a 70-mm figure eight coil. The stimulator parameters were 15 Hz, 90% of resting motor threshold, 1 s on 3 s off for 30 trains prior to injection and 15-30 trains following injection. Each patient continued to receive their usual medication during this period. The reconstructed SPET data sets were normalized to the global mean, registered to the Talairach template and analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Compared with the baseline group, the rTMS group showed a significant perfusion increase in the pre-frontal cortices, especially on the left, and also in the anterior left temporal lobe (P < 0.05). Frontal lobe perfusion reduction is a common finding in depression. This study demonstrates the ability of rTMS to acutely increase frontal lobe perfusion, and therefore a possible mechanism for its therapeutic use as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy or as an alternative to ECT in depression

  7. Low- vs high- frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as an add-on treatment for refractory depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    julien eeche

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS seems to be effective as an antidepressant treatment, however, some confusion remain about the best parameters to apply and the efficacy of its association with pharmacological antidepressant treatments.Method: In a single blind randomized study14 patients with unipolar resistant depression to one antidepressant treatment were enrolled to received, in combination with venlafaxine (150 mg, either 20 sessions of 10Hz rTMS (2 000 pulses per session applied over le left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or 20 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS (120 stimulations per sessions applied over the right DLPFC. Results: A similar antidepressant effect was observed in both groups with a comparable antidepressant delay of action (2 weeks and a comparable number of patients in remission after 4 weeks of daily rTMS sessions (66 vs 50 %.Conclusion: Low- and high- frequency rTMS seem to be effective as an add-on treatment to venlafaxine in pharmacological refractory major depression. Due to its short duration and its safety, low frequency rTMS may be a useful alternative treatment for patients with refractory depression.

  8. Modulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex with High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facilitates Gait in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disease. Gait abnormalities are common and disabling in patients with MS with limited treatment options available. Emerging evidence suggests a role of prefrontal attention networks in modulating gait. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is known to enhance cortical excitability in stimulated cortex and its correlates. We investigated the effect of high-frequency left prefrontal rTMS on gait parameters in a 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic relapsing/remitting MS with residual disabling attention and gait symptoms. Patient received 6 Hz, rTMS at 90% motor threshold using figure of eight coil centered on F3 location (using 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG lead localization system. GAITRite gait analysis system was used to collect objective gait measures before and after one session and in another occasion three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Two-tailed within subject repeated measure t-test showed significant enhancement in ambulation time, gait velocity, and cadence after three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Modulating left prefrontal cortex excitability using rTMS resulted in significant change in gait parameters after three sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of rTMS applied to the prefrontal cortex on gait in MS patients.

  9. A Pilot Study of EEG Source Analysis Based Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Tinnitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapeutic tool to induce a suppression of tinnitus. However, the optimal target sites are unknown. We aimed to determine whether low-frequency rTMS induced lasting suppression of tinnitus by decreasing neural activity in the cortex, navigated by high-density electroencephalogram (EEG source analysis, and the utility of EEG for targeting treatment.In this controlled three-armed trial, seven normal hearing patients with tonal tinnitus received a 10-day course of 1-Hz rTMS to the cortex, navigated by high-density EEG source analysis, to the left temporoparietal cortex region, and to the left temporoparietal with sham stimulation. The Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI and a visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess tinnitus severity and loudness. Measurements were taken before, and immediately, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after the end of the interventions.Low-frequency rTMS decreased tinnitus significantly after active, but not sham, treatment. Responders in the EEG source analysis-based rTMS group, 71.4% (5/7 patients, experienced a significant reduction in tinnitus loudness, as evidenced by VAS scores. The target site of neuronal generators most consistently associated with a positive response was the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere, sourced using high-density EEG equipment, in the tinnitus patients. After left temporoparietal rTMS stimulation, 42.8% (3/7 patients experienced a decrease in tinnitus loudness.Active EEG source analysis based rTMS resulted in significant suppression in tinnitus loudness, showing the superiority of neuronavigation-guided coil positioning in dealing with tinnitus. Non-auditory areas should be considered in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This knowledge in turn can contribute to investigate the pathophysiology of tinnitus.

  10. Metabolic changes of cerebrum by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over lateral cerebellum: a study with FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Sung Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Strafella, Antonio P; Kim, Sang Eun

    2012-09-01

    To better understand the functional role of cerebellum within the large-scale cerebellocerebral neural network, we investigated the changes of neuronal activity elicited by cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve right-handed healthy volunteers were studied with brain FDG PET under two conditions: active rTMS of 1 Hz frequency over the left lateral cerebellum and sham stimulation. Compared to the sham condition, active rTMS induced decreased glucose metabolism in the stimulated left lateral cerebellum, the areas known to be involved in voluntary motor movement (supplementary motor area and posterior parietal cortex) in the right cerebral hemisphere, and the areas known to be involved in cognition and emotion (orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate gyri) in the left cerebral hemisphere. Increased metabolism was found in cognition- and language-related brain regions such as the left inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area, bilateral superior temporal gyri including Wernicke's area, and bilateral middle temporal gyri. Left cerebellar rTMS also led to increased metabolism in the left cerebellar dentate nucleus and pons. These results demonstrate that rTMS over the left lateral cerebellum modulates not only the target region excitability but also excitability of remote, but interconnected, motor-, language-, cognition-, and emotion-related cerebral regions. They provide further evidence that the cerebellum is involved not only in motor-related functions but also in higher cognitive abilities and emotion through the large-scale cerebellocereberal neural network.

  11. A randomized controlled comparison of electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in severe and resistant nonpsychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, Leon; Schreiber, Shaul; Dolberg, Ornah T; Polak, Dana; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2003-02-15

    Studies published over the past few years suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may have significant antidepressant actions. In a previous report, we compared electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and repetitive TMS (rTMS) and found ECT to be superior for psychotic major depression (MD); however, ECT and rTMS had similar results in nonpsychotic MD. We now report on a controlled randomized comparison of ECT and rTMS in patients with nonpsychotic MD. Forty patients with nonpsychotic MD referred for ECT were included. Electroconvulsive therapy was performed according to established protocols. Repetitive TMS was performed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at 90% motor threshold. Patients were treated with 20 sessions (five times per week for 4 weeks) of 10-Hz treatments (1200 pulses per treatment-day) at 90% motor threshold. Response to treatment was defined as a decrease of at least 50% in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score, with a final HRSD equal or less than 10 points and a final Global Assessment of Function Scale rating of 60 or more points. The overall response rate was 58% (23 out of 40 patients responded to treatment). In the ECT group, 12 responded and eight did not; in the rTMS group, 11 responded and nine did not (chi2 =.10, ns). Thus, patients responded as well to either ECT or rTMS. This study adds to the growing literature supporting an antidepressant effect for rTMS. This study is particularly relevant because it suggests that rTMS and ECT reach similar results in nonpsychotic major depressive disorder.

  12. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  13. Motion as motivation: using repetitive flexion movements to stimulate the approach system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J

    2011-12-01

    Research suggests that having a healthy approach system is critical for adaptive emotional functioning. The goal of the current study (n=186 undergraduates) was to determine the efficacy of an easy-to-disseminate and cost-efficient strategy for stimulating this system. The experiment tested the effects of repeated flexion movements (rFM) on approach system activation as measured by both self-report (BAS scales) and behavior. The results showed that rFM increased approach system motivation in men but not women. Men who completed the rFM task reported significantly greater levels of fun-seeking motivation than men in the control task. Moreover, the rFM task led to changes in actual behavior. Men who completed the rFM task exhibited significantly greater persistence on a difficult laboratory task than men in the control task. In contrast, women who completed the rFM task reported significantly lower levels of fun seeking and tended to exhibit less persistence on a difficult laboratory task than women in the control task. These results provide support for embodied theories of emotion as well as additional evidence for a gender difference in approach-avoidance tendencies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Corticospinal integrity and motor impairment predict outcomes after excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Wang, Chih-Pin; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi; Lin, Shan-Hui; Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Chin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To identify the effective predictors for therapeutic outcomes based on intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). A sham-controlled, double-blind parallel study design. A tertiary hospital. People with stroke (N=72) who presented with unilateral hemiplegia. Ten consecutive sessions of real or sham iTBS were implemented with the aim of enhancing hand function. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the presence (MEP+) or absence (MEP-) of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and grip strength according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Cortical excitability, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), finger-tapping task (FT), and simple reaction time were performed before and after the sessions. MEPs and the MRC scale were predictive of iTBS therapeutic outcomes. Group A (MEP+, MRC>1) exhibited the greatest WMFT change (7.6±2.3, P1; 5.2±2.2 score change) and group C (MEP-, MRC=0; 2.3±1.5 score change). These improvements were correlated significantly with baseline motor function and ipsilesional maximum MEP amplitude. The effectiveness of iTBS modulation for poststroke motor enhancement depends on baseline hand grip strength and the presence of MEPs. Our findings indicate that establishing neurostimulation strategies based on the proposed electrophysiological and clinical criteria can allow iTBS to be executed with substantial precision. Effective neuromodulatory strategies can be formulated by using electrophysiological features and clinical presentation information as guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interest of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in the management of refractory cancer pain in palliative care: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Julien; Levesque, Amélie; Denis, Nathalie; de Chauvigny, Edwige; Lepeintre, Aurélie; Raoul, Sylvie; Labat, Jean-Jacques; Bulteau, Samuel; Maillard, Benoît; Buffenoir, Kevin; Potel, Gilles; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Nguyen, Jean Paul

    2015-06-01

    Non-drug treatments should be systematically associated to the medical analgesic treatment during the terminal phase of cancer. Patient 1, a 23-year-old woman, presented an adenocarcinoma of the rectum, with liver and lung metastases. Pain was initially treated by oral morphine and a combination of pregabalin and amitriptyline. Ketamine and intrathecal administration of morphine were both ineffective. Patient 2, a 69-year-old woman, presented a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. She was admitted to the palliative care unit with mixed pain related to cutaneous lymphomatous infiltration. World Health Organization (WHO) step 3 analgesics had not been tolerated. Both patients received five consecutive 20-min sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the right motor cortex. Patient 1 experienced a marked improvement of her pain over the days following the first repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation session. Medical treatment was able to be rapidly decreased by about 50%, which restored an almost normal level of consciousness and lucidity. Patient 2's pain was also markedly decreased over the days following these five consecutive sessions, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation also appeared to have had a beneficial effect on the patient's anxiety and mood. In the context of palliative care of cancer patients experiencing refractory pain that is difficult to control by the usual treatments, motor cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, due to its noninvasive nature, can be used as an adjuvant therapy to improve various components of pain, including the emotional components. By reducing the doses of analgesics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation decreases the severity of their adverse effects and improves the patient's quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. 200 ps FWHM and 100 MHz repetition rate ultrafast gated camera for optical medical functional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Poulet, Patrick; Hanselmann, Walter; Glazenborg, René; Zint, Virginie; Nouizi, Farouk; Dubois, Benoit; Hirschi, Werner

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes the realization of a complete optical imaging device to clinical applications like brain functional imaging by time-resolved, spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography. The entire instrument is assembled in a unique setup that includes a light source, an ultrafast time-gated intensified camera and all the electronic control units. The light source is composed of four near infrared laser diodes driven by a nanosecond electrical pulse generator working in a sequential mode at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. The resulting light pulses, at four wavelengths, are less than 80 ps FWHM. They are injected in a four-furcated optical fiber ended with a frontal light distributor to obtain a uniform illumination spot directed towards the head of the patient. Photons back-scattered by the subject are detected by the intensified CCD camera; there are resolved according to their time of flight inside the head. The very core of the intensified camera system is the image intensifier tube and its associated electrical pulse generator. The ultrafast generator produces 50 V pulses, at a repetition rate of 100 MHz and a width corresponding to the 200 ps requested gate. The photocathode and the Micro-Channel-Plate of the intensifier have been specially designed to enhance the electromagnetic wave propagation and reduce the power loss and heat that are prejudicial to the quality of the image. The whole instrumentation system is controlled by an FPGA based module. The timing of the light pulses and the photocathode gating is precisely adjustable with a step of 9 ps. All the acquisition parameters are configurable via software through an USB plug and the image data are transferred to a PC via an Ethernet link. The compactness of the device makes it a perfect device for bedside clinical applications.

  17. 5 Hz Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Conelea, Christine; Tyrka, Audrey R; Welch, Emma S; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Price, Lawrence H; Niedzwiecki, Matthew; Yip, Agustin G; Barnes, Jennifer; Philip, Noah S

    2018-08-01

    Standard clinical protocols for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) apply 10 Hz pulses over left prefrontal cortex, yet little is known about the effects of rTMS in more diagnostically complex depressed patients. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly comorbid with MDD, and while rTMS has been shown to alleviate PTSD symptoms in preliminary studies, ideal parameters remain unclear. We conducted a prospective, open-label study of 5 Hz rTMS for patients with comorbid PTSD + MDD and hypothesized stimulation would reduce symptoms of both disorders. Outpatients (N = 40) with PTSD + MDD and at least moderate global severity were enrolled. 5 Hz rTMS included up to 40 daily sessions followed by a 5-session taper. Symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (IDS-SR). Baseline-to-endpoint changes were analyzed. The intent-to-treat population included 35 participants. Stimulation significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (PCL-5 baseline mean ± SD score 52.2 ± 13.1 versus endpoint 34.0 ± 21.6; p < .001); 23 patients (48.6%) met a pre-defined categorical PTSD response criteria. MDD symptoms also improved significantly (IDS-SR, baseline 47.8 ± 11.9 to endpoint 30.9 ± 18.9; p < .001); 15 patients (42.9%) demonstrated categorical response and 12 (34.3%) remitted. PTSD and MDD symptom change was highly correlated (r = 0.91, p < .001). Unblinded single-arm study, with modest sample size. Significant and clinically meaningful reductions in both MDD and PTSD symptoms were observed following stimulation. The preliminary efficacy of 5 Hz rTMS for both symptom domains in patients with comorbid disorders supports future controlled studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  19. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brich, Louisa F M; Bächle, Christine; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Stadler, Waltraud

    2018-01-01

    Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time) or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG)]. The control group (CG) received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action's time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action's course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  20. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa F. M. Brich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG]. The control group (CG received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action’s time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action’s course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  1. The impact of preoperative language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation on the clinical course of brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Negwer, Chiara; Zimmer, Claus; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-04-11

    Language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used for resection planning in patients suffering from brain lesions within regions known to be involved in language function. Yet we also need data that show whether patients benefit clinically from preoperative rTMS for language mapping. We enrolled 25 patients with language eloquently located brain lesions undergoing preoperative rTMS language mapping (GROUP 1, 2011-2013), with the mapping results not being available for the surgeon, and we matched these patients with 25 subjects who also underwent preoperative rTMS (GROUP 2, 2013-2014), but the mapping results were taken into account during tumor resection. Additionally, cortical language maps were generated by analyzing preoperative rTMS and intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) data. Mean anterior-posterior (ap) craniotomy extents and overall craniotomy sizes were significantly smaller for the patients in GROUP 2 (Ap: p = 0.0117; overall size: p = 0.0373), and postoperative language deficits were found significantly more frequently for the patients in GROUP 1 (p = 0.0153), although the preoperative language status did not differ between groups (p = 0.7576). Additionally, there was a trend towards fewer unexpected tumor residuals, shorter surgery duration, less peri- or postoperative complications, shorter inpatient stay, and higher postoperative Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) for the patients in GROUP 2. The present study provides a first hint that the clinical course of patients suffering from brain tumors might be improved by preoperative rTMS language mapping. However, a significant difference between both groups was only found for craniotomy extents and postoperative deficits, but not for other clinical parameters, which only showed a trend toward better results in GROUP 2. Therefore, multicenter trials with higher sample sizes are needed to further investigate the distinct impact of r

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehatzadeh, Shayan; Tu, Hong Anh; Palimaka, Stefan; Yap, Belinda; O'Reilly, Daria; Bowen, Jim; Higgins, Caroline; Holubowich, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depression. Objective This analysis examined the antidepressant efficacy of rTMS in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression. Methods A literature search was performed for RCTs published from January 1, 1994, to November 20, 2014. The search was updated on March 1, 2015. Two independent reviewers evaluated the abstracts for inclusion, reviewed full texts of eligible studies, and abstracted data. Meta-analyses were conducted to obtain summary estimates. The primary outcome was changes in depression scores measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and we considered, a priori, the mean difference of 3.5 points to be a clinically important treatment effect. Remission and response to the treatment were secondary outcomes, and we calculated number needed to treat on the basis of these outcomes. We examined the possibility of publication bias by constructing funnel plots and by Begg's and Egger's tests. A meta-regression was undertaken to examine the effect of specific rTMS technical parameters on the treatment effects. Results Twenty-three RCTs compared rTMS with sham, and six RCTs compared rTMS with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Trials of rTMS versus sham showed a statistically significant improvement in depression scores with rTMS (weighted mean difference [WMD] 2.31, 95% CI 1.19–3.43; P transcranial magnetic stimulation had a small short-term effect for improving depression in comparison with sham, but follow-up studies did not show that the small effect will continue for longer periods. PMID:27099642

  3. Safety and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with pathologic positive sensory phenomena: a review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Paul A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is emerging as a valuable therapeutic and diagnostic tool. rTMS appears particularly promising for disorders characterized by positive sensory phenomena attributable to alterations in sensory cortex excitability. Among these are tinnitus, auditory and visual hallucinations, and pain syndromes. OBJECTIVE Despite studies addressing rTMS efficacy in suppression of positive sensory symptoms, the safety of stimulation of potentially hyperexcitable cortex has not been fully addressed. We performed a systematic literature review and metanalysis to describe the rTMS safety profile in these disorders. METHODS Using the PubMed database, we performed an English-language literature search from January 1985 to April 2011 to review all pertinent publications. Per study, we noted and listed pertinent details. From these data we also calculated a crude per-subject risk for each adverse event. RESULTS 106 publications (n = 1815 subjects) were identified with patients undergoing rTMS for pathologic positive sensory phenomena. Adverse events associated with rTMS were generally mild and occurred in 16.7% of subjects. Seizure was the most serious adverse event, and occurred in three patients with a 0.16% crude per-subject risk. The second most severe adverse event involved aggravation of sensory phenomena, occurring in 1.54%. CONCLUSIONS The published data suggest rTMS for the treatment or diagnosis of pathologic positive sensory phenomena appears to be a relatively safe and well-tolerated procedure. However, published data are lacking in systematic reporting of adverse events, and safety risks of rTMS in these patient populations will have to be addressed in future prospective trials. PMID:22322098

  4. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26103523

  5. Neuropeptide Y as a possible homeostatic element for changes in cortical excitability induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazmati, Danny; Neubacher, Ute; Funke, Klaus

    2018-02-24

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modify cortical excitability. Rat rTMS studies revealed a modulation of inhibitory systems, in particular that of the parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons, when using intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). The potential disinhibitory action of iTBS raises the questions of how neocortical circuits stabilize excitatory-inhibitory balance within a physiological range. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) appears to be one candidate. Analysis of cortical expression of PV, NPY and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 (vGluT1) by immunohistochemical means at the level of cell counts, mean neuropil expression and single cell pre-/postsynaptic expression, with and without intraventricular NPY-injection. Our results show that iTBS not only reduced the number of neurons with high-PV expression in a dose-dependent fashion, but also increased the cortical expression of NPY, discussed to reduce glutamatergic transmission, and this was further associated with a reduced vGluT1 expression, an indicator of glutamateric presynaptic activity. Interneurons showing a low-PV expression exhibit less presynaptic vGluT1 expression compared to those with a high-PV expression. Intraventricular application of NPY prior to iTBS prevented the iTBS-induced reduction in the number of high-PV neurons, the reduction in tissue vGluT1 level and that presynaptic to high-PV cells. We conclude that NPY, possibly via a global but also slow homeostatic control of glutamatergic transmission, modulates the strength and direction of the iTBS effects, likely preventing pathological imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory cortical activity but still allowing enough disinhibition beneficial for plastic changes as during learning. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemispheric language dominance measured by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and postoperative course of language function in brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Kulchytska, Nataliia; Sollmann, Nico; Wittig, Regina; Beurskens, Eva; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Ringel, Florian; Vajkoczy, Peter; Meyer, Bernhard; Picht, Thomas; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-10-01

    The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbors the risk of postoperative aphasia. Because it is known that language function can shift between hemispheres in brain tumor patients, the preoperative knowledge of the patient's language dominance could be helpful. We therefore investigated the hemispheric language dominance by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and surgery-related deficits of language function. We pooled the bicentric language mapping data of 80 patients undergoing the resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions in our two university neurosurgical departments. We calculated error rates (ERs; ER = errors per stimulations) for both hemispheres and defined the hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) as the quotient of the left- and right-sided ER (HDR >1= left dominant; HDR right dominant). The course of the patient's language function was evaluated and correlated with the preoperative HDR. Only three of 80 patients (4%) presented with permanent surgery-related aphasia and 24 patients (30%) with transient surgery-related aphasia. The mean HDR (± standard deviation) of patients with new aphasia after five days was significantly higher (1.68±1.07) than the HDR of patients with no new language deficit (1.37±1.08) (p=0.0482). With a predefined cut-off value of 0.5 for HDR, we achieved a sensitivity for predicting new aphasia of 100%. A higher preoperative HDR significantly correlates with an increased risk for transient aphasia. Moreover, the intensive preoperative workup in this study led to a considerably low rate of permanent aphasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

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    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  8. Is it time to introduce repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation into standard clinical practice for the treatment of depressive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul

    2003-02-01

    To examine issues relating to the potential introduction of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) into clinical practice as a treatment for depression. A review of the outcomes literature accompanied by an analysis of issues relating to the potential advantages and pitfalls of the introduction of rTMS as a treatment strategy. Evidence is progressively accumulating that rTMS has antidepressant properties that are clinically relevant. These effects are biologically plausible and supported by basic research. Patients with therapy-resistant depression have few treatment alternatives and experience significant suffering, thus justifying the early introduction of a new treatment such as rTMS for this patient group. However, this must be balanced by a need to foster considerable further research and not to raise expectations unreasonably. It is timely for rTMS to be made more available to patients with treatment-resistant mood disorders. This need not be limited to clinical research trials but should only occur in medical settings where continual evaluation and research is conducted.

  9. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation non-responder MDD patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, P N; Grunhaus, L

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of ECT in-patients who had failed to respond to a course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Seventeen patients with severe MDD who had not responded to a course of rTMS were switched to receive ECT treatments. All the patients were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale, the Global Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Response to the treatment was defined as a 50% decrease in HDRS final score and a final GAS higher than 60. Seven out of 17 patients responded to ECT. Three out of 5 non-psychotics and 4 out of 12 psychotic patients responded. ECT seems to be an effective treatment for 40% of patients who failed to respond to rTMS treatment. Whether this is a result of reduced responsiveness to ECT in rTMS-resistant patients or a consequence of small sample size requires further study.

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals a role for the left inferior parietal lobule in matching observed kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Royce, Ben P; Marsh, Jade E; Chivers, Katy-Jayne; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2018-04-01

    Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e. unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the IPL is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left IPL, or how different types of action (i.e. meaningful or meaningless) are processed for imitation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bridge this gap and better understand the roles of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and left angular gyrus (AG) in imitation. We also examined whether these areas are differentially involved in meaningful and meaningless action imitation. We applied rTMS over the left SMG, over the left AG or during a no-rTMS baseline condition, and then asked participants to imitate a confederate's actions whilst the arm and hand movements of both individuals were motion-tracked. rTMS over both the left SMG and the left AG reduced the velocity of participants' finger movements relative to the actor during imitation of finger gestures, regardless of action meaning. Our results support recent claims in apraxia and confirm a role for the left IPL in kinematic processing during gesture imitation, regardless of action meaning. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of Intermediate-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Verdugo-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI represents a significant public health concern and has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although several research groups have proposed the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to enhance neuroprotection and recovery in patients with TBI, few studies have obtained sufficient evidence regarding its effects in this population. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of intermediate-frequency rTMS (2 Hz on behavioral and histological recovery following TBI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three groups without TBI (no manipulation, movement restriction plus sham rTMS, and movement restriction plus rTMS and three groups subjected to TBI (TBI only, TBI plus movement restriction and sham rTMS, and TBI plus movement restriction and rTMS. The movement restriction groups were included so that rTMS could be applied without anesthesia. Our results indicate that the restriction of movement and sham rTMS per se promotes recovery, as measured using a neurobehavioral scale, although rTMS was associated with faster and superior recovery. We also observed that TBI caused alterations in the CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus, which are partly restored by movement restriction and rTMS. Our findings indicated that movement restriction prevents damage caused by TBI and that intermediate-frequency rTMS promotes behavioral and histologic recovery after TBI.

  12. Clinical improvement in patients with borderline personality disorder after treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Julian; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Armas-Castañeda, Gabriela; García-Anaya, María; Arango-De Montis, Iván; González-Olvera, Jorge J; Pellicer, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Current treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) consists of psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could be beneficial to improve some BPD symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical improvement in patients with BPD after application of rTMS over the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-nine patients with BPD from the National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico, were randomized in two groups to receive 15 sessions of rTMS applied over the right (1 Hz, n=15) or left (5 Hz, n=14) DLPFC. Improvement was measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale for BPD (CGI-BPD), Borderline Evaluation of Severity Over Time (BEST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Intragroup comparison showed significant (p < 0.05) reductions in every psychopathologic domain of the CGI-BPD and in the total scores of all scales in both groups. Both protocols produced global improvement in severity and symptoms of BPD, particularly in impulsiveness, affective instability, and anger. Further studies are warranted to explore the therapeutic effect of rTMS in BPD. NCT02273674

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression after basal ganglia ischaemic stroke: protocol for a multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Chen, Aimin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Li; Zhou, Jiyuan; Pan, Suyue; Shao, Min; Zhao, Lianxu

    2018-02-03

    Studies suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is effective for the treatment of depression and promotes the repair of white matter. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of rTMS in treating depression after basal ganglia ischaemic stroke and to examine whether such effects are related to restoration of white matter integrity. Sixty-six participants will be recruited from Zhujiang Hospital, Nanfang Hospital and Sichuan Bayi Rehabilitation Hospital and randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive active rTMS treatment or sham rTMS treatment in addition to routine supportive treatments. The data will be collected at 0, 2 and 4 weeks after the commencement of treatment. The primary outcome is the measurement of 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, and the secondary outcomes include diffusion tensor imaging results and the results of neuropsychological tests including the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Clinical Global Impressions scales, Aphasia Battery in Chinese, Social Support Revalued Scale and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University. The findings will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal and by presentation at international conferences. NCT03159351. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Effect of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Naming Abilities in Early-Stroke Aphasic Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Waldowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Functional brain imaging studies with aphasia patients have shown increased cortical activation in the right hemisphere language homologues, which hypothetically may represent a maladaptive strategy that interferes with aphasia recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the Broca’s homologues in combination with speech/language therapy improves naming in early-stroke aphasia patients. Methods. 26 right-handed aphasic patients in the early stage (up to 12 weeks of a first-ever left hemisphere ischemic stroke were randomized to receive speech and language therapy combined with real or sham rTMS. Prior to each 45-minute therapeutic session (15 sessions, 5 days a week, 30 minutes of 1-Hz rTMS was applied. Outcome measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after 3 weeks of experimental treatment and 15 weeks; posttreatment using the Computerized Picture Naming Test. Results. Although both groups significantly improved their naming abilities after treatment, no significant differences were noted between the rTMS and sham stimulation groups. The additional analyses have revealed that the rTMS subgroup with a lesion including the anterior part of language area showed greater improvement primarily in naming reaction time 15 weeks after completion of the therapeutic treatment. Improvement was also demonstrated in functional communication abilities. Conclusions. Inhibitory rTMS of the unaffected right inferior frontal gyrus area in combination with speech and language therapy cannot be assumed as an effective method for all poststroke aphasia patients. The treatment seems to be beneficial for patients with frontal language area damage, mostly in the distant time after finishing rTMS procedure.

  15. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation once a week induces sustainable long-term relief of central poststroke pain.

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    Kobayashi, Masahito; Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Mihara, Ban; Ohira, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Central poststroke pain is a serious problem for some patients after stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to relieve poststroke pain but its efficacy is still controversial. We tested the possibility that rTMS, when applied once a week, would induce sustainable relief of poststroke pain. Eighteen patients with central poststroke pain were included in this study. rTMS (10 trains of 10-sec 5 Hz-rTMS) was delivered over the primary motor cortex on the affected side. The rTMS session was repeated once a week for 12 weeks, and for six patients the intervention was continued for one year. The degree of the pain was assessed before each weekly rTMS session to evaluate sustainable effects. The effects of the rTMS reached a plateau at the eighth week. At the 12th week, the rTMS was effective in 61.1% of the patients; 5 of the 18 patients showed more than 70% reduction based on a visual analog scale, 6 patients showed 40-69% reduction, and 7 remained at a pain reduction level of less than 40%. When patients were divided into two groups with or without severe dysesthesia, it was found that eight patients with severe dysesthesia showed less pain relief than those without. In the six patients who continued rTMS for one year, the pain relief effects also were sustained. Although this was an open-label study without a control group, our findings suggest that rTMS of the primary motor cortex, when maintained once a week, could help to relieve poststroke pain. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Acute and chronic effects of hypercalcaemia on cortical excitability as studied by 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Mascia, Maria Lucia; Scillitani, Alfredo; Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pichiorri, Floriana; Fucile, Sergio; Minisola, Salvatore; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2011-04-01

    We designed the present study to disclose changes in cortical excitability in humans with hypercalcaemia, by delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor area (M1). In 22 patients with chronic hypercalcaemia related to primary hyperparathyroidism and 22 age-matched healthy subjects 5 Hz-rTMS was delivered at rest and during a sustained voluntary contraction of the target muscle. Changes in the resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes and cortical silent period (CSP) duration were measured and compared in patients and healthy controls. Two of the 22 patients were re-tested after parathyroidectomy when serum calcium had normalized. In a subgroup of healthy subjects, changes in the rTMS parameters were tested before and after acute hypercalcaemia. No significant difference between healthy normocalcaemic subjects and chronic hypercalcaemic patients was found in the RMT values and MEP amplitude and CSP duration evoked by the first stimulus of the trains. During the course of 5 Hz-rTMS trains, MEP size increased significantly less in patients with chronic hypercalcaemia than in healthy subjects, whereas the CSP duration lengthened to a similar extent in both groups. In the two patients studied after parathyroidectomy, rTMS elicited a normal MEP amplitude facilitation. Our findings indicate that acute hypercalcaemia significantly decreased the MEP amplitude facilitation. Given that 5 Hz-rTMS modulates cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic enhancement, the reduction of MEP amplitude facilitation by hypercalcaemia may be related to Ca2+-dependent changes in synaptic plasticity.

