WorldWideScience

Sample records for repetitive stereotyped behaviors

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  3. Autism, DRD3 and repetitive and stereotyped behavior, an overview of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    The SNP rs167771 of the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in samples from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Spain. The DRD3 polymorphisms of rs167771 are significantly associated with a specific type of repetitive and stereotyped behavior,

  4. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

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    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  5. Is trichotillomania a stereotypic movement disorder? An analysis of body-focused repetitive behaviors in people with hair-pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Flessner, Christopher A; Franklin, Martin; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Woods, Douglas W

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is characterized by nonfunctional repetitive movements, is typically diagnosed in people with intellectual disability, and by definition excludes people with trichotillomania (TTM). Nevertheless, hair-pulling may be one of a number of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) that are seen in the general population. Comorbidity of symptoms might support the idea that they are indicative of an underlying stereotypic disorder, and we therefore explored their frequency in people with hair-pulling. Participants were recruited with the help of the Trichotillomania Learning Center, the largest advocacy group for people with hair-pulling. Participants completed a self-report survey on the Internet, which included questions about the presence of both hair-pulling and other BFRBs. Measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HS), the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A), the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The majority of participants with hair-pulling (70%) report the presence of other BFRBs, most commonly skin-picking and nail-biting. There were particularly strong associations between the total number of BFRBs and increased scores on ratings of focused hair-pulling, depression, anxiety, stress, and functional impairment. Similar results were found in participants who met more rigorous criteria for trichotillomania. This study is limited by its self-report nature, and by the lack of detailed information on the phenomenology of comorbid BFRBs. While further nosological research is needed, the high rates of these behaviors in people with hair-pulling, and their association with increased disability, is consistent with previous clinical observations, and supports the argument that trichotillomania can usefully be conceptualized as a stereotypic disorder. Speculatively, this argument may be especially valid in

  6. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Stereotyped and Repetitive Behaviors of Pre-school Children With Autism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Salmanian, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Soudeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We examined those articles that addressed non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high-quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A, and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can be used to treat repetitive behaviors in children with autism

  7. mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili V Mehta

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP, an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

  8. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  9. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  10. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  11. Effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats%香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮元; 高晓平; 李光武; 桑婷婷

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为及脑内5-HT的影响,探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 根据Schneider和Przewlocki的方法制作丙戊酸钠(VPA)自闭症动物模型,SD大鼠怀孕第12.5天腹腔注射600 mg/kg VPA后所产下的子代雄鼠,根据子鼠睁眼时间、断乳时体质量、行为学表现监测,获得24只造模成功的自闭症模型雄鼠,随机分为香草醛组,模型对照组,每组12只;正常对照组为SD孕鼠同期腹腔注射等量9 g/L盐水后所产下的子代雄鼠12只,空白对照为SD孕鼠同期未予以特殊处理所产下的子代雄鼠12只.比较香草醛组,模型对照组、正常对照组、空白对照组在吸嗅前,吸嗅后1周,吸嗅后4周时重复性刻板行为差异,采用免疫组织化学检测各组大鼠杏仁核5-HT表达水平.结果 与治疗前比较,香草醛组治疗4周后重复性刻板行为[刻板时间(113.31±18.45)sw(250.52±13.25)s]明显减少(P<0.01),香草醛吸嗅明显提高大鼠5-HT杏仁核区表达[5-HT阳性神经元数(3.42±1.32)个vs (1.32±1.04)个,P<0.05].结论 香草醛吸嗅可以改善自闭症模型大鼠的重复性刻板行为,提高大鼠5-HT在杏仁核区的表达.%Objective To investigate the effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats and its possible mechanism.Methods The model of autism was established by the single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 of pregnant rats.Twenty-four autism animals were adopted according to the eye opening time,body mass and behavioral test.They were randomly divided into control group and vanillin group with 12 in each group,while the saline group rats as normal control group and the blank group rats as normal blank group.The repetitive stereotyped behavioral were examined in four groups of rats and the concentration of 5-HT in the amygdala was determined by immunohistochemical stainning.Results Compared with

  12. Adult-onset stereotypical motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltête, D

    Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit. The pathophysiology of stereotypies may involve the corticostriatal pathways, especially the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulated cortices. Because antipsychotics have long been used to manage stereotypical behaviours in mental retardation, stereotypies that present in isolation tend not to warrant pharmacological intervention, as the benefit-to-risk ratio is not great enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F

    2012-11-01

    Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD.

  14. Stereotypic progressions in psychotic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Richard M; Kostrzewa, John P; Kostrzewa, Rose Anna; Kostrzewa, Florence P; Brus, Ryszard; Nowak, Przemyslaw

    2011-02-01

    Dopamine receptor supersensitivity (DARSS) often is invoked as a mechanism possibly underlying disordered thought processes and agitation states in psychiatric disorders. This review is focused on identified means for producing DARSS and associating the role of other monoaminergic systems in modulating DARSS. Dopamine (DA) receptors, experimentally, are prone to become supersensitive and to thus elicit abnormal behaviors when coupled with DA or a receptor agonist. In intact (control) rats repeated DA D₁ agonist treatments fail to sensitize D₁ receptors, while repeated D₂ agonist treatments sensitize D₂ receptors. D₂ RSS is attenuated by a lesion with DSP-4 (N-(2-chlorethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine) in early postnatal ontogeny, indicating that noradrenergic nerves have a permissive effect on D₂ DARSS. However, if DSP-4 is co-administered with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine to destroy serotonin (5-HT) nerves, then D₂ RSS is restored. In rats treated early in postnatal ontogeny with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine to largely destroy DA innervation of striatum, both repeated D₁ and D₂ agonists sensitize D₁ receptors. 5-HT nerves appear to have a permissive effect on D₁ DARSS, as a 5-HT lesion reduces the otherwise enhanced effect of a D₁ agonist. The series of findings demonstrate that DARSS is able to be produced by repeated agonist treatments, albeit under different circumstances. The involvement of other neuronal phenotypes as modulators of DARSS provides the potential for targeting a variety of sites in the aim to prevent or attenuate DARSS. This therapeutic potential broadens the realm of approaches toward treating psychiatric disorders.

  15. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  16. Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between…

  17. Behavioural Intervention Practices for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Smith, Veronica; Jelen, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the quality of conduct of experimental studies contributing to our empirical understanding of function-based behavioural interventions for stereotypic and repetitive behaviours (SRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Systematic review methodology was used to…

  18. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  19. Sex Role Socialization Via Teachers' Behavior and Sexually Stereotyped Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others

    Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…

  20. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  1. Effects of Tangible and Social Reinforcers on Skill Acquisition, Stereotyped Behavior, and Task Engagement in Three Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark; Rojeski, Laura; Blenden, Kara; Xu, Ziwei; Davis, Tonya; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more likely to engage in inappropriate play (e.g., stereotypy, repetitive behavior) with their preferred items given as reinforcers. Considering the stereotyped behavior is a core characteristic of ASD aimed to reduce, it is necessary to identify alternative reinforcers that does not encourage…

  2. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  3. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  4. Stereotypic circling behavior in mice with vestibular dysfunction: asymmetrical effects of intrastriatal microinjection of a dopamine agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Akio; Inagaki, Masumi; Kaga, Makiko

    2007-07-01

    Bronx Waltzer (bv) mouse, which has been used as a model of hearing and vestibular dysfunction, shows remarkable repetitive circling behavior. This study investigated whether the behavior is caused by the asymmetry of striatal function by observing the behavior of the bv mice following microinjection of dopamine D1 agonist, A68930 into the striatum ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the preferred direction of rotation separately. High dose of the drug induced opposite effects on ipsilateral rotations by the side of injections with statistical significance (p = .0026). These results suggested that the stereotypic circling behavior involves striatum and is based on striatal asymmetry.

  5. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  6. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  7. Assessing and Treating Stereotypical Behaviors in Classrooms Using a Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; Balint-Langel, Kinga; Troughton, Leonard; Langan, Sean; Lodge, Kelsey; Kortemeyer, Sara

    2015-01-01

    For years, the assumption has been that stereotypical behaviors functioned only to provide sensory or automatic reinforcement. However, these behaviors also may serve social functions. Given the unsettled debate, functional behavior assessment and functional analysis can be used to identify the exact function of stereotypical behavior and design…

  8. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  9. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  10. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  11. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  12. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  13. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  14. Automaticity of social behavior: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype-activation on action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, J A; Chen, M; Burrows, L

    1996-08-01

    Previous research has shown that trait concepts and stereotype become active automatically in the presence of relevant behavior or stereotyped-group features. Through the use of the same priming procedures as in previous impression formation research, Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli. In Experiment 2, participants for whom an elderly stereotype was primed walked more slowly down the hallway when leaving the experiment than did control participants, consistent with the content of that stereotype. In Experiment 3, participants for whom the African American stereotype was primed subliminally reacted with more hostility to a vexatious request of the experimenter. Implications of this automatic behavior priming effect for self-fulfilling prophecies are discussed, as is whether social behavior is necessarily mediated by conscious choice processes.

  15. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  16. WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Peltier, Nicholas; Goldberg, Cody; Sun, Yan; Nathan, Anoo; Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-02-28

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-CDC) in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT) framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.

  17. WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.

  18. WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Peltier, Nicholas; Goldberg, Cody; Sun, Yan; Nathan, Anoo; Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC) in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT) framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions. PMID:28264474

  19. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD.

  20. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  1. The use of positive reinforcement training to reduce stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine; Maier, Adriane

    2010-05-01

    Stereotypic behavior is a pervasive problem for captive monkeys and other animals. Once this behavior pattern has started, it can be difficult to alleviate. We tested whether or not using positive reinforcement training (PRT) can reduce this undesired behavior. Subjects for this study were 11 adult, female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a history of locomotor stereotypy (e.g., pacing, bouncing, and somersaulting). We assessed baseline levels of stereotypic behavior and then utilized PRT to train six animals to touch a target and accept venipuncture. The other five monkeys served as controls. We assessed stereotypic behavior 1 week a month for 4 months, on days in which the monkey was not trained. Trained animals showed a significant reduction in stereotypic behavior after 1 month of training, compared to control monkeys (Mann Whitney U=28.00, P=0.02). These group differences did not persist after the first month (Month 2: Mann Whitney U=19.50, P=0.40, Month 3: Mann Whitney U=17.0, P=0.71, Month 4: Mann Whitney U=17.00, P=0.72). Still, the majority of the trained monkeys (n=4) engaged in less stereotypic behavior at the end of the study compared to baseline. Thus, training may be an effective way to reduce stereotypic behavior, at least for some individuals.