  18. A double-blind, randomized trial of deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kennedy, Hayley A; Arnold, Sara L; Elliot, David; Peachey, Amy; Zangen, Abraham; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical treatment options for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are extremely limited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and efficacious technique when targeting specific areas of cortical dysfunction in major depressive disorder, and a similar approach could yield therapeutic benefits in ASD, if applied to relevant cortical regions. The aim of this study was to examine whether deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex improves social relating in ASD. 28 adults diagnosed with either autistic disorder (high-functioning) or Asperger's disorder completed a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design with 2 weeks of daily weekday treatment. This involved deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (5 Hz, 10-s train duration, 20-s inter-train interval) for 15 min (1500 pulses per session) using a HAUT-Coil. The sham rTMS coil was encased in the same helmet of the active deep rTMS coil, but no effective field was delivered into the brain. Assessments were conducted before, after, and one month following treatment. Participants in the active condition showed a near significant reduction in self-reported social relating symptoms from pre-treatment to one month follow-up, and a significant reduction in social relating symptoms (relative to sham participants) for both post-treatment assessments. Those in the active condition also showed a reduction in self-oriented anxiety during difficult and emotional social situations from pre-treatment to one month follow-up. There were no changes for those in the sham condition. Deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex yielded a reduction in social relating impairment and socially-related anxiety. Further research in this area should employ extended rTMS protocols that approximate those used in depression in an attempt to replicate and amplify the clinical response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fractional averaging of repetitive waveforms induced by self-imaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Cortés, Luis; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José

    2015-10-01

    We report the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of averaging of stochastic events with an equivalent result of calculating the arithmetic mean (or sum) of a rational number of realizations of the process under test, not necessarily limited to an integer record of realizations, as discrete statistical theory dictates. This concept is enabled by a passive amplification process, induced by self-imaging (Talbot) effects. In the specific implementation reported here, a combined spectral-temporal Talbot operation is shown to achieve undistorted, lossless repetition-rate division of a periodic train of noisy waveforms by a rational factor, leading to local amplification, and the associated averaging process, by the fractional rate-division factor.

  20. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyu-Sik; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Lee, Han Do; Chang, Min Cheol

    2018-02-28

    Central pain can occur following traumatic brain injury, leading to poor functional recovery, limitation of activities of daily living, and decreased quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency (10 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, applied over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere, can be used to manage chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury. Prospective randomized feasibility study. Twelve patients with mild traumatic brain injury and chronic central pain were randomly assigned to transcranial magnetic stimulation (high-frequency stimulation, 10 sessions) or sham groups. Diffuse tensor tractography revealed partially injured spinothalamocortical tracts in all recruited patients. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain intensity during pre-treatment and immediately after the 5th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post1), 10th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post2), and 1 (post3), 2 (post4), and 4 weeks (post 5) after finishing treatment. Physical and mental health status were evaluated using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), including physical and mental component scores (PCS, MCS). The NRS score of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation group was significantly lower than the sham group score at all clinical evaluation time-points during and after transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. The transcranial magnetic stimulation group's SF-36 PCS score was significantly higher at post2, post3, post4, and post5 compared with the sham group. High-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used to manage chronic central pain and improve quality of life in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. However, this is a pilot study and further research is needed.

  1. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-sik Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Central pain can occur following traumatic brain injury, leading to poor functional recovery, limitation of activities of daily living, and decreased quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency (10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, applied over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere, can be used to manage chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury. Design: Prospective randomized feasibility study. Methods: Twelve patients with mild traumatic brain injury and chronic central pain were randomly assigned to transcranial magnetic stimulation (high-frequency stimulation, 10 sessions or sham groups. Diffuse tensor tractography revealed partially injured spinothalamocortical tracts in all recruited patients. A numerical rating scale (NRS was used to evaluate pain intensity during pre-treatment and immediately after the 5th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post1, 10th transcranial magnetic stimulation session (post2, and 1 (post3, 2 (post4, and 4 weeks (post 5 after finishing treatment. Physical and mental health status were evaluated using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, including physical and mental component scores (PCS, MCS. Results: The NRS score of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation group was significantly lower than the sham group score at all clinical evaluation time-points during and after transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. The transcranial magnetic stimulation group’s SF-36 PCS score was significantly higher at post2, post3, post4, and post5 compared with the sham group. Conclusion: High-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used to manage chronic central pain and improve quality of life in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. However, this is a pilot study and further research is needed.

  2. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

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    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  3. The repetition timing of high frequency afferent stimulation drives the bidirectional plasticity at central synapses in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, M; Panichi, R; Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S

    2012-10-25

    In this study we show that high frequency stimulation (HFS, 100Hz) of afferent fibers to the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) can induce opposite long-term modifications of synaptic responses in the type B neurons depending upon the stimulation pattern. Long burst stimulation (LBS: 2s) and short burst stimulation (SBS: 0.55s) were applied with different burst number (BN) and inter-burst intervals (IBI). It results that both LBS and SBS can induce either N-methyl-d aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), depending on temporal organization of repetitive bursts. In particular, the IBI plays a relevant role in guiding the shift from LTP to LTD since by using both LBS and SBS LTP is induced by shorter IBI than LTD. By contrast, the sign of long-term effect does not depend on the mean impulse frequency evaluated within the entire stimulation period. Therefore, the patterns of repetitive vestibular activation with different ratios between periods of increased activity and periods of basal activity may lead to LTP or LTD probably causing different levels of postsynaptic Ca(2+). On the whole, this study demonstrates that glutamatergic vestibular synapse in the MVN can undergo NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity and puts forward a new aspect for understanding the adaptive and compensatory plasticity of the oculomotor responses. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Added value of multiple versus single sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in predicting motor cortex stimulation efficacy for refractory neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Benjamin; Quesada, Charles; Fauchon, Camille; Nuti, Christophe; Vassal, François; Peyron, Roland

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE Selection criteria for offering patients motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for refractory neuropathic pain are a critical topic of research. A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been advocated for selecting MCS candidates, but it has a low negative predictive value. Here the authors investigated whether multiple rTMS sessions would more accurately predict MCS efficacy. METHODS Patients included in this longitudinal study could access MCS after at least four rTMS sessions performed 3-4 weeks apart. The positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of the four rTMS sessions and the correlation between the analgesic effects of the two treatments were assessed. RESULTS Twelve MCS patients underwent an average of 15.9 rTMS sessions prior to surgery; nine of the patients were rTMS responders. Postoperative follow-up was 57.8 ± 15.6 months (mean ± standard deviation). Mean percentage of pain relief (%R) was 21% and 40% after the first and fourth rTMS sessions, respectively. The corresponding mean durations of pain relief were respectively 2.4 and 12.9 days. A cumulative effect of the rTMS sessions was observed on both %R and duration of pain relief (p < 0.01). The %R value obtained with MCS was 35% after 6 months and 43% at the last follow-up. Both the PPV and NPV of rTMS were 100% after the fourth rTMS session (p = 0.0045). A significant correlation was found between %R or duration of pain relief after the fourth rTMS session and %R at the last MCS follow-up (R 2 = 0.83, p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS Four rTMS sessions predicted MCS efficacy better than a single session in neuropathic pain patients. Taking into account the cumulative effects of rTMS, the authors found a high-level correlation between the analgesic effects of rTMS and MCS.

  5. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  6. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  7. Repetitive deep transcranial magnetic stimulation improves verbal fluency and written language in a patient with primary progressive aphasia-logopenic variant (LPPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, Alessandro; Raccah, Ruggero; de Lena, Carlo; Zangen, Abraham; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    To date, no therapies are available for the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (LPPA). Even though deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may improve cognitive functions in some neurodegenerative disorders, no previous studies investigated its effects in patients with LPPA. Our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive function of high frequency rTMS (hf-rTMS) delivered over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) through a coil designed for deep rTMS, compared to a SHAM stimulation, in a right-handed patient with LPPA. The patient presented a progressive language impairment (phonological errors in speech and naming, impaired single word retrieval and sentences repetition) and predominant left perisylvian atrophy and hypoperfusion. He received four stimulation cycles (two REAL and two SHAM) each of whom lasted 20 min for 5 consecutive days. Patient's performances in frontal, visuo-spatial and linguistic tasks were evaluated before and after each stimulation session. Test scores after REAL were compared with those obtained at baseline and after SHAM. We found a temporary and highly significant improvement in the linguistic skills (both oral and written tasks) but not in the other cognitive domains tested, after REAL, but not SHAM stimulations. Hf-rTMS delivered over the DLPFC could improve language in LPPA by enhancing long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity within the stimulated and interconnected areas involved in language network. Our findings might prompt future researches into the feasibility and efficacy of deep hf-rTMS as a therapeutic tool in progressive aphasia syndromes and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time measurement of cerebral blood flow during and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Kang, Min Jae; Lee, Ahee; Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-07-13

    To confirm the interhemispheric modulation induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex, real-time regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor cortex (PM). Ten right-handed healthy subjects completed two experimental sessions that were randomly arranged for real or sham rTMS session. In the real rTMS session, fNIRS data were acquired from the right M1 and PM area, while the motor hot spot of the left M1 was stimulated with 1Hz rTMS for 1200 pulses with two boosters. In the sham stimulation session, stimulation was delivered with a disconnected coil. During the real rTMS session, the concentration of oxyhemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) in the right M1 increased continuously until the end of the stimulation. These changes lasted for 20min, while the right PM did not show a change in [oxy-Hb] concentration. On the other hand, the concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin ([deoxy-Hb]) decreased continuously in the right M1 and PM during the real rTMS stimulation, and this change lasted for 20min after the stimulation. The sham stimulation did not exhibit any significant change in both [oxy-Hb] and [deoxy-Hb] concentration during or after the stimulation. Application of 1Hz rTMS over M1 resulted in changes of rCBF in contralateral M1 and PM, which seemed to constitute a function of interhemispheric modulation of rTMS. The fNIRS data was able to detect this physiological change of neuromodulatory action of rTMS in real-time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Short repetition time multiband echo-planar imaging with simultaneous pulse recording allows dynamic imaging of the cardiac pulsation signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M; Frederick, Blaise deB

    2014-11-01

    Recently developed simultaneous multislice echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences permit imaging of the whole brain at short repetition time (TR), allowing the cardiac fluctuations to be fully sampled in blood-oxygen-level dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI). A novel low computational analytical method was developed to dynamically map the passage of the pulsation signal through the brain and visualize the whole cerebral vasculature affected by the pulse signal. This algorithm is based on a simple combination of fast BOLD fMRI and the scanner's own built-in pulse oximeter. Multiple, temporally shifted copies of the pulse oximeter data (with 0.08 s shifting step and coverage of a 1-s span) were downsampled and used as cardiac pulsation regressors in a general linear model based analyses (FSL) of the fMRI data. The resulting concatenated z-statistics maps show the voxels that are affected as the cardiac signal travels through the brain. Many voxels were highly correlated with the pulsation regressor or its temporally shifted version. The dynamic and static cardiac pulsation maps obtained from both the task and resting state scans, resembled cerebral vasculature. The results demonstrated: (i) cardiac pulsation significantly affects most voxels in the brain; (ii) combining fast fMRI and this analytical method can reveal additional clinical information to functional studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of nondelusional major depressive disorder: an open study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, L; Dannon, P N; Schreiber, S; Dolberg, O H; Amiaz, R; Ziv, R; Lefkifker, E

    2000-02-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a new method for the stimulation of the central nervous system, is being proposed as a potential new treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that rTMS would be as effective as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with MDD. Forty patients with MDD referred for ECT were randomly assigned to either ECT or rTMS. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed at 90% power of the motor threshold. The stimulation frequency was 10 Hz for either 2 sec (first eight patients) or 6 sec (final 12 patients) for 20 trains. Patients were treated for up to 20 treatment days. Electroconvulsive therapy was performed according to standard protocols. Overall patients responded best to ECT (chi(2) = 3.8, p <.05). Patients with MDD and psychosis responded significantly better to ECT (chi(2) = 9.2, p <. 01), whereas MDD patients without psychosis responded similarly to both treatments (chi(2) = 0.0, ns). The analysis of variance with repeated measures of clinical variables for the whole sample revealed significant treatment effects for both groups; however, interaction between group and treatment was seen only for the Global Assessment of Function and the Sleep assessment. When the psychosis-nonpsychosis grouping was considered, patients with psychosis responded dramatically better to ECT in all assessments, whereas those without psychosis responded similarly to both treatments. Overall ECT was a more potent treatment for patients with MDD, this being particularly evident in patients with MDD and psychosis; however, in patients with MDD without psychosis the effects of rTMS were similar to those of ECT. The results we report are encouraging and support an important role for rTMS in the treatment of severe MDD; however, additional blinded studies are needed to precisely define this role.

  11. Effects of Multi-Session Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor Control and Spontaneous Brain Activity in Multiple System Atrophy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired motor control is one of the most common symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA. It arises from dysfunction of the cerebellum and its connected neural networks, including the primary motor cortex (M1, and is associated with altered spontaneous (i.e., resting-state brain network activity. Non-invasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS selectively facilitates the excitability of supraspinal networks. Repeated rTMS sessions have been shown to induce long-term changes to both resting-state brain dynamics and behavior in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we hypothesized that a multi-session rTMS intervention would improve motor control in patients with MSA, and that such improvements would correlate with changes in resting-state brain activity.Methods: Nine participants with MSA received daily sessions of 5 Hz rTMS for 5 days. rTMS targeted both the cerebellum and the bilateral M1. Before and within 3 days after the intervention, motor control was assessed by the motor item of the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS. Resting-state brain activity was recorded by blood-oxygen-level dependency (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging. The “complexity” of resting-state brain activity fluctuations was quantified within seven well-known functional cortical networks using multiscale entropy, a technique that estimates the degree of irregularity of the BOLD time-series across multiple scales of time.Results: The rTMS intervention was well-attended and was not associated with any adverse events. Average motor scores were lower (i.e., better performance following the rTMS intervention as compared to baseline (t8 = 2.3, p = 0.003. Seven of nine participants exhibited such pre-to-post intervention improvements. A trend toward an increase in resting-state complexity was observed within the motor network (t8 = 1.86, p = 0.07. Participants who exhibited greater increases in motor network resting

  12. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Terreaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle. Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax⁡ /Mmax⁡ and T/Mmax⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  13. Benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for spastic subjects: clinical, functional, and biomechanical parameters for lower limb and walking in five hemiparetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreaux, Luc; Gross, Raphael; Leboeuf, Fabien; Desal, Hubert; Hamel, Olivier; Nguyen, Jean Paul; Pérot, Chantal; Buffenoir, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz) were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle). Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in H max⁡ /M max⁡ and T/M max⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  14. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  15. Clinical and electrophysiological impact of repetitive low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation on the sensory–motor network in patients with restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Aricò, Debora; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Cosentino, Filomena Irene Ilaria; Paci, Domenico; Papotto, Maurizio; Pennisi, Manuela; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Paulus, Walter; Ferri, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT). A single evening session of rTMS (1 Hz, 20 trains, 50 stimuli each) was administered over the left M1, left S1, and sham stimulation over M1 in a random order. Clinical and TMS measures were repeated after each stimulation modality. Results: Baseline CSP was shorter in patients than in controls and remained shorter in patients for both motor and somatosensory stimulation. The patients reported a subjective improvement of both initiating and maintaining sleep the night after the rTMS over S1. Patients exhibited a decrease in rMT after rTMS of S1 only, although the effect was smaller than in controls. MEP latency and CMCT changed only in controls after stimulation. Sham stimulation was without effect on the observed variables. Conclusions: rTMS on S1-M1 connectivity alleviated the sensory–motor complaints of RLS patients. The TMS indexes of excitation and inhibition indicate an intracortical and corticospinal imbalance, mainly involving gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic circuitries, as well as an impairment of the short-term mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The rTMS-induced activation of the dorsal striatum with the consequent increase of dopamine release may have contributed to the clinical and neurophysiological outcome. PMID:29511386

  16. Clinical and electrophysiological impact of repetitive low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation on the sensory-motor network in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Giuseppe; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Aricò, Debora; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Cosentino, Filomena Irene Ilaria; Paci, Domenico; Papotto, Maurizio; Pennisi, Manuela; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Paulus, Walter; Ferri, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT). A single evening session of rTMS (1 Hz, 20 trains, 50 stimuli each) was administered over the left M1, left S1, and sham stimulation over M1 in a random order. Clinical and TMS measures were repeated after each stimulation modality. Baseline CSP was shorter in patients than in controls and remained shorter in patients for both motor and somatosensory stimulation. The patients reported a subjective improvement of both initiating and maintaining sleep the night after the rTMS over S1. Patients exhibited a decrease in rMT after rTMS of S1 only, although the effect was smaller than in controls. MEP latency and CMCT changed only in controls after stimulation. Sham stimulation was without effect on the observed variables. rTMS on S1-M1 connectivity alleviated the sensory-motor complaints of RLS patients. The TMS indexes of excitation and inhibition indicate an intracortical and corticospinal imbalance, mainly involving gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic circuitries, as well as an impairment of the short-term mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The rTMS-induced activation of the dorsal striatum with the consequent increase of dopamine release may have contributed to the clinical and neurophysiological outcome.

  17. Daily repetitive sensory stimulation of the paretic hand for the treatment of sensorimotor deficits in patients with subacute stroke: RESET, a randomized, sham-controlled trial.

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    Kattenstroth, Jan C; Kalisch, Tobias; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Greulich, Wolfgang; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2018-01-09

    Repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS) adapts the timing of stimulation protocols used in cellular studies to induce synaptic plasticity. In healthy subjects, RSS leads to widespread sensorimotor cortical reorganization paralleled by improved sensorimotor behavior. Here, we investigated whether RSS reduces sensorimotor upper limb impairment in patients with subacute stroke more effectively than conventional therapy. A single-blinded sham-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of RSS in treating sensorimotor deficits of the upper limbs. Patients with subacute unilateral ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to receive standard therapy in combination with RSS or with sham RSS. Patients were masked to treatment allocation. RSS consisted of intermittent 20 Hz electrical stimulation applied on the affected hand for 45 min/day, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks, and was transmitted using custom-made stimulation-gloves with built-in electrodes contacting each fingertip separately. Before and after the intervention, we assessed light-touch and tactile discrimination, proprioception, dexterity, grip force, and subtasks of the Jebsen Taylor hand-function test for the non-affected and the affected hand. Data from these quantitative tests were combined into a total performance index serving as primary outcome measure. In addition, tolerability and side effects of RSS intervention were recorded. Seventy one eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive RSS treatment (n = 35) or sham RSS (n = 36). Data of 25 patients were not completed because they were transferred to another hospital, resulting in n = 23 for each group. Before treatment, sensorimotor performance between groups was balanced (p = 0.237). After 2 weeks of the intervention, patients in the group receiving standard therapy with RSS showed significantly better restored sensorimotor function than the control group (standardized mean difference 0.57; 95% CI -0

  18. Right secondary somatosensory cortex-a promising novel target for the treatment of drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Lindholm, Pauliina; Lamusuo, Salla; Taiminen, Tero; Pesonen, Ullamari; Lahti, Ari; Virtanen, Arja; Forssell, Heli; Hietala, Jarmo; Hagelberg, Nora; Pertovaara, Antti; Parkkola, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Satu

    2015-07-01

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex has analgesic effect; however, the efficacy of other cortical targets and the mode of action remain unclear. We examined the effects of rTMS in neuropathic orofacial pain, and compared 2 cortical targets against placebo. Furthermore, as dopaminergic mechanisms modulate pain responses, we assessed the influence of the functional DRD2 gene polymorphism (957C>T) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on the analgesic effect of rTMS. Sixteen patients with chronic drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Navigated high-frequency rTMS was given to the sensorimotor (S1/M1) and the right secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices. All subjects were genotyped for the DRD2 957C>T and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. Pain, mood, and quality of life were monitored throughout the study. The numerical rating scale pain scores were significantly lower after the S2 stimulation than after the S1/M1 (P = 0.0071) or the sham (P = 0.0187) stimulations. The Brief Pain Inventory scores were also lower 3 to 5 days after the S2 stimulation than those at pretreatment baseline (P = 0.0127 for the intensity of pain and P = 0.0074 for the interference of pain) or after the S1/M1 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001) and sham (P = 0.0491 and P = 0.0359) stimulations. No correlations were found between the genetic polymorphisms and the analgesic effect in the present small clinical sample. The right S2 cortex is a promising new target for the treatment of neuropathic orofacial pain with high-frequency rTMS.

  19. Safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with implanted cortical electrodes. An ex-vivo study and report of a case.

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    Phielipp, Nicolás M; Saha, Utpal; Sankar, Tejas; Yugeta, Akihiro; Chen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with implanted subdural cortical electrodes. We performed ex-vivo experiments to test the temperature, displacement and current induced in the electrodes with single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from 10 to 100% of stimulator output and tested a typical rTMS protocol used in a clinical setting. We then used rTMS to the motor cortex to treat a patient with refractory post-herpetic neuralgia who had previously been implanted with a subdural motor cortical electrode for pain management. The rTMS protocol consisted of ten sessions of 2000 stimuli at 20Hz and 90% of resting motor threshold. The ex-vivo study showed an increase in the coil temperature of 2°C, a maximum induced charge density of 30.4μC/cm 2 /phase, and no electrode displacement with TMS. There was no serious adverse effect associated with rTMS treatment of the patient. Cortical tremor was observed in the intervals between trains of stimuli during one treatment session. TMS was safe in a patient with implanted Medtronic Resume II electrode (model 3587A) subdural cortical electrode. TMS may be used as a therapeutic, diagnostic or research tool in patients this type of with implanted cortical electrodes. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of repetitive audiogenic stimulation on open field activity in audiogenic sensitive and non-sensitive wag/rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikbaev, A.F.; Balabanov, D.V.; Sadovnikov, S.V.; Karpova, A.V.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A certain part of WAG/Rij rats combines genetically predisposed absence epilepsy with susceptibility to the development of audiogenic seizures. Repeated sound stimulation leads in audiogenic susceptible rats to propagation of epileptic discharges from the brainstem to the forebrain and neocortex. In

  1. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

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    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  2. Palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle to repetitive nerve stimulation testing: A potential assessment indicator in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chong; Song, Jie; Pang, Song; Yi, Fangfang; Xi, Jianying; Zhou, Lei; Ding, Ding; Wang, Weifeng; Qiao, Kai; Zhao, Chongbo

    2018-02-01

    Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) is a valuable diagnostic method for myasthenia gravis (MG). However, its association with clinical severity was scarcely studied. We reviewed medical records and retrospectively enrolled 121 generalized MG patients. Sensitivity of different muscles to RNS and clinical scoring systems was evaluated. RNS testing revealed facial muscles have the highest positive rate, followed by proximal muscles and distal muscles, with the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle most sensitive. Amplitude decrement of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle is related to quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) scores, MG-specific manual muscle testing (MMT) scores and myasthenia gravis-related activities of daily living (MG-ADL) scores. We suggest that RNS testing of the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle is a potential assessment indicator in patients with generalized MG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Following Prefrontal Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Depression

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    Guilhem Carle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients.

  4. Cognitive component of psychomotor retardation in unipolar and bipolar depression: Is verbal fluency a relevant marker? Impact of repetitive transcranial stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ollivier, Véronique; Foyer, Emmanuelle; Bulteau, Samuel; Pichot, Anne; Valriviere, Pierre; Sauvaget, Anne; Deschamps, Thibault

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, psychomotor retardation (PMR) is increasingly highlighted as a relevant marker for depression. Currently, we chose to focus on the fluency capacities as an evaluation of the frontal lobes functioning to reach a better understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in PMR in depression. The aims of this study were: (i) to explore the cognitive component of PMR through the analysis of verbal fluency (VF) performance in unipolar and bipolar depression; and (ii) to examine whether a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment could improve concomitantly the PMR and VF capacities, as a relevant marker characteristic of the cognitive component of PMR. Fifteen unipolar and 15 bipolar patients were compared to 15 healthy adults. Before treatment, the results showed VF deficits, particularly marked in the bipolar group. The investigation of the interplay between PMR, VF performance, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores showed that the deficits in these various dimensions were not homogeneous. The absence of correlation between the psychomotor retardation scale (the French Retardation Rating Scale for Depression) and VF, and the correlation with MoCA raise the hypothesis of a more global cognitive impairment associated with PMR in the BD group. The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment had a positive impact on depression, PMR, and fluency scores. Correlations between the Retardation Rating Scale for Depression and VF performances appeared after treatment, showing the cognitive role of psychomotor functioning in depression. Further analyses, including other cognitive measures in an objective evaluation of PMR, are required for a better understanding of these complex relationships. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

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    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  6. Inhibition of long-term potentiation in the schaffer-CA1 pathway by repetitive high-intensity sound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A O S; de Oliveira, J A C; Almeida, S S; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Leão, R M

    2015-12-03

    High-intensity sound can induce seizures in susceptible animals. After repeated acoustic stimuli changes in behavioural seizure repertoire and epileptic EEG activity might be seen in recruited limbic and forebrain structures, a phenomenon known as audiogenic kindling. It is postulated that audiogenic kindling can produce synaptic plasticity events leading to the spread of epileptogenic activity to the limbic system. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated if long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 synapses and spatial navigation memory are altered by a repeated high-intensity sound stimulation (HISS) protocol, consisting of one-minute 120 dB broadband noise applied twice a day for 10 days, in normal Wistar rats and in audiogenic seizure-prone rats (Wistar Audiogenic Rats - WARs). After HISS all WARs exhibited midbrain seizures and 50% of these animals developed limbic recruitment, while only 26% of Wistar rats presented midbrain seizures and none of them had limbic recruitment. In naïve animals, LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons was induced by 50- or 100-Hz high-frequency stimulation of Schaffer fibres in slices from both Wistar and WAR animals similarly. Surprisingly, HISS suppressed LTP in CA1 neurons in slices from Wistar rats that did not present any seizure, and inhibited LTP in slices from Wistar rats with only midbrain seizures. However HISS had no effect on LTP in CA1 neurons from slices of WARs. Interestingly HISS did not alter spatial navigation and memory in both strains. These findings show that repeated high-intensity sound stimulation prevent LTP of Schaffer-CA1 synapses from Wistar rats, without affecting spatial memory. This effect was not seen in hippocampi from audiogenic seizure-prone WARs. In WARs the link between auditory stimulation and hippocampal LTP seems to be disrupted which could be relevant for the susceptibility to seizures in this strain. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  8. Effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation on upper-limb spasticity and impairment in patients with spastic hemiparesis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewer, Carmen; Hartl, Sandra; Müller, Friedemann; Koenig, Eberhard

    2014-06-01

    To investigate short-term and long-term effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rpMS) on spasticity and motor function. Monocentric, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Neurologic rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=66) with severe hemiparesis and mild to moderate spasticity resulting from a stroke or a traumatic brain injury. The average time ± SD since injury for the intervention groups was 26 ± 71 weeks or 37 ± 82 weeks. rpMS for 20 minutes or sham stimulation with subsequent occupational therapy for 20 minutes, 2 times a day, over a 2-week period. Modified Tardieu Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (arm score), assessed before therapy, at the end of the 2-week treatment period, and 2 weeks after study treatment. Additionally, the Tardieu Scale was assessed after the first and before the third therapy session to determine any short-term effects. Spasticity (Tardieu >0) was present in 83% of wrist flexors, 62% of elbow flexors, 44% of elbow extensors, and 10% of wrist extensors. Compared with the sham stimulation group, the rpMS group showed short-term effects on spasticity for wrist flexors (P=.048), and long-term effects for elbow extensors (P<.045). Arm motor function (rpMS group: median 5 [4-27]; sham group: median 4 [4-9]) did not significantly change over the study period in either group, whereas rpMS had a positive effect on sensory function. Therapy with rpMS increases sensory function in patients with severe limb paresis. The magnetic stimulation, however, has limited effect on spasticity and no effect on motor function. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Short and long term effects of left and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Leonie Bais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left temporo-parietal junction area has been studied as a treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations. Although the right temporo-parietal junction area has also shown involvement in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations, no studies have used bilateral stimulation. Moreover, little is known about durability effects. We studied the short and long term effects of 1 Hz treatment of the left temporo-parietal junction area in schizophrenia patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to sham stimulation, and added an extra treatment arm of bilateral TPJ area stimulation. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 51 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations were randomly allocated to treatment of the left or bilateral temporo-parietal junction area or sham treatment. Patients were treated for six days, twice daily for 20 minutes. Short term efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We included follow-up measures with the AHRS and PANAS at four weeks and three months. RESULTS: The interaction between time and treatment for Hallucination item P3 of the PANSS showed a trend for significance, caused by a small reduction of scores in the left group. Although self-reported hallucination scores, as measured with the AHRS and PANAS, decreased significantly during the trial period, there were no differences between the three treatment groups. CONCLUSION: We did not find convincing evidence for the efficacy of left-sided rTMS, compared to sham rTMS. Moreover, bilateral rTMS was not superior over left rTMS or sham in improving AVH. Optimizing treatment parameters may result in stronger evidence for the efficacy of rTMS treatment of AVH. Moreover, future research should consider

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex does not have analgesic effect on central poststroke pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rogério Adas Ayres; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Mendonça, Melina; Barros, Rafael; Luvisoto, Tatiana; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-12-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is caused by an encephalic vascular lesion of the somatosensory pathways and is commonly refractory to current pharmacologic treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the premotor cortex/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PMC/DLPFC) can change thermal pain threshold toward analgesia in healthy subjects and has analgesic effects in acute postoperative pain as well as in fibromyalgia patients. However, its effect on neuropathic pain and in CPSP, in particular, has not been assessed. The aim of this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of PMC/DLPFC rTMS in CPSP patients. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, active (a-) rTMS and sham (s-) rTMS, and were treated with 10 daily sessions of rTMS over the left PMC/DLPFC (10 Hz, 1,250 pulses/d). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, during the stimulation phase, and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the last stimulation. The main outcome was pain intensity changes measured by the visual analog scale on the last stimulation day compared to baseline. Interim analysis was scheduled when the first half of the patients completed the study. The study was terminated because of a significant lack of efficacy of the active arm after 21 patients completed the whole treatment and follow-up phases. rTMS of the left PMC/DLPFC did not improve pain in CPSP. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of rTMS to the PMC/DLPFC in CPSP patients. An interim analysis showed a consistent lack of analgesic effect, and the study was terminated. rTMS of the PMC/DLPFC is not effective in relieving CPSP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking cessation induced by deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal and insular cortices: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinur-Klein, Limor; Dannon, Pinhas; Hadar, Aviad; Rosenberg, Oded; Roth, Yiftach; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in developed countries. Our previous studies in animal models and humans suggest that repeated activation of cue-induced craving networks followed by electromagnetic stimulation of the dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) can cause lasting reductions in drug craving and consumption. We hypothesized that disruption of these circuitries by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the PFC and insula bilaterally can induce smoking cessation. Adults (N = 115) who smoke at least 20 cigarettes/day and failed previous treatments were recruited from the general population. Participants were randomized to receive 13 daily sessions of high-frequency, low-frequency or sham stimulation following, or without, presentation of smoking cues. Deep TMS was administered using an H-coil version targeting the lateral PFC and insula bilaterally. Cigarette consumption was evaluated during the treatment by measuring cotinine levels in urine samples and recording participants' self-reports as a primary outcome variable. Dependence and craving were assessed using standardized questionnaires. High (but not low) frequency deep TMS treatment significantly reduced cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. The combination of this treatment with exposure to smoking cues enhanced reduction in cigarette consumption leading to an abstinence rate of 44% at the end of the treatment and an estimated 33% 6 months following the treatment. This study further implicates the lateral PFC and insula in nicotine addiction and suggests the use of deep high-frequency TMS of these regions following presentation of smoking cues as a promising treatment strategy. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous theta-burst stimulation to primary motor cortex reveals asymmetric compensation for sensory attenuation in bimanual repetitive force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Amanda S; Lyons, James; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-08-01

    Studies of fingertip force production have shown that self-produced forces are perceived as weaker than externally generated forces. This is due to mechanisms of sensory reafference where the comparison between predicted and actual sensory feedback results in attenuated perceptions of self-generated forces. Without an external reference to calibrate attenuated performance judgments, a compensatory overproduction of force is exhibited. It remains unclear whether the force overproduction seen in the absence of visual reference stimuli differs when forces are produced bimanually. We studied performance of two versions of a bimanual sequential force production task compared with each hand performing the task unimanually. When the task goal was shared, force series produced by each hand in bimanual conditions were found to be uncorrelated. When the bimanual task required each hand to reach a target force level, we found asymmetries in the degree of force overproduction between the hands following visual feedback removal. Unilateral continuous theta-burst stimulation of the left primary motor cortex yielded a selective reduction of force overproduction in the hand contralateral to stimulation by disrupting sensory reafference processes. While variability was lower in bimanual trials when the task goal was shared, this influence of hand condition disappeared when the target force level was to be reached by each hand simultaneously. Our findings strengthen the notion that force control in bimanual action is less tightly coupled than other mechanisms of bimanual motor control and show that this effector specificity may be extended to the processing and compensation for mechanisms of sensory reafference.