  2. Gender Stereotype Conformity and Age as Determinants of Preschoolers' Injury-Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Granie, Marie-Axelle

    2010-01-01

    Unintentional injuries continue to be a serious public-health problem for children and are higher for boys than for girls, from infancy through adulthood. Literature on differential socialization concerning risky behaviors and gender stereotypes suggests that sex differences in unintentional injuries could be explained by children's differential feedback to social pressure, leading to behaviors which conform to masculine and feminine stereotypes. We made the prediction that boys' and girls' c...

  3. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  4. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.

  5. Perseveration and other repetitive verbal behaviors: functional dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W

    2004-11-01

    This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.

  6. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...

  7. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  8. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  9. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  10. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment. PMID:28107477

  11. Reflecting and deflecting stereotypes : Assimilation and contrast in impression formation and automatic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A; Spears, R; Lepinasse, V

    2001-01-01

    Factors influencing the tendency to represent a social stimulus primarily in stereotypic terms. or more as a distinct exemplar, were predicted to moderate automatic behavior effects, producing assimilation and contrast respectively. In Experiment I, we demonstrated that when an impression pertained

  12. The Competition of Autistic Stereotyped Behavior with Usual and Specially Assessed Reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated a reinforcement theory of stereotyped behavior with six autistic students (ages 9-16). Three students evidenced decreases in stereotypy and increases in responding in the presence of usual reinforcers, while the other three students required external suppression of stereotypy before increases in responding were shown.…

  13. Sulindac attenuates valproic acid-induced oxidative stress levels in primary cultured cortical neurons and ameliorates repetitive/stereotypic-like movement disorders in Wistar rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Cailing; Yuan, Guoyan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Li, Ruixi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants have neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodevelopental disorders, such as autism. In the present study, the possible neuroprotective properties of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were investigated in vitro using cultured cortical neurons with valproic acid (VPA)-induced neurotoxicity, as well as in vivo through the behavioral analysis of rats prenatally exposed to VPA as a model of autism. VPA induced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cell viability in primary cultured cortical neurons established from timed-pregnant (embryonic day 18) Wistar rat pups. However, co-incubation of the neurons with VPA and sulindac reduced oxidative stress and increased cell viability. The rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection with one of the following: VPA, sulindac, VPA and sulindac, or physiological saline, and their offspring were subjected to the open field test. During the test trials, repetitive/stereotypic-like movements for each rat were recorded and analyzed. The results revealed that treatment with both sulindac and VPA reduced the VPA-induced repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and the sulindac and VPA-treated animals responded better in the open field test compared to the VPA-treated animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of sulindac may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autism, suggesting that the upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway disrupts oxidative homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to autism.

  14. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  15. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  16. Application of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised--Italian version--in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulceri, Francesca; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balboni, Giulia; Baldini, Sara; Brocchini, Jenny; Domenici, Ilaria; Cerullo, Sonia; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated. The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored. Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not. This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum.

  17. Stereotype confirmation concerns predict dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne; Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-08-19

    There are high attrition rates observed in efficacy studies for social anxiety disorder, and research has not identified consistent nor theoretically meaningful predictors of dropout. Pre-treatment symptom severity and demographic factors, such as age and gender, are sometimes predictive of dropout. The current study examines a theoretically meaningful predictor of attrition based on experiences associated with social group membership rather than differences between social group categories--fear of confirming stereotypes. This is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing two cognitive behavioral treatments for social anxiety disorder: virtual reality exposure therapy and exposure group therapy. Participants (N = 74) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who were eligible to participate in the parent study and who self-identified as either "African American" (n = 31) or "Caucasian" (n = 43) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns (SCC) and social anxiety symptoms as part of a pre-treatment assessment battery. Hierarchical logistic regression showed that greater stereotype confirmation concerns were associated with higher dropout from therapy--race, age, gender, and pre-treatment symptom severity were not. Group treatment also was associated with higher dropout. These findings urge further research on theoretically meaningful predictors of attrition and highlight the importance of addressing cultural variables, such as the experience of stereotype confirmation concerns, during treatment of social anxiety to minimize dropout from therapy.

  18. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  19. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  20. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  1. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  2. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals.

  3. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Park, Isabel K; Neelly, Linda B; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism.

  4. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  5. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task

    OpenAIRE

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E.; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M.; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relat...

  6. The development of stereotypic behavior in caged European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    Stereotypic behavior in captive animals has been hypothesized to emerge from thwarted natural behavior patterns and is thought to be more common in captive-reared animals. However, data on the early stages of developing stereotypies are currently scarce. We compared the development of stereotypic route-tracing and somersaulting in hand-reared and wild-caught starlings placed in individual cages for the first time. We found that wild-caught birds were less active but showed more escape motivation and more evidence of route-tracing behavior. Furthermore, somersaulting was only observed in wild-caught birds. Development of somersaulting was predicted by subtle differences in behavior during the first few days in cages and developed in individuals with low levels of route-tracing behavior. Our data suggest a role for escape motivation in the development of starling stereotypies and additionally that route-tracing and somersaulting may represent alternative outlets for thwarted escape. In contrast to observations from mammals, our results show that stereotypies are more common in wild-caught starlings.

  7. The 5-HT7 receptor influences stereotypic behavior in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2007-03-13

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. This hypothesis is based on the finding that antidepressant drugs have relatively high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor, and that inactivation or blockade of the receptor leads to an antidepressant-like profile in behavioral models and sleep parameters. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also believed to involve the serotonergic system and is treated using antidepressants, thus it is of interest to study the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in this disorder. We have evaluated the effect of inactivation or pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor in three mouse behavioral models that are believed to mimic some of the stereotypic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most well-established behavioral model, marble burying, both inactivation and blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor reduced stereotypic behavior in that the number of marbles buried decreased. In two newer, less well-characterized models, head dipping and plastic-mesh screen chewing, there was no difference between wild-type mice and mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor. Taken together the data confirms and expands on previous findings that the 5-HT7 receptor is of importance for behaviors affected by antidepressants, and suggests that the 5-HT7 receptor might be of relevance as a target for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  8. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Krestin eRadonovich; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Christopher J. Hass

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with...

  9. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  10. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles.

  11. Effects of Wnt/β-catenin on repetitive/stereotypic-like movements in an autistic model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid%Wnt/β-catenin信号通路对孤独症模型大鼠重复呆板样行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应花; 贾云杰; 张天然; 崔卫刚; 王中平; 小军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Wnt/β-catenin on repetitive/stereotypic-like movements in autism. Methods With an autistic model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), we detected the expression of GSK-3β, β-catenin, the signaling molecules of the canonical Wnt pathway in the cerebellum of autistic rats. The expression levels of GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β, β-catenin, phosphorylated β-catenin were observed by Western blotting. The number of repetitive/stereotypic-like behaviors and time engaged in repetitive/stereotypic-like movements were observed by open field. Results The phospholated protein levels of GSK-3βwere higher, whereas those ofβ-catenin were lower in VPA-exposed group than those in the control group. In contrast, the number of repetitive/stereotypic-like behaviors and time engaged in repetitive/stereotypic-like movements were significantly higher in the animals treated with VPA than those in the control group. Conclusion Hyperkinetics and increased activity of the canonical Wnt pathway in cerebellum of autistic rats suggest that increased activity of the canonical Wnt pathway may result in repetitive/stereotypic-like mobility disorders and further contribute to the susceptibility to autism.%目的:探讨Wnt/β-catenin信号通路对孤独症发生过程中重复呆板样行为的影响。方法利用丙戊酸(valproic acid,VPA)孤独症动物模型,检测了经典Wnt信号通路关键信号分子β-catenin及其负性调节因子GSK-3β在孤独症模型大鼠小脑脑区的表达变化;同时检测孤独症模型大鼠重复呆板样行为变化。Western blotting法检测GSK-3β、β-catenin总蛋白及磷酸化蛋白表达,运用旷场实验检测重复呆板样行为持续的时间、次数。结果与对照组相比,在小脑脑区模型组GSK-3β磷酸化蛋白表达增加,β-catenin磷酸化蛋白表达减少;重复呆板样行为持续的时间、次数均增加。结论孤独症大鼠小脑

  12. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  13. Stereotyped and self-injurious behavior in children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereotyped behavior is defined as rhythmically repeated movements constant in shape and amplitude. They are natural at certain levels of neuromuscular maturation in early age, yet in case of some developmental disorders they attain pathological forms, last significantly longer and hamper everyday adaptation including self-injurious behavior. Stereotypies are observed in case of various impairments like autism, mental retardation, blindness, deafness and in children in orphanage. The general point for all these impairments is the presence of some kind of deprivation: sensory or social. It is suggested that children with autism and mental retardation experience difficulties with development and coordination of visual, auditory and tactile-kinesthetic signals, and that is why they are exposed to a kind of deprivation similar to that of blind and deaf children. Pathogenesis of stereotyped behavior is often regarded as provoked by abnormal functioning ofdopamine-ergic and GABA-ergic neurons of the system: frontal cortex-thalamus-cerebellum, whose development takes several years of life and is extremely sensitive to impoverished environment.

  14. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...

  15. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  16. Whole-brain activity maps reveal stereotyped, distributed networks for visuomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Feierstein, Claudia E; Engert, Florian; Orger, Michael B

    2014-03-19

    Most behaviors, even simple innate reflexes, are mediated by circuits of neurons spanning areas throughout the brain. However, in most cases, the distribution and dynamics of firing patterns of these neurons during behavior are not known. We imaged activity, with cellular resolution, throughout the whole brains of zebrafish performing the optokinetic response. We found a sparse, broadly distributed network that has an elaborate but ordered pattern, with a bilaterally symmetrical organization. Activity patterns fell into distinct clusters reflecting sensory and motor processing. By correlating neuronal responses with an array of sensory and motor variables, we find that the network can be clearly divided into distinct functional modules. Comparing aligned data from multiple fish, we find that the spatiotemporal activity dynamics and functional organization are highly stereotyped across individuals. These experiments systematically reveal the functional architecture of neural circuits underlying a sensorimotor behavior in a vertebrate brain.

  17. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  18. The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…

  19. A meta-analysis of positive and negative age stereotype priming effects on behavior among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Brad A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has shown that age stereotypes influence several behavioral outcomes in later life via stereotype valence-outcome assimilation; however, a direct comparison of positive versus negative age stereotyping effects has not yet been made. PsycINFO and Pubmed were used to generate a list of articles (n = 137), of which seven were applicable. From these articles, means, standard errors (SEs), and other relevant data were extracted for 52 dependent measures: 27 involved negative age primes and 25 involved positive age primes. Independent samples analysis of variance tests were used to explore the influence of prime valence and awareness on behavior compared with a neutral referent. A significant main effect for prime valence was found such that negative age priming elicited a greater effect on behavior than did positive age priming (F(1,48) = 4.32, p = .04). In fact, the effects from negative age priming were almost three times larger than those of positive priming when compared with a neutral baseline. This effect was not influenced by prime awareness, discipline of study, study design, or research group. Findings show that negative age stereotyping has a much stronger influence on important behavioral outcomes among older adults than does positive age stereotyping.

  20. Reversal learning in C58 mice: Modeling higher order repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Curry-Pochy, Lisa S; Shafer, Robin; Rudy, Joseph; Lewis, Mark H

    2017-08-14

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule. In addition, the effect of environmental enrichment on performance of this task was assessed as this rearing condition markedly reduces repetitive sensory-motor behavior in C58 mice. Little difference was observed between C58 and control mice under a 100% schedule of reinforcement. The 80%/20% probabilistic schedule of reinforcement generated substantial strain differences, however. Importantly, no strain difference was observed in acquisition, but C58 mice were markedly impaired in their ability to reverse their pattern of responding from the previously high density reinforcement side. Environmental enrichment did not impact acquisition under the probabilistic reinforcement schedule, but enriched C58 mice performed significantly better than standard housed C58 mice in reversal learning. Thus, C58 mice exhibit behaviors that reflect both repetitive sensory motor behaviors as well as behavior that reflects resistance to change. Moreover, both clusters of repetitive behavior were attenuated by environmental enrichment. Such findings, along with the reported social deficits in C58 mice, increase the translational value of this mouse model to autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  2. A neurobiological alternative to the perceptual reinforcement hypothesis of stereotyped behavior: a commentary on "Self-stimulatory behavior and perceptual reinforcement".

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Lewis; Baumeister, A A; Mailman, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    A perceptual reinforcement theory of stereotyped movements is advanced by Lovaas, Newsom, and Hickman (1987) in an effort to integrate a number of diverse observations about the origins and maintenance of this behavior. We, in turn, argue that the theory, as presented, is logically flawed and fails to take into account important biological findings and theory concerning pathological stereotyped acts. An alternative theory, derived primarily from neurological concepts, is briefly described.

  3. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio A. Amodeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.

  4. Effects of confinement duration and parity on stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong-Gui; Li, Jian-Hong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space restriction stress on the stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of different parity sows, and it is necessary to understand such effects due to space restriction to improve the welfare of the sows in confined conditions. We selected fifty pregnant sows (Large White) at primiparity and first to fifth parity in a confined farm with the same body condition and due date (3±1.5days). Behavioral observations and physiological analysis were carried out during spatial confinement throughout pregnancy. The results showed that there were no significant changes in vacuum-chewing, bar-biting, trough-biting and the concentrations of serum IL-6 in primiparous sows during the initial confinement (0-8days). With the increase of the confinement duration, the serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of sows in all groups increased significantly, and the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and Pig-MAP increased significantly except for the sows in the first and second parity groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of older sows were significantly higher than those of the young sows throughout the entire restricted feeding period, but the serum C-reactive protein concentrations of primiparous gilts was significantly higher than those of the other groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and bar-biting and trough-biting frequencies of all parity sows decreased significantly after entering the delivery bed. In conclusion, long-lasting and recurrent environmental constraints can significantly increase the frequency of stereotypical behavior and serious psychological and physical stress, seriously damaging sow welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal β-catenin/Brn2/Tbr2 transcriptional cascade regulates adult social and stereotypic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinson, H; Nakatani, J; Babineau, B A; Birnbaum, R Y; Ellegood, J; Bershteyn, M; McEvilly, R J; Long, J M; Willert, K; Klein, O D; Ahituv, N; Lerch, J P; Rosenfeld, M G; Wynshaw-Boris, A

    2016-10-01

    Social interaction is a fundamental behavior in all animal species, but the developmental timing of the social neural circuit formation and the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing its formation are poorly understood. We generated a mouse model with mutations in two Disheveled genes, Dvl1 and Dvl3, that displays adult social and repetitive behavioral abnormalities associated with transient embryonic brain enlargement during deep layer cortical neuron formation. These phenotypes were mediated by the embryonic expansion of basal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) via deregulation of a β-catenin/Brn2/Tbr2 transcriptional cascade. Transient pharmacological activation of the canonical Wnt pathway during this period of early corticogenesis rescued the β-catenin/Brn2/Tbr2 transcriptional cascade and the embryonic brain phenotypes. Remarkably, this embryonic treatment prevented adult behavioral deficits and partially rescued abnormal brain structure in Dvl mutant mice. Our findings define a mechanism that links fetal brain development and adult behavior, demonstrating a fetal origin for social and repetitive behavior deficits seen in disorders such as autism.

  6. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  7. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jirza; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  8. Relationship Between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised detected the presence of RSM and IS. RSM behaviors were positively associated with parent-reported sleep problems, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for anxiety symptoms. IS was not significantly associated with sleep problems. Better understanding of the relationship between specific types of repetitive behaviors and sleep problems may allow providers to tailor interventions to the individual presentations of their patients with ASD.

  9. Basing the treatment of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors on hypotheses of their causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, A C; Felce, D; Barton, L E

    1988-01-01

    Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors are common forms of maladaptive responding demonstrated by severely handicapped persons. Various review papers suggest that no single treatment procedure is universally effective. Although there may be many reasons for this finding, one could be that people engage in these behaviors for various reasons, and that procedures that are incompatible with the cause of the behavior are unlikely to be effective. These studies also suggest many hypotheses for the development and maintenance of these behaviors, three of which are the self-stimulation, positive reinforcement, and negative reinforcement hypotheses. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether one of these hypotheses could be matched to the cause of the behavior and used as an effective treatment procedure. We therefore compared one hypothesis with one other for 3 subjects in a three-phase study. During baseline, data were taken in two classrooms for each subject, and a judgement was made about the hypothesis most likely to be related to the cause of the behavior. During the second phase, a treatment based on that hypothesis was used in one classroom, and a treatment based on another hypothesis was used in the second classroom. During the third phase, the treatment that was most effective in the second phase was used in both classrooms. Results showed that a successful treatment program can be developed on an hypothesis of why the behavior occurred during baseline. Results are discussed in terms of supporting the argument that treatment programs should be based on a functional analysis of the behavior in its environmental context.

  10. Stereotypic Behavior of Captive Ursus thibetanus%圈养取胆黑熊的刻板行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰天明; 胡晓楠; 王彦磊; 荆璞; 邹琦; 刘伟石

    2011-01-01

    采用焦点动物取样法和连续时间记录法,对哈尔滨山河熊场6只成年黑熊刻板行为的发生频次和持续时间进行了观察和记录.对黑熊踱步、转圈、摆头和站立转身4种刻板行为进行了描述,其中踱步是最常见的刻板行为之一,其平均发生频次和持续时间所占比例在4种刻板行为中均达到最大.对圈养取胆黑熊刻板行为的日变化规律和产生原因进行了分析,并对如何减少刻板行为进行了探讨.%An observation on stereotypic behaviors of six adult Ursus thibetanus was conducted at Shanhe Farm in Harbin. The frequency and duration were recorded by focal sampling and continuous recording methods. Four stereotypic behaviors were described including pacing, circling, head shaking, vertical turning, etc. Pacing was one of the most common stereotypic behavior and its frequency and duration all reached the maximum. The diurnal variation rhythm and causes of the stereotypic behavior in captive U. thibetanus were analyzed. The methods for reducing stereotypic behaviors were also discussed.

  11. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  12. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement With Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (Mage  = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only.

  13. How communication affects the minds of senders and recipients : stereotypes, prejudice, and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation provides insights into the effects of communicative roles on stereotyping and prejudice. It has generally been assumed that communicating stereotypes and prejudices serves to strengthen these beliefs in senders and recipients. Whereas we agreed that senders would strengthen

  14. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  15. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

  17. Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were…

  18. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  19. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors as Predictors of Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren; Stevens, Michael C.; Chen, Chi-Ming; Barton, Marianne; Treadwell, Kimberli; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about the significance of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in predicting outcomes of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed findings, but some suggest that the presence of RRBs during preschool years is a negative prognostic indicator for later childhood. This study…

  20. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  1. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  2. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  3. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  4. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  5. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  6. Challenging and Reducing Cultural Stereotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸣

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.Each of us hears or makes stereotypical comments every day,and although sometimes it is necessary to make stereotypes in foreign language teaching and learning,we should always be aware of the negative effects of stereotyping people from other cultures when we use them to interpret behavior.This paper defines stereotypes,discusses how they impede communication and then focuses on some ways to challenge and reduce stereotypes in cross-cultural communication.

  7. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.