  13. Reduced Performance During a Sentence Repetition Task by Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation of the Pre-supplementary Motor Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ackermann, Hermann; Belardinelli, Paolo; Desideri, Debora; Seibold, Verena C.; Ziemann, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is engaged in speech comprehension under difficult circumstances such as poor acoustic signal quality or time-critical conditions. Previous studies found that left pre-SMA is activated when subjects listen to accelerated speech. Here, the functional role of pre-SMA was tested for accelerated speech comprehension by inducing a transient “virtual lesion” using continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Participants were tested (1) prior to (pre-baseline), (2) 10 min after (test condition for the cTBS effect), and (3) 60 min after stimulation (post-baseline) using a sentence repetition task (formant-synthesized at rates of 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 syllables/s). Speech comprehension was quantified by the percentage of correctly reproduced speech material. For high speech rates, subjects showed decreased performance after cTBS of pre-SMA. Regarding the error pattern, the number of incorrect words without any semantic or phonological similarity to the target context increased, while related words decreased. Thus, the transient impairment of pre-SMA seems to affect its inhibitory function that normally eliminates erroneous speech material prior to speaking or, in case of perception, prior to encoding into a semantically/pragmatically meaningful message. PMID:29896086

  14. Add-on Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Subacute Aphasia Therapy: Enhanced Improvement of Functional Communication and Basic Linguistic Skills. A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi-Fessen, Ilona; Hartmann, Alexander; Huber, Walter; Fimm, Bruno; Rommel, Thomas; Thiel, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    To determine to what extent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with speech and language therapy improves functional communication and basic linguistic skills of individuals with subacute aphasia. Randomized, blinded, and sham-controlled study. Neurologic rehabilitation hospital. Participants (N=30) with subacute aphasia after stroke. During a 2-week treatment period, half of the participants received 10 sessions of 20-minute inhibitory 1-Hz rTMS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 45), and the other half received sham stimulation. Directly thereafter, all the participants underwent 45 minutes of speech and language therapy. Aachen Aphasia Test, Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), a naming screening, and subscales of the FIM, all assessed the day before and the day after treatment period. The participants who received real rTMS significantly improved with respect to all 10 measures of basic linguistic skills and functional communication, whereas sham-treated participants significantly improved in only 6 of 10 measures (paired t tests, Pcommunication (ANELT) (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P≤.05). For the first time, this study has demonstrated that basic linguistic skills as well as functional communication are bolstered by combining rTMS and behavioral language therapy in patients with subacute aphasia. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats

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    Jing Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX, NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats.

  16. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Minna Pitkänen

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  17. The Efficacy of Daily Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS): A Randomized Controlled Single-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Badran, Bashar W; DeVries, William H; Moss, Jkeonye; Gonzales, Theresa; George, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning oral sensation without any corresponding abnormal findings. In some cases, BMS is refractory to pharmacologic treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left prefrontal cortex induces analgesic effect in both acute and chronic pain. However, its effect for BMS has not been evaluated. The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blind study was to assess the efficacy of prefrontal rTMS for BMS. Twenty patients with BMS were recruited and randomized to receive 30,000 pulses in total at 10 Hz TMS (n = 12) or sham TMS (n = 8). We assessed the change of BMS pain condition, functional status and mood until 2 months after the beginning of treatment. In the real group, the BMS pain intensity decreased 67%, and 75% of the patients reported >50% pain decrease on final assessment compared to baseline, without heavy side effects. There was significant pain reduction in subjects in the real group immediately after 1 week of treatment, whereas there was none in those in the sham group. Similar tendency was confirmed in change of functional status. Mood and the affective aspect of pain were not changed in this study. BMS pain was significantly improved with 2 weeks of treatment of high frequency rTMS over left DLPFC compared to sham stimulation. Further study is needed to refine and improve TMS as a potential treatment of BMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping of arithmetic processing by navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with parietal brain tumors and correlation with postoperative outcome.

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    Ille, Sebastian; Drummer, Katharina; Giglhuber, Katrin; Conway, Neal; Maurer, Stefanie; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-03-26

    Preserving functionality is of significant importance during neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. Specialized centers also map further brain functions apart from motor and language functions, such as arithmetic processing (AP). The mapping of AP by navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated. The present study aimed to correlate the results of mapping AP with functional patient outcomes. We included 26 patients with parietal brain tumors. Due to preoperative impairment of AP, mapping was not possible in 8 patients (31%). We stimulated 52 cortical sites by nrTMS while patients performed a calculation task. Pre- and postoperatively, patients underwent a standardized number-processing and calculation test (NPCT). Tumor resection was blinded to nrTMS results, and the change in NPCT performance was correlated to resected AP-positive spots as identified by nrTMS. The resection of AP-positive sites correlated with a worsening of the postoperative NPCT result in 12 cases. In 3 cases, no AP-positive sites were resected and the postoperative NPCT result was similar to or better than preoperatively. Also, in 3 cases, the postoperative NPCT result was better than preoperatively, although AP-positive sites were resected. Despite only presenting a low number of cases, nrTMS might be a useful tool for preoperative mapping of AP. However, the reliability of the present results has to be evaluated in a larger series and by intraoperative mapping data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced Performance During a Sentence Repetition Task by Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation of the Pre-supplementary Motor Area

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    Susanne Dietrich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA is engaged in speech comprehension under difficult circumstances such as poor acoustic signal quality or time-critical conditions. Previous studies found that left pre-SMA is activated when subjects listen to accelerated speech. Here, the functional role of pre-SMA was tested for accelerated speech comprehension by inducing a transient “virtual lesion” using continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS. Participants were tested (1 prior to (pre-baseline, (2 10 min after (test condition for the cTBS effect, and (3 60 min after stimulation (post-baseline using a sentence repetition task (formant-synthesized at rates of 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 syllables/s. Speech comprehension was quantified by the percentage of correctly reproduced speech material. For high speech rates, subjects showed decreased performance after cTBS of pre-SMA. Regarding the error pattern, the number of incorrect words without any semantic or phonological similarity to the target context increased, while related words decreased. Thus, the transient impairment of pre-SMA seems to affect its inhibitory function that normally eliminates erroneous speech material prior to speaking or, in case of perception, prior to encoding into a semantically/pragmatically meaningful message.

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assisted by neuronavigation of magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viesca, N. Angeline; Alcauter, S. Sarael; Barrios, A. Fernando; González, O. Jorge J.; Márquez, F. Jorge A.

    2012-10-01

    Technological advance has improved the way scientists and doctors can learn about the brain and treat different disorders. A non-invasive method used for this is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) based on neuron excitation by electromagnetic induction. Combining this method with functional Magnetic Resonance Images (fMRI), it is intended to improve the localization technique of cortical brain structures by designing an extracranial localization system, based on Alcauter et al. work.

  1. Neural stimulators: A guide to imaging and postoperative appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Shand-Smith, J.; Watkins, L.; McEvoy, A.W.; Elneil, S.; Zrinzo, L.; Davagnanam, I.

    2014-01-01

    Implantable neural stimulators have been developed to aid patients with debilitating neurological conditions that are not amenable to other therapies. The aim of this article is to improve understanding of correct anatomical placement as well as the relevant imaging methods used to assess these devices. Potential complications following their insertion and an overview of the current indications and potential mechanism of action of these devices is provided

  2. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Priming With 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Contralesional Leg Motor Cortex Does Not Increase the Rate of Regaining Ambulation Within 3 Months of Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Lin, Li-Fong; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Yen-Nung

    2018-05-01

    The potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied either alone or as a combination treatment, on recovery of lower limbs after stroke have been insufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of priming with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over contralesional leg motor area with a double-cone coil before physical therapy on regaining ambulation. Thirty-eight subacute stroke patients with significant leg disabilities were randomly assigned into the experimental group or control group to receive a 15-min real or sham 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively, over the contralesional motor cortex representing the quadriceps muscle followed by 45-min physical therapy for 15 sessions for 3 wks. Functional measures, motor evoked potentials, and quality of life were assessed. There was no significant difference between experimental group and control group regarding the recovery in ambulation, balance, motor functions, and activity of daily living. No significant difference was found in other functional measures and the quality of life. Only the control group displayed significantly increased cortical excitability of the contralesional hemisphere after the intervention. The present study found that insufficient evidence that contralesional priming with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves ambulatory and other motor functions among patients with a severe leg dysfunction in subacute stroke.

  4. Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rTMS in Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina W.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe treatment method with few side effects However, efficacy for various psychiatric disorders is currently not clear Data sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2008 using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase

  5. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

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    Sarah C Herremans

    Full Text Available In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network.

  6. Safety of primed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and modified constraint-induced movement therapy in a randomized controlled trial in pediatric hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Tim; Rich, Tonya L; Moberg, Kelli; Menk, Jeremiah; Cassidy, Jessica; Kimberley, Teresa; Carey, James R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the safety of combining a 6-Hz primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) intervention in the contralesional hemisphere with a modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) program in children with congenital hemiparesis. Phase 1 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pretest/posttest trial. University academic facility and pediatric specialty hospital. Subjects (N = 19; age range, 8-17 y) with congenital hemiparesis caused by ischemic stroke or periventricular leukomalacia. No subject withdrew because of adverse events. All subjects included completed the study. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: either real rTMS plus mCIMT (n = 10) or sham rTMS plus mCIMT (n = 9). Adverse events, physician assessment, ipsilateral hand function, stereognosis, cognitive function, subject report of symptoms assessment, and subject questionnaire. No major adverse events occurred. Minor adverse events were found in both groups. The most common events were headaches (real: 50%, sham: 89%; P = .14) and cast irritation (real: 30%, sham: 44%; P = .65). No differences between groups in secondary cognitive and unaffected hand motor measures were found. Primed rTMS can be used safely with mCIMT in congenital hemiparesis. We provide new information on the use of rTMS in combination with mCIMT in children. These findings could be useful in research and future clinical applications in advancing function in congenital hemiparesis. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a study on primary motor cortex excitability tested by 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, A; Gilio, F; D'Antonio, F; Cambieri, C; Ceccanti, M; de Lena, C; Inghilleri, M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate changes in cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity we delivered 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex in 11 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) before and after chronic therapy with rivastigmine. Resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP) after single stimulus and MEP facilitation during rTMS trains were tested three times during treatment. All patients underwent neuropsychological tests before and after receiving rivastigmine. rTMS data in patients were compared with those from age-matched healthy controls. At baseline, RMT was significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas CSP duration and single MEP amplitude were similar in both groups. In patients, rTMS failed to induce the normal MEP facilitation during the trains. Chronic rivastigmine intake significantly increased MEP amplitude after a single stimulus, whereas it left the other neurophysiological variables studied unchanged. No significant correlation was found between patients' neuropsychological test scores and TMS measures. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine has no influence on altered cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity as tested by 5 Hz-rTMS. The limited clinical benefits related to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in patients with AD depend on factors other than improved plasticity within the cortical glutamatergic circuits. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the supplementary motor area in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ji; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Kim, Hye-Geum; Kim, Ji-Yean; Cheon, Eun-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severely distressing disorder represented by obsessions and compulsions. A significant proportion of OCD patients fail to improve with conventional treatment methods. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as an alternative for OCD treatment. Functional neuroimaging studies indicate that OCD is associated with increased activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a region that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of augmentation with 1Hz rTMS over the SMA in treatment-resistant OCD patients. The participants received 1Hz rTMS over the SMA in 20 daily sessions for 4weeks. We observed significant reduction in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score at the 4th week of the treatment. Reduction in compulsion contributed to the reduction of global Y-BOCS whereas there was no significant reduction in obsession. Clinical global impression-global improvement also showed significant change at the 2nd and 4th week of the treatment. No additional significant changes or significant adverse effects were seen. These findings suggest that 1Hz rTMS over the SMA can be an efficient and safe add-on therapeutic method in treatment-resistant patients with OCD. Further controlled studies in larger samples are required to confirm the effect of 1Hz rTMS over the SMA in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on upper extremity motor recovery and functional outcomes in chronic stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkın, Ayhan; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil

    2017-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was suggested as a preconditioning method that would increase brain plasticity and that it would be optimal to combine rTMS with intensive rehabilitation. To assess the efficacy of inhibitory rTMS on upper extremity motor recovery and functional outcomes in chronic ischemic stroke patients. In this randomized controlled trial, experimental group received low-frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT), and control group received PT. No statistically significant difference was found in baseline demographical and clinical characteristics of the subjects including stroke severity or severity of paralysis prior to intervention. There were statistically significant improvements in all clinical outcome measures except for the Brunnstrom Recovery Stages. Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block test, motor and total scores of Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and Functional Ambulation Scale (FAS) scores were significantly increased in both groups, however, these changes were significantly greater in the rTMS group except for FAS score. FIM cognitive scores and standardized mini-mental test scores were significantly increased and distal and hand Modified Ashworth Scale scores were significantly decreased only in the rTMS group (p functional, and cognitive deficits in chronic stroke. Further studies with a larger number of patients with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish its effectiveness in stroke rehabilitation.

  10. Evaluation of repetitive stimulation test (RST in 30 patients with Myasthenia Gravis, who were previously confirmed by clinical sign and tensilon test 1996-99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Ghabaee M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available est (RST is the most commonly used electrodiagnostic test to asses the defect of neuromuscular transmission, which is reported to be positive in the diffuse and restricted ocular forms 60-95% and 14-50%, respectively. In a cross-sectional study, to determine the efficacy of repetitive stimulation test in myasthenia gravis, we evaluated the results in 30 cases who were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 1996-1999. Patients were first selected clinically and then confirmed by Tensilon test.Various clinical types including generalized and restricted ocular forms with different severity and duration were entered in this study. Considering the fact that the positiveness of the test is enhanced by assessment of more muscle groups, we evaluated decremental response in the facial, proximal and distal muscles of limbs. 90% of patients had the generalized form of the disease, whereas ocular myasthenia gravis was seen only in 10% of the cases. 74% of females and 73% of males showed positive response (overall: 73.3%. No significant association was found between the positive response, and age and sex. Peaks of incidences of the disease for the males were in fourth and sixth decades and for the females in thired decades

  11. Comparing the Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroconvulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppe Micallef-Trigona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is the longest standing psychiatric treatment available and has unequivocal benefit in severe depression. However this treatment comes with a number of side effects such as memory impairment. On the other hand, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS is a relatively new form of treatment which has been shown to be efficacious in patients suffering from a number of psychopathologies, including severe depression, with few reported side effects. Due to its potential therapeutic efficacy and lack of side effects, rTMS has gained traction in the treatment of depression, with a number of authors keen to see it take over from ECT. However, it is not clear whether rTMS represents a therapeutic alternative to ECT. This meta-analysis will therefore compare the “gold standard” treatment for severe depression, with the relatively new but promising rTMS. A literature search will be performed with the intention to include all randomised clinical trials. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the antidepressant efficacy between the two types of treatment modalities. Statistical analysis of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores will be performed.

  12. Improvements in symptoms following neuronavigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa: findings from two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Campbell, Iain C; Jacob, Shirabdi; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    Advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) are most likely to arise from targeted, brain-directed treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We describe findings from two individuals with treatment-resistant AN who received 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated, high frequency rTMS, applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within-session measures assessed changes pre-rTMS, post-rTMS in subjective eating disorder (ED) experiences. Weight, ED symptoms and mood were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 1 month follow-up. In both cases, there was improvement in ED symptomatology and mood after 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated rTMS, and these changes persisted or continued to improve at follow-up. Within sessions, Patient A demonstrated a consistent reduction in subjective ED experiences, and Patient B a reduction in some ED related experiences. These findings suggest that rTMS has potential as an adjunct to the treatment of AN and deserves further study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy in pediatric hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Tim; Rich, Tonya L; Moberg, Kelli; Thomas, William; Cassidy, Jessica M; Menk, Jeremiah; Carey, James R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of five treatments of 6 Hz primed, low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) to promote recovery of the paretic hand in children with congenital hemiparesis. Nineteen children with congenital hemiparesis aged between 8 and 17 years (10 males, nine females; mean age 10 years 10 months, SD 2 years 10 months; Manual Ability Classification Scale levels I-III) underwent five sessions of either real rTMS (n=10) or sham rTMS (n=9) alternated daily with CIMT. CIMT consisted of 13 days of continuous long-arm casting with five skin-check sessions. Each child received a total of 10 hours of one-to-one therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and the secondary outcome variables were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and stereognosis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test was used to analyze differences between pre- and post-test scores within the groups. Analysis of covariance was used to compute mean differences between groups adjusting for baseline. Fisher's exact test was used to compare individual change in AHA raw scores with the smallest detectable difference (SDD) of 4 points. All participants receiving treatment finished the study. Improvement in AHA differed significantly between groups (p=0.007). No significant differences in the secondary outcome measures were found. Eight out of 10 participants in the rTMS/CIMT group showed improvement greater than the SDD, but only two out of nine in the sham rTMS/CIMT group showed such improvement (p=0.023). No serious adverse events occurred. Primed, low-frequency rTMS combined with CIMT appears to be safe, feasible, and efficacious in pediatric hemiparesis. Larger clinical trials are now indicated. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Beneficial Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Upper Limb Hemiparesis after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Masachika; Hashimoto, Kenji; Kakuda, Wataru; Miyano, Satoshi; Momosaki, Ryo; Ishima, Tamaki; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve upper limb hemiparesis after stroke but the mechanism underlying its efficacy remains elusive. rTMS seems to alter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and such effect is influenced by BDNF gene polymorphism. To investigate the molecular effects of rTMS on serum levels of BDNF, its precursor proBDNF and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied. Sixty-two patients underwent rehabilitation plus rTMS combination therapy and 33 patients underwent rehabilitation monotherapy without rTMS for 14 days at our hospital. One Hz rTMS was applied over the motor representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle on the non-lesional hemisphere. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function (WMFT) were used to evaluate motor function on the affected upper limb before and after intervention. Blood samples were collected for analysis of BDNF polymorphism and measurement of BDNF, proBDNF and MMP-9 levels. Two-week combination therapy increased BDNF and MMP-9 serum levels, but not serum proBDNF. Serum BDNF and MMP-9 levels did not correlate with motor function improvement, though baseline serum proBDNF levels correlated negatively and significantly with improvement in WMFT (ρ = -0.422, p = 0.002). The outcome of rTMS therapy was not altered by BDNF gene polymorphism. The combination therapy of rehabilitation plus low-frequency rTMS seems to improve motor function in the affected limb, by activating BDNF processing. BDNF and its precursor proBDNF could be potentially suitable biomarkers for poststroke motor recovery.

  15. Efficacy of single versus three sessions of high rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic migraine and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Laskar, Sanghamitra; Bhoi, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Usha Kant

    2016-11-01

    We report the efficacy of three versus single session of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic migraine (CM) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Ninety-eight patients with CM or CTTH were included and their headache frequency, severity, functional disability and number of abortive medications were noted. Fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to group I (three true sessions) and 46 to group II (one true and two sham rTMS sessions) treatment. 10 Hz rTMS comprising 600 pulses was delivered in 412.4 s on the left frontal cortex. Outcomes were noted at 1, 2 and 3 months. The primary outcome was 50 % reduction in headache frequency, and secondary outcomes were improvement in severity, functional disability, abortive drugs and side effects. The baseline headache characteristics were similar between the two groups. Follow up at different time points revealed significant improvement in headache frequency, severity, functional disability and number of abortive drugs compared to baseline in both group I and group II patients, although these parameters were not different between the two groups. In group I, 31 (79.4 %) had reduction of headache frequency and 29 (74.4 %) converted to episodic headache. In group II, these were 24 (64.8 %) and 22 (59.2 %), respectively. In chronic migraine, the severity of headache at 2 months reduced in group I compared to group II (62.5 vs 35.3 %; P = 0.01). Both single and three sessions of 10 Hz rTMS were found to be equally effective in CM and CTTH, and resulted in conversion of chronic to episodic headache in 67.1 % patients.

  16. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of electroconvulsive therapy versus repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: A systematic review and multiple-treatments meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Li-Bo; Liu, Yi-Yun; Fan, Song-Hua; Xie, Peng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and bilateral, left prefrontal, and right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on major depressive disorder (MDD) have not been adequately addressed by previous studies. Here, a multiple-treatments meta-analysis, which incorporates evidence from direct and indirect comparisons from a network of trials, was performed to assess the efficacy and acceptability of these four treatment modalities on MDD. The literature was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on ECT, bilateral rTMS, and unilateral rTMS for treating MDD up to May 2016. The main outcome measures were response and drop-out rates. Data were obtained from 25 studies consisting of 1288 individuals with MDD. ECT was non-significantly more efficacious than B-rTMS, R-rTMS, and L-rTMS. Left prefrontal rTMS was non -significantly less efficacious than all other treatment modalities. In terms of acceptability, R-rTMS was non-significantly better tolerated than ECT, B-rTMS, and L-rTMS. ECT was the most efficacious treatment with the cumulative probabilities of being the most efficacious treatment being: ECT (65%), B-rTMS (25%), R-rTMS (8%), and L-rTMS (2%). R-rTMS was the best-tolerated treatment with the cumulative probabilities of being the best-tolerated treatment being: R-rTMS (52%), B-rTMS (17%), L-rTMS (16%), and ECT (14%). Coherence analysis detected no statistically significant incoherence in any comparisons of direct with indirect evidence for the response rate and drop-out rate. ECT was the most efficacious, but least tolerated, treatment, while R-rTMS was the best tolerated treatment for MDD. B-rTMS appears to have the most favorable balance between efficacy and acceptability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on arm function and decreasing unilateral spatial neglect in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Myoung Kwon

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the functional recovery of stroke patients with unilateral neglect. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Thirty patients with stroke were randomly assigned to two groups: an rTMS group (experimental) and a control group. Stroke patients in the experimental group underwent comprehensive rehabilitation therapy and rTMS. Stroke patients in the control group underwent sham therapy and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Line bisection, Albert, Box and block and Grip strength tests were assessed before and after the four-week therapy period. A significant difference in the post-training gains in Line bisection (16.53 SD 9.78 vs. 3.60 SD 5.02), Albert (14.13 SD 4.92 vs. 3.26 SD 2.01), Box and block (15.06 SD 9.68 vs. 6.93 SD 7.52), and Grip strength tests (3.60 SD 2.66 vs 0.80 SD 1.26) was observed between the experimental group and the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the effect size for gains in the experimental and control groups was very strong in AT, BBT (effect size=2.15, 0.77 respectively). We conclude that rTMS might be effective in improvement in reduction of the unilateral neglect and motor function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of Nestin in Neural Stem Cell after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guofu; HUANG Xiaolin; CHEN Hong; HAY Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with repetitive transeranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) on the temporal profile of nestin expression after induction of focal cerebral isehemia in adult rats and to explore the mechanism of EA combined with rTMS in treating ischemic brain injury. Method: The model of transient focal ischemia was produced by occlusion of middle cerebral artery. Seventy-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, EA group, rTMS group and EA +rTMS group. The neurologic impairment rating and ability of learning and memory were observed at the 7th、14th and 28th d after infarction respectively. Meanwhile, Western blotting was used to observe the number of nestin expression positive cells. Result: Nestin-positive cells were found in cortex, subgranular zone (SGZ), subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ipsilateral side at different time points after cerebral isehemia. The number of nestin-positive cells peaked at the 7th d, began to decrease at the 14th d and was significantly higher in EA+rTMS group than that in model group (P<0.05), then almost reached normal at the 28th d. The improvement of neural motor function deficits as well as the indexes of learning and memory were more obvious in EA+rTMS group compared with model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). These effects were most obvious in EA+rTMS group compared with the EA and rTMS group (P<0.05). Conclusion: EA and rTMS possess the potency of building up and can increase the number of nestin-positive cells in some brain regions after focal cerebral ischemia, which might be one of the important mechanisms of EA combined with rTMS in treating ischemia brain injury.

  19. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity in APP23/PS45 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Zhilin Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a chronic neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia, which is characterized by progressive memory loss and other cognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have attested that noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may help improve cognitive function in patients with AD. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive function, and little is known about low-frequency rTMS in AD treatment. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of rTMS on the improvement of learning and memory also remain poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that severe deficits in spatial learning and memory were observed in APP23/PS45 double transgenic mice, a well known mouse model of AD. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus, a brain region vital to spatial learning and memory. More importantly, 2-week low-frequency rTMS treatment markedly reversed the impairment of spatial learning and memory as well as hippocampal CA1 LTP. In addition, low-frequency rTMS dramatically reduced amyloid-β precursor protein (APP and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs including C99 and C89, as well as β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 in the hippocampus. These results indicate that low-frequency rTMS noninvasively and effectively ameliorates cognitive and synaptic functions in a mouse model of AD, and the potential mechanisms may be attributed to rTMS-induced reduction in Aβ neuropathology.

  20. Cost effectiveness analysis comparing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to antidepressant medications after a first treatment failure for major depressive disorder in newly diagnosed patients - A lifetime analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jeffrey; Carpenter, Linda; Leuchter, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) commonly is used for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) after patients have failed to benefit from trials of multiple antidepressant medications. No analysis to date has examined the cost-effectiveness of rTMS used earlier in the course of treatment and over a patients' lifetime. We used lifetime Markov simulation modeling to compare the direct costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of rTMS and medication therapy in patients with newly diagnosed MDD (ages 20-59) who had failed to benefit from one pharmacotherapy trial. Patients' life expectancies, rates of response and remission, and quality of life outcomes were derived from the literature, and treatment costs were based upon published Medicare reimbursement data. Baseline costs, aggregate per year quality of life assessments (QALYs), Monte Carlo simulation, tornado analysis, assessment of dominance, and one way sensitivity analysis were also performed. The discount rate applied was 3%. Lifetime direct treatment costs, and QALYs identified rTMS as the dominant therapy compared to antidepressant medications (i.e., lower costs with better outcomes) in all age ranges, with costs/improved QALYs ranging from $2,952/0.32 (older patients) to $11,140/0.43 (younger patients). One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the model was most sensitive to the input variables of cost per rTMS session, monthly prescription drug cost, and the number of rTMS sessions per year. rTMS was identified as the dominant therapy compared to antidepressant medication trials over the life of the patient across the lifespan of adults with MDD, given current costs of treatment. These models support the use of rTMS after a single failed antidepressant medication trial versus further attempts at medication treatment in adults with MDD.