  9. Effect of continuous female exposure on behavioral repertoire and stereotypical behaviors in restrained male dromedary camels during the onset of the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, David; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of the three management systems on the behavioral repertoire and particularly on the incidence of stereotypical behavior in restrained camels. Five male camels were tested under the following management systems: (i) unexposed, housing in a single box (Unexpo); (ii) continuous exposure, exposed continuously to females (ConExpoF); and (iii) re-unexposed, housing again in a single box (Re-Unexpo). Every day, bulls were filmed for 30 min and videos were analyzed using a focal animal sampling ethogram. Under the ConExpoF system, camels spent the majority of time in standing with opened legs (490.0 ± 94.3 s), looking (925.0 ± 93.7 s), and walking toward the females (206.0 ± 73.4 s) and they ate and ruminated less compared to Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems. Rumination and standing durations were significantly longer in Re-Unexpo than in Unexpo and ConExpoF management systems. When camels were continuously exposed to females, they showed few stereotypical behaviors compared to Unexpo (490.0 ± 146.1 s) and Re-Unexpo (624.0 ± 146.1 s) systems. The frequency of both total and oral stereotypes was significantly higher in Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems compared to ConExpoF; however, no significant difference was observed among the three management systems in the frequency of locomotor stereotypes. Overall, it appears that the continuous female exposure system might be a suitable management practice for male camels used for intensive reproduction, as it decreases the manifestation of stereotypical behavior in comparison with housing for 24 h in a single box.

  10. Brief report: Impression formation in high-functioning autism: role of nonverbal behavior and stereotype activating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as stereotype activating information. The target person's nonverbal behavior was presented as a computer animation showing two virtual characters in interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, HFA participants were as sensitive to nonverbal cues as controls. Moreover, HFA showed a tendency to evaluate persons more positively. This might indicate a routine HFA apply in impression formation in order to compensate for their deficit in intuitive understanding of nonverbal communication cues.

  11. Sex typing and the social perception of gender stereotypic and nonstereotypic behavior: the uniqueness of feminine males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, T E

    1994-02-01

    The social perception of masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated males was examined. Preadolescent boys (n = 251) were shown a video film portraying a male target playing either a masculine game with boys, a feminine game with girls, a neutral game with boys, or a neutral game with girls and were required to make a variety of inferences about him. All 4 groups made similar cognitive stereotypic inferences that varied in accordance with the gender stereotypic nature of the target's behavior. However, for the affective judgments (e.g., liking the target and wanting to engage in activities with him), the feminine males showed a pattern of inferences that was not only different from other sex role orientations, but often the reverse. The implications of these results for S. L. Bem's gender schema theory (1981) and H. Markus's self schema theory (H. Markus, M. Crane, S. L. Bernstein, & M. Siladi, 1982) are discussed.

  12. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  13. Repetitive behavior profiles: Consistency across autism spectrum disorder cohorts and divergence from Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cindi G; Valcante, Gregory; Guter, Steve; Zaytoun, Annette; Wray, Emily; Bell, Lindsay; Jacob, Suma; Lewis, Mark H; Driscoll, Daniel J; Cook, Edwin H; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a group of heterogeneous maladaptive behaviors. RRB is one of the key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and also commonly observed in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In this study, we assessed RRB using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in two ASD samples (University of Illinois at Chicago [UIC] and University of Florida [UF]) and one PWS sample. We compared the RBS-R item endorsements across three ASD cohorts (UIC, UF and an ASD sample from Lam, The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation and the effect of subject variables, PhD thesis, 2004), and a PWS sample. We also compared the mean RBS-R subscale/sum scores across the UIC, UF and PWS samples; across the combined ASD (UIC + UF), PWS-deletion and PWS-disomy groups; and across the combined ASD sample, PWS subgroup with a Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) score ≥15, and PWS subgroup with a SCQ score samples (UIC, UF and Lam's) showed a similar pattern of the RBS-R endorsements, and the mean RBS-R scores were not different between the UIC and UF samples. However, higher RRB was noted in the ASD sample compared with the PWS sample, as well as in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15 compared with the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score sample size, a wide age range of our participants, and not controlling for potential covariates. A future replication study using a larger sample and further investigation into the genetic bases of overlapping ASD and RRB phenomenology are needed, given the higher RRB in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15.

  14. Relationship Between Postural Control and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestin eRadonovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse

  15. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonovich, K J; Fournier, K A; Hass, C J

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation. Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP) sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls ages 3-16. All subjects had Non-verbal IQ > 70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self-selected stance width for 20 s. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all six subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs. Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this very diverse disorder.

  16. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  17. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  18. To the question about the role of consumption-stereotypes in the forming of health-saving individual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2017-06-01

    Emphasized: first, consumption patterns require constant critical thinking when it comes to maintaining their health; must use structural characteristics of stereotypes in creating stereotypes consumption of healthy lifestyles and developing effective systems healthsaving in Ukraine.

  19. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  20. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  1. Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

  2. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jen N; Leighty, Katherine A; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: pzoo transfers (pzoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate that factors related to the social environment are most influential in predicting elephant stereotypic behavior rates.

  3. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  5. Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C

    2016-08-20

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat substance use disorders and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasio, Maria I B; da Silva, João P L; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Cruz, Marcelo S

    2015-01-01

    Compulsions, like pathological gambling, binge-eating disorder, alcohol, tobacco or cocaine abuse and compulsive shopping have similar neurophysiological processing. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving patient control over compulsive behavior. The rTMS modulatory role in cortical mesolimbic pathways possibly implies improvement of the inhibitory control system and compulsive consumption drive. Thus, craving reduction would be a component for control achievement. Within this context, 17 studies were found. Most studies applied rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving reduction was observed in 10 studies and was associated with improved control of compulsion in two of them. In one study reduction in consumption was found without reduction in craving. In addition, improvement in decision making was found in one study.

  7. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS.

  8. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  9. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  10. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  11. The impact of caregiver-mediated JASPER on child restricted and repetitive behaviors and caregiver responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-12-02

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  13. The Effectiveness of the Snug Vest on Stereotypic Behaviors in Children Diagnosed With an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Sparling, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Various reviews of the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT) have concluded that such interventions fail to reduce stereotypy. However, a new, and as yet untested, SIT iteration, an inflatable wearable vest known as the Snug Vest purports to decrease such repetitive behavior. In the current study, three children who emitted different forms of stereotypy participated in an alternating treatments design in which each participant wore a fully inflated vest and either a fully deflated vest or no vest. The results of the study show that the Snug Vest failed to reduce any participants' stereotypy. We highlight our findings in the context of professional practice and discuss several potential limitations.

  14. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  15. Brief report: the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with specific repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.; Krom, M. de; Jonge, M.V. de

    2012-01-01

    Recently the DRD3 gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Di

  16. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  17. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  18. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  19. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  1. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  2. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  3. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  4. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Ko, Mee Jung; Lee, Eun Joo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; You, Jueng Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Yang, Sung Min; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA) induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  5. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  6. Masked repetition priming hinders subsequent recollection but not familiarity: A behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study used the masked repetition priming paradigm in the study phase and the R/K paradigm in the test phase to investigate whether repetition priming can hinder recognition memory and which recognition process (familiarity or recollection) is hindered. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study and test phase were recorded to explore the temporal course of how repetition priming hinders subsequent recognition memory and which old/new effect (FN400 or LPC) is affected. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that masked repetition priming hindered subsequent recollection but not familiarity. The analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that primed words were associated with less negative N400 and less positive LPC compared to unprimed words. The analysis of the priming effect as a function of subsequent memory revealed that only the LPC priming effect was predictive of priming effect on subsequent memory, which suggested that the "prediction-error" account might be a possible explanation of how repetition priming affects subsequent recognition memory.

  7. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  8. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  9. P300 Source Localization Contrasts in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors and Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Sauvé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tic disorders (TD and body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB have similar phenotypes that can be challenging to distinguish in clinical settings. Both disorders show high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions, dysfunctional basal ganglia activity, atypical cortical functioning in the prefrontal and motor cortical regions, and cognitive deficits. Clinicians frequently confound the two disorders and it is important to find reliable objective methods to discriminate TD and BFRB. Neuropsychological tests and event-related potential (ERP studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding a possible context updating deficit in TD and BFRB patients. However, most previous studies did not control for the presence of comorbid psychiatric condition and medication status, which might have confounded the findings reported to date. Hence, we aimed to investigate the psychophysiology of working memory using ERP in carefully screened TD and BFRB patients excluding those with psychiatric comorbidity and those taking psychoactive medication. The current study compared 12 TD patients, 12 BRFB patients, and 15 healthy control participants using a motor oddball task (button press. The P300 component was analyzed as an index of working memory functioning. Results showed that BFRB patients had decreased P300 oddball effect amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared to the TD and control groups. Clinical groups presented different scalp distributions compared to controls, which could represent a potential endophenotype candidate of BFRB and TD.

  10. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus] at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding, making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015. For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009, and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175, increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985, and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988. At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987 and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752 corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115 increased this risk. Overall, our results

  11. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  12. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  13. Sex Stereotypes and Responses to Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Tineke M.; van Schie, Els C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes two studies to test the following hypotheses: (1) delinquent behavior that corresponds to sex stereotypes will be punished more severely; and (2) delinquent behavior that deviates will be evaluated more negatively. Presents model illustrating how sex stereotypes about delinquent behavior lead to sex-related differences in attribution and…

  14. Inference of pain stimulus level from stereotypical behavioral response of C.elegans allows quantification of effects of anesthesia and mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kawai; Mohammadi, Aylia; Ryu, William; Nemenman, Ilya

    In animals, we must infer the pain level from experimental characterization of behavior. This is not trivial since behaviors are very complex and multidimensional. To establish C.elegans as a model for pain research, we propose for the first time a quantitative model that allows inference of a thermal nociceptive stimulus level from the behavior of an individual worm. We apply controlled levels of pain by locally heating worms with an infrared laser and capturing the subsequent behavior. We discover that the behavioral response is a product of stereotypical behavior and a nonlinear function of the strength of stimulus. The same stereotypical behavior is observed in normal, anesthetized and mutated worms. From this result we build a Bayesian model to infer the strength of laser stimulus from the behavior. This model allows us to measure the efficacy of anaesthetization and mutation by comparing the inferred strength of stimulus. Based on the measured nociceptive escape of over 200 worms, our model is able to significantly differentiate normal, anaesthetized and mutated worms with 40 worm samples. This work was partially supported by NSF Grant No. IOS/1208126 and HFSP Grant No. RGY0084/.

  15. Gender stereotype-inconsistent acts are seen as more acceptable than stereotype-consistent acts, if they are clever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, M.H.J.; Lammers, J.; Ratliff, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Four studies show that gender stereotype-inconsistent behavior is seen as more acceptable than gender stereotype-consistent behavior, if it is clever. Four studies found consistently that participants rated the behavior of a man who relied on attractiveness or passiveness (stereotypically female) to

  16. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD.

  17. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  18. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  19. Stop and Change : Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, Mandy A L; Staal, Wouter G.; Houben, Renske H.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  20. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning i

  1. 性别刻板印象行为效应研究回顾与展望%Review and Prospect on the Behavior Effect of Gender Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖异; 丁凤琴

    2012-01-01

    Gender stereotype is an research emphasis of social cognition, with the overall progress of social cognition's research contents and methods since the 20th century, gender stereotype has got a lot of rich study results. This paper hackled and summarized the concept of gender stereotype, production mechanism, behavior effect, copng styles, and had a review and prospect on this basis.%性别刻板印象是社会认知理论的研究重点之一,20世纪以来,随着认知心理学研究内容和研究方法的全面进步,性别刻板印象的研究成果也在不断丰富。本文从性别刻板印象的概念、产生机制、行为效应、应对方式等方面进行了梳理与概述,并基于以上内容对其今后的研究趋势进行展望。

  2. Brief Report: Impression Formation in High-Functioning Autism--Role of Nonverbal Behavior and Stereotype Activating Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as…

  3. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  4. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumei Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n=5 with varying fat (control/high and iron (control/high/low contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P<0.05. The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: 1 high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P<0.05, but not other regions; and 2 thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared to other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P<0.05. Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay

  5. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  6. Power in stereotypically masculine domains: a Social Influence Strategy X Stereotype Match model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescio, Theresa K; Snyder, Mark; Butz, David A

    2003-12-01

    This work examines the hypothesis that stereotypes of groups to which low-power people belong should influence the perceptions and behavior of powerful people only when those stereotypes are both contextually relevant (e.g., women in masculine domains) and provide information of relevance given powerful people's beliefs about the relation between subordinates and goal attainment. Findings across two studies supported predictions. In a masculine domain, when high-power men were attentive to subordinate weaknesses that may produce thwarts to goal attainment, stereotypes of women defined the contextually relevant shortcomings of women, and stereotype-consistent high-power behaviors ensued. In contrast, when powerful men were attentive to subordinate strengths that may enhance goal strivings, stereotypes of women were uninformative (i.e., did not contain information about relevant strengths); female and male employees were responded to and, in turn, performed and reacted similarly. The implications of these findings for theorizing on the relation between power and stereotyping are discussed.

  7. Using Background Music to Reduce Problem Behavior during Assessment with an Adolescent Who Is Blind with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Marcie N.; Oshlag, Rebecca; Kennelly, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Children who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) commonly engage in stereotypic behaviors such as rocking and repetitive hand movements to gain sensory stimulation produced by the behavior (Gourgey, 1998; Rapp, 2004; Warren, 1984). A means of quickly and easily reducing problem behaviors is important to maximize…

  8. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task

    OpenAIRE

    Krieglmeyer, R; Sherman, JW

    2012-01-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression forma...

  9. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  10. Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism-Based Association Mapping of Dog Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Paul; Chase, Kevin; Martin, Alan; Davern, Pluis; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lark, Karl G.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic stereotypes are traits, often polygenic, that have been stringently selected to conform to specific criteria. In dogs, Canis familiaris, stereotypes result from breed standards set for conformation, performance (behaviors), etc. As a consequence, phenotypic values measured on a few individuals are representative of the breed stereotype. We used DNA samples isolated from 148 dog breeds to associate SNP markers with breed stereotypes. Using size as a trait to test the method, we iden...

  11. My date can call me sweet but my colleague can't : Meta-stereotypic behavior as a function of context and liking of the outgroup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Gordijn, Ernestine H.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments we examined the influence of meta-stereotypes (beliefs regarding stereotypes that the outgroup has about one's ingroup) in different contexts. In Study 1, we demonstrated that women have the same meta-stereotype about men in dating and work contexts, but experience the meta-stereo

  12. Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Social Participation, Play, Leisure, and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies.

  13. Stereotype Formation : Biased by Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Reimers, Stian J.; Calvini, Guglielmo; Spears, Russell; Beesley, Tom; Murphy, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences ill the extent its which social groups have previously been predictive elf behavioral or physical properties Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness o

  14. Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

  15. Relationship between early motor milestones and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Alvares, Gail A; Varcin, Kandice J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2017-03-16

    This study explored the relationships between the later age of achievement of early motor milestones, current motor atypicalities (toe walking), and the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD (Mage  = 8.09 years, SD = 4.28; 119 males) completed an early developmental milestones questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of Insistence on Sameness (IS) and Repetitive Mannerisms (RM). Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test whether RM and IS behaviors were predicted by early motor milestones, or current toe walking. The final model predicting RM accounted for 15% of the variance (F = 3.02, p = .009), with toe walking as a unique and independent predictor of RM scores (t = 3.568, p = .001). The final model predicting IS accounted for 19.1% of variance in IS scores (F = 4.045, p = .001), with chronological age (CA) (t = 2.92, p = .004), age when first standing (t = 2.09, p = .038), and toe walking (t = 2.53, p = .013) as unique independent predictors. Toe walking (t = 2.4, p = .018) and age when first sitting (t = 2.08, p = .04) predicted the severity of RRBs on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (F = 2.334, p = .036). Our study replicates previous findings on the relationship between concurrent motor impairments and RRBs, and provides the first evidence for the association between RRBs and age of attainment of early motor milestones. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  17. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  18. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  19. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  20. Neuroimmunomodulation of autistic-like behavior : targeting mTOR via dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social behavior and communication and the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behavior. The etiology of ASD is thought to be related to an interaction of the complex genetic basis with environmental contributions. Immunological dis

  1. A framework for understanding the emerging role of corticolimbic-ventral striatal networks in OCD-associated repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eWood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review we discuss this network

  2. The function of stereotypes in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Greg O

    2003-01-01

    Human vision is a product of both physiological and cultural dispositions. This cultural study investigates the role of cultural dispositions in visual perception. In particular, the study focuses on the role of stereotypes, which are involved in recognition. I propose that stereotypes are essential for basic functions of perception and human perception. However, stereotypes also introduce significant limitations on human experience. The fact that stereotypes are abstract simplifications of realities is not the limiting factor, since scientific and cultural progress continually refines stereotypes. The very principle of the stereotype appears to introduce the limitation, because the process of forming stereotypes requires both temporal and functional fragmentations of the continuum of our perception. This fragmentation can be a cause of sensory overload, a postmodern condition that generates cultural, perceptual and behavioral problems. To address this problem, I propose a cultural modification to our modality of perception. The modification shifts the emphasis of our perception from the recognition of stereotypes to the recognition of flows, processes and durations. References to the work of Henri Bergson and Martin Heidegger provide the philosophical basis for this modification and several empirical and experimental examples illustrate such modifications in practice.

  3. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  4. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…

  5. Evidence-Based, Parent-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Case of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…

  6. Cerebrolysin prevents deficits in social behavior, repetitive conduct, and synaptic inhibition in a rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco

    2017-06-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  8. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  9. Excitability and firing behavior of single slow motor axons transmitting natural repetitive firing of human motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-08-01

    Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored. It was shown that axons displayed an early irresponsive period (within the first ~2-5 ms of a target ISI) that was followed by a responsive period (for the next 5-17 ms of the ISI), in which MUs fired axonal doublets, and a later irresponsive period. At the beginning of the responsive period, M-responses showed small latency delays. However, since at that ISI moment, MUs displayed excitability recovery with high firing index, slight latency changes may be considered as a functionally insignificant phenomenon. The duration of axonal doublet ISIs did not depend on motoneuron firing frequencies (range 4.3-14.6 imp/s). The question of whether or not traditionally described axonal recovery excitability cycle is realistic in natural motor control is discussed. In conclusion, the present approach, exploring, for the first time, excitability recovery in single slow axons during motoneuron natural activation, can provide further insight into axonal firing behavior in normal states and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability of single slow axons was estimated by motor unit firing index in response to motor nerve stimulation, and its changes throughout a target interspike interval were explored during transmitting human motoneuron natural firing. It was found that axons exhibited early irresponsive

  10. Teachers and parents as a source of stereotype formation

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    Đerić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers and parents play an important role in developing and maintaining stereotype beliefs in children and youth, and therefore this paper discusses their role and importance for the development and manifestations of stereotypes in children. Authors' intention is to introduce the readers to the developmental prerequisites of stereotype formation in children and youth, to point out to the ways in which adults exert influence on children's understanding of stereotypes and to discover how stereotypes mediate in the interaction between teachers and parents. Studies imply that the development of stereotype beliefs in children is conditioned by developmental changes on the cognitive level and that the first indications of stereotypes occur in the third, that is, fourth year of life. The first sources of stereotype formation are parents, who, as a model for socialization, promote the social and cultural norms and express certain behavioral patterns which are then "imprinted" in the repertoire of child's behavior. Teachers present an important source of stereotypes, whether we are talking about their roles in carrying over the pattern of the dominant culture or we are dealing with the stereotypical perception of the pupils of different categories (such as, for example, ethnic background, gender. This paper also points out to the categories of pupils that are more sensitive to stereotypes in educational context.