  1. Cost effectiveness analysis comparing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to antidepressant medications after a first treatment failure for major depressive disorder in newly diagnosed patients - A lifetime analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Voigt

    Full Text Available Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS commonly is used for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD after patients have failed to benefit from trials of multiple antidepressant medications. No analysis to date has examined the cost-effectiveness of rTMS used earlier in the course of treatment and over a patients' lifetime.We used lifetime Markov simulation modeling to compare the direct costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs of rTMS and medication therapy in patients with newly diagnosed MDD (ages 20-59 who had failed to benefit from one pharmacotherapy trial. Patients' life expectancies, rates of response and remission, and quality of life outcomes were derived from the literature, and treatment costs were based upon published Medicare reimbursement data. Baseline costs, aggregate per year quality of life assessments (QALYs, Monte Carlo simulation, tornado analysis, assessment of dominance, and one way sensitivity analysis were also performed. The discount rate applied was 3%.Lifetime direct treatment costs, and QALYs identified rTMS as the dominant therapy compared to antidepressant medications (i.e., lower costs with better outcomes in all age ranges, with costs/improved QALYs ranging from $2,952/0.32 (older patients to $11,140/0.43 (younger patients. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the model was most sensitive to the input variables of cost per rTMS session, monthly prescription drug cost, and the number of rTMS sessions per year.rTMS was identified as the dominant therapy compared to antidepressant medication trials over the life of the patient across the lifespan of adults with MDD, given current costs of treatment. These models support the use of rTMS after a single failed antidepressant medication trial versus further attempts at medication treatment in adults with MDD.

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adult and Youth Populations: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Laura E.; Soril, Lesley J. J.; Coward, Stephanie; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; MacKean, Gail; Clement, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between 30% and 60% of individuals with major depressive disorder will have treatment-resistant depression (TRD): depression that does not subside with pharmaceutical treatment. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging treatment for TRD. Objective: To establish the efficacy and optimal protocol for rTMS among adults and youth with TRD. Data Sources: Two systematic reviews were conducted: one to determine the efficacy of rTMS for adults with TRD and another to determine the effectiveness of rTMS for youth with TRD. For adults, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched from inception until January 10, 2014 with no language restrictions. Terms aimed at capturing the target diagnosis, such as depression and depressive disorder, were combined with terms describing the technology, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and rTMS. Results were limited to studies involving human participants and designed as a randomized controlled trial. For youth, the search was altered to include youth only (aged 13–25 years) and all study designs. When possible, meta-analysis of response and remission rates was conducted. Study Selection: Seventy-three articles were included in this review: 70 on adult and 3 on youth populations. Results: Meta-analysis comparing rTMS and sham in adults found statistically significant results favoring rTMS for response (RR: 2.35 [95% CI, 1.70–3.25]) and remission (RR: 2.24 [95% CI, 1.53–3.27]). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing high- and low-frequency, unilateral and bilateral, low- and high-intensity rTMS or rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). While meta-analysis of results from the youth literature was not possible, the limited evidence base suggests that rTMS may be effective for treating TRD in youth. Conclusions: The evidence

  3. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

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    Milos R Ljubisavljevic

    Full Text Available Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS and intermittent (iTBS theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS. The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss

  4. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  5. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obese females with binge eating disorder: a protocol for a double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Mara Fernandes; Estella, Nara Mendes; Cury, Maria Elisa Gisbert; Amigo, Veruska Lastoria; Picasso, Clarissa Mollinero; Berberian, Arthur; Campbell, Iain; Schmidt, Ulrike; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2015-08-12

    Binge eating disorder is a new category in DSM-5 and highly associated with higher body mass index. The neural mechanisms that underlie binge eating are of great interest in order to improve treatment interventions. Brain mechanisms underlying drug and food craving are suggested to be similar: for example, both are reported to be associated with increased neural activity in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, and a diminished regulatory influence from lateral prefrontal circuits. Several studies have begun to assess the potential benefits of brain stimulation in reducing craving and addictive behaviors. Data from a study of a one-off session of transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy women identified as strong cravers and of individuals with bulimic-type eating disorders, reported a reduction in food craving and binge eating episodes. This provides support for a more extensive investigation of the potential therapeutic benefits of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lastly, brain imaging studies and a dimensional approach, will improve understanding of the neural correlates of the disorders and of the mode of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sixty eligible obese females, with binge eating disorder, will be randomly allocated to receive 20 sessions of transcranial magnetic stimulation intervention (n = 30) or the sham transcranial magnetic stimulation intervention (n = 30) scattered 3 days/week. Thirty eligible controls will complete the baseline assessment. The primary outcome (number of binge eating episodes) will be assed at each treatment sessions, and 8 weeks after intervention completion (follow-up). It is hypothesized that mean weekly binge-eating episodes will be reduced in the intervention group, compared to the sham group, and that the effect will be maintained at follow-up. Despite the severity associated with Binge Eating Disorder, there are limited treatment options. This study is an important step in the development of more

  6. Development of high repetition rate nitric oxide planar laser induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo

    have obtained, for the first time by any known optical method, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) image sequences at ultrahigh (≥100kHz) frame rates, in particular NO PLIF image sequences, have been obtained in a Mach 2 jet. We also studied the possibility of utilizing a 250 kHz pulsed Nd:YVO 4 laser as the master oscillator. 10-pulse-10-mus spacing burst sequences with reasonably uniform burst envelope have been obtained. The total energy of the burst sequence is ˜2.5J.

  7. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) affects event-related potential measures of novelty processing in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate; Baruth, Joshua; Tasman, Allan; Mansoor, Mehreen; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sears, Lonnie; Mathai, Grace; El-Baz, Ayman; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-06-01

    In our previous study on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Sokhadze et al., Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:37-51, 2009a) we reported abnormalities in the attention-orienting frontal event-related potentials (ERP) and the sustained-attention centro-parietal ERPs in a visual oddball experiment. These results suggest that individuals with autism over-process information needed for the successful differentiation of target and novel stimuli. In the present study we examine the effects of low-frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on novelty processing as well as behavior and social functioning in 13 individuals with ASD. Our hypothesis was that low-frequency rTMS application to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) would result in an alteration of the cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance through the activation of inhibitory GABAergic double bouquet interneurons. We expected to find post-TMS differences in amplitude and latency of early and late ERP components. The results of our current study validate the use of low-frequency rTMS as a modulatory tool that altered the disrupted ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in autism. After rTMS the parieto-occipital P50 amplitude decreased to novel distracters but not to targets; also the amplitude and latency to targets increased for the frontal P50 while decreasing to non-target stimuli. Low-frequency rTMS minimized early cortical responses to irrelevant stimuli and increased responses to relevant stimuli. Improved selectivity in early cortical responses lead to better stimulus differentiation at later-stage responses as was made evident by our P3b and P3a component findings. These results indicate a significant change in early, middle-latency and late ERP components at the frontal, centro-parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of interest in response to target and distracter stimuli as a result of rTMS treatment. Overall, our preliminary results show that rTMS may prove to

  8. Effects of electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGedge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are decreased in individuals with depression and increase following antidepressant treatment. The objective of this study is to compare pre- and post-treatment serum BDNF levels in patients with drug-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD who received either electroconvulsive therapy (ECT or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. It is hypothesized that non-pharmacological treatments also increase serum BDNF levels.Methods: This was a prospective, single-blind study comparing pre- and post-treatment serum BDNF levels of twenty-nine patients with drug-resistant MDD who received ECT or rTMS treatment. Serum BDNF levels were measured one week prior to and one week after treatment using the sandwich ELISA technique. Depression severity was measured one week before and one week after treatment using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Two-sided normal distribution paired t-test analysis was used to compare pre- and post-treatment BDNF concentration and illness severity. Bivariate correlations using Pearson's coefficient assessed the relationship between post-treatment BDNF levels and post-treatment depression severity.Results: There was no significant difference in serum BDNF levels before and after ECT, although concentrations tended to increase from a baseline mean of 9.95 ng/ml to 12.29 ng/ml after treatment (p= 0.137. Treatment with rTMS did not significantly alter BDNF concentrations (p= 0.282. Depression severity significantly decreased following both ECT (p= 0.003 and rTMS (p< 0.001. Post-treatment BDNF concentration was not significantly correlated with post-treatment depression severity in patients who received either ECT (r= -0.133, p= 0.697 or rTMS (r= 0.374, p= 0.126.Conclusion: This study suggests that ECT and rTMS may not exert their clinical effects by altering serum BDNF levels. Serum BDNF concentration may not be a biomarker of ECT or rTMS treatment response.

  9. Design of a placebo-controlled, randomized study of the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Binder, Harald; Koller, Michael; Eberl, Yvonne; Kleinjung, Tobias; Eichhammer, Peter; Graf, Erika; Hajak, Goeran; Langguth, Berthold

    2008-04-15

    Chronic tinnitus is a frequent condition, which can have enormous impact on patient's life and which is very difficult to treat. Accumulating data indicate that chronic tinnitus is related to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive method which allows to focally modulate neuronal activity. An increasing amount of studies demonstrate reduction of tinnitus after repeated sessions of low-frequency rTMS and indicate that rTMS might represent a new promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus. However available studies have been mono-centric and are characterized by small sample sizes. Therefore, this multi-center trial will test the efficacy of rTMS treatment in a large sample of chronic tinnitus patients. This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multi-center trial of two weeks 1 Hz rTMS-treatment in chronic tinnitus patients. Eligible patients will be randomized to either 2 weeks real or sham rTMS treatment. Main eligibility criteria: male or female individuals aged 18-70 years with chronic tinnitus (duration > 6 months), tinnitus-handicap-inventory-score > or = 38, age-adjusted normal sensorineural hearing (i.e. not more than 5 dB below the 10% percentile of the appropriate age and gender group (DIN EN ISO 7029), conductive hearing loss tinnitus severity according to the tinnitus questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller (baseline vs. end of treatment period). A total of 138 patients are needed to detect a clinical relevant change of tinnitus severity (i.e. 5 points on the questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller; alpha = 0.05; 1-beta = 0.80). Assuming a drop-out rate of less than 5% until the primary endpoint, 150 patients have to be randomized to guarantee the target number of 138 evaluable patients. The study will be conducted by otorhinolaryngologists and psychiatrists of 7 university hospitals and 1 municipal hospital in Germany. This study will provide important

  10. Design of a placebo-controlled, randomized study of the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinntius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichhammer Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tinnitus is a frequent condition, which can have enormous impact on patient's life and which is very difficult to treat. Accumulating data indicate that chronic tinnitus is related to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive method which allows to focally modulate neuronal activity. An increasing amount of studies demonstrate reduction of tinnitus after repeated sessions of low-frequency rTMS and indicate that rTMS might represent a new promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus. However available studies have been mono-centric and are characterized by small sample sizes. Therefore, this multi-center trial will test the efficacy of rTMS treatment in a large sample of chronic tinnitus patients. Methods/Design This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multi-center trial of two weeks 1 Hz rTMS-treatment in chronic tinnitus patients. Eligible patients will be randomized to either 2 weeks real or sham rTMS treatment. Main eligibility criteria: male or female individuals aged 18–70 years with chronic tinnitus (duration > 6 months, tinnitus-handicap-inventory-score ≥ 38, age-adjusted normal sensorineural hearing (i.e. not more than 5 dB below the 10% percentile of the appropriate age and gender group (DIN EN ISO 7029, conductive hearing loss ≤ 15dB. The primary endpoint is a change of tinnitus severity according to the tinnitus questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller (baseline vs. end of treatment period. A total of 138 patients are needed to detect a clinical relevant change of tinnitus severity (i.e. 5 points on the questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller; alpha = 0.05; 1-beta = 0.80. Assuming a drop-out rate of less than 5% until the primary endpoint, 150 patients have to be randomized to guarantee the target number of 138 evaluable patients. The study will be conducted by otorhinolaryngologists and psychiatrists of 7

  11. Challenges in comparing the acute cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) vs. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Schuchinsky, Maria; Gerkensmeier, Imke; Loo, Colleen

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment. Thus, acute and longer-term differences in cognitive outcomes both need to be investigated at precisely defined timeframes and with similar instruments assessing comparable functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) and 10-Hz high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, Samuel; Sébille, Veronique; Fayet, Guillemette; Thomas-Ollivier, Veronique; Deschamps, Thibault; Bonnin-Rivalland, Annabelle; Laforgue, Edouard; Pichot, Anne; Valrivière, Pierre; Auffray-Calvier, Elisabeth; Fortin, June; Péréon, Yann; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Sauvaget, Anne

    2017-01-13

    The treatment of depression remains a challenge since at least 40% of patients do not respond to initial antidepressant therapy and 20% present chronic symptoms (more than 2 years despite standard treatment administered correctly). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant therapy but still not ideal. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS), which has only been used recently in clinical practice, could have a faster and more intense effect compared to conventional protocols, including 10-Hz high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS). However, no controlled study has so far highlighted the superiority of iTBS in resistant unipolar depression. This paper focuses on the design of a randomised, controlled, double-blind, single-centre study with two parallel arms, carried out in France, in an attempt to assess the efficacy of an iTBS protocol versus a standard HF- rTMS protocol. Sixty patients aged between 18 and 75 years of age will be enrolled. They must be diagnosed with major depressive disorder persisting despite treatment with two antidepressants at an effective dose over a period of 6 weeks during the current episode. The study will consist of two phases: a treatment phase comprising 20 sessions of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, localised via a neuronavigation system and a 6-month longitudinal follow-up. The primary endpoint will be the number of responders per group, defined by a decrease of at least 50% in the initial score on the Montgomery and Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS) at the end of rTMS sessions. The secondary endpoints will be: response rate 1 month after rTMS sessions; number of remissions defined by a MADRS score of iTBS superiority in the management of unipolar depression and we will discuss its effect over time. In case of a significant increase in the number of therapeutic responses with a prolonged effect, the iTBS protocol could be considered a first-line protocol in resistant unipolar depression

  13. Effectiveness of theta burst versus high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression (THREE-D): a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberger, Daniel M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Thorpe, Kevin E; Feffer, Kfir; Noda, Yoshihiro; Giacobbe, Peter; Knyahnytska, Yuliya; Kennedy, Sidney H; Lam, Raymond W; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-04-28

    Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder is common; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by use of high-frequency (10 Hz) left-side dorsolateral prefrontal cortex stimulation is an evidence-based treatment for this disorder. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a newer form of rTMS that can be delivered in 3 min, versus 37·5 min for a standard 10 Hz treatment session. We aimed to establish the clinical effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of iTBS compared with standard 10 Hz rTMS in adults with treatment-resistant depression. In this randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial, we recruited patients who were referred to specialty neurostimulation centres based at three Canadian university hospitals (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, and University of British Columbia Hospital, Vancouver, BC). Participants were aged 18-65 years, were diagnosed with a current treatment-resistant major depressive episode or could not tolerate at least two antidepressants in the current episode, were receiving stable antidepressant medication doses for at least 4 weeks before baseline, and had an HRSD-17 score of at least 18. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to treatment groups (10 Hz rTMS or iTBS) by use of a random permuted block method, with stratification by site and number of adequate trials in which the antidepressants were unsuccessful. Treatment was delivered open-label but investigators and outcome assessors were masked to treatment groups. Participants were treated with 10 Hz rTMS or iTBS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, administered on 5 days a week for 4-6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) score, with a non-inferiority margin of 2·25 points. For the primary outcome measure, we did a per-protocol analysis of all participants who were randomly allocated to groups and who attained the primary

  14. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  15. Imaging sensory effects of occipital nerve stimulation: a new computer-based method in neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Anna; Göbel, Carl H; Heinze, Axel; Heinze-Kuhn, Katja; Petersen, Inga; Meinecke, Christoph; Clasen, Svenja; Niederberger, Uwe; Rasche, Dirk; Mehdorn, Hubertus M; Göbel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years, occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has proven to be an important method in the treatment of severe therapy-resistant neurological pain disorders. The correspondence between lead placement as well as possible stimulation parameters and the resulting stimulation effects remains unclear. The method aims to directly relate the neuromodulatory mechanisms with the clinical treatment results, to achieve insight in the mode of action of neuromodulation, to identify the most effective stimulation sets and to optimize individual treatment effects. We describe a new computer-based imaging method for mapping the spatial, cognitive and affective sensory effects of ONS. The procedure allows a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the relationship between lead positioning, the stimulation settings as well as the sensory and clinical stimulation effects. A regular mapping of stimulation and sensory parameters allows a coordinated monitoring. The stimulation results can be reviewed and compared with regards to clinical effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  17. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms....... The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  18. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms........ The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  19. MR imaging of salivary glands after ductal ligation and stimulation by pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patronas, N.J.; Tsuchimoch, M.; Webber, R.; Ruttimann, U.; Fox, P.; Bacher, J.; Schellinger, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the usefulness of MR imaging in pathologic conditions of the salivary gland. The authors performed MR imaging in six dogs after ductal ligation on one side, followed by secretory stimulation with intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (5 mg/kg). On the images obtained after ductal ligation and before stimulation, there was no significant change in the signal intensity on either side. After injection of pilocarpine, however, T2-weighted images showed an obvious increase in signal intensity of the ligated gland in every instance. Their results indicate that MR images obtained after pilocarpine stimulation will be useful to study patients with ductal obstruction and that they may provide an objective basis for a noninvasive diagnostic test for unilateral stenosis

  20. Non-invasive mapping of bilateral motor speech areas using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Mervi; Tamsi, Niko; Säisänen, Laura; Kemppainen, Samuli; Määttä, Sara; Julkunen, Petro; Jutila, Leena; Äikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Niskanen, Eini; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Mervaala, Esa

    2015-06-15

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a modern precise method to activate and study cortical functions noninvasively. We hypothesized that a combination of nTMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could clarify the localization of functional areas involved with motor control and production of speech. Navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS) with short bursts was used to map speech areas on both hemispheres by inducing speech disruption during number recitation tasks in healthy volunteers. Two experienced video reviewers, blinded to the stimulated area, graded each trial offline according to possible speech disruption. The locations of speech disrupting nTMS trials were overlaid with fMRI activations of word generation task. Speech disruptions were produced on both hemispheres by nTMS, though there were more disruptive stimulation sites on the left hemisphere. Grade of the disruptions varied from subjective sensation to mild objectively recognizable disruption up to total speech arrest. The distribution of locations in which speech disruptions could be elicited varied among individuals. On the left hemisphere the locations of disturbing rTMS bursts with reviewers' verification followed the areas of fMRI activation. Similar pattern was not observed on the right hemisphere. The reviewer-verified speech disruptions induced by nTMS provided clinically relevant information, and fMRI might explain further the function of the cortical area. nTMS and fMRI complement each other, and their combination should be advocated when assessing individual localization of speech network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CMOS Image Sensor and System for Imaging Hemodynamic Changes in Response to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Noor, Muhammad S; McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Murari, Kartikeya

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic intervention used for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. It is known that DBS modulates neural activity which changes metabolic demands and thus the cerebral circulation state. However, it is unclear whether there are correlations between electrophysiological, hemodynamic and behavioral changes and whether they have any implications for clinical benefits. In order to investigate these questions, we present a miniaturized system for spectroscopic imaging of brain hemodynamics. The system consists of a 144 ×144, [Formula: see text] pixel pitch, high-sensitivity, analog-output CMOS imager fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, along with a miniaturized imaging system comprising illumination, focusing, analog-to-digital conversion and μSD card based data storage. This enables stand alone operation without a computer, nor electrical or fiberoptic tethers. To achieve high sensitivity, the pixel uses a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA). The nMOS transistors are in the pixel while pMOS transistors are column-parallel, resulting in a fill factor (FF) of 26%. Running at 60 fps and exposed to 470 nm light, the CMOS imager has a minimum detectable intensity of 2.3 nW/cm(2) , a maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 49 dB at 2.45 μW/cm(2) leading to a dynamic range (DR) of 61 dB while consuming 167 μA from a 3.3 V supply. In anesthetized rats, the system was able to detect temporal, spatial and spectral hemodynamic changes in response to DBS.

  2. Super-resolution imaging of a 2.5 kb non-repetitive DNA in situ in the nuclear genome using molecular beacon probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanxiang; Cao, Bo; Ma, Tszshan; Niu, Gang; Huo, Yingdong; Huang, Jiandong; Chen, Danni; Liu, Yi; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Michael Q; Niu, Hanben

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution visualization of short non-repetitive DNA in situ in the nuclear genome is essential for studying looping interactions and chromatin organization in single cells. Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using Oligopaint probes have enabled super-resolution imaging of genomic domains with a resolution limit of 4.9 kb. To target shorter elements, we developed a simple FISH method that uses molecular beacon (MB) probes to facilitate the probe-target binding, while minimizing non-specific fluorescence. We used three-dimensional stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (3D-STORM) with optimized imaging conditions to efficiently distinguish sparsely distributed Alexa-647 from background cellular autofluorescence. Utilizing 3D-STORM and only 29–34 individual MB probes, we observed 3D fine-scale nanostructures of 2.5 kb integrated or endogenous unique DNA in situ in human or mouse genome, respectively. We demonstrated our MB-based FISH method was capable of visualizing the so far shortest non-repetitive genomic sequence in 3D at super-resolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21660.001 PMID:28485713

  3. Contribution of the pre-SMA to the production of words and non-speech oral motor gestures, as revealed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Gracco, Vincent L

    2009-05-01

    An emerging theoretical perspective, largely based on neuroimaging studies, suggests that the pre-SMA is involved in planning cognitive aspects of motor behavior and language, such as linguistic and non-linguistic response selection. Neuroimaging studies, however, cannot indicate whether a brain region is equally important to all tasks in which it is activated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the pre-SMA is an important component of response selection, using an interference technique. High frequency repetitive TMS (10 Hz) was used to interfere with the functioning of the pre-SMA during tasks requiring selection of words and oral gestures under different selection modes (forced, volitional) and attention levels (high attention, low attention). Results show that TMS applied to the pre-SMA interferes selectively with the volitional selection condition, resulting in longer RTs. The low- and high-attention forced selection conditions were unaffected by TMS, demonstrating that the pre-SMA is sensitive to selection mode but not attentional demands. TMS similarly affected the volitional selection of words and oral gestures, reflecting the response-independent nature of the pre-SMA contribution to response selection. The implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of salivary glands with gustatory stimulation - Comparison before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun; Mao, Jian; Lei, Yue; Shen, Xigang; Ou, Dan; He, Xiayun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Xerostomia is the most prominent complication in patients with head and neck carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with gustatory stimulation may contribute to the evaluation of salivary gland function. Purpose: To investigate the value of DWI for quantifying physiological changes of the parotid gland during gustatory stimulation in patients before and after RT. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after RT and clinical xerostomia was also assessed. A DWI sequence was performed once at rest and continually repeated seven times during stimulation with ascorbic acid. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for parotid glands at different time points and the range of increase with stimulation were calculated. Paired two-tailed Student t tests were used to compare the ADC values before and after stimulation, and before and after RT. Results: Before RT, the ADC showed an initial increase (P<0.001) and then fluctuated during stimulation. After RT, as the clinical xerostomia changed from Grade 0 to Grade 2, the mean ADC at rest increased compared with the pre-RT value (P<0.001). A similar response to stimulation was observed, but the range of increase between the maximum ADC during stimulation and the baseline value at rest was higher post-RT than pre-RT (P=0.022). The minimum ADC during stimulation was higher than the baseline value post-RT (P=0.028), but there was no difference pre-RT (P=0.603). Conclusion: DWI combined with gustatory stimulation seems to display the physiological changes of the parotid gland following RT and may be a potential tool for non-invasively assessing salivary gland function

  5. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of salivary glands with gustatory stimulation - Comparison before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun; Mao, Jian; Lei, Yue; Shen, Xigang [Dept. of Radiology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China); Ou, Dan; He, Xiayun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-15

    Background: Xerostomia is the most prominent complication in patients with head and neck carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with gustatory stimulation may contribute to the evaluation of salivary gland function. Purpose: To investigate the value of DWI for quantifying physiological changes of the parotid gland during gustatory stimulation in patients before and after RT. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after RT and clinical xerostomia was also assessed. A DWI sequence was performed once at rest and continually repeated seven times during stimulation with ascorbic acid. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for parotid glands at different time points and the range of increase with stimulation were calculated. Paired two-tailed Student t tests were used to compare the ADC values before and after stimulation, and before and after RT. Results: Before RT, the ADC showed an initial increase (P<0.001) and then fluctuated during stimulation. After RT, as the clinical xerostomia changed from Grade 0 to Grade 2, the mean ADC at rest increased compared with the pre-RT value (P<0.001). A similar response to stimulation was observed, but the range of increase between the maximum ADC during stimulation and the baseline value at rest was higher post-RT than pre-RT (P=0.022). The minimum ADC during stimulation was higher than the baseline value post-RT (P=0.028), but there was no difference pre-RT (P=0.603). Conclusion: DWI combined with gustatory stimulation seems to display the physiological changes of the parotid gland following RT and may be a potential tool for non-invasively assessing salivary gland function.

  6. Repetition and the Concept of Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Grøn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description of the meaning of the category of repetition. Firstly, it is pointed out that Constantin uses repetition as a concept that means the creation of epochs; the passing from Greece to Modernity is accomplished distinguishing between recollection, a concept that looks back to the past, and repetition, a concept that looks forward to future. Secondly, it is showed that the category of repetition, as a religious category, relates with what Climacus calls “ethic despair” and with what Vigilius calls “second ethics”; it is through repetition that it can be understood that sin finds its place in ethics and these shows the tension between it and dogmatics. And thirdly, it is showed that the descovery of the new category of repetition is a rediscovery of what Kierkegaard calls category of spirit; repetition has for its object the individuality, and coming to be oneself is what Kierkegaard undertands as liberty. At the end of the paper it is questioned if the category of repetition is inconsistent with the book Repetition.

  7. Breath-hold dark-blood T{sub 2}-weighted MR imaging of the heart. Estimation of optimum preset repetition time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Toshiharu; Yamada, Naoaki; Yamasaki, Hidetoshi; Kita, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    It has recently become possible to obtain T{sub 2}-weighted images using turbo spin echo with a preparation pulse to inhibit the signal from flowing blood (dark blood turbo spin echo: DB-TSE) during breath holding. In order to obtain higher-quality T{sub 2}-weighted images of the heart, we assessed the optimum preset repetition time (TR preset), the interval between the dark blood preparation pulse and the end of data acquisition on DB-TSE. DB-TSE left ventricular short-axis images were obtained with varying TR presets in eight volunteers. Signal intensity was measured for the myocardium and blood in the left ventricular cavity, and the signal intensity ratio of myocardium to blood was calculated. The optimum TR preset was determined so as to give the highest signal intensity ratio of myocardium to blood. A comparison was made of the myocardium-to-blood ratios between the eight volunteers and nine patients. The optimum TR preset changed according to the cardiac cycle. By using the optimum TR preset, we obtained the peak signal intensity ratios in the volunteers and the patients. By using DB-TSE with the optimum TR preset for the cardiac cycle, we can obtain better quality T{sub 2}-weighted images of the heart. (author)

  8. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Qiao,1,2 Guixing Jin,1,2 Licun Lei,3 Lan Wang,1,2 Yaqiang Du,3 Xueyi Wang1,2 1Institute of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Brain Ageing and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Hebei Medical University, 3Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Materials and methods: In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions and the control group (sham stimulation. Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R before and after treatment. 1H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA, choline (Cho, and creatine (Cr in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Results: Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. Conclusion: High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Keywords: alcohol dependence, memory, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, MR spectroscopy

  9. Evaluation of short repetition time, partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequences in cervical spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, D.; Rubin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A short repetition time (TR), partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequence (GRASS) was prospectively studied to optimize it for the diagnosis of cervical disk and cord disease in 98 patients. Changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast were measured as the following parameters were varied: flip angle (3 0 to 18 0 ), TR (22-60 msec), and echo time (TE) (12.5-25 msec). Flip angle was the single most important parameter. For disk disease, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SNR peaked at an 8 0 flip angle in the axial view but at a 4 0 flip angle in the sagittal view. In the sagittal view, disk-CSF contrast decreased progressively from a flip angle of 3 0 , while in the axial view it peaked at 10 0 . For cord lesions the findings were similar except that lesion-cord contrast could be increased by lengthening both TR and TE. No one combination of parameters proved greatly superior for either disk disease or cord disease. The selection of parameters required balancing of several factors that often had opposing effects

  10. Treatment of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome and Verbal Auditory Hallucinations Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation : A Case Report with fMRI Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Looijestijn, Jasper; Goekoop, Rutger; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Rijkaart, Anne-Marije; Slotema, Christina W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare cluster of CNS symptoms characterized by visual distortions (i.e. metamorphopsias), body image distortions, time distortions, and deja experiences. Verbal auditory hallucinations (VAHs) are the most prevalent type of hallucination in adults

  11. Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for pediatric population in repetitive full spine follow-up imaging: How micro dose is the EOS microdose protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin; Ma, Wang-Kei; Lau, Damian; Cheung, Kenneth; Ip, Janice; Yip, Lawrance; Lam, Wendy

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate and to obtain analytic formulation for the calculation of the effective dose and associated cancer risk using the EOS microdose protocol for scoliotic pediatric patients undergoing full spine imaging at different age of exposure; to demonstrate the microdose protocol capable of delivering lesser radiation dose and hence of further reducing cancer risk induction when compared with the EOS low dose protocol; to obtain cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for both genders scoliotic pediatrics of US and Hong Kong population using the microdose protocol. Organ absorbed doses of full spine exposed scoliotic pediatric patients have been simulated with the use of EOS microdose protocol imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC. Gender and age specific effective dose has been calculated with the simulated organ absorbed dose using the ICRP-103 approach. The associated radiation induced cancer risk, expressed as lifetime attributable risk (LAR), has been estimated according to the method introduced in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report. Values of LAR have been estimated for scoliotic patients exposed repetitively during their follow up period at different age for US and Hong Kong population. The effective doses of full spine imaging with simultaneous posteroanterior and lateral projection for patients exposed at the age between 5 and 18 years using the EOS microdose protocol have been calculated within the range of 2.54-14.75 μSv. The corresponding LAR for US and Hong Kong population was ranged between 0.04 × 10 -6 and 0.84 × 10 -6 . Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk during follow-up period can be estimated using the results and are of information to patients and their parents. With the use of computer simulation and analytic formulation, we obtained the cumulative effective dose and cancer risk at any age of exposure for pediatric patients of US and Hong Kong population undergoing repetitive

  12. Soft X-ray imaging by optically stimulated luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bonfigli@frascati.enea.it; Almaviva, S.; Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Reale, L. [Universita de L' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Larciprete, R. [ISC-CNR, Sezione Montelibretti, Via Salaria, Km. 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    An innovative X-ray imaging detector based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride is presented. Regular photoluminescent patterns produced on LiF samples by different intense X-ray sources, like synchrotrons, laser plasma sources and a capillary discharge laser have been investigated by a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. The use of a LiF-based imaging plate for X-ray microscopy is also discussed showing microradiographies of small animals.