  11. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

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    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  12. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Behavioral Recovery during Early Stage of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chung, Pil-Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yul; Chun, Min Ho

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.

  13. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  14. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

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    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  15. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  16. Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

    2013-07-01

    The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (pfrequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD.

  17. Content of teachers' stereotypes about adolescents

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    Đerić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.

  18. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  19. The Impact of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Tic Disorders or Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

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    Simon eMorand-Beaulieu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tic disorders (TD are characterized by the presence of non-voluntary contractions of functionally related groups of skeletal muscles in one or multiple body parts. Patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB present frequent and repetitive behaviors, such as nail biting or hair pulling. TD and BFRB can be treated with a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT that regulates the excessive amount of sensorimotor activation and muscular tension. Our CBT, which is called the cognitive-psychophysiological therapy (CoPs, targets motor execution and inhibition, and it was reported to modify brain activity in TD. However, psychophysiological effects of therapy are still poorly understood in TD and BFRB patients. Our goals were to compare the event-related potentials (ERP of TD and BFRB patients to control participants, and to investigate the effects of the CoPs therapy on the P200, N200 and P300 components during a motor and non-motor oddball task.Method: ERP components were compared in 26 TD patients, 27 BFRB patients and 27 control participants. ERP were obtained from 63 EEG electrodes during two oddball tasks. In the non-motor task, participants had to count rare stimuli. In the motor task, participants had to respond with a left or right button press for rare and frequent stimuli, respectively. ERP measures were recorded before and after therapy in both patients groups.Results: CoPs therapy improved symptoms similarly in both clinical groups. Before therapy, TD and BFRB patients had lower P300 oddball effect during the non-motor task, in comparison with controls participants. An increase in the P300 oddball effect was observed post therapy. This increase was distributed over the whole cortex in BFRB patients, but localized in the parietal area in TD patients.Discussion: These results suggest a modification of neural processes following CoPs therapy in TD and BFRB patients. CoPs therapy seems to impact patients’ attentional processes

  20. Doing is for thinking! Stereotype activation by stereotypic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that stereotypic movements activate the corresponding stereotype. In Study 1, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the portly manner that is stereotypic of overweight people subsequently ascribed more overweight-stereotypic characteristics to an ambiguous target person than did control participants. In Study 2, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the slow manner that is stereotypic of elderly people subsequently ascribed more elderly-stereotypic characteristics to a target than did control participants. In Study 3, participants who were induced to move slowly were faster than control participants to respond to elderly-stereotypic words in a lexical decision task. Using three different movement inductions, two different stereotypes, and two classic measures of stereotype activation, these studies converge in demonstrating that stereotypes may be activated by stereotypic movements.

  1. Watch Your Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Robert N.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses public perceptions of institutions, particularly university stereotypes, and how advertising may be designed to capitalize upon institutional stereotypes. Describes an approach used by the University of Wisconsin-Extension to have administrative staff furnish its concept of Extension's public image for the purpose of marketing extension…

  2. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals.

  3. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  4. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  5. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  6. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.

  7. The development of stereotyping and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the developmental science literature on stereotyping and exclusion, with a focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Stereotyping of others, which is defined as the attribution of traits to individuals based on group membership, is often used to justify exclusion of others in social group contexts. This review includes a focus on the links between these two constructs. Research on stereotyping and exclusion has drawn on several theoretical traditions, including social domain theory, social identity developmental theory, and subjective group dynamics theory, which are also discussed in the context of the research findings. Key findings on stereotyping include categorization and classification in relationship with decreased in-group bias, and the role of stereotypes in encoding information. Findings on exclusion include the use of available information to make judgments, preferences for in-group members who are normative and out-group members who are deviant, the increased importance, with age, of group functioning in exclusion decisions, and decreased negative evaluation of in-group members who partake in exclusionary behaviors. Though little research has explicitly studied the links between stereotyping and exclusion from groups, this review describes the current literature in both areas and suggests future directions for research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Management of Chronic Tinnitus and Insomnia with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – a Combined Approach

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    Kneginja Richter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 80% of people will experience symptoms of tinnitus over the courses of their lives, with rates of comorbid sleeping problems ranging from 50 to 77%. Because of a potential connection between tinnitus and sleep disorders as well as high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, interdisciplinary approaches to treatment seem to be the most efficient option. In this study, we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient, who started to experience symptoms of tinnitus at the age of 49, most likely caused by work-related stress. Over the course of his illness, the patient developed comorbid insomnia. He consulted us for treatment of both conditions and we developed a treatment plan with ten sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS followed by 10 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. We used the Tinnitus Fragebogen (TF to assess the severity of the tinnitus, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II for depressive symptoms, and the WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5 for subjective well-being. Improvements could be achieved with regard to both diagnoses and the patient went from severe (48 to clinically negligible (12 TF scores, from minimal (BDI-II score 10 to no (0 depressive symptoms, and from just above critical (WHO-5 percentile 52 to above average (84 well-being. The combination of technological and psychological approaches to treat tinnitus and insomnia thus proved successful in this case. One may therefore conclude that rTMS may be considered an effective first therapeutic step for tinnitus treatment prior to CBT. To our knowledge this is the first published case in which rTMS and CBT were combined for tinnitus therapy. The approach proved successful since it led to a considerable increase in well-being and everyday functioning. To gauge the effect on a more general level, large-scale studies are still needed to cancel out potential placebo effects. Likewise, the importance of the order of

  9. Stereotypes override grammar: Social knowledge in sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Su, Jui-Ju; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the automaticity and immediacy with which stereotypical knowledge affects our behavior. However, less is known about how such social knowledge interacts with linguistic cues during comprehension. In this ERP sentence processing study we took advantage of the rich grammatical gender morphology of Spanish to explore the processing of role nouns in which stereotype and grammatical cues were simultaneously manipulated, in a factorial design. We show that stereotypical knowledge overrides syntactic cues, highlighting the immediacy with which stereotype knowledge is activated during language comprehension and supporting proposals claiming that social knowledge impacts on language processing differently from other forms of semantics.

  10. Stereotype threat”: a self-fulfilling prophecy in education

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    O.A. Gulevitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon of “stereotype threat”– the influence of stereotypes on learning and achievement level in members of gender, age and ethnic groups. We analyze overt and covert forms of actualization of such ideas. We describe the basic mechanisms of their action (actualization of social identity, negative emotions, extraneous thoughts, increased self-control, difficulty in learning, reduction of self-efficacy, increased motivation of avoidance, de-identification with the area of activity. We highlight the main ways to reduce the “stereotype threat” focused on social identity (actualization or creating a new identity, stereotypes (from the removal of stereotype stimuli to demonstration of positive behaviors, task (modified instruction and individual human characteristics (higher self-efficacy, learning coping strategies. We note that the knowledge of the “stereotype threat”impact laws can improve learning efficiency.

  11. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  12. Gender stereotypes in organizations

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    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  13. Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fureix Carole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotypic behaviours, i.e. repetitive behaviours induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope and/or brain dysfunction, are intriguing as they occur in a variety of domestic and captive species without any clear adaptive function. Among the different hypotheses, the coping hypothesis predicts that stereotypic behaviours provide a way for animals in unfavourable environmental conditions to adjust. As such, they are expected to have a lower physiological stress level (glucocorticoids than non-stereotypic animals. Attempts to link stereotypic behaviours with glucocorticoids however have yielded contradictory results. Here we investigated correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses (NStudy1 = 55, NStudy2 = 58, kept in sub-optimal conditions (e.g. confinement, social isolation, and already known to experience poor welfare states. Each horse was observed in its box using focal sampling (study 1 and instantaneous scan sampling (study 2. Plasma samples (collected in study 1 but also non-invasive faecal samples (collected in both studies were retrieved in order to assess cortisol levels. Results Results showed that 1 plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations did not differ between horses displaying stereotypic behaviours and non-stereotypic horses and 2 both oral and motor stereotypic behaviour levels did not predict plasma cortisol or faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations. Conclusions Cortisol measures, collected in two large samples of horses using both plasma sampling as well as faecal sampling (the latter method minimizing bias due to a non-invasive sampling procedure, therefore do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity.

  14. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective.

  15. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  16. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  17. Stereotypes of autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douwe Draaisma

    2009-01-01

    .... This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result...

  18. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation.

  19. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  20. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  1. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  2. Comparing the Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Response-Cost Contingencies on Tics in Youth with Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Matthew R.; Brandt, Bryan C.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Espil, Flint M.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions,…

  3. Intergroup Biases: A Focus on Stereotype Content

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Impressions of others, including societal groups, systematically array along two dimensions, warmth (trustworthiness/friendliness) and competence. Social structures of competition and status respectively predict these usually orthogonal dimensions. Prejudiced emotions (pride, pity, contempt, and envy) target each quadrant, and distinct discriminatory behavioral tendencies result. The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) patterns generalize across time (2oth century), culture (every populated contin...

  4. Intergroup Biases: A Focus on Stereotype Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2015-06-01

    Impressions of others, including societal groups, systematically array along two dimensions, warmth (trustworthiness/friendliness) and competence. Social structures of competition and status respectively predict these usually orthogonal dimensions. Prejudiced emotions (pride, pity, contempt, and envy) target each quadrant, and distinct discriminatory behavioral tendencies result. The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) patterns generalize across time (2oth century), culture (every populated continent), level of analysis (targets from individuals to subtypes to groups to nations), and measures (from neural to self-report to societal indicators). Future directions include individual differences in endorsement of these cultural stereotypes and how perceivers view combinations across the SCM space.

  5. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  6. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  7. An automated method for the assessment of spontaneous and stereotyped climbing behavior in mice. Effects of the selective D1- and D2-dopamine receptor agonists SKF-38393 and RU-24926 and their association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Charpentier, S; Costentin, J

    1991-03-01

    A video-tracking technique has been used for the evaluation of climbing behavior in mice. An automated image analysis system, the Videotrack 512 (Electronique Lyonnaise), was adapted for this specific application. This allowed distinguishing between spontaneous climbing and stereotyped climbing. The activity duration of mice was simultaneously measured. In order to validate this method, in the present study the ability of apomorphine to induce climbing in mice, and the effects of the D1-dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393 and the D2-dopamine agonist RU-24926 and their association were investigated.