  13. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, G.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Stippich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Neurosurgical resection of brain lesions aims to maximize excision while minimizing the risk of permanent injury to the surrounding intact brain tissue and resulting neurological deficits. While direct electrical cortical stimulation at the time of surgery allows the precise identification...... of essential cortex, it cannot provide information preoperatively for surgical planning.Brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly being used to localize functionally critical cortical......, if the stimulated cortex makes a critical contribution to the brain functions subserving the task. While the relationship between task and functional activation as revealed by fMRI is correlative in nature, the neurodisruptive effect of TMS reflects a causal effect on brain activity.The use of preoperative f...

  14. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  15. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  16. Comparison between neurostimulation techniques repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation vs electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of resistant depression: patient preference and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Aminov, Emanuel; Shmuel, Dikla; Dreifuss, Merav; Dannon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder, widely distributed in the population, and is often associated with severe symptoms and functional impairment. It has been estimated that 30% of MDD patients do not benefit adequately from therapeutic interventions, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is generally defined as a failure to achieve remission, despite therapeutic interventions. The most effective treatment alternatives for TRD are hospitalization, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we compared the clinical effectiveness of ECT and TMS, including success rates, patient responses, side-effect profiles, and financial worthiness. We found that ECT (P<0.0001) was more effective than TMS (P<0.012) (not statistically significant in group effect) in TRD patients. However, ECT patients reported a higher percentage of side effects (P<0.01) and the TMS treatment scored better in terms of patient preference. The cost benefit of ECT was higher than that of TMS (US$2075 vs US$814). Patient's preferences for treatment could be more intense in the TMS, if the TMS is included in the Health Maintenance Organization's service list. We propose that both of these treatment options should be available in psychiatric wards, thus expanding the therapeutic toolkit for TRD.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and some other luminescence images from granite slices exposed with radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Notoya, S.; Ojima, T.; Hoteida, M.

    1995-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) images of some X- and γ-irradiated granite slices were obtained using photon detection through a 570 nm bandpass filter with diode-laser excitation of 910 nm. Alternative photo-induced phosphorescence (PIP) images, which were colour photographed immediately after the sunlight exposure of slice samples, were also found to be helpful in the observation of the luminescence properties and to filter selection for OSL measurements. These OSL and PIP images were compared with some other colour luminescence images, including thermoluminescence images (TLCI) and after-glow images (AGCI). It was obvious that there exists a variety of coloured emissions derived mainly from feldspar constituents and these were found to be dependent on the geological history or metamorphism of the granites. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the dependence of CEST-EPI measurement on repetition time, RF irradiation duty cycle and imaging flip angle for enhanced pH sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Lu Jie; Wu Yin; Xiao Gang; Wu Renhua

    2013-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast mechanism that can detect dilute CEST agents and microenvironmental properties, with a host of promising applications. Experimental measurement of the CEST effect is complex, and depends on not only CEST agent concentration and exchange rate, but also experimental parameters such as RF irradiation amplitude and scheme. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) has been increasingly used for CEST MRI, the relationship between CEST effect and repetition time (TR), RF irradiation duty cycle (DC) and EPI flip angle (α) has not been fully evaluated and optimized to enhance CEST MRI sensitivity. In addition, our study evaluated gradient echo CEST-EPI by quantifying the CEST effect and its signal-to-noise ratio per unit time (SNR put ) as functions of TR, DC and α. We found that CEST effect increased with TR and DC but decreased with α. Importantly, we found that SNR put peaked at intermediate TRs of about twice the T 1 and α, at approximately 75°, and increased with RF DC. The simulation results were validated using a dual-pH creatine-gel CEST phantom. In summary, our study provides a useful framework for optimizing CEST MRI experiments. (note)

  19. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human spinal cord during vibration stimulation of different dermatomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Jane M. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Manitoba, Department of Physiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Stroman, Patrick W. [Queen' s University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kollias, Spyros S. [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements. (orig.)

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human spinal cord during vibration stimulation of different dermatomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Jane M.; Stroman, Patrick W.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated noninvasively areas of the healthy human spinal cord that become active in response to vibration stimulation of different dermatomes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the patterns of consistent activity in the spinal cord during vibration stimulation of the skin, and (2) investigate the rostrocaudal distribution of active pixels when stimulation was applied to different dermatomes. FMRI of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of seven healthy human subjects was carried out during vibration stimulation of six different dermatomes. In separate experiments, vibratory stimulation (about 50 Hz) was applied to the right biceps, wrist, palm, patella, Achilles tendon and left palm. The segmental distribution of activity observed by fMRI corresponded well with known spinal cord neuroanatomy. The peak number of active pixels was observed at the expected level of the spinal cord with some activity in the adjacent segments. The rostrocaudal distribution of activity was observed to correspond to the dermatome being stimulated. Cross-sectional localization of activity was primarily in dorsal areas but also spread into ventral and intermediate areas of the gray matter and a distinct laterality ipsilateral to the stimulated limb was not observed. We demonstrated that fMRI can detect a dermatome-dependent pattern of spinal cord activity during vibratory stimulation and can be used as a passive stimulus for the noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the human spinal cord. Demonstration of cross-sectional selectivity of the activation awaits further methodological and experimental refinements. (orig.)

  2. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Jin, Guixing; Lei, Licun; Wang, Lan; Du, Yaqiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions) and the control group (sham stimulation). Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) before and after treatment. 1 H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N -acetyl aspartic acid (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group) were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1 H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Different Cortical Targets Used in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Simone; Eslick, Guy D; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2018-02-09

    Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores. To determine whether rTMS parameters may have influenced treatment effectiveness, studies were further analysed according to cortical target, stimulation frequency, and length of follow-up. Data were obtained from 18 RCTs on rTMS in the treatment of OCD. Overall, rTMS yielded a modest effect in reducing Y-BOCS scores with Hedge's g of 0.79 (95% CI = 0.43-1.15, p OCD. The therapeutic effects of rTMS also appear to persist post-treatment and may offer beneficial long-term effectiveness. With our findings, it is suggested that future large-scale studies focus on the supplementary motor area and include follow-up periods of 12 weeks or more.

  4. Live-cell stimulated Raman scattering imaging of alkyne-tagged biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Senlian; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Yuntao; Li, Ang; Huang, Yanyi; Chen, Xing

    2014-06-02

    Alkynes can be metabolically incorporated into biomolecules including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and glycans. In addition to the clickable chemical reactivity, alkynes possess a unique Raman scattering within the Raman-silent region of a cell. Coupling this spectroscopic signature with Raman microscopy yields a new imaging modality beyond fluorescence and label-free microscopies. The bioorthogonal Raman imaging of various biomolecules tagged with an alkyne by a state-of-the-art Raman imaging technique, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, is reported. This imaging method affords non-invasiveness, high sensitivity, and molecular specificity and therefore should find broad applications in live-cell imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improved Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, but Also Cognitive Performance: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial with a Cross-Over Design and Sham Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Haghighi, Mohammad; Shyayganfard, Mehran; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective method of treating patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and cognitive performance in such patients. Specifically, short-term verbal processing speed and flexibility were assessed. Ten patients suffering from refractory OCD and treated with standard medication were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition. At baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks, symptom severity (experts' ratings) and cognitive performance (auditory perception, visual perception, short-term memory, and processing speed) were assessed. After 2 weeks, the treatment condition switched to the sham condition, and the sham condition switched to the treatment condition. Under treatment but not under sham conditions, symptom severity reduced. Moreover, cognitive performance improved in parallel. rTMS is a safe and efficient treatment for patients suffering from refractory OCD; symptoms and cognitive performance improved in parallel. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling.

  7. A Study on Analysis of EEG Caused by Grating Stimulation Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Toshihiro; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Itoh, Kenji

    Recently, many researchers have studied a visual perception. Focus is attended to studies of the visual perception phenomenon by using the grating stimulation images. The previous researches have suggested that a subset of retinal ganglion cells responds to motion in the receptive field center, but only if the wider surround moves with a different trajectory. We discuss the function of human retina, and measure and analysis EEG(electroencephalography) of a normal subject who looks on grating stimulation images. We confirmed the visual perception of human by EEG signal analysis. We also have obtained that a sinusoidal grating stimulation was given, asymmetry was observed the α wave element in EEG of the symmetric part in a left hemisphere and a right hemisphere of the brain. Therefore, it is presumed that projected image is even when the still picture is seen and the image projected onto retinas of right and left eyes is not even for the dynamic scene. It evaluated it by taking the envelope curve for the detected α wave, and using the average and standard deviation.

  8. Calcium imaging of living astrocytes in the mouse spinal cord following sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Giovanni; De Luca, Daniele; Papa, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytic Ca(2+) dynamics have been extensively studied in ex vivo models; however, the recent development of two-photon microscopy and astrocyte-specific labeling has allowed the study of Ca(2+) signaling in living central nervous system. Ca(2+) waves in astrocytes have been described in cultured cells and slice preparations, but evidence for astrocytic activation during sensory activity is lacking. There are currently few methods to image living spinal cord: breathing and heart-beating artifacts have impeded the widespread application of this technique. We here imaged the living spinal cord by two-photon microscopy in C57BL6/J mice. Through pressurized injection, we specifically loaded spinal astrocytes using the red fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) and imaged astrocytic Ca(2+) levels with Oregon-Green BAPTA-1 (OGB). Then, we studied astrocytic Ca(2+) levels at rest and after right electrical hind paw stimulation. Sensory stimulation significantly increased astrocytic Ca(2+) levels within the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to rest. In conclusion, in vivo morphofunctional imaging of living astrocytes in spinal cord revealed that astrocytes actively participate to sensory stimulation.

  9. Secretin-stimulated ultrasound estimation of pancreatic secretion in cystic fibrosis validated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engjom, Trond; Dimcevski, Georg; Tjora, Erling; Wathle, Gaute; Erchinger, Friedemann; Laerum, Birger N.; Gilja, Odd H.; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen

    2018-01-01

    Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) is the best validated radiological modality assessing pancreatic secretion. The purpose of this study was to compare volume output measures from secretin-stimulated transabdominal ultrasonography (s-US) to s-MRI for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic failure in cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed transabdominal ultrasonography and MRI before and at timed intervals during 15 minutes after secretin stimulation in 21 CF patients and 13 healthy controls. To clearly identify the subjects with reduced exocrine pancreatic function, we classified CF patients as pancreas-sufficient or -insufficient by secretin-stimulated endoscopic short test and faecal elastase. Pancreas-insufficient CF patients had reduced pancreatic secretions compared to pancreas-sufficient subjects based on both imaging modalities (p < 0.001). Volume output estimates assessed by s-US correlated to that of s-MRI (r = 0.56-0.62; p < 0.001). Both s-US (AUC: 0.88) and s-MRI (AUC: 0.99) demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy for exocrine pancreatic failure. Pancreatic volume-output estimated by s-US corresponds well to exocrine pancreatic function in CF patients and yields comparable results to that of s-MRI. s-US provides a simple and feasible tool in the assessment of pancreatic secretion. (orig.)

  10. Bony vibration stimulation test combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Can discography be replaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Kurunlahti, M; Vanharanta, H

    1997-04-01

    The results of two noninvasive methods, magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration test, were compared with discographic pain provocation findings. To evaluate whether the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and vibration pain provocation tests could be used to replace discography in low back pain diagnostics. Magnetic resonance imaging gives a wealth of visual information on anatomic changes of the spine with often unknown clinical significance. Discographic examination of the spine is still the only widely accepted diagnostic method that can relate the pathoanatomic changes to the patient's clinical pain. Internal anular rupture has been shown to be one of the sources of back pain. The bony vibration test of the spinal processes has been shown correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular rupture. The three lowest lumbar discs of 33 patients with back pain were examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration stimulation test, and the results were compared with those from computed tomography-discography. In cases of intradiscal magnetic resonance imaging findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.50 compared with the discographic pain provocation test. If the patients with previous back surgery were excluded, the specificity was 0.75. In the cases of total anular rupture, the sensitivity was 0.50, and the specificity was 0.33. The combination of the two noninvasive methods, vibration stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging, gives more information on the origin of the back pain than magnetic resonance imaging alone. The pathoanatomic changes seen in magnetic resonance imaging can be correlated with the patient's disorder more reliably using the vibration provocation test in the cases of partial anular ruptures. The use of discography can be limited mostly to cases with total anular ruptures detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Fujita, Motoi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Takeo; Naruse, Shoji; Takagi, Mineo.

    1995-01-01

    Signal changes in the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation were evaluated using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The experiments were performed on 10 normal human volunteers and 2 patients with homonymous hemianopsia, including one who was recovering from the exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. The visual stimuli were provided by a pattern generator using the checkerboard pattern for determining the visual evoked potential of full-field and hemifield stimulation. In normal volunteers, a signal increase was observed on the bilateral primary visual cortex during the full-field stimulation and on the contra-lateral cortex during hemifield stimulation. In the patient with homonymous hemianopsia after cerebral infarction, the signal change was clearly decreased on the affected side. In the other patient, the one recovering from multiple sclerosis with an almost normal visual field, the fMRI was within normal limits. These results suggest that it is possible to visualize the activation of the visual cortex during visual stimulation, and that there is a possibility of using this test as an objective method of visual field examination. (author)

  13. Evaluation of electrode position in deep brain stimulation by image fusion (MRI and CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaure, I.; Lovblad, K.O.; Vargas, M.I. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Pollak, P.; Horvath, J.; Boex, C.; Burkhard, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Geneva (Switzerland); Momjian, S. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Remuinan, J. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Imaging has an essential role in the evaluation of correct positioning of electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Although MRI offers superior anatomic visualization of target sites, there are safety concerns in patients with implanted material; imaging guidelines are inconsistent and vary. The fusion of postoperative CT with preoperative MRI images can be an alternative for the assessment of electrode positioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of measurements realized on fused images (acquired without a stereotactic frame) using a manufacturer-provided software. Data from 23 Parkinson's disease patients who underwent bilateral electrode placement for subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS were acquired. Preoperative high-resolution T2-weighted sequences at 3 T, and postoperative CT series were fused using a commercially available software. Electrode tip position was measured on the obtained images in three directions (in relation to the midline, the AC-PC line and an AC-PC line orthogonal, respectively) and assessed in relation to measures realized on postoperative 3D T1 images acquired at 1.5 T. Mean differences between measures carried out on fused images and on postoperative MRI lay between 0.17 and 0.97 mm. Fusion of CT and MRI images provides a safe and fast technique for postoperative assessment of electrode position in DBS. (orig.)

  14. Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) images enhancement using a linear filter in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rodrigo S.S.; Tardelli, Tiago C.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jackowski, Marcel P., E-mail: mjack@ime.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Computer Science

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, a new technique for in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes was presented as Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In this technique, a fast neutrons beam stimulates stable nuclei in a sample, which emit characteristic gamma radiation. The photon energy is unique and is used to identify the emitting nuclei. The emitted gamma energy spectra can be used for reconstruction of the target tissue image and for determination of the tissue elemental composition. Due to the stochastic nature of photon emission process by irradiated tissue, one of the most suitable algorithms for tomographic reconstruction is the Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, once on its formulation are considered simultaneously the probabilities of photons emission and detection. However, a disadvantage of this algorithm is the introduction of noise in the reconstructed image as the number of iterations increases. This increase can be caused either by features of the algorithm itself or by the low sampling rate of projections used for tomographic reconstruction. In this work, a linear filter in the frequency domain was used in order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images. (author)

  15. Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) images enhancement using a linear filter in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Rodrigo S.S.; Tardelli, Tiago C.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a new technique for in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes was presented as Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In this technique, a fast neutrons beam stimulates stable nuclei in a sample, which emit characteristic gamma radiation. The photon energy is unique and is used to identify the emitting nuclei. The emitted gamma energy spectra can be used for reconstruction of the target tissue image and for determination of the tissue elemental composition. Due to the stochastic nature of photon emission process by irradiated tissue, one of the most suitable algorithms for tomographic reconstruction is the Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, once on its formulation are considered simultaneously the probabilities of photons emission and detection. However, a disadvantage of this algorithm is the introduction of noise in the reconstructed image as the number of iterations increases. This increase can be caused either by features of the algorithm itself or by the low sampling rate of projections used for tomographic reconstruction. In this work, a linear filter in the frequency domain was used in order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images. (author)

  16. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  17. PyDBS: an automated image processing workflow for deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Albis, Tiziano; Haegelen, Claire; Essert, Caroline; Fernández-Vidal, Sara; Lalys, Florent; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure for treating motor-related neurological disorders. DBS clinical efficacy hinges on precise surgical planning and accurate electrode placement, which in turn call upon several image processing and visualization tasks, such as image registration, image segmentation, image fusion, and 3D visualization. These tasks are often performed by a heterogeneous set of software tools, which adopt differing formats and geometrical conventions and require patient-specific parameterization or interactive tuning. To overcome these issues, we introduce in this article PyDBS, a fully integrated and automated image processing workflow for DBS surgery. PyDBS consists of three image processing pipelines and three visualization modules assisting clinicians through the entire DBS surgical workflow, from the preoperative planning of electrode trajectories to the postoperative assessment of electrode placement. The system's robustness, speed, and accuracy were assessed by means of a retrospective validation, based on 92 clinical cases. The complete PyDBS workflow achieved satisfactory results in 92 % of tested cases, with a median processing time of 28 min per patient. The results obtained are compatible with the adoption of PyDBS in clinical practice.

  18. Altered functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to nonpainful sensory stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solà, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry B Huff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS imaging of myelin in live spinal tissues in real time. Paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation. Retraction was seen to begin minutes after the onset of stimulation and continue for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased, but was found to reverse after a 2 h recovery period. The myelin retraction resulted in exposure of Kv 1.2 potassium channels visualized by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, treating the stimulated tissue with a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, led to the appearance of a shoulder peak in the compound action potential curve. Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down.

  20. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  1. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R.; Graessner, J.; Petersen, K.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm 2 , 500 sec/mm 2 and 1000 sec/mm 2 . Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec (95% CI, 1

  2. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  3. Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Yu, Yong; Shen, Yihui; Wang, Meng C.; Min, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of new proteins, a key step in the central dogma of molecular biology, has been a major biological process by which cells respond rapidly to environmental cues in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the selective visualization of a newly synthesized proteome in living systems with subcellular resolution has proven to be rather challenging, despite the extensive efforts along the lines of fluorescence staining, autoradiography, and mass spectrometry. Herein, we report an imaging technique to visualize nascent proteins by harnessing the emerging stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids. As a first demonstration, we imaged newly synthesized proteins in live mammalian cells with high spatial–temporal resolution without fixation or staining. Subcellular compartments with fast protein turnover in HeLa and HEK293T cells, and newly grown neurites in differentiating neuron-like N2A cells, are clearly identified via this imaging technique. Technically, incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids is minimally perturbative to live cells, whereas SRS imaging of exogenous carbon–deuterium bonds (C–D) in the cell-silent Raman region is highly sensitive, specific, and compatible with living systems. Moreover, coupled with label-free SRS imaging of the total proteome, our method can readily generate spatial maps of the quantitative ratio between new and total proteomes. Thus, this technique of nonlinear vibrational imaging of stable isotope incorporation will be a valuable tool to advance our understanding of the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of newly synthesized proteome in vivo. PMID:23798434

  4. Effects of low frequency repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation on auditory hallucination in patients with schizophrenia%低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗精神分裂症患者的顽固性幻听

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权文香; 周东丰; 王向群; 乔宏; 赵志宇; 张五芳; 任艳萍; 谭云龙; 王志仁; 田菊; 杨淑珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects and safety of low frequency repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on obstinate auditory hallucination in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Totally 122 schizophrenia patients with obstinate hallucination who met the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-FV) from outpatient and inpatient department They were randomly allocated to receive 1 Hz (n =88,80%MT) or sham (n = 34) rTMS on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 sessions (5 session per week and two weeks' break after 10 sessions). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Audi-tory Hallucination Rating Scale( AHRS) and Clinical Global Impressions Scale( CGI) were used to assess the effect of rTMS on clinical features. Subjects in lHz group were followed up in time point of 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment Results: Totally 108 patients finished 20 treatment sessions. There were no significant differences between two groups in scores of PANSS, AHRS, CGI at any time point of treatment ( Ps > 0. 05). Meanwhile, in patients with course of disease less than 10 years [ (16. 2 ±4. 9 vs. 20. 3 ±4. 0) ] and 10 - 20 years [ (19. 2 ± 5. 5 vs. 23. 1 ± 6. 5], the AHRS scores were significantly lower in 1 Hz group than in the sham group (Ps < 0. 05). There was no other side effect complaints, except that 4 patients reported headache in treatment Conclusion: It suggests that 1 Hz repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation is a safe approach showing efficacy on obstinate auditory hallucination in schizophrenic patients whose course of disease are less than 20 years.%目的:探讨左背外侧前额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗精神分裂症患者顽固性幻听的临床疗效.方法:本研究为随机双盲对照研究.根据美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第4版( DSM-Ⅳ)的诊断标准,选取122例伴顽固性幻听的精神分裂症患者按2∶1随机分为治疗组(n=88)

  5. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  6. Marathon's imaging of Bakken fracture stimulations : NDIC oil and gas petroleum research program grants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimberry, D. [Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed surface tiltmeter and microseismic studies conducted to image fracture stimulations at the Bakken formation. The aim of the studies was to map the fracture stimulation network of the Bakken formation, which has highly sensitive surface levels. The study determined the best fit theoretical deformation after stimulation. Stimulations from 2007 and 2006 were compared in order to determine time lapses as well as to understand data limitations and differences in time and production between jobs. The microseismic study used seismic arrays deployed at the surface of horizontal open hole wells. Data from the studies indicated the presence of a complex network. While data utility was good, noise prevented the precise location of events. The study demonstrated that both tiltmeter and microseismic technology can be used to plan well stimulation project. Data from the study can be applied in other areas in the Williston Basin. tabs., figs.

  7. Impairment of preoperative language mapping by lesion location: a functional magnetic resonance imaging, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, and direct cortical stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Tanigawa, Noriko; Obermueller, Thomas; Negwer, Chiara; Droese, Doris; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-08-01

    Language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used and has already replaced functional MRI (fMRI) in some institutions for preoperative mapping of neurosurgical patients. Yet some factors affect the concordance of both methods with direct cortical stimulation (DCS), most likely by lesions affecting cortical oxygenation levels. Therefore, the impairment of the accuracy of rTMS and fMRI was analyzed and compared with DCS during awake surgery in patients with intraparenchymal lesions. Language mapping was performed by DCS, rTMS, and fMRI using an object-naming task in 27 patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions, and the induced language errors of each method were assigned to the cortical parcellation system. Subsequently, the receiver operating characteristics were calculated for rTMS and fMRI and compared with DCS as ground truth for regions with (w/) and without (w/o) the lesion in the mapped regions. The w/ subgroup revealed a sensitivity of 100% (w/o 100%), a specificity of 8% (w/o 5%), a positive predictive value of 34% (w/o: 53%), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (w/o: 100%) for the comparison of rTMS versus DCS. Findings for the comparison of fMRI versus DCS within the w/ subgroup revealed a sensitivity of 32% (w/o: 62%), a specificity of 88% (w/o: 60%), a positive predictive value of 56% (w/o: 62%), and a NPV of 73% (w/o: 60%). Although strengths and weaknesses exist for both rTMS and fMRI, the results show that rTMS is less affected by a brain lesion than fMRI, especially when performing mapping of language-negative cortical regions based on sensitivity and NPV.

  8. An image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation system: a pilot phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Daejeong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation (IG-tDCS) system that can deliver an increased stimulation current to a target brain area without the need to adjust the location of an active electrode was implemented. This IG-tDCS system was based on the array-type tDCS concept, which was validated through computer simulations in a previous study. Unlike a previous study, the present IG-tDCS system adopts a single reference electrode and an active electrode array consisting of 16 (4 × 4) sub-electrodes. The proposed IG-tDCS system is capable of shaping current flow inside the human head by controlling the input currents of the arrayed electrodes. Once a target brain area has been selected, the optimal injection current of each arrayed sub-electrode is evaluated automatically using a genetic algorithm in order to deliver the maximum available current to the target area. The operation of our pilot system was confirmed through a simple phantom experiment. (paper)

  9. Direct Imaging of Natural Fractures and Stress Compartments Stimulated by Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacazette, A.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This contribution will present results from passive seismic studies of hydraulic fracture treatments in North American and Asian basins. One of the key data types is a comparatively new surface-based seismic imaging product - "Tomographic Fracture Images®" (TFI®). The procedure is an extension of Seismic Emission Tomography (SET), which is well-established and widely used. Conventional microseismic results - microearthquake hypocenter locations, magnitudes, and focal mechanism solutions - are also obtained from the data via a branch of the processing workflow. TFI is accomplished by summing the individual time steps in a multidimensional SET hypervolume over extended periods of time, such as an entire frac stage. The dimensions of a SET hypervolume are the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the voxels, the time step (typically on the order of 100 milliseconds), and the seismic activity value. The resulting summed volume is skeletonized to produce images of the main fracture surfaces, which are known to occupy the maximum activity surfaces of the high activity clouds from theory, field studies, and experiments. The orientation vs. area of the resulting TFIs can be analyzed in detail and compared with independent data sets such as volumetric structural attributes from reflection seismic data and borehole fracture data. We find that the primary effect of hydraulic fracturing is to stimulate preexisting natural fracture networks and faults. The combination of TFIs with hypocenter distributions and microearthquake focal mechanisms provides detailed information on subsurface stress compartmentalization. Faults are directly imaged which allows discrimination of fault planes from auxiliary planes of focal mechanism solutions. Examples that will be shown include simultaneous movement on a thrust fault and tear fault and examples of radically different stress compartments (e.g. extensional vs. wrench faulting) stimulated during a single hydraulic fracture treatment. The figure

  10. Sparse-sampling with time-encoded (TICO) stimulated Raman scattering for fast image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakert, Hubertus; Eibl, Matthias; Karpf, Sebastian; Huber, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Modern biomedical imaging modalities aim to provide researchers a multimodal contrast for a deeper insight into a specimen under investigation. A very promising technique is stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which can unveil the chemical composition of a sample with a very high specificity. Although the signal intensities are enhanced manifold to achieve a faster acquisition of images if compared to standard Raman microscopy, there is a trade-off between specificity and acquisition speed. Commonly used SRS concepts either probe only very few Raman transitions as the tuning of the applied laser sources is complicated or record whole spectra with a spectrometer based setup. While the first approach is fast, it reduces the specificity and the spectrometer approach records whole spectra -with energy differences where no Raman information is present-, which limits the acquisition speed. Therefore, we present a new approach based on the TICO-Raman concept, which we call sparse-sampling. The TICO-sparse-sampling setup is fully electronically controllable and allows probing of only the characteristic peaks of a Raman spectrum instead of always acquiring a whole spectrum. By reducing the spectral points to the relevant peaks, the acquisition time can be greatly reduced compared to a uniformly, equidistantly sampled Raman spectrum while the specificity and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) are maintained. Furthermore, all laser sources are completely fiber based. The synchronized detection enables a full resolution of the Raman signal, whereas the analogue and digital balancing allows shot noise limited detection. First imaging results with polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads confirm the advantages of TICO sparse-sampling. We achieved a pixel dwell time as low as 35 μs for an image differentiating both species. The mechanical properties of the applied voice coil stage for scanning the sample currently limits even faster acquisition.

  11. SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2017-03-13

    Single-molecule spectroscopy has made considerable impact on many disciplines including chemistry, physics, and biology. To date, most single-molecule spectroscopy work is accomplished by detecting fluorescence. On the other hand, many naturally occurring chromophores, such as retinal, hemoglobin and cytochromes, do not have detectable fluorescence. There is an emerging need for single-molecule spectroscopy techniques that do not require fluorescence. In the last proposal period, we have successfully demonstrated stimulated emission microscopy, single molecule absorption, and stimulated Raman microscopy based on a high-frequency modulation transfer technique. These first-of-a- kind new spectroscopy/microscopy methods tremendously improved our ability to observe molecules that fluorescence weakly, even to the limit of single molecule detection for absorption measurement. All of these methods employ two laser beams: one (pump beam) excites a single molecule to a real or virtual excited state, and the other (probe beam) monitors the absorption/emission property of the single. We extract the intensity change of the probe beam with high sensitivity by implementing a high-frequency phase-sensitive detection scheme, which offers orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity over direct absorption/emission measurement. However, single molecule detection based on fluorescence or absorption is fundamentally limited due to their broad spectral response. It is important to explore other avenues in single molecule detection and imaging which provides higher molecular specificity for studying a wide variety of heterogeneous chemical and biological systems. This proposal aimed to achieve single-molecule detection sensitivity with near resonance stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. SRS microscopy was developed in our lab as a powerful technique for imaging heterogeneous samples based on their intrinsic vibrational contrasts, which provides much higher molecular

  12. Effect of stimulation by foliage plant display images on prefrontal cortex activity: a comparison with stimulation using actual foliage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miho; Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Natural scenes like forests and flowers evoke neurophysiological responses that can suppress anxiety and relieve stress. We examined whether images of natural objects can elicit neural responses similar to those evoked by real objects by comparing the activation of the prefrontal cortex during presentation of real foliage plants with a projected image of the same foliage plants. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex were measured using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy while the subjects viewed the real plants or a projected image of the same plants. Compared with a projected image of foliage plants, viewing the actual foliage plants significantly increased oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. However, using the modified semantic differential method, subjective emotional response ratings ("comfortable vs. uncomfortable" and "relaxed vs. awakening") were similar for both stimuli. The frontal cortex responded differently to presentation of actual plants compared with images of these plants even when the subjective emotional response was similar. These results may help explain the physical and mental health benefits of urban, domestic, and workplace foliage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Can we use neurocognition to predict repetition of self-harm, and why might this be clinically useful? A perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angharad Natalie De Cates

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 800,000 people die by suicide each year globally, with non-fatal self-harm 20 times more common. With each episode of self-harm, the risks of future self-harm and suicide increase, as well as personal and healthcare costs. Therefore, early delineation of those at high-risk of future self-harm is important. Historically, research has focused on clinical and demographic factors, but risk assessments based on these have low sensitivity to predict repetition. Various neurocognitive factors have been associated with self-harming behavior, but it is less certain if we can use these factors clinically (i as risk markers to predict future self-harm and (ii to become therapeutic targets for interventions.Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of behavioral tasks and fMRI studies point to an emerging hypothesis for neurocognition in self-harm: an underactive pre-frontal cortex is unable to respond appropriately to non-emotional stimuli, or inhibit a hyperactive emotionally- / threat-driven limbic system. However, there is almost no imaging data examining repetition of self-harm. Extrapolating from the non-repetition data, there may be several potential neurocognitive targets for interventions to prevent repeat self-harm: cognitive training; pharmacological regimes to promote non-emotional neurocognition; or other techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Hence, there is an urgent need for imaging studies examining repetition and to test specific hypotheses. Until we investigate the functional neurocognitive basis underlying repetition of self-harm in a systematic manner using second-generational imaging techniques, we will be unable to inform third-generational imaging and potential future clinical applications.

  14. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  15. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  16. Mapping the after-effects of theta burst stimulation on the human auditory cortex with functional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-09-12

    Auditory cortex pertains to the processing of sound, which is at the basis of speech or music-related processing. However, despite considerable recent progress, the functional properties and lateralization of the human auditory cortex are far from being fully understood. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can transiently or lastingly modulate cortical excitability via the application of localized magnetic field pulses, and represents a unique method of exploring plasticity and connectivity. It has only recently begun to be applied to understand auditory cortical function. An important issue in using TMS is that the physiological consequences of the stimulation are difficult to establish. Although many TMS studies make the implicit assumption that the area targeted by the coil is the area affected, this need not be the case, particularly for complex cognitive functions which depend on interactions across many brain regions. One solution to this problem is to combine TMS with functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The idea here is that fMRI will provide an index of changes in brain activity associated with TMS. Thus, fMRI would give an independent means of assessing which areas are affected by TMS and how they are modulated. In addition, fMRI allows the assessment of functional connectivity, which represents a measure of the temporal coupling between distant regions. It can thus be useful not only to measure the net activity modulation induced by TMS in given locations, but also the degree to which the network properties are affected by TMS, via any observed changes in functional connectivity. Different approaches exist to combine TMS and functional imaging according to the temporal order of the methods. Functional MRI can be applied before, during, after, or both before and after TMS. Recently, some studies interleaved TMS and fMRI in order to provide online mapping of the functional changes induced by TMS. However, this

  17. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  18. Long-term In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Astrocytes Reveals Distinct Cellular Compartment Responses to Sensory Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Jillian L; Ferrari, Kim David; Barrett, Matthew J P; Stobart, Michael J; Looser, Zoe J; Saab, Aiman S; Weber, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Localized, heterogeneous calcium transients occur throughout astrocytes, but the characteristics and long-term stability of these signals, particularly in response to sensory stimulation, remain unknown. Here, we used a genetically encoded calcium indicator and an activity-based image analysis scheme to monitor astrocyte calcium activity in vivo. We found that different subcellular compartments (processes, somata, and endfeet) displayed distinct signaling characteristics. Closer examination of individual signals showed that sensory stimulation elevated the number of specific types of calcium peaks within astrocyte processes and somata, in a cortical layer-dependent manner, and that the signals became more synchronous upon sensory stimulation. Although mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent calcium signaling (Ip3r2-/-) had fewer signal peaks, the response to sensory stimulation was sustained, suggesting other calcium pathways are also involved. Long-term imaging of astrocyte populations revealed that all compartments reliably responded to stimulation over several months, but that the location of the response within processes may vary. These previously unknown characteristics of subcellular astrocyte calcium signals provide new insights into how astrocytes may encode local neuronal circuit activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ultrawidefield microscope for high-speed fluorescence imaging and targeted optogenetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Christopher A; Chien, Miao-Ping; Cohen, Adam E

    2017-12-01

    The rapid increase in the number and quality of fluorescent reporters and optogenetic actuators has yielded a powerful set of tools for recording and controlling cellular state and function. To achieve the full benefit of these tools requires improved optical systems with high light collection efficiency, high spatial and temporal resolution, and patterned optical stimulation, in a wide field of view (FOV). Here we describe our 'Firefly' microscope, which achieves these goals in a Ø6 mm FOV. The Firefly optical system is optimized for simultaneous photostimulation and fluorescence imaging in cultured cells. All but one of the optical elements are commercially available, yet the microscope achieves 10-fold higher light collection efficiency at its design magnification than the comparable commercially available microscope using the same objective. The Firefly microscope enables all-optical electrophysiology ('Optopatch') in cultured neurons with a throughput and information content unmatched by other neuronal phenotyping systems. This capability opens possibilities in disease modeling and phenotypic drug screening. We also demonstrate applications of the system to voltage and calcium recordings in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

  20. Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical stimulation - brain mapping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, K.; Tanova, R.; Busarski, A.; Penkov, M.; Penev, L.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery requires accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization of brain pathologies but also of brain functions. The presence of individual variations in healthy subjects and the shift of brain functions in brain diseases provoke the introduction of various methods for brain mapping. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most widespread methods for brain mapping: Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES). This study included 4 patients with preoperative brain mapping using Wada-test and fMRI. Intraoperative mapping with DES during awake craniotomy was performed in one case. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade glioma in 2 cases, cortical dysplasia (1 patient) and arteriovenous malformation (1 patient). The brain mapping permits total lesion resection in three of four patients. There was no new postoperative deficit despite surgery near or within functional brain areas. Brain plasticity provoking shift of eloquent areas from their usual locations was observed in two cases. The brain mapping methods allow surgery in eloquent brain areas recognized in the past as 'forbidden areas'. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. The precise location of brain functions and pathologies frequently requires combination of different brain mapping methods. (authors)

  1. Diffusion imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation assessment of transcallosal pathways in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S; Borich, Michael R; Brodie, Sonia M; Brown, Katlyn E; Snow, Nicholas J; Wadden, Katie P; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationship of transcallosal pathway microstructure and transcallosal inhibition (TCI) with motor function and impairment in chronic stroke. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) data were collected from 24 participants with chronic stroke and 11 healthy older individuals. Post-stroke motor function (Wolf Motor Function Test) and level of motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer score) were evaluated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of transcallosal tracts between prefrontal cortices and the mean amplitude decrease in muscle activity during the ipsilateral silent period evoked by TMS over the non-lesioned hemisphere (termed NL-iSPmean) were significantly associated with level of motor impairment and motor function after stroke (p<0.05). A regression model including age, post-stroke duration, lesion volume, lesioned corticospinal tract FA, transcallosal prefrontal tract FA and NL-iSPmean accounted for 84% of variance in motor impairment (p<0.01). Both transcallosal prefrontal tract FA (ΔR(2)=0.12, p=0.04) and NL-iSPmean (ΔR(2)=0.09, p=0.04) accounted for unique variance in motor impairment level. Prefrontal transcallosal tract microstructure and TCI are each uniquely associated with motor impairment in chronic stroke. Utilizing a multi-modal approach to assess transcallosal pathways may improve our capacity to identify important neural substrates of motor impairment in the chronic phase of stroke. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuromodulation: DTI as key technology for deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Volker Arnd; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Allert, Niels; Mädler, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more than just a useful adjunct to invasive techniques like optogenetics which recently have tremendously influenced our understanding of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with other technologies, DTI helps us to understand which parts of the brain tissue are connected to others and which ones are truly influenced with neuromodulation. The complex interaction of DBS with the surrounding tissues-scrutinized with DTI-allows to create testable hypotheses that can explain network interactions. Those interactions are vital for our understanding of the net effects of neuromodulation. This work naturally was first done in the field of movement disorder surgery, where a lot of experience regarding therapeutic effects and only a short latency between initiation of neuromodulation and alleviation of symptoms exist. This chapter shows the journey over the past 10 years with first applications in DBS toward current research in affect regulating network balances and their therapeutic alterations with the neuromodulation technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    , the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  4. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  5. In Vitro Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Fragmented, Open-Coil, Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, Frank G; Zare, Armaan; Ilfeld, Brian M; Chae, John; Strother, Robert B

    2018-04-01

    Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an FDA-cleared pain treatment. Occasionally, fragments of the lead (MicroLead, SPR Therapeutics, LLC, Cleveland, OH, USA) may be retained following lead removal. Since the lead is metallic, there are associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) risks. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate MRI-related issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) for various lead fragments. Testing was conducted using standardized techniques on lead fragments of different lengths (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% of maximum possible fragment length of 12.7 cm) to determine MRI-related problems. Magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque) and artifacts were tested for the longest lead fragment at 3 Tesla. MRI-related heating was evaluated at 1.5 Tesla/64 MHz and 3 Tesla/128 MHz with each lead fragment placed in a gelled-saline filled phantom. Temperatures were recorded on the lead fragments while using relatively high RF power levels. Artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo, and gradient echo (GRE) pulse sequences. The longest lead fragment produced only minor magnetic field interactions. For the lead fragments evaluated, physiologically inconsequential MRI-related heating occurred at 1.5 Tesla/64 MHz while under certain 3 Tesla/128 MHz conditions, excessive temperature elevations may occur. Artifacts extended approximately 7 mm from the lead fragment on the GRE pulse sequence, suggesting that anatomy located at a position greater than this distance may be visualized on MRI. MRI may be performed safely in patients with retained lead fragments at 1.5 Tesla using the specific conditions of this study (i.e., MR Conditional). Due to possible excessive temperature rises at 3 Tesla, performing MRI at that field strength is currently inadvisable. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging for nerve localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener, J. T.; Boender, Z. J.; Preckel, B.; Hollmann, M. W.; Stevens, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Percutaneous nerve stimulation (PNS) is a non-invasive technique to localize superficial nerves before performing peripheral nerve blocks, but its precision has never been evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. This study compared stimulating points at the skin with the position of

  7. Correlation of orbital muscle changes evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and thyroid-stimulating antibody in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Inada, M.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eye changes and autoantibody to the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves' disease, the authors evaluated the eye changes using magnetic resonance imaging and the results were correlated with thyroid-stimulating antibody, thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin and thyroid growth activity. Subjects were 15 patients with Graves' disease who had Graves' ophthalmopathy, including exophthalmos and other signs and symptoms, and 9 patients without ophthalmopathy; all were maintained in a euthyroid state by antithyroid drugs. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor imunoglobulin was measured by a kit, and thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyroid growth activity were evaluated by cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate production and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, respectively, by cultured functional rat thyroid lined cells. The sum of the swelling ratios of the four extraocular muscles correlated well with the degree of exophthalmos. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin was positive in 9 out of 15 patients with ophthalmopathy; however, no correlation was observed between the activity and exophthalmos or muscle swelling. No significant correlation was observed between muscle changes and thyroid growth activity either. On the other hand, thyroid-stimulating antibody in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy was significantly higher than that in patients without ophthalmopathy. Moreover, the level of the stimulating activity in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy showed a significant positive correlation with the sum of the swelling ratios of the individual eight eye muscles. These results suggest that thyroid-stimulating antibody has a close relation to Graves' ophthalmopathy. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. Using imaging to target the prefrontal cortex for transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in treatment-resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kevin A.; Ramsey, Dave; Kozel, Frank A.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Anderson, Berry; Nahas, Ziad; Sacke?m, Harold A.; George, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Structural imaging studies of the brains of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have found several abnormalities, including smaller hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, or pre?frontal cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive means of modulating brain activity, and has shown antidepressant treatment efficacy. 1 The initial methods used for targeting the prefrontal cortex are most likely insufficient. Herwig et al found that a common rule-based approach (the...

  9. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation on neuronal activities in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the influence of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation on neuronal activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using resting-state blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF and fraction ALFF (fALFF analysis. Methods: 42 AD patients were divided into two groups in accordance with the randomized double blind principle, every group was 21. Treatment group received electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation. Both groups received resting-state BOLD-fMRI scanning before and after treatment and comparing differences in ALFF and fALFF in each group by statistical methods. Correlation analysis was performed between ALFF or fALFF images and neuropsychological tests scale after treatment. Results: Post-therapy brain regions with higher ALFF included left cerebellum posterior lobe, right cerebellum posterior lobe, left hippocampus/parahippocampus, left posterior cingulated cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior parietal lobule in treatment group. Higher fALFF was observed in the right inferior parietal lobule. In the placebo group lower ALFF was observed in bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and left posterior cingulated cortex. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section was closely correlated with ALFF in left cerebellum posterior lobe and right cerebellum posterior lobe. Conclusion: These results indicated improved neuronal activity in some brain areas could be achieved in AD after treatment of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation. The change of BOLD-fMRI signal might provide a potential imaging strategy for studying neural mechanisms of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation for AD. Keywords: Electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation, Alzheimer's disease, Low-frequency fluctuation, Fraction low-frequency fluctuation

  11. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  12. SPECT-imaging of activity-dependent changes in regional cerebral blood flow induced by electrical and optogenetic self-stimulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Angela; Lippert, Michael; Angenstein, Frank; Neubert, Jenni; Pethe, Annette; Grosser, Oliver S; Amthauer, Holger; Schroeder, Ulrich H; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and optogenetic methods for brain stimulation are widely used in rodents for manipulating behavior and analyzing functional connectivities in neuronal circuits. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the global, brain-wide, activation patterns induced by these stimulations has remained challenging, in particular in awake behaving mice. We here mapped brain activation patterns in awake, intracranially self-stimulating mice using a novel protocol for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Mice were implanted with either electrodes for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (mfb-microstim) or with optical fibers for blue-light stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (vta-optostim). After training for self-stimulation by current or light application, respectively, mice were implanted with jugular vein catheters and intravenously injected with the flow tracer 99m-technetium hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) during seven to ten minutes of intracranial self-stimulation or ongoing behavior without stimulation. The 99mTc-brain distributions were mapped in anesthetized animals after stimulation using multipinhole SPECT. Upon self-stimulation rCBF strongly increased at the electrode tip in mfb-microstim mice. In vta-optostim mice peak activations were found outside the stimulation site. Partly overlapping brain-wide networks of activations and deactivations were found in both groups. When testing all self-stimulating mice against all controls highly significant activations were found in the rostromedial nucleus accumbens shell. SPECT-imaging of rCBF using intravenous tracer-injection during ongoing behavior is a new tool for imaging regional brain activation patterns in awake behaving rodents providing higher spatial and temporal resolutions than 18F-2-fluoro-2-dexoyglucose positron emission tomography. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  13. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex (France); Ranouil, Julien [Landauer Europe, 33 avenue du Général Leclerc, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92266 Cedex (France); Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier [Oncodesign, 20 rue Jean Mazen, Dijon 21076 Cedex (France); Walker, Paul [LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Brunotte, François [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex, France and LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  14. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  15. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A., E-mail: rodrigossviana@gmail.com, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br, E-mail: asantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  16. Image Artifacts in Concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and fMRI Caused by Leakage Currents: Modeling and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Josephs, Oliver; Ruff, Christian C; Blankenburg, Felix; Featherstone, Eric; Thomas, Anthony; Bestmann, Sven; Driver, Jon; Deichmann, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize and eliminate a new type of image artifact in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (TMS-fMRI) caused by small leakage currents originating from the high-voltage capacitors in the TMS stimulator system. Materials and Methods The artifacts in echo-planar images (EPI) caused by leakage currents were characterized and quantified in numerical simulations and phantom studies with different phantom-coil geometries. A relay-diode combination was devised and inserted in the TMS circuit that shorts the leakage current. Its effectiveness for artifact reduction was assessed in a phantom scan resembling a realistic TMS-fMRI experiment. Results The leakage-current-induced signal changes exhibited a multipolar spatial pattern and the maxima exceeded 1% at realistic coil-cortex distances. The relay-diode combination effectively reduced the artifact to a negligible level. Conclusion The leakage-current artifacts potentially obscure effects of interest or lead to false-positives. Since the artifact depends on the experimental setup and design (eg, amplitude of the leakage current, coil orientation, paradigm, EPI parameters), we recommend its assessment for each experiment. The relay-diode combination can eliminate the artifacts if necessary. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1211–1217. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19388099

  17. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  18. Diagnosis and localisation of insulinoma: the value of modern magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with calcium stimulation catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Muthuppalaniappan, Vasantha M; O'Leary, Benjamin; Chew, Shern L; Drake, William M; Monson, John P; Akker, Scott A; Besser, Michael; Sahdev, Anju; Rockall, Andrea; Vyas, Soumil; Bhattacharya, Satya; Matson, Matthew; Berney, Daniel; Reznek, R H; Grossman, Ashley B

    2010-05-01

    Preoperative localisation of insulinoma improves cure rate and reduces complications, but may be challenging. To review diagnostic features and localisation accuracy for insulinomas. Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. A single tertiary referral centre. Patients with insulinoma in the years 1990-2009, including sporadic tumours and those in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Patients were identified from a database, and case notes and investigation results were reviewed. Tumour localisation by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), octreotide scanning, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and calcium stimulation was evaluated. Insulinoma localisation was compared to histologically confirmed location following surgical excision. Thirty-seven instances of biochemically and/or histologically proven insulinoma were identified in 36 patients, of which seven were managed medically. Of the 30 treated surgically, 25 had CT (83.3%) and 28 had MRI (90.3%), with successful localisation in 16 (64%) by CT and 21 (75%) by MRI respectively. Considered together, such imaging correctly localised 80% of lesions. Radiolabelled octreotide scanning was positive in 10 out of 20 cases (50%); EUS correctly identified 17 lesions in 26 patients (65.4%). Twenty-seven patients had calcium stimulation testing, of which 6 (22%) did not localise, 17 (63%) were correctly localised, and 4 (15%) gave discordant or confusing results. Preoperative localisation of insulinomas remains challenging. A pragmatic combination of CT and especially MRI predicts tumour localisation with high accuracy. Radionuclide imaging and EUS were less helpful but may be valuable in selected cases. Calcium stimulation currently remains useful in providing an additional functional perspective.

  19. Contribution to numerical radiology. Study of a bidimensional imaging device that use Electrically Stimulated Luminescence. The case of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayral, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    Projection radiography is in a fast change period. This work describes the study and demonstration of a new type of 2D flat X-Ray sensor for mammography and delivering a digital signal. X-ray transmission study of breast tissues leads to: a- definition of X-Ray photons properties for optimized signal-to-noise ratio, and b-specifications of a 2D X-Ray sensor such as mean exposure, dynamic range and pixel size. Then the X-Ray detection processes using a direct or a delayed luminescence mechanism are reviewed. The detailed analysis of the different ways for detecting visible photons is combined with the System specifications (pixel size, image reading time) in order to characterize (from a signal-to-noise ratio aspect) an X-Ray imaging system integrating a delayed luminescence property. The imaging plate and associated luminescent material are specified by their minimum X-Ray absorption and conversion gain. The Gudden- Pohl effect, or Electrically Stimulated Luminescence (ESL) is experimentally studied and quantified under X-Ray excitation in ZnCdS: Cu, Al materials. An original UV sensitization technique opens us the way to highly reproducible results and large sensitivity. The obtained information storage time in the material is compatible with a delayed image reading. These results allow the achievement of an X-Ray imaging demonstrator integrating the ESL imaging plate, an intensified CCD sensor and the sensitization technique. First images are obtained. Further conception of real dimension X-Ray imaging System for mammography is described. (author) [fr

  20. High-repetition-rate setup for pump-probe time-resolved XUV-IR experiments employing ion and electron momentum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Robatjazi, Seyyed Javad; Wright Lee, Pearson; Raju Pandiri, Kanaka; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem

    2017-04-01

    J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan KS, USA We report on the development of a versatile experimental setup for XUV-IR pump-probe experiments using a 10 kHz high-harmonic generation (HHG) source and two different charged-particle momentum imaging spectrometers. The HHG source, based on a commercial KM Labs eXtreme Ultraviolet Ultrafast Source, is capable of delivering XUV radiation of less than 30 fs pulse duration in the photon energy range of 17 eV to 100 eV. It can be coupled either to a conventional velocity map imaging (VMI) setup with an atomic, molecular, or nanoparticle target; or to a novel double-sided VMI spectrometer equipped with two delay-line detectors for coincidence studies. An overview of the setup and results of first pump-probe experiments including studies of two-color double ionization of Xe and time-resolved dynamics of photoionized CO2 molecule will be presented. This project is supported in part by National Science Foundation (NSF-EPSCOR) Award No. IIA-1430493 and in part by the Chemical science, Geosciences, and Bio-Science division, Office of Basic Energy Science, Office of science, U.S. Department of Energy. K.

  1. Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Månsson, Erik P., E-mail: erik.mansson@sljus.lu.se; Sorensen, Stacey L.; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Arnold, Cord L.; Kroon, David; Guénot, Diego; Fordell, Thomas; Johnsson, Per; L’Huillier, Anne [Division of Atomic Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lépine, Franck [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.

  2. Evaluation of Na+/K+ pump function following repetitive activity in mouse peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    excitability measures simultaneously from the evoked plantar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and sciatic compound nerve action potential (CNAP). Three minutes after repetitive supramaximal stimulation maximal CMAP and CNAP amplitudes recovered but the threshold was increased approximately 40% for motor...

  3. Integrated femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon fluorescence imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuesong; Lam, Wen Jiun; Cao, Zhe; Hao, Yan; Sun, Qiqi; He, Sicong; Mak, Ho Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-11-01

    The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) as a new imaging modality can be integrated into a femtosecond (fs) nonlinear optical (NLO) microscope system. The fs sources of high pulse peak power are routinely used in multimodal nonlinear microscopy to enable efficient excitation of multiple NLO signals. However, with fs excitations, the SRS imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures encounters significant interference from proteins due to poor spectral resolution and a lack of chemical specificity, respectively. We developed a unique NLO microscope of fs excitation that enables rapid acquisition of SRS and multiple two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals. In the in vivo imaging of transgenic C. elegans animals, we discovered that by cross-filtering false positive lipid signals based on the TPEF signals from tryptophan-bearing endogenous proteins and lysosome-related organelles, the imaging system produced highly accurate assignment of SRS signals to lipid. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the multimodal NLO microscope system could sequentially image lipid structure/content and organelles, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which are intricately linked to lipid metabolism.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of morphological and functional changes of the uterus induced by sacral surface electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Takahide; Murakami, Takashi; Ozawa, Yuka; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological and kinematical changes of the uterus induced by electrical stimulation applied to the skin just above the second and fourth posterior sacral foramens (sacral surface electrical stimulation [ssES]) in 26 healthy subjects. Out of them, eight subjects who had severe pain subjectively during every menstruation received ssES just in menstruation. Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were examined by using T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1-weighted MR cinematography, respectively. Cyclic electrical stimulation for 15 min with 5 sec ON and 5 sec OFF was applied just before MR scanning. A decrease in thickness of the muscular layer of the uterus was observed in every subject after ssES for 15 min and was significant as compared with the thickness before ssES. Periodic uterine movement during menstruation was observed in the subjects with severe menstrual pain in MR cine and the power spectrum analysis of the movement showed a marked decrease in peak power and frequency after ssES treatment. We conclude that ssES causes a reduction of static muscle tension of the uterus in all menstrual cycle periods and suppression of uterine peristalsis during menstruation in the subjects with severe menstrual pain. Possible neural mechanisms for these static and dynamic effects of ssES on the uterus at spinal level are discussed. (author)

  5. Successful deep brain stimulation surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on a difficult neuroacanthocytosis case: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien; Fernandez, Hubert H; Cooper, Scott; Wilson, Kathryn Mary K; Machado, Andre G

    2013-07-01

    Chorea acanthocytosis is a progressive hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hyperkinetic movements, seizures, and acanthocytosis in the absence of any lipid abnormality. Medical treatment is typically limited and disappointing. We report on a 32-year-old patient with chorea acanthocytosis with a failed attempt at awake deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery due to intraoperative seizures and postoperative intracranial hematoma. He then underwent a second DBS operation, but under general anesthesia and with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Marked improvement in his dystonia, chorea, and overall quality of life was noted 2 and 8 months postoperatively. DBS surgery of the bilateral globus pallidus pars interna may be useful in controlling the hyperkinetic movements in neuroacanthocytosis. Because of the high propensity for seizures in this disorder, DBS performed under general anesthesia, with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging guidance, may allow successful implantation while maintaining accurate target localization.

  6. Application of MR diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of salivary glands with gustatory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunyan; Ou Dan; Gu Yajia; He Xiayun; Mao Jian; Shen Xigang; Yue Lei; Peng Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the function of the salivary glands with gustatory stimulation by using MR DWI. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 30 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had normal salivary function. A DWI sequence was performed on the salivary glands at resting state, and continually repeated on the parotid immediately after oral ascorbic acid stimulation over a period of 21 minutes (once every 18 seconds). The multiple b-values (0, 400, 600, 800, 1000 s/mm 2 ) were used. ADC maps were evaluated with a manually placed region of interest including the entire salivary gland. The ADC of each gland was obtained by taking the mean of values on three contiguous sections containing the largest areas of the gland. The paired two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the ADC values of the parotid and the submandibular glands at rest, and of the parotid before and after stimulation. Results: The mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid [(1.23 ±0.12) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s] than in the submandibular glands [(1.34 ± 0.07) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.545, P<0.01]. After acid stimulation,the ADC value increased from the baseline to (1.41 ±0.19) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s firstly and then fluctuated at the following time, with a peak value of (1.49 ± 0.20) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s and the average value of (1.36 ±0.17) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The average value was significantly different from the baseline value (t=15.127, t=11.905, P<0.01). The minimum value [ ( 1.24 ± 0.14) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s] was not significantly different compared to the baseline value (t=1.329, P>0.05). Conclusion: MR DWI can noninvasively evaluate the physiologic changes of salivary glands before and after acid stimulation. (authors)

  7. Temporal comparison of functional brain imaging with diffuse optical tomography and fMRI during rat forepaw stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Andrew M; Culver, Joseph P; Mandeville, Joseph B; Boas, David A

    2003-01-01

    The time courses of oxyhaemoglobin ([HbO 2 ]), deoxyhaemoglobin ([HbR]) and total haemoglobin ([HbT]) concentration changes following cortical activation in rats by electrical forepaw stimulation were measured using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and compared to similar measurements performed previously with fMRI at 2.0 T and 4.7 T. We also explored the qualitative effects of varying stimulus parameters on the temporal evolution of the hemodynamic response. DOT images were reconstructed at a depth of 1.5 mm over a 1 cm square area from 2 mm anterior to bregma to 8 mm posterior to bregma. The measurement set included 9 sources and 16 detectors with an imaging frame rate of 10 Hz. Both DOT [HbR] and [HbO 2 ] time courses were compared to the fMRI BOLD time course during stimulation, and the DOT [HbT] time course was compared to the fMRI cerebral plasma volume (CPV) time course. We believe that DOT and fMRI can provide similar temporal information for both blood volume and deoxyhaemoglobin changes, which helps to cross-validate these two techniques and to demonstrate that DOT can be useful as a complementary modality to fMRI for investigating the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity

  8. Cellular Origin of [18F]FDG-PET Imaging Signals During Ceftriaxone-Stimulated Glutamate Uptake: Astrocytes and Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Behar, Kevin L; Rothman, Douglas L

    2017-12-01

    Ceftriaxone stimulates astrocytic uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and it is used to treat glutamatergic excitotoxicity that becomes manifest during many brain diseases. Ceftriaxone-stimulated glutamate transport was reported to drive signals underlying [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomographic ([ 18 F]FDG-PET) metabolic images of brain glucose utilization and interpreted as supportive of the notion of lactate shuttling from astrocytes to neurons. This study draws attention to critical roles of astrocytes in the energetics and imaging of brain activity, but the results are provocative because (1) the method does not have cellular resolution or provide information about downstream pathways of glucose metabolism, (2) neuronal and astrocytic [ 18 F]FDG uptake were not separately measured, and (3) strong evidence against lactate shuttling was not discussed. Evaluation of potential metabolic responses to ceftriaxone suggests lack of astrocytic specificity and significant contributions by pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments. Indeed, astrocytic glycolysis may not make a strong contribution to the [ 18 F]FDG-PET signal because partial or complete oxidation of one glutamate molecule on its uptake generates enough ATP to fuel uptake of 3 to 10 more glutamate molecules, diminishing reliance on glycolysis. The influence of ceftriaxone on energetics of glutamate-glutamine cycling must be determined in astrocytes and neurons to elucidate its roles in excitotoxicity treatment.