  8. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Sørensen, Lauge; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype for some image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualizes what visual information the classication relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classi cation...... and serves for comparison with thebiological models of disease. We build the exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminativeterm based on the classi cation accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distribution. Agradient descent method...... is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's Linear Discriminant rule,and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is appliedto computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustratethe...

  9. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments.

  10. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  11. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Klemenhagen

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

  12. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...

  13. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  14. Breaking Science Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Gehringer, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study in which fourth and fifth grade students drew pictures of what they believed a scientist looks like. Scientists then visited the classrooms and students were asked to draw another picture of what scientists look like. More stereotypic views of scientists were seen in the first drawings than in the second. (SAH)

  15. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  16. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

  17. CLINICAL PEARL: The Spectrum of Autism—From Neuronal Connections to Behavioral Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are defined behaviorally by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV-TR based on abnormal development in social interaction and communication and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviors and interests that are evident before the age of 3. After decades of debate, research has demonstrated that the distinctions among autism, Asperger disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified are neither clinically reliable nor ba...

  18. The expression of stereotypes of criminals and human rights defenders: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate, between Brazilian and Spanish participants, the stereotypes of criminals and human rights defenders, and the extent to which this assessment is affected by the type of crime and the implicit theories adopted to explain criminal behavior. Even though the results indicated differences in the attribution of stereotypes to criminals and human rights defenders, it was not possible to identify any effect on the expression of stereotypes from the type of crime or the implicit theories. Although a certain homogeneity in the stereotypes of criminals can be demonstrated, in the case of human rights defenders the stereotypical representation is more complex and contradictory.

  19. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  20. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder.

  1. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  2. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  3. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-02-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves behavioral and biochemical deficits in levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Guan, Lina; Yi, Maoli; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-09-13

    Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model. The effect of rTMS on abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) was assessed. After ending the experiments, we further determined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons number by immunohistochemistry, dopamine levels by HPLC, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels by ELISA, NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B with Fyn by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that rTMS obviously attenuated AIMs scores, reduced the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the fluctuations of striatal dopamine levels. Meanwhile, rTMS significantly increased the expression of GDNF, which couldrestore the damage of dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, rTMS also reduced the levels of the NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation andits interactions with Fyn in the lesioned striatum of LID rats model. Thus, these data indicate that rTMS can provide benefit for the therapy of LID by improving the key biochemical deficits related to dyskinesia.

  5. Trust beyond reputation: A computational trust model based on stereotypes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Trust plays important roles in diverse, large scale, open environments. Computational trust models help to, for instance, guide users' judgements in online auction sites about other users; or determine quality of contributions in web 2.0 sites. Most existing trust models, however, require historical information about past behavior of a specific agent in question -- information that is not always available. In contrast, in real life interactions, in order to make the first guess about the trustworthiness of a stranger, we commonly use our "instinct" -- essentially stereotypes developed from our past interactions with "similar" other people. In this paper, we propose StereoTrust, a computational trust model inspired by use of stereotypes in real life. A stereotype contains certain features of agents and an expected outcome of the transaction. These features can be taken from the agents' profile information, or the agents' observed behavior. When facing a stranger, the stereotypes matching stranger's profile are...

  6. Towards exaggerated image stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Given a training set of images and a binary classifier,we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype forsome image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates thecharacteristic patterns in an image and visualizes which visualinformation the classification relies on. This is useful...... featuresdifferentiating digits. Then it is applied to a face dataset usingActive Appearance Model (AAM), where male faces stereotypesare evolved from initial female faces....

  7. Studying Is Lame when He Got Game: Racial Stereotypes and the Discouragement of Black Student-Athletes from Schoolwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopp, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Positive stereotypes appear favorable but may have negative consequences for the targets of such beliefs. Because such stereotypes often have prescriptive properties, stereotype-confirming behavior among targets may be perceived as especially appropriate and subsequently rewarded. Furthermore, targets may be actively encouraged to engage in such…

  8. Sex, lies, and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoof, J

    1998-01-22

    Efforts begun in 1977 as a 1-year project to ensure that Roe vs. Wade was implemented and enforced in the US continue today. Roe recognized that women must have the ability to make autonomous decisions about childbearing in order to be equal participants in society and that the government must remain neutral before the period of fetal viability. This breakthrough in women's rights was quickly threatened by anti-abortion forces that espoused "fetal rights" and demonized women seeking abortion. The 1992 Casey decision, while not overturning Roe, eradicated the key element of state neutrality and reinstated the stereotype that a woman should not be trusted to make an abortion decision on her own. This decision runs counter to court decisions that resist sexual stereotypes in every other area of American life. The latest threat is found in the "partial birth" abortion bans enacted in 17 states and blocked, in most cases, by Federal judges. It is time for the US Supreme Court to abandon sexual stereotypes and recognize that there is no real difference between women who have an abortion and women who choose to give birth.

  9. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  10. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  11. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  12. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  13. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response.

  14. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  15. Removal of FKBP12 enhances mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative/repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffer, Charles A; Tang, Wei; Wong, Helen; Santillan, Arturo; Patterson, Richard J; Martinez, Luis A; Tejada-Simon, Maria V; Paylor, Richard; Hamilton, Susan L; Klann, Eric

    2008-12-10

    FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene in mice altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition test. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors.

  16. Des stereotypes de la France et des Francais chez des etudiants mexicains (Some Stereotypes of France and the French Held by Mexican Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugibet, Veronica

    1983-01-01

    The origins and functions of stereotypes are discussed, a classroom study of Mexican students' perceptions of the French and French culture based on their responses to French advertising and cartoons is reported, and implications for instruction and teacher behavior to change existing stereotypes are outlined. (MSE)

  17. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  18. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  19. COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF OTHER BEHAVIOR AND RESPONSE-COST CONTINGENCIES ON TICS IN YOUTH WITH TOURETTE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Capriotti, Matthew R.; Brandt, Bryan C.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions, the present study compared the effects of two treatments on tics: response cost (RC) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Four ch...

  20. Two knockdown models of the autism genes SYNGAP1 and SHANK3 in zebrafish produce similar behavioral phenotypes associated with embryonic disruptions of brain morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kozol, Robert A; Cukier, Holly N.; Zou, Bing; Mayo, Vera; De Rubeis, Silvia; Cai, Guiqing; Griswold, Anthony J.; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Haines, Jonathan L; Gilbert, John R; CUCCARO, MICHAEL L.; Martin, Eden R.; Baker, James D.; Joseph D. Buxbaum; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), how genetic mutations translate to the behavioral changes characteristic of ASD remains largely unknown. ASD affects 1–2% of children and adults, and is characterized by deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and social interactions, as well as the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or stereotyped interests. ASD is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous, with a strong genetic component. Here, we pr...

  1. Sex Stereotyping by Tomorrow's Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study in which 512 college seniors were surveyed to see if members of one sex would implicitly stereotype by sex to a greater degree than the other. Questions concerned job/home conflicts and selection and promotion. Results indicated that men and women are equally guilty of sex stereotyping, which works against women in the workplace.…

  2. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Motivated self-stereotyping: heightened assimilation and differentiation needs result in increased levels of positive and negative self-stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Cynthia L; Bonner, Bryan L; Coleman, Jill M

    2002-04-01

    This research was conducted to explore the impact of assimilation and differentiation needs on content-specific self-stereotyping. According to optimal distinctiveness theory (M. B. Brewer, 1991), social identities serve the function of satisfying individuals' need for assimilation (in-group inclusion) and their need for differentiation (distinctiveness from others). It was proposed that one of the ways optimal social identities are maintained is through self-stereotyping. In 3 studies, the needs for assimilation and differentiation were experimentally manipulated, and support was found for increased self-stereotyping in response to heightened need arousal across both self-report and behavioral measures and across different social groups. Results also demonstrated that only those participants who were highly identified with their in-group were willing to engage in negative self-stereotyping.

  4. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  5. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  6. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders.

  7. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  8. Stereotypes and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.

  9. Stereotypes of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-05-27

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition.

  10. Brief Report: Stereotypes in Autism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jennifer Christina; Schmitz, Florian; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autism involves core impairments in social cognition. Given that social learning underlies the acquisition of stereotypes, it was hypothesized that use of stereotypes would be reduced in autism. Contrary to this prediction, previous studies found the same use of stereotypes in autistic individuals as in controls. Measurement of stereotypes,…

  11. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  12. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  13. Brief Report: Stereotypes in Autism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jennifer Christina; Schmitz, Florian; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autism involves core impairments in social cognition. Given that social learning underlies the acquisition of stereotypes, it was hypothesized that use of stereotypes would be reduced in autism. Contrary to this prediction, previous studies found the same use of stereotypes in autistic individuals as in controls. Measurement of stereotypes,…

  14. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  15. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  16. Sex differences in neural efficiency: Are they due to the stereotype threat effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Beate; Benedek, Mathias; Bergner, Sabine; Athenstaedt, Ursula; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2013-10-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis postulates a more efficient use of brain resources in more intelligent people as compared to less intelligent ones. However, this relationship was found to be moderated by sex and task content. While the phenomenon of neural efficiency was previously supported for men when performing visuo-spatial tasks it occurred for women only when performing verbal tasks. One possible explanation for this finding could be provided by the well-studied phenomenon called stereotype threat. Stereotype threat arises when a negative stereotype of one's own group is made salient and can result in behavior that confirms the stereotype. Overall, 32 boys and 31 girls of varying intellectual ability were tested with a mental rotation task, either under a stereotype exposure or a no-stereotype exposure condition while measuring their EEG. The behavioral results show that an activated negative stereotype not necessarily hampers the performance of girls. Physiologically, a confirmation of the neural efficiency phenomenon was only obtained for boys working under a no-stereotype exposure condition. This result pattern replicates previous findings without threat and thus suggests that sex differences in neural efficiency during visuo-spatial tasks may not be due to the stereotype threat effect.