  9. Image artifacts in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and fMRI caused by leakage currents: modeling and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Josephs, Oliver; Ruff, Christian C; Blankenburg, Felix; Featherstone, Eric; Thomas, Anthony; Bestmann, Sven; Driver, Jon; Deichmann, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    To characterize and eliminate a new type of image artifact in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (TMS-fMRI) caused by small leakage currents originating from the high-voltage capacitors in the TMS stimulator system. The artifacts in echo-planar images (EPI) caused by leakage currents were characterized and quantified in numerical simulations and phantom studies with different phantom-coil geometries. A relay-diode combination was devised and inserted in the TMS circuit that shorts the leakage current. Its effectiveness for artifact reduction was assessed in a phantom scan resembling a realistic TMS-fMRI experiment. The leakage-current-induced signal changes exhibited a multipolar spatial pattern and the maxima exceeded 1% at realistic coil-cortex distances. The relay-diode combination effectively reduced the artifact to a negligible level. The leakage-current artifacts potentially obscure effects of interest or lead to false-positives. Since the artifact depends on the experimental setup and design (eg, amplitude of the leakage current, coil orientation, paradigm, EPI parameters), we recommend its assessment for each experiment. The relay-diode combination can eliminate the artifacts if necessary.

  10. Temporal comparison of functional brain imaging with diffuse optical tomography and fMRI during rat forepaw stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Andrew M [Tufts University Bioengineering Center, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Culver, Joseph P [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States); Mandeville, Joseph B [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States); Boas, David A [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States)

    2003-05-21

    The time courses of oxyhaemoglobin ([HbO{sub 2}]), deoxyhaemoglobin ([HbR]) and total haemoglobin ([HbT]) concentration changes following cortical activation in rats by electrical forepaw stimulation were measured using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and compared to similar measurements performed previously with fMRI at 2.0 T and 4.7 T. We also explored the qualitative effects of varying stimulus parameters on the temporal evolution of the hemodynamic response. DOT images were reconstructed at a depth of 1.5 mm over a 1 cm square area from 2 mm anterior to bregma to 8 mm posterior to bregma. The measurement set included 9 sources and 16 detectors with an imaging frame rate of 10 Hz. Both DOT [HbR] and [HbO{sub 2}] time courses were compared to the fMRI BOLD time course during stimulation, and the DOT [HbT] time course was compared to the fMRI cerebral plasma volume (CPV) time course. We believe that DOT and fMRI can provide similar temporal information for both blood volume and deoxyhaemoglobin changes, which helps to cross-validate these two techniques and to demonstrate that DOT can be useful as a complementary modality to fMRI for investigating the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity.

  11. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  12. Dependence of fading patterns of photo-stimulated luminescence from imaging plates on radiation, energy, and image reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, H.; Yamadera, A.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the fading characteristics of imaging plates (IPs) as integral type detectors. The dependence on alpha, beta, and gamma ray radiation and their energies of the fading effect was measured using three types of IPs (BAS-UR, BAS-TR, and BAS-MS). The functions to correct the fading were determined by using the method reported in a previous paper. In all types of IPs, we confirmed that the fading effect is independent of the energy of the incident particles of beta and gamma rays and also independent of radiation except for the first component, which fades out in a very short time after irradiation with alpha rays. These results are very useful in the utilization of IPs as integral detectors in practical radiation fields. Empirically, the fading pattern is known to change when the IP is scanned by different types of image readers. The differences in the fading patterns obtained with two types of image readers, the BAS-1000 and the BAS-5000 (Fuji Film Co.), is discussed. Development of an equation for correcting the effects of the differences in the image readers was attempted

  13. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  14. Imaging cortical activity following affective stimulation with a high temporal and spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catani Claudia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The affective and motivational relevance of a stimulus has a distinct impact on cortical processing, particularly in sensory areas. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of this affective modulation of brain activities remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was the development of a paradigm to investigate the affective modulation of cortical networks with a high temporal and spatial resolution. We assessed cortical activity with MEG using a visual steady-state paradigm with affective pictures. A combination of a complex demodulation procedure with a minimum norm estimation was applied to assess the temporal variation of the topography of cortical activity. Results Statistical permutation analyses of the results of the complex demodulation procedure revealed increased steady-state visual evoked field amplitudes over occipital areas following presentation of affective pictures compared to neutral pictures. This differentiation shifted in the time course from occipital regions to parietal and temporal regions. Conclusion It can be shown that stimulation with affective pictures leads to an enhanced activity in occipital region as compared to neutral pictures. However, the focus of differentiation is not stable over time but shifts into temporal and parietal regions within four seconds of stimulation. Thus, it can be crucial to carefully choose regions of interests and time intervals when analyzing the affective modulation of cortical activity.

  15. Imaging the spatio-temporal dynamics of supragranular activity in the rat somatosensory cortex in response to stimulation of the paws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Morales-Botello

    Full Text Available We employed voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of the responses of the supragranular somatosensory cortex to stimulation of the four paws in urethane-anesthetized rats. We obtained the following main results. (1 Stimulation of the contralateral forepaw evoked VSD responses with greater amplitude and smaller latency than stimulation of the contralateral hindpaw, and ipsilateral VSD responses had a lower amplitude and greater latency than contralateral responses. (2 While the contralateral stimulation initially activated only one focus, the ipsilateral stimulation initially activated two foci: one focus was typically medial to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the motor cortex; the other focus was typically posterior to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the somatosensory cortex. (3 Forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory stimuli activated large areas of the sensorimotor cortex, well beyond the forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory areas of classical somatotopic maps, and forepaw stimuli activated larger cortical areas with greater activation velocity than hindpaw stimuli. (4 Stimulation of the forepaw and hindpaw evoked different cortical activation dynamics: forepaw responses displayed a clear medial directionality, whereas hindpaw responses were much more uniform in all directions. In conclusion, this work offers a complete spatio-temporal map of the supragranular VSD cortical activation in response to stimulation of the paws, showing important somatotopic differences between contralateral and ipsilateral maps as well as differences in the spatio-temporal activation dynamics in response to forepaw and hindpaw stimuli.

  16. Stimulated echo diffusion tensor imaging and SPAIR T2 -weighted imaging in chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Fieremans, Els; Babb, James S; Mechlin, Michael; Liu, Kecheng; Kwon, Jane; McGorty, KellyAnne; Hodnett, Philip A; Bencardino, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) as compared to T2 -weighted (T2w) imaging. Using an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant protocol, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) T2w imaging and stimulated echo DTI were applied to eight healthy volunteers and 14 suspected CECS patients before and after exertion. Longitudinal and transverse diffusion eigenvalues, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in seven calf muscle compartments, which in patients were classified by their response on T2w: normal (20% change). Mixed model analysis of variance compared subject groups and compartments in terms of response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) of DTI parameters. All diffusivities significantly increased (P DTI shows promise as an ancillary imaging method in the diagnosis and understanding of the pathophysiology in CECS. Future studies may explore its utility in predicting response to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Thalamo–cortical network underlying deep brain stimulation of centromedian thalamic nuclei in intractable epilepsy: a multimodal imaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seong Hoon Kim,1 Sung Chul Lim,1 Dong Won Yang,1 Jeong Hee Cho,1 Byung-Chul Son,2 Jiyeon Kim,3 Seung Bong Hong,4 Young-Min Shon4 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 4Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS.Methods: To explore core structures and their connections relevant to CM DBS, we applied electroencephalogram (EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to 10 medically intractable patients – three generalized epilepsy (GE and seven multifocal epilepsy (MFE patients unsuitable for resective surgery. Spatiotemporal activation pattern was mapped from scalp EEG by delivering low-frequency stimuli (5 Hz. Structural connections between the CM and the cortical activation spots were assessed using DTI.Results: We confirmed an average 72% seizure reduction after CM DBS and its clinical efficiency remained consistent during the observation period (mean 21 months. EEG data revealed sequential source propagation from the anterior cingulate, followed by the frontotemporal regions bilaterally. In addition, maximal activation was found in the left cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal cortex during the right and left CM stimulation, respectively

  18. Microscopy imaging system and method employing stimulated raman spectroscopy as a contrast mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney [Lexington, MA; Freudiger, Christian [Boston, MA; Min, Wei [Cambridge, MA

    2011-09-27

    A microscopy imaging system includes a first light source for providing a first train of pulses at a first center optical frequency .omega..sub.1, a second light source for providing a second train of pulses at a second center optical frequency .omega..sub.2, a modulator system, an optical detector, and a processor. The modulator system is for modulating a beam property of the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency f of at least 100 kHz. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of the first train of pulses from the common focal volume by blocking the second train of pulses being modulated. The processor is for detecting, a modulation at the modulation frequency f, of the integrated intensity of the optical frequency components of the first train of pulses to provide a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  19. Repetition suppression and multi-voxel pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emily J; Chun, Marvin M; Kuhl, Brice A

    2013-09-11

    Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure--a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning.

  20. Radiation dose measurements of an on-board imager X-ray unit using optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon; Haque, Mamoon; Hill, Robin; Morales, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is now widely used to image radiotherapy patients prior to treatment for the purpose of accurate patient setup. However each CBCT image delivered to a patient increases the total radiation dose that they receive. The measurement of the dose delivered from the CBCT images is not readily performed in the clinic. In this study, we have used commercially available optically stimulated luminescence (OSLD) dosimeters to measure the dose delivered by the Varian OBI on a radiotherapy linear accelerator. Calibration of the OSLDs was achieved by using a therapeutic X-ray unit. The dose delivered by a head CBCT scan was found to be 3.2 ± 0.3 mGy which is similar in magnitude to the dose of a head computed tomography (CT) scan. The results of this study suggest that the radiation hazard associated with CBCT is of a similar nature to that of conventional CT scans. We have also demonstrated that the OSLDs are suitable for these low X-ray dose measurements.

  1. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Min, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag. Their intracellular incorporations into MCF-7 cells before or after EMT are visualized by SRS imaging targeted at the signature vibration frequency of C-D or C≡C bonds. Overall, after EMT, anabolism of amino acids, glucose, and choline is less active, reflecting slower protein and membrane synthesis in mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, we also observed less incorporation of glucose and palmitate acids into membrane lipids, but more of them into lipid droplets in mesenchymal cells. This result indicates that, although mesenchymal cells synthesize fewer membrane lipids, they are actively storing energy into lipid droplets, either through de novo lipogenesis from glucose or direct scavenging of exogenous free fatty acids. Hence, metabolic labeling coupled with SRS can be a straightforward method in imaging cancer metabolism.

  2. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  3. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  5. Imaging transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex-correlation or causality in stimulation-mediated effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörsching, Jana; Padberg, Frank; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kumpf, Ulrike; Kirsch, Beatrice; Keeser, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Transcranial current stimulation approaches include neurophysiologically distinct non-invasive brain stimulation techniques widely applied in basic, translational and clinical research: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Prefrontal tDCS seems to be an especially promising tool for clinical practice. In order to effectively modulate relevant neural circuits, systematic research on prefrontal tDCS is needed that uses neuroimaging and neurophysiology measures to specifically target and adjust this method to physiological requirements. This review therefore analyses the various neuroimaging methods used in combination with prefrontal tDCS in healthy and psychiatric populations. First, we provide a systematic overview on applications, computational models and studies combining neuroimaging or neurophysiological measures with tDCS. Second, we categorise these studies in terms of their experimental designs and show that many studies do not vary the experimental conditions to the extent required to demonstrate specific relations between tDCS and its behavioural or neurophysiological effects. Finally, to support best-practice tDCS research we provide a methodological framework for orientation among experimental designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. X-ray or UV-ray imaging sensor utilizing optically stimulated luminescence phenomenon in Eu-doped KCl phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Murayama, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Makamura, Shouichi; Takeuchi, Nozomu.

    1993-01-01

    An intense OSL with a peak at about 420 [nm] has been observed by stimulating an X-ray or UV-ray irradiated KCl: Eu crystal with F-band light whose wavelength is about 560 [um]. A possible excitation and emission mechanisms for the 420 [um] OSL peak X-ray or UV-ray irradiated sample is proposed. It is found that the OSL intensity is proportional to the X-ray absorbed dose or UV-ray irradiation dose. It is also found that X-ray or UV-ray irradiated KCl; Eu exhibited excellent fading characteristics. These results strongly suggest that the KCl: Eu is one of the most attractive candidates for two-dimensional X-ray or UV-ray imaging sensor utilizing the OSL phenomenon. (J.P.N.)

  7. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  8. Water Flow Investigation on Quartz Sand with 13-interval Stimulated Echo Multi Slice Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Natascha; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Galvosas, Petrik

    2011-03-01

    Understanding root water uptake in soils is of high importance for securing nutrition in the context of climate change and linked phenomena like stronger varying weather conditions (draught, strong rain). One step to understand how root water uptake occurs is the knowledge of the water flow in soil towards plant roots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in combination with q-space imaging is potentially the most powerful analytical tool for non-invasive three dimensional visualization of flow and transport in porous media. Numerous attempts have been made to measure local velocity in porous media by combining velocity phase encoding with fast imaging methods, where flow velocities in the vascular bundles of plant stems were investigated. In contrast to water situated in the cellular structure of plants, NMR signal arising from water in the pore space in soil may be much more affected by the presence of internal magnetic field gradients. In this work we account for the existence of these gradients by employing bipolar pulsed field magnetic gradients for velocity encoding. This enables one to study flow through sand (as a model system for soil) at flow rates relevant for the water uptake of plant roots.

  9. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Visualizing Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in vivo using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Mayank Anant

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a low-cost, non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been shown to treat clinical symptoms as well as improve cognition. However, no techniques exist at the time of research to visualize tDCS currents in vivo. This dissertation presents the theoretical framework and experimental implementations of a novel MRI technique that enables non-invasive visualization of the tDCS electric current using magnetic field mapping. The first chapter establishes the feasibility of measuring magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. The following chapter discusses the state of the art implementation that can measure magnetic field changes in individual subjects undergoing concurrent tDCS/MRI. The final chapter discusses how the developed technique was integrated with BOLD fMRI-an established MRI technique for measuring brain function. By enabling a concurrent measurement of the tDCS current induced magnetic field as well as the brain's hemodynamic response to tDCS, our technique opens a new avenue to investigate tDCS mechanisms and improve targeting.

  11. Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging in cognitive brain research: possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Alexander T; Linden, David E J

    2003-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used tool for the non-invasive study of basic neurophysiological processes and the relationship between brain and behavior. We review the physical and physiological background of TMS and discuss the large body of perceptual and cognitive studies, mainly in the visual domain, that have been performed with TMS in the past 15 years. We compare TMS with other neurophysiological and neuropsychological research tools and propose that TMS, compared with the classical neuropsychological lesion studies, can make its own unique contribution. As the main focus of this review, we describe the different approaches of combining TMS with functional neuroimaging techniques. We also discuss important shortcomings of TMS, especially the limited knowledge concerning its physiological effects, which often make the interpretation of TMS results ambiguous. We conclude with a critical analysis of the resulting conceptual and methodological limitations that the investigation of functional brain-behavior relationships still has to face. We argue that while some of the methodological limitations of TMS applied alone can be overcome by combination with functional neuroimaging, others will persist until its physical and physiological effects can be controlled.

  12. Spectrometry and emission tomographic image reconstruction stimulated by neutrons via EM algorithm and Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Rodrigo Sartorelo Salemi

    2014-01-01

    The NSECT (Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography) figures as a new spectrographic technique able to evaluate in vivo the concentration of elements using the inelastic scattering reaction (n,n'). Since its introduction, several improvements have been proposed with the aim of investigating applications for clinical diagnosis and reduction of absorbed dose associated with CT acquisition. In this context, two new diagnostic applications are presented using spectroscopic and tomographic approaches from NSECT. A new methodology has also been proposed to optimize the sinogram sampling that is directly related to the quality of the reconstruction by the irradiation protocol. The studies were developed based on simulations with MCNP5 code. Diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and the detection of breast microcalcifications were evaluated in studies conducted using a human phantom. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of the NSECT technique to detect changes in the composition of the modeled tissues as a function of the development of evaluated pathologies. The proposed method for optimizing sinograms was able to analytically simulate the composition of the irradiated medium allowing the assessment of quality of reconstruction and effective dose in terms of the sampling rate. However, future research must be conducted to quantify the sensitivity of detection according to the selected elements. (author)

  13. Teste de estimulação repetitiva no músculo ancôneo para diagnóstico da miastenia grave: mapeamento da sua área de placa motora Repetitive stimulation test on the anconeus muscle for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis: the mapping of its motor end-plate area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Wanderley S. Coriolano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mapear a área de placa motora do músculo ancôneo para definir a melhor localização dos eletrodos de registro em testes de estimulação repetitiva (TER no diagnóstico dos distúrbios da transmissão neuromuscular. MÉTODO: Registramos o potencial de ação composto do músculo ancôneo sobre a pele que o recobre, após estimulação do ramo que o inerva. Analisando as formas de onda registradas em cada ponto da pele foi possível definir a área de placa. RESULTADOS: A área de placa motora do ancôneo é uma linha paralela à borda da ulna. O melhor local de colocação do eletrodo "ativo" de registro situa-se cerca de 2 cm distal ao olécrano e 1 cm lateral à borda da ulna. CONCLUSÃO: A realização de TER no músculo ancôneo é simples e bem tolerada. Com a estimulação do ancôneo o antebraço praticamente não se move, sendo o procedimento livre de artefatos de movimento.PURPOSE: To map the motor end-plate area of the anconeus muscle and define the best place for positioning the recording electrodes in repetitive stimulation tests (RST for the diagnosis of neuromuscular transmission disorders. METHOD: The compound muscle action potential of the anconeus was recorded after stimulating the motor branch of the radial nerve that innervates it. By analyzing the waveforms registered at each point of the skin we were able to define the motor end-plate area. RESULTS: The motor end-plate area of the anconeus is a line parallel to the ulna border. The best place for placing the "active" recording electrode is about 2cm distal to the olecranon and 1 cm lateral to the border of the ulna. CONCLUSION: Performing RST in the anconeus muscle is simple and well tolerated. Stimulation of the anconeus almost doesn't move the forearm and the procedure is virtually free of movement artifacts.

  14. Gallium-67-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide for primary and metastatic melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixun; Yang, Jianquan; Shenoy, Nalini; Miao, Yubin

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the melanoma imaging properties of a novel 67Ga-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide. A lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide, DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH {DOTA-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]}, was synthesized and radiolabeled with 67Ga. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH were determined in B16/F1 flank primary melanoma-bearing and B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Flank primary melanoma and pulmonary metastatic melanoma imaging were performed by small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH as an imaging probe. 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH was readily prepared with greater than 95% radiolabeling yield. 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited substantial tumor uptake (12.93 +/- 1.63%ID/g at 2 h postinjection) and prolonged tumor retention (5.02 +/- 1.35%ID/g at 24 h postinjection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The uptake values for nontarget organs were generally low (<0.30%ID/g) except for the kidneys at 2, 4, and 24 h postinjection. 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher uptakes (1.44 +/- 0.75%ID/g at 2 h postinjection and 1.49 +/- 0.69%ID/g at 4 h postinjection) in metastatic melanoma-bearing lung than those in normal lung (0.15 +/- 0.10%ID/g and 0.17 +/- 0.11%ID/g at 2 and 4 h postinjection, respectively). Both flank primary B16/F1 melanoma and B16/F10 pulmonary melanoma metastases were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH as an imaging probe 2 h postinjection. 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited favorable melanoma targeting and imaging properties, highlighting its potential as an effective imaging probe for early detection of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  15. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  16. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Auricular Percutaneous Electrical Neural Field Stimulation for Fibromyalgia: Protocol for a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Melat; Woodbury, Anna; Napadow, Vitaly; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Krishnamurthy, Lisa C; Sniecinski, Roman; Crosson, Bruce

    2018-02-06

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain state that includes widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and multiple somatic symptoms. Current therapies are often insufficient or come with significant risks, and while there is an increasing demand for non-pharmacologic and especially non-opioid pain management such as that offered through complementary and alternative medicine therapies, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend these therapies. Percutaneous electrical neural stimulation (PENS) is an evidence-based treatment option for pain conditions that involves electrical current stimulation through needles inserted into the skin. Percutaneous electrical neural field stimulation (PENFS) of the auricle is similar to PENS, but instead of targeting a single neurovascular bundle, PENFS stimulates the entire ear, covering all auricular branches of the cranial nerves, including the vagus nerve. The neural mechanisms of PENFS for fibromyalgia symptom relief are unknown. We hypothesize that PENFS treatment will decrease functional brain connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and right posterior insula in fibromyalgia patients. We expect that the decrease in functional connectivity between the DMN and insula will correlate with patient-reported analgesic improvements as indicated by the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) and will be anti-correlated with patient-reported analgesic medication consumption. Exploratory analyses will be performed for further hypothesis generation. A total of 20 adults from the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center diagnosed with fibromyalgia will be randomized into 2 groups: 10 subjects to a control (standard therapy) group and 10 subjects to a PENFS treatment group. The pragmatic, standard therapy group will include pharmacologic treatments such as anticonvulsants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical agents and physical therapy individualized to

  18. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  19. Extracellular Bio-imaging of Acetylcholine-stimulated PC12 Cells Using a Calcium and Potassium Multi-ion Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Sota; Kato, Ryo; Okumura, Koichi; Sawada, Kazuaki; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2018-01-01

    In biochemistry, Ca 2+ and K + play essential roles to control signal transduction. Much interest has been focused on ion-imaging, which facilitates understanding of their ion flux dynamics. In this paper, we report a calcium and potassium multi-ion image sensor and its application to living cells (PC12). The multi-ion sensor had two selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes containing ionophores. Each region on the sensor responded to only the corresponding ion. The multi-ion sensor has many advantages including not only label-free and real-time measurement but also simultaneous detection of Ca 2+ and K + . Cultured PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor were prepared, and a practical observation for the cells was conducted with the sensor. After the PC12 cells were stimulated by acetylcholine, only the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration increased while there was no increase in the extracellular K + concentration. Through the practical observation, we demonstrated that the sensor was helpful for analyzing the cell events with changing Ca 2+ and/or K + concentration.

  20. Functional dissociations in top-down control dependent neural repetition priming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P.; Schnaidt, M.; Fell, J.; Ruhlmann, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying top-down control of repetition priming. Here, we use functional brain imaging to investigate these mechanisms. Study and repetition tasks used a natural/man-made forced choice task. In the study phase subjects were required to respond to either

  1. Transduction of Repetitive Mechanical Stimuli by Piezo1 and Piezo2 Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H. Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations. We find that both channels function as pronounced frequency filters whose transduction efficiencies vary with stimulus frequency, waveform, and duration. We then use numerical simulations and human disease-related point mutations to demonstrate that channel inactivation is the molecular mechanism underlying frequency filtering and further show that frequency filtering is conserved in rapidly adapting mouse DRG neurons. Our results give insight into the potential contributions of Piezos in transducing repetitive mechanical stimuli.

  2. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  3. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries What's in this article? ...

  4. A 2-in-1 single-element coil design for transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai; Wang, Shumin

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of turning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil for MRI signal reception. A critically coupled network was formed by using a resonated turn of TMS coil as the secondary and a regular radiofrequency (RF) coil as the primary. A third coil was positioned between the two coils for detuning during RF transmission. Bench measurement, numerical simulation, and MRI experiment were performed for validation. The signal-to-noise ratio of the proposed 2-in-1 coil is 35% higher in its field of view, compared with a MRI-only reference coil of the same size, made by the same material, and backed up by an untuned TMS coil, but lower than a RF surface coil of the same size without any TMS coil nearby. Spin-echo images of the human brain further validated its performance. The proposed method can transform TMS coil for MRI signal acquisition with virtually no modifications on the TMS side. It not only enables flexible and close positioning of TMS coil inside MRI scanner, but also improves the signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional implementations. It can be applied as a building block for developing advanced concurrent TMS/MRI hardware. Magn Reson Med 79:582-587, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Investigation into the mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Anna; Chisholm, Jennifer A.; Patterson, James; Wyper, David [Department of Clinical Physics, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Duncan, Roderick [Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Lindsay, Kenneth [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has gained recognition as a treatment for refractory epilepsies where surgical treatment is not possible. While it appears that this treatment is effective in some patients, the mechanism of action is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify findings of other positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) investigations by measuring the acute effect of VNS on patients who have normal cerebral anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging and who have not previously been exposed to VNS. We investigated six subjects (two males and four females, mean age 29.5 years, range 21-39 years) with intractable epilepsy. One patient had primary generalised epilepsy causing generalised tonic-clonic seizures; the remaining five patients had localisation-related epilepsy causing complex partial seizures. SPET imaging was performed using 250 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and a four-scan paradigm - two with and two without stimulation. The stimulation began at VNS current levels of 0.25 mA and was increased according to the limit of patients' tolerance, usually defined by coughing or discomfort. The stimulating waveform was of continuous square wave pulses of 500 {mu}s duration at 30 Hz. Image analysis was by SPM99. Reduced perfusion during stimulation was observed in the ipsilateral brain stem, cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus and contralateral thalamus and cingulate. The study provides further evidence of the involvement of the limbic system in the action of vagal nerve stimulation. (orig.)

  6. Repetitive learning control of continuous chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua

    2004-01-01

    Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller

  7. Post-exercise cortical depression following repetitive passive finger movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryohei; Sasaki, Ryoki; Tsuiki, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to clarify the influence of range of repetitive passive finger movement on corticospinal excitability. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in this study. Passive index finger adduction-abduction movements were performed from 15° abduction to 15° adduction, 15° abduction to 0°, 0° to 15° adduction, and 15° adduction to 30° adduction, each at 15°/s for 10min on separate days. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and M- and F-waves were measured before and after each repetitive passive index finger movement protocol to evaluate changes in corticospinal excitability. MEP amplitude significantly decreased after all passive movements, while F-wave amplitude, F-wave persistence, and M-wave amplitude remained stable. These results suggest that cortical excitability decreases after repetitive passive movement. However, the range of repetitive passive movement does not markedly influence the magnitude of cortical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Haben repetitive DNA-Sequenzen biologische Funktionen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Maliyakal E.; Knöchel, Walter

    1983-05-01

    By DNA reassociation kinetics it is known that the eucaryotic genome consists of non-repetitive DNA, middle-repetitive DNA and highly repetitive DNA. Whereas the majority of protein-coding genes is located on non-repetitive DNA, repetitive DNA forms a constitutive part of eucaryotic DNA and its amount in most cases equals or even substantially exceeds that of non-repetitive DNA. During the past years a large body of data on repetitive DNA has accumulated and these have prompted speculations ranging from specific roles in the regulation of gene expression to that of a selfish entity with inconsequential functions. The following article summarizes recent findings on structural, transcriptional and evolutionary aspects and, although by no means being proven, some possible biological functions are discussed.

  9. Repetitive muscle compression reduces vascular mechano-sensitivity and the hyperemic response to muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, A; Turturici, M; Millo, G; Roatta, S

    2017-06-01

    Animal studies have shown that the rapid hyperemic response to external muscle compression undergoes inactivation upon repetitive stimulation, but this phenomenon has never been observed in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 1) the vascular mechano-sensitivity underlying muscle compression-induced hyperemia is inactivated in an inter-stimulus interval (ISI)-dependent fashion upon repetitive stimulation, as suggested by animal studies, and 2) whether such inactivation also attenuates contraction-induced hyperemia. Brachial artery blood flow was measured by echo Doppler sonography in 13 healthy adults in response to 1) single and repetitive cuff muscle compression (CMC) of the forearm (20 CMCs, 1 s ISI); 2) a sequence of CMC delivered at decreasing ISI from 120 to 2 s; and 3) electrically-stimulated contraction of the forearm muscles before and after repetitive CMC. The peak amplitude of hyperemia in response to CMC normalized to baseline decreased from 2.2 ± 0.6 to 1.4 ± 0.4 after repetitive CMC and, in general, was decreased at ISI < 240 s. The peak amplitude of contraction-induced hyperemia was attenuated after as compared to before repeated CMC (1.7 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 0.6, respectively). Mechano-sensitivity of the vascular network can be conditioned by previous mechanical stimulation, and such preconditioning may substantially decrease contraction-induced hyperemia.

  10. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 .s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (U.S.)

  11. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed

  12. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Michael D.; Halko, Mark A.; Eldaief, Mark C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include...

  14. Repetitive trauma and nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, E J; Hentz, V R

    1988-01-01

    Repetitive movement of the upper extremity, whether recreational or occupational, may result in various neuropathies, the prototype of which is the median nerve neuropathic in the carpal canal. The pathophysiology of this process is incompletely understood but likely involves both mechanical and ischemic features. Experimentally increased pressures within the carpal canal produced reproducible progressive neuropathy. Changes in vibratory (threshold-type) sensibility appears to be more sensitive than two-point (innervation density-type) sensibility. The specific occupational etiologies of carpal neuropathy are obscured by methodologic and sociological difficulties, but clearly some occupations have high incidences of CTS. History and physical examination are usually sufficient for the diagnosis, but diagnostic assistance when required is available through electrophysiological testing, CT scanning, and possibly MRI. Each of these tests has limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. Treatment by usual conservative means should be combined with rest from possible provocative activities. Surgical release of the carpal canal is helpful in patients failing conservative therapy. Occupational modifications are important in both treatment and prevention of median neuropathy due to repetitive trauma.

  15. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  16. Estimulação magnética transcraniana de repetição associada a antidepressivo: início e intensidade da resposta antidepressiva Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation associated with antidepressant: start and intensive of the antidrepressant answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Ortega Rumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar diferentes estudos que analisam o grau de eficácia da resposta antidepressiva entre a associação de estimulação magnética transcraniana de repetição (EMTr com antidepressivos em pacientes deprimidos graves. MÉTODOS: Os autores revisaram vários estudos em que a EMTr foi usada concomitantemente a antidepressivos em pacientes deprimidos graves. Adicionalmente, relatou-se um estudo feito no Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Estudo duplo-cego, randomizado, unicêntrico, placebo-controlado com 46 pacientes atendendo aos critérios diagnósticos da DSM-IV para episódio depressivo severo. Os pacientes estavam em uso de amitriptilina. RESULTADOS: De forma geral, a maioria dos estudos mostra que a EMTr apresenta boa eficácia antidepressiva quando associada a antidepressivos. Há grande diversidade de parâmetros técnicos utilizados, tipos de bobina, diferentes técnicas de placebo e uso de diferentes antidepressivos. O estudo realizado no Instituto de Psiquiatria mostrou que o emprego da EMTr de alta freqüência aumentou a resposta antidepressiva à amitriptilina e diminuiu o tempo para o início da resposta antidepressiva em relação ao grupo placebo. CONCLUSÕES: EMTr é um método novo, promissor e com grande potencial para o tratamento da depressão. Apesar disso, observa-se que não há ainda uniformidade no emprego dos parâmetros técnicos, nem tampouco das técnicas de placebo. O estudo realizado no Instituto de Psiquiatria do HC- FMUSP mostrou grandes taxas de resposta e remissão em relação ao grupo com estimulação sham e amitriptilna.OBJECTIVE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been developed as a noninvasive method to stimulate the cortex, and the treatment of depression is one of its potential therapeutic applications. This report makes a review about add-on trials (hf-rTMS plus antidepressants discuss whether rTMS does

  17. Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Akitsuki, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-05-27

    Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how reflexological stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudo-information, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information. The results also indicate

  18. Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how reflexological stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Methods Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudo-information, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Results Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information

  19. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  20. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  1. Super-resolution imaging of ciliary microdomains in isolated olfactory sensory neurons using a custom two-color stimulated emission depletion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Potcoava, Mariana; Salcedo, Ernesto; Restrepo, Diego; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    We performed stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging of isolated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) using a custom-built microscope. The STED microscope uses a single pulsed laser to excite two separate fluorophores, Atto 590 and Atto 647N. A gated timing circuit combined with temporal interleaving of the different color excitation/STED laser pulses filters the two channel detection and greatly minimizes crosstalk. We quantified the instrument resolution to be ˜81 and ˜44 nm, for the Atto 590 and Atto 647N channels. The spatial separation between the two channels was measured to be under 10 nm, well below the resolution limit. The custom-STED microscope is incorporated onto a commercial research microscope allowing brightfield, differential interference contrast, and epifluorescence imaging on the same field of view. We performed immunolabeling of OSNs in mice to image localization of ciliary membrane proteins involved in olfactory transduction. We imaged Ca2+-permeable cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel (Atto 594) and adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) (Atto 647N) in distinct cilia. STED imaging resolved well-separated subdiffraction limited clusters for each protein. We quantified the size of each cluster to have a mean value of 88±48 nm and 124±43 nm, for CNG and ACIII, respectively. STED imaging showed separated clusters that were not resolvable in confocal images.

  2. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  3. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam Gil; Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  4. Distribution and Network of Basal Temporal Language Areas: A Study of the Combination of Electric Cortical Stimulation and Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ookawa, Satoshi; Ochi, Satoko; Ishiai, Sumio; Nagamine, Takashi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-10-01

    The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 10 patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: 6 patients, language nondominant side: 4 patients). Electric stimulation at 50 Hz was applied to the electrodes during Japanese sentence reading, morphograms (kanji) reading, and syllabograms (kana) reading tasks to identify the BTLA. DTI was used to identify the subcortical fibers originating from the BTLA found by electric stimulation. The BTLA was found in 6 patients who underwent implantation of the subdural electrodes in the dominant hemisphere. The BTLA was located anywhere between 20 mm and 56 mm posterior to the temporal tips. In 3 patients, electric stimulation of some or all areas within the BTLA induced disturbance in reading of kanji words only. DTI detected the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in all patients and the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in 1 patient, originating from the BTLA. ILF was detected from both kanji-specific areas and kanji-nonspecific areas. This study indicates that the network of the BTLA is a part of a ventral stream and is mainly composed of the ILF, which acts as a critical structure for lexical retrieval. ILF is also associated with the specific processing of kanji words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct and crossed effects of somatosensory stimulation on neuronal excitability and motor performance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M. P.; Maffiuletti, N. A.; Hallett, M.; Zijdewind, I.; Hortobagyi, T.

    2014-01-01

    This analytic review reports how prolonged periods of somatosensory electric stimulation (SES) with repetitive transcutaneous nerve stimulation can have 'direct' and 'crossed' effects on brain activation, corticospinal excitability, and motor performance. A review of 26 studies involving 315 healthy

  6. Glucose metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET: a preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Woo, Se Joon; Seo, Jong Mo; Chung, Hum; Lee, Dong Soo; Zhou, Zing Ai; Kim, Sung June [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We studied to compare the cerebral cortical metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina. Five PET scans were performed on five different days in an albino rabbit. One FDG PET study was done at rest state. In another two FDG PET studies, repetitive flash light stimulation (0.3 Hz, 6 min total) on each eye started 1 min prior to FDG injection and continued for 5 min into uptake. In the other two FDG studies, electrical retinal stimulation (500 {mu}A, 1 Hz, 6 min total) of each eye using a suprachoroidal electrode placed under the visual streak was performed with the same procedure. Static PET data was acquired for 10 min after injection of [{sup 18}F]FDG (37 MBq) through the catheter placed in the ear vein. All images were realigned to the rest state image. To remove the effects of global differences, each voxel value of the images was normalized versus mean value in whole brain. Change of cerebral glucose metabolism was examined with difference between rest and stimulation state. After visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina, the cerebral area of increased metabolism could be determined. The hypermetabolic area of electrical stimulation overlapped with the area of visual stimulation, while electrically simulated cerebral area was focal and confined within the visually activated area. The electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina could increase the metabolism of the visual cortex which indicates electrical retinal stimulation caused visual perception of brain.

  7. Process of radiation damage in BaFX:Eu2+ (X=Br, I) photo-stimulable phosphor for imaging plate (IP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Munetaka; Takahashi, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Imaging Plate (IP) is a 2-dimensional radiation detector utilizing photo-stimulable phosphors. Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) is a kind of process in radiation-induced reactions and IP can be repeatedly performed. The mechanism of PSL is reviewed and the radiation damage, which is a phenomenon that the luminescence goes down under X-ray irradiation, is also referred to. The relation between the composition of BaFX: Eu 2+ (X=Br, I), which is widely used in IPs, and the degree of radiation damage is investigated. The degree of radiation damage is smaller in the mixed crystal system of Br and I such as BaFBr 0.85 I 0.15 :Eu 2+ than in BaFBr: Eu 2+ and BaFI: Eu 2+ . This is explained by the characteristics of luminescence centers and F centers under X-ray irradiation. (author)

  8. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  9. The Developmental Trajectory of Nonword Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiat, Shula

    2006-01-01

    In line with the original presentation of nonword repetition as a measure of phonological short-term memory (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989), the theoretical account Gathercole (2006) puts forward in her Keynote Article focuses on phonological storage as the key capacity common to nonword repetition and vocabulary acquisition. However, evidence that…

  10. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  11. Aplicação da estimulação magnética transcraniana de repetição no tratamento do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e outros transtornos de ansiedade Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo S. Mansur

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação magnética transcraniana de repetição (EMTr vem sendo amplamente investigada como ferramenta terapêutica em transtornos psiquiátricos, especialmente a depressão. Neste trabalho, compilamos as informações provenientes de estudos que investigaram as aplicações da EMTr no tratamento dos transtornos de ansiedade: transtorno do pânico (TP, transtorno de estresse pós-taumático (TEPT, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG e especialmente o transtorno obsessivo compulsivo (TOC. Três estudos foram publicados abordando o tratamento do TOC, sendo que utilizaram metodologias e parâmetros de aplicação extremamente diversos, dificultando a obtenção de informações conclusivas sobre a efetividade deste tratamento. Quatro estudos publicados sobre TEPT e EMTr também apresentam dados conflitantes e pouco comparáveis, mas destaca-se publicação recente com desenho duplo-cego e resultados positivos. Quanto ao TP e o TAG, apenas pequenas investigações iniciais foram realizadas. Conclusão: Apesar dos estudos citados, não há dados conclusivos sobre a eficácia terapêutica da EMTr nos transtornos de ansiedade. Isto se dá especialmente devido aos estudos com amostras pequenas e desenho aberto. Portanto, devem ser realizados estudos mais aprofundados para que possamos obter estas respostas.Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS have been widely studied as a therapeutic method in psychiatric disorders, specially in major depression. In this paper, we have compiled the information from studies concerning the use of rTMS as a therapeutic tool for anxiety disorders: panic disorder (PD, post-traumattic stress disorder (PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and mainly obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Three studies have been published concerning treatment of OCD with rTMS, but they are very different in their methods and in the application parameters and location, making it difficult to draw any conclusion about

  12. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  13. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  14. Effects of chondroitin sulfate on brain response to painful stimulation in knee osteoarthritis patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Jordi; Pujol, Jesús; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; López-Solà, Marina; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Vergés, Josep; Herrero, Marta; Sánchez, Laura; Ortiz, Hector; Montañés, Francisco; Deus, Joan; Benito, Pere

    2017-06-21

    Knee osteoarthritis is causing pain and functional disability. One of the inherent problems with efficacy assessment of pain medication was the lack of objective pain measurements, but functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a useful means to objectify brain response to painful stimulation. We have investigated the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on brain response to knee painful stimulation in patients with knee osteoarthritis using fMRI. Twenty-two patients received CS (800mg/day) and 27 patients placebo, and were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Two fMRI tests were conducted in each session by applying painful pressure on the knee interline and on the patella surface. The outcome measurement was attenuation of the response evoked by knee painful stimulation in the brain. fMRI of patella pain showed significantly greater activation reduction under CS compared with placebo in the region of the mesencephalic periaquecductal gray. The CS group, additionally showed pre/post-treatment activation reduction in the cortical representation of the leg. No effects of CS were detected using the interline pressure test. fMRI was sensitive to objectify CS effects on brain response to painful pressure on patellofemoral cartilage, which is consistent with the known CS action on chondrocyte regeneration. The current work yields further support to the utility of fMRI to objectify treatment effects on osteoarthritis pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and behavioral models of smoking addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige eFraser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While few studies have applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to smoking addiction, existing work suggests that the intervention holds promise for altering the complex system by which environmental cues interact with cravings to drive behavior. Imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS studies suggest that increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation and integrity may be associated with increased resistance to smoking cues. Anodal tDCS of the DLPFC, believed to boost activation, reduces cravings in response to these cues. The finding that noninvasive stimulation modifies cue induced cravings has profound implications for understanding the processes underlying addiction and relapse. TDCS can also be applied to probe mechanisms underlying and supporting nicotine addiction, as was done in a pharmacologic study that applied nicotine, tDCS, and TMS paired associative stimulation to find that stopping nicotine after chronic use induces a reduction in plasticity, causing difficulty in breaking free from association between cues and cravings. This mini-review will place studies that apply tDCS to smokers in the context of research involving the neural substrates of nicotine addiction.

  16. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  18. Contribution of fronto-striatal regions to emotional valence and repetition under cognitive conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Dai Jin; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Conflict processing mediated by fronto-striatal regions may be influenced by emotional properties of stimuli. This study aimed to examine the effects of emotion repetition on cognitive control in a conflict-provoking situation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a sequential cognitive conflict task composed of emotional stimuli. The regional effects were analyzed according to the repetition or non-repetition of cognitive congruency and emotional valence between the preceding and current trials. Post-incongruence interference in error rate and reaction time was significantly smaller than post-congruence interference, particularly under repeated positive and non-repeated positive, respectively, and post-incongruence interference, compared to post-congruence interference, increased activity in the ACC, DLPFC, and striatum. ACC and DLPFC activities were significantly correlated with error rate or reaction time in some conditions, and fronto-striatal connections were related to the conflict processing heightened by negative emotion. These findings suggest that the repetition of emotional stimuli adaptively regulates cognitive control and the fronto-striatal circuit may engage in the conflict adaptation process induced by emotion repetition. Both repetition enhancement and repetition suppression of prefrontal activity may underlie the relationship between emotion and conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Document retrieval on repetitive string collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagie, Travis; Hartikainen, Aleksi; Karhu, Kalle; Kärkkäinen, Juha; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    Most of the fastest-growing string collections today are repetitive, that is, most of the constituent documents are similar to many others. As these collections keep growing, a key approach to handling them is to exploit their repetitiveness, which can reduce their space usage by orders of magnitude. We study the problem of indexing repetitive string collections in order to perform efficient document retrieval operations on them. Document retrieval problems are routinely solved by search engines on large natural language collections, but the techniques are less developed on generic string collections. The case of repetitive string collections is even less understood, and there are very few existing solutions. We develop two novel ideas, interleaved LCPs and precomputed document lists , that yield highly compressed indexes solving the problem of document listing (find all the documents where a string appears), top- k document retrieval (find the k documents where a string appears most often), and document counting (count the number of documents where a string appears). We also show that a classical data structure supporting the latter query becomes highly compressible on repetitive data. Finally, we show how the tools we developed can be combined to solve ranked conjunctive and disjunctive multi-term queries under the simple [Formula: see text] model of relevance. We thoroughly evaluate the resulting techniques in various real-life repetitiveness scenarios, and recommend the best choices for each case.

  1. Ultrasound stimulation on bone healing. The optimization of stimulation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosim, R.C.; Paulin, J.B.P.; Goncalves, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous works in ultrasonic simulation of bone healing dealt with parameters optimization. Albertin (1983) studied the stimulation time and found forty minutes as ideal. However, this stimulation time was the largest one employed and remained some doubt about the most appropriated value. 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of stimulation time were selected, while others parameters were held constant with: pulse width in 200 μs, repetition rate in 1000 pulses per second and amplitude in 30 V. Partial incomplete transverse osteotomies were done in the middle third of radio in the right forearm of rabbits. Twenty four animals divided in four subgroups, with 6 animals each were stimulated. The daily stimulation time for each subgroup was 30, 40, 50 and minutes respectively, during 15 consecutive days. The stimulation procedure started 24 hours after surgery. After the stimulation period, radiological, histological and morphometric evaluations were done and greater bone healing was found for the 50 minutes stimulation subgroup, in them new bone was also prominent. (author)

  2. Bedside functional brain imaging in critically-ill children using high-density EEG source modeling and multi-modal sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury is a common cause of death and critical illness in children and young adults. Fundamental management focuses on early characterization of the extent of injury and optimizing recovery by preventing secondary damage during the days following the primary injury. Currently, bedside technology for measuring neurological function is mainly limited to using electroencephalography (EEG for detection of seizures and encephalopathic features, and evoked potentials. We present a proof of concept study in patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care setting, featuring a bedside functional imaging set-up designed to map cortical brain activation patterns by combining high density EEG recordings, multi-modal sensory stimulation (auditory, visual, and somatosensory, and EEG source modeling. Use of source-modeling allows for examination of spatiotemporal activation patterns at the cortical region level as opposed to the traditional scalp potential maps. The application of this system in both healthy and brain-injured participants is demonstrated with modality-specific source-reconstructed cortical activation patterns. By combining stimulation obtained with different modalities, most of the cortical surface can be monitored for changes in functional activation without having to physically transport the subject to an imaging suite. The results in patients in an intensive care setting with anatomically well-defined brain lesions suggest a topographic association between their injuries and activation patterns. Moreover, we report the reproducible application of a protocol examining a higher-level cortical processing with an auditory oddball paradigm involving presentation of the patient's own name. This study reports the first successful application of a bedside functional brain mapping tool in the intensive care setting. This application has the potential to provide clinicians with an additional dimension of information to manage

  3. Functional MRI brain imaging studies using the Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS in a human volunteer topical capsaicin pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ravikiran Shenoy1, Katherine Roberts1, Anastasia Papadaki2, Donald McRobbie2, Maarten Timmers3, Theo Meert3, Praveen Anand11Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London; 2Imaging Sciences Department, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 3Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Beerse, BelgiumAbstract: Acute application of topical capsaicin produces spontaneous burning and stinging pain similar to that seen in some neuropathic states, with local hyperalgesia. Use of capsaicin applied topically or injected intradermally has been described as a model for neuropathic pain, with patterns of activation in brain regions assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography. The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS is a noninvasive clinically practical method of stimulating cutaneous A-delta nociceptors. In this study, topical capsaicin (1% was applied to the left volar forearm for 15 minutes of twelve adult healthy human volunteers. fMRI scans and a visual analog pain score were recorded during CHEPS stimulation precapsaicin and postcapsaicin application. Following capsaicin application there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 26.4 ± 5.3; postcapsaicin 48.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.0001. fMRI demonstrated an overall increase in areas of activation, with a significant increase in the contralateral insular signal (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 0.434 ± 0.03; postcapsaicin 0.561 ± 0.07; P = 0.047. The authors of this paper recently published a study in which CHEPS-evoked A-delta cerebral potential amplitudes were found to be decreased postcapsaicin application. In patients with neuropathic pain, evoked pain and fMRI brain responses are typically increased, while A-delta evoked potential amplitudes are decreased. The protocol of recording fMRI following CHEPS stimulation

  4. Theta Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Verbal Hallucinations : Negative Findings From a Double-Blind-Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Sanne; van Dellen, Edwin; Schutte, Maya J L; Nieuwdorp, Wendy; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Sommer, Iris E C

    BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are resistant to antipsychotic medication in approximately 25% of patients. Treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for refractory AVH has shown varying results. A stimulation protocol using continuous theta

  5. Sustainment of spherical tokamak by means of repetitive injection of compact torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Shin; Matsura, Ken; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Sustainment of spherical tokamak (S.T.) has been studied. A compact torus (C.T.) plasma was injected into confinement region by magnetized coaxial gun. For start-up and sustainment of large main spherical tokamak, single pulsed injection of small C.T. is not sufficient in many cases. C.T.plasma injection of high repetition rate is required. For this purpose magnetized coaxial gun was driven with high repetition rate current. The first injected C.T. plasma could start-up S.T. without other help. The repetitive C.T. injection grew and sustained the S.T. plasma. A CCD camera with fast gated image intensifier took a cross sectional view of S.T. during the repetitive C.T. injection. (author)

  6. Multivariate prediction of spontaneous repetitive responses in ventricular myocardium exposed in vitro to simulated ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, M; Puddu, P E; Rouet, R

    1994-06-01

    Guinea-pig ventricular myocardium was partly exposed to normal Tyrode's superfusion and partly to altered conditions (using modified Tyrode's solution) set to simulate acute myocardial ischemia (PO2 80 +/- 10 mmHg; no glucose; pH 7.00 +/- 0.05; K+ 12 mM). Using a double-chamber tissue bath and standard microelectrode technique, the occurrence of spontaneous repetitive responses was investigated during simulated ischemia (occlusion) and after reperfusing the previously ischemic superfused tissue with normal Tyrode's solution (reperfusion). In 62 experiments (42 animals) the effects of: (1) duration of simulated ischemia (1321 +/- 435 s), (2) stimulation rate (1002 +/- 549 ms) and (3) number of successive simulated ischemic periods (occlusions) (1.58 +/- 0.92) on: (1) resting membrane potential, (2) action potential amplitude, (3) duration of 50 and 90% action potentials and (4) maximal upstroke velocity of action potential were studied. All variables were considered as gradients (delta) between normal and ischemic tissue. Both during occlusion and upon reperfusion, spontaneous repetitive responses were coded as single, couplets, salvos (three to nine and > 10) or total spontaneous repetitive responses (coded present when at least one of the above-mentioned types was seen). The incidence of total spontaneous repetitive responses was 31% (19/62) on occlusion and 85% (53/62) upon reperfusion. Cox's models (forced and stepwise) were used to predict multivariately the occurrence of arrhythmic events considered as both total spontaneous repetitive responses and as separate entities. These models were applicable since continuous monitoring of the experiments enabled exact timing of spontaneous repetitive response onset during both occlusion and reperfusion. In predicting reperfusion spontaneous repetitive responses, total spontaneous repetitive responses and blocks observed during the occlusion period were also considered. Total occlusion spontaneous repetitive responses

  7. NIRS-EEG joint imaging during transcranial direct current stimulation: Online parameter estimation with an autoregressive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mehak; Besson, Pierre; Muthalib, Makii; Jindal, Utkarsh; Perrey, Stephane; Dutta, Anirban; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to perturb both cortical neural activity and hemodynamics during (online) and after the stimulation, however mechanisms of these tDCS-induced online and after-effects are not known. Here, online resting-state spontaneous brain activation may be relevant to monitor tDCS neuromodulatory effects that can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG) in conjunction with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We present a Kalman Filter based online parameter estimation of an autoregressive (ARX) model to track the transient coupling relation between the changes in EEG power spectrum and NIRS signals during anodal tDCS (2mA, 10min) using a 4×1 ring high-definition montage. Our online ARX parameter estimation technique using the cross-correlation between log (base-10) transformed EEG band-power (0.5-11.25Hz) and NIRS oxy-hemoglobin signal in the low frequency (≤0.1Hz) range was shown in 5 healthy subjects to be sensitive to detect transient EEG-NIRS coupling changes in resting-state spontaneous brain activation during anodal tDCS. Conventional sliding window cross-correlation calculations suffer a fundamental problem in computing the phase relationship as the signal in the window is considered time-invariant and the choice of the window length and step size are subjective. Here, Kalman Filter based method allowed online ARX parameter estimation using time-varying signals that could capture transients in the coupling relationship between EEG and NIRS signals. Our new online ARX model based tracking method allows continuous assessment of the transient coupling between the electrophysiological (EEG) and the hemodynamic (NIRS) signals representing resting-state spontaneous brain activation during anodal tDCS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  9. Stimulating the senses with multi-media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, H.; Majohr, N.; Staude, F.; Haferburg, M.; Foerster, K.

    1995-01-01

    Difficult subjects have always been better taught by example, demonstration and repetition than simply through book learning. Multi-media computer systems deliver these through learning programs which combine text, video, animation, graphics and sound to stimulate and motivate students. (author)

  10. Changes in Regional Brain Homogeneity Induced by Electro-Acupuncture Stimulation at the Baihui Acupoint in Healthy Subjects: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Demao; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liao, Hai; Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Geliang; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Pang, Yong; Tao, Jien; He, Xin; Yuan, Wenzhao; Liu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine theory of acupuncture, Baihui (GV20) is applied to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the relationships between neural responses and GV20 remain unknown. Thus, the main aim of this study was to examine the brain responses induced by electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) at GV20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 33 healthy subjects. Based on the non-repeated event-related (NRER) paradigm, group differences were examined between GV20 and a sham acupoint using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Compared with the sham acupoint, EAS at GV20 induced increased ReHo in regions including the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), middle cingulate cortex (MCC), precentral cortex, and precuneus (preCUN). Decreased ReHo was found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), supplementary motor area (SMA), thalamus, putamen, and cerebellum. The current findings provide preliminary neuroimaging evidence to indicate that EAS at GV20 could induce a specific pattern of neural responses by analysis of ReHo of brain activity. These findings might improve the understanding of mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation at GV20.

  11. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael D; Halko, Mark A; Eldaief, Mark C; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-10-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include using resting state fcMRI to guide target selection for TMS and using TMS to modulate pathological network interactions identified with resting state fcMRI. The combination of TMS and resting state fcMRI has the potential to accelerate the translation of both techniques into the clinical realm and promises a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases that demonstrate network pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Targeting the Human Subthalamic Nucleus in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Michele; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Tommasi, Giorgio; Nicolato, Antonio; Foroni, Roberto; Bertolasi, Laura; Beltramello, Alberto; Moretto, Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Gerosa, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Chronic stimulation of the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) is gradually becoming accepted as a long-term therapeutic option for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves contrast resolution in basal ganglia nuclei containing high levels of iron, because of magnetic susceptibility effects that increase significantly as the magnetic field gets higher. This phenomenon can be used for better visualization of the STN and may reduce the time necessary for detailed microrecording (MER) mapping, increasing surgery efficacy and lowering morbidity. The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze a population of 20 deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implanted patients with PD divided into two groups in which different targeting methods were used. Mean age was 56 years (range 37 to 69 years). Mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 6 to 36 months). Patients were divided into two groups: Group A contained 6 patients who underwent STN targeting using 1T stereotactic (T1w + T2w) MRI plus STN indirect atlas derived targeting. Group B consisted of 14 patients who underwent STN targeting using 3T nonstereotactic (T2w) MRI fused with 1T T1w stereotactic MRI and STN direct targeting. For statistical analysis, we compared (five different parameters in both (matched) groups: Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) score reduction (medication off before surgery against stimulation on/medication off after surgery), postoperative drug reduction, duration of surgery, the "central preoperative track" chosen as final implantation track during surgery, and correspondence between the targeted STN and the intraoperative neurophysiologic data. Mean UPDRS III score reduction (medication off/stimulation on versus preoperative medication off) was 69% in Group A and 74% in Group B (p = 0.015, log-rank test) respectively. Postoperatively, antiparkinsonian treatment was reduced by 66

  13. 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues for melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yubin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Guo, Haixun; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the lactam bridge cyclization on melanoma targeting and biodistribution properties of the radiolabeled conjugates. Two novel lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide analogues, DOTA-CycMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]) and DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH (DOTA-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]), were synthesized and radiolabeled with (111)In. The internalization and efflux of (111)In-labeled CycMSH peptides were examined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties, pharmacokinetics, and SPECT/CT imaging of (111)In-labeled CycMSH peptides were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Both (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited fast internalization and extended retention in B16/F1 cells. The tumor uptake values of (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH were 9.53+/-1.41% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) and 10.40+/-1.40% ID/g at 2 h postinjection, respectively. Flank melanoma tumors were clearly visualized with (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH by SPECT/CT images at 2 h postinjection. Whole-body clearance of the peptides was fast, with greater than 90% of the radioactivities cleared through urinary system by 2 h postinjection. There was low radioactivity (<0.8% ID/g) accumulated in blood and normal organs except kidneys at all time points investigated. Introduction of a negatively charged linker (-Gly-Glu-) into the peptide sequence decreased the renal uptake by 44% without affecting the tumor uptake at 4 h postinjection. High receptor-mediated melanoma uptakes coupled with fast whole-body clearance in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice demonstrated the feasibility of using (111)In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide analogues as a novel class of imaging probes for receptor-targeting melanoma imaging.

  14. NMDA receptor antagonism by repetitive MK801 administration induces schizophrenia-like structural changes in the rat brain as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Wang, X; Gao, Y; Lin, F; Song, T; Zou, Y; Xu, L; Lei, H

    2016-05-13

    Animal models of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism have been widely used for schizophrenia research. Less is known whether these models are associated with macroscopic brain structural changes that resemble those in clinical schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure brain structural changes in rats subjected to repeated administration of MK801 in a regimen (daily dose of 0.2mg/kg for 14 consecutive days) known to be able to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed significant gray matter (GM) atrophy in the hippocampus, ventral striatum (vStr) and cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrated microstructural impairments in the corpus callosum (cc). Histopathological results corroborated the MRI findings. Treatment-induced behavioral abnormalities were not measured such that correlation between the brain structural changes observed and schizophrenia-like behaviors could not be established. Chronic MK801 administration induces MRI-observable brain structural changes that are comparable to those observed in schizophrenia patients, supporting the notion that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to the pathology of schizophrenia. Imaging-derived brain structural changes in animal models of NMDAR antagonism may be useful measurements for studying the effects of treatments and interventions targeting schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation; Diffusionsgewichtete MRT zur Funktionsdiagnostik der Glandula submandibularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R. [Zentrum fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Intervention, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions (Germany); Petersen, K. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Kopf und Hautzentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm{sup 2}, 500 sec/mm{sup 2} and 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10{sup -3

  16. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  17. Associations between clinical outcome and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation characteristics in patients with motor-eloquent brain lesions: a combined navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation-diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Wildschuetz, Noémie; Kelm, Anna; Conway, Neal; Moser, Tobias; Bulubas, Lucia; Kirschke, Jan S; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI FT) based on nTMS data are increasingly used for preoperative planning and resection guidance in patients suffering from motor-eloquent brain tumors. The present study explores whether nTMS-based DTI FT can also be used for individual preoperative risk assessment regarding surgery-related motor impairment. METHODS Data derived from preoperative nTMS motor mapping and subsequent nTMS-based tractography in 86 patients were analyzed. All patients suffered from high-grade glioma (HGG), low-grade glioma (LGG), or intracranial metastasis (MET). In this context, nTMS-based DTI FT of the corticospinal tract (CST) was performed at a range of fractional anisotropy (FA) levels based on an individualized FA threshold ([FAT]; tracking with 50%, 75%, and 100% FAT), which was defined as the highest FA value allowing for visualization of fibers (100% FAT). Minimum lesion-to-CST distances were measured, and fiber numbers of the reconstructed CST were assessed. These data were then correlated with the preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up status of motor function and the resting motor threshold (rMT). RESULTS At certain FA levels, a statistically significant difference in lesion-to-CST distances was observed between patients with HGG who had no impairment and those who developed surgery-related transient or permanent motor deficits (75% FAT: p = 0.0149; 100% FAT: p = 0.0233). In this context, no patient with a lesion-to-CST distance ≥ 12 mm suffered from any new surgery-related permanent paresis (50% FAT and 75% FAT). Furthermore, comparatively strong negative correlations were observed between the rMT and lesion-to-CST distances of patients with surgery-related transient paresis (Spearman correlation coefficient [r s ]; 50% FAT: r s = -0.8660; 75% FAT: r s = -0.8660) or surgery-related permanent paresis (50% FAT: r s = -0.7656; 75% FAT: r s = -0.6763). CONCLUSIONS

  18. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...

  19. Universal data compression and repetition times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frans M J

    1989-01-01

    A new universal data compression algorithm is described. This algorithm encodes L source symbols at a time. For the class of binary stationary sources, its rate does not exceed [formula omitted] [formula omitted] bits per source symbol. In our analysis, a property of repetition times turns out to be

  20. Matriculation Research Report: Course Repetition Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    Due to concerns that its policy on class repetition was not promoting student success, California's College of the Canyons (CoC) undertook a project to analyze student course-taking patterns and make recommendations to modify the policy. Existing college policy did not follow Section 58161 of the State Educational Code that allows colleges to…

  1. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  2. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  3. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  4. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment…

  5. Study of human brain functions by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy (fMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, N.