  17. Stereotype Threat in Manual Labor Settings for African American and Caucasian Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Jennifer L.; Green, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat has primarily been studied with regard to test performance in academic settings, testing aptitude, ability, and intelligence, and it has been found to cause both behavioral and cognitive decrements. Although there is research on stereotype threat in the workplace, this too is usually conducted in upper-level or more academically…

  18. Evaluation of Stimulus Control over a Communication Response as an Intervention for Stereotypical Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Doughty, Shannon S.; Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypical behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement often does not result in harm but may be undesirable in some situations. In the current investigation, participants were 2 individuals who engaged in nonharmful stereotypical responses shown in an analogue functional analysis to be insensitive to social contingencies. After bringing…

  19. Influences of Stereotypes on Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎颢

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a snapshot of different aspects of stereotypes from the perspective of intercultural com-munication. It touches on the definition and classification of stereotypes, introduces contemporary empirical studies on stereotypes at home and abroad, and highlights influences of stereotypes on intercultural communication. Paradox of cross-cultural communication is cited to clarify the correlations between the advantages and drawbacks of stereotypes in the process of intercultural communication.

  20. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-01-01

    In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurtur...

  1. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  2. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice.

  3. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Velandia Morales; Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  4. Stereotype: End of (a story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an analytic retrospective of the author’s work during the preceding research period, involving the study of role, meaning and place of stereotypes in identity discourses. In order to explain the reasons for and ways of dealing with stereotypes, she reviews the evolution of her own research approach and the alternative approaches to the topic from the perspective of various scholarly disciplines. Seeking to avoid the trap of “interpreting (ethnic stereotypes stereotypically”, the author chooses not to follow the usual method whereby ethnic stereotypes are “deconstructed” as false and generalizing image of oneself and others, and exposed to social-psychological and political-anthropological critique. Instead, the author looks at stereotypes primarily in terms of their linguistic and social “semiotics” and their theoretical and practical usability. Stressing the necessity of relativizing the binary structure of discourse, the author argues that stereotypes, though indispensable as elements of the “economy” of language and thought, should be socially conceptualized and historicized in analysis.

  5. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2015-10-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system.

  7. Revisiting Adam's Rib: Student Performance, Gender Stereotyping, and Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara L.; Moran, Sheena M.

    2008-01-01

    The manuscript explores gender stereotyping in performance evaluations in undergraduate mock trial competitions. The central hypothesis is that gendered expectations for attorney and witness behavior in the legal community inform and influence the evaluation of undergraduate performance in relation to communication methods, argumentation…

  8. Down Syndrome Temperament: The Stereotype at Middle Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Pat; Cuskelly, Monica

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral ratings by mothers and teachers of 94 children with Down's Syndrome (between 8 and 14 years of age) indicated general support for the amiable personality stereotype, but ratings of low persistence were associated with maternal impressions of difficulty. There was little agreement between mothers and teachers regarding individual child…

  9. Revisiting Sex-Role Stereotyping in MTV Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    This study was a replication of one that investigated sex-role stereotyping of occupations and behaviors of music video characters shown on MTV (Music Television) in 1987. It employed a random sample of 91 MTV music videos broadcast in 1993, and found a continuation of male and female characters shown in sex-typed jobs. Contains 56 references.…

  10. Revisiting Adam's Rib: Student Performance, Gender Stereotyping, and Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara L.; Moran, Sheena M.

    2008-01-01

    The manuscript explores gender stereotyping in performance evaluations in undergraduate mock trial competitions. The central hypothesis is that gendered expectations for attorney and witness behavior in the legal community inform and influence the evaluation of undergraduate performance in relation to communication methods, argumentation…

  11. TV Stereotyping: "How to Keep 'em Down on the Farm."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, N. Ferris

    The modeling theory of aggressive behavior being promoted by violence on television points to more serious implications, that is, the molding of a national consciousness laden with 19th century values and stereotypical characterizations of reality. Since students are not taught how to watch television, they use it as a perception of reality.…

  12. Down Syndrome Temperament: The Stereotype at Middle Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Pat; Cuskelly, Monica

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral ratings by mothers and teachers of 94 children with Down's Syndrome (between 8 and 14 years of age) indicated general support for the amiable personality stereotype, but ratings of low persistence were associated with maternal impressions of difficulty. There was little agreement between mothers and teachers regarding individual child…

  13. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  14. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  15. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  16. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  17. Undoing Gender Stereotypes in Hindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for using any language is the willingness of the speaker to follow the rules of the game. Socially defined norms of language use then tend to set the limits within which one can express oneself using this language. Whether these norms set the speaker free or whether they act as constraints in a free expression of Self, is a question that will be raised in this article. Using examples from Hindi, the paper highlights the role of such norms of language use in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes get constructed as part of a broader process of social differentiation but the site of this construction is to a large extent the normal everyday discourse. A normal classroom discussion amongst university students in New Delhi thus shows how deep rooted such stereotypes are and how effectively they get perpetuated through language and linguistic norms in Indian society. The basic premise in this paper is that meanings are context-specific, they are not fixed and they get created in discourse. But since language use is one thread in social fabric, it serves as an instrument to construct and perpetuate gender stereotypes. The paper is more of an essay on issues that became obvious about gender stereotypes during two classroom discussions. It should not therefore be taken as a study into the deeper aspects of gender representation in Hindi.

  18. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research.

  19. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  20. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  1. Just say no (to stereotyping): effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, K; Dovidio, J F; Moll, J; Hermsen, S; Russin, A

    2000-05-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to examine the effect of training in negating stereotype associations on stereotype activation. Across 3 studies, participants received practice in negating stereotypes related to skinhead and racial categories. The subsequent automatic activation of stereotypes was measured using either a primed Stroop task (Studies I and 2) or a person categorization task (Study 3). The results demonstrate that when receiving no training or training in a nontarget category stereotype, participants exhibited spontaneous stereotype activation. After receiving an extensive amount of training related to a specific category, however, participants demonstrated reduced stereotype activation. The results from the training task provide further evidence for the impact of practice on participants' proficiency in negating stereotypes.

  2. Perception of intentions and actions: gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Wecker, Matthias; Krombholz, Kerstin; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2010-01-22

    Gender differences are evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying basis for these differences is unclear. There is some indication that gender effects have neurobiological sources. Here we manipulated stereotype messages about gender differences in a social cognition task, on which no gender gap has previously been documented. The outcome indicates that manipulation of stereotype messages elicits gender effects. A positive message enhances performance, whereas a negative message diminishes it. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in females, with a greater force of a negative stereotype message. The study provides novel insights into the possible sources of gender related fluctuations in social cognition. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral components and brain mechanisms underpinning gender effects in social cognition.

  3. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  4. Stereotyped perceptions of chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til at retfæ......Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til...... at retfærdiggøre stereotype kategoriseringer....

  5. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Communication Stereotypes and Perceptions of Managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, Jessica H; Crawford, Mary

    2012-01-01

    ... that is usually targeted at women would have an impact on managerial targets’ speech. Results indicated that racial stereotypes were more salient than gender stereotypes, with participants viewing White managers...

  7. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  8. Suppression as a stereotype control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, M J; Sherman, J W; Devine, P G

    1998-01-01

    Recent research reveals that efforts to suppress stereotypic thoughts can backfire and produce a rebound effect, such that stereotypic thinking increases to a level that is even greater than if no attempt at stereotype control was initially exercised (e.g., Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten, 1994). The primary goal of this article is to present an in-depth theoretical analysis of stereotype suppression that identifies numerous potential moderators of the effect of stereotype suppression on the likelihood of subsequent rebound. Our analysis of stereotype suppression focuses on two broad issues: the influence of level of prejudice and the influence of processing goals on the activation versus application of stereotypes. Although stereotype rebound occurs under some circumstances, we suggest that a complete understanding of this phenomenon requires consideration of the full array of possible moderating influences.

  9. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  10. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  11. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  12. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study I, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through

  13. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study I, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through

  14. Immunity to Popular Stereotypes of Aging? Seniors and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph; Pearce, William; Deakin, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that seniors' short-term performance is affected by stereotype threat--defined as a situation in which an individual is at risk of confirming a negative characterization about one's group. The current study attempted to replicate and extend these findings to areas of cognitive and physical functioning considered…

  15. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  16. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  17. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  18. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  19. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  20. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goclowska; R.J. Crisp; K. Labuschagne

    2012-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  1. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  2. Toward a Broader View of Social Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Stereotyping effects are typically considered to be assimilative in nature: A member of a group stereotyped as having some attribute is judged to have more of that attribute than a member of some comparison group. This article highlights the fact that stereotyping effects can also occur in the direction of contrast--or even null effects--depending…

  3. The Development of Social Stereotyping in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    This paper discusses a theory of the formation of social stereotyping and prejudice in children. This intergroup-developmental theory of prejudice has three primary goals: to account for the development of stereotyping and prejudice across multiple domains; to provide a developmental account of social stereotyping, outlining how developmental…

  4. Images and Stereotypes of the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews how the popular stereotypes of American Indians have changed since the colonization of North America. Once seen as noble savages by European settlers, the popular stereotypes changed to become less and less positive as colonization advanced. Urges teachers to vigorously challenge the stereotypes and negative images. (JDH)

  5. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  6. Today's Chicano Refutes the Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Bonnie M.; Cross, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of skin color on male-female self-concepts were measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. No significant differences were found between the study and the norm groups. The self-image of today's Chicano tends to refute negative stereotyping. (Author)

  7. Stereotype Threat: Effects on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cary Stacy; Hung, Li-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Numerous stereotypes exist regarding race and gender, and while all are difficult to eradicate, one still regnant throughout society is the notion that females are not as capable as males within the fields of math and science. In order to expose this belief as faulty, an in depth literature review was initiated, with special attention being placed…

  8. Stereotypes of Old People Persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tornstam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, as well as in 1982, almost 90 percent of Swedes subscribed to the stereotype that retirement pensioners suffer from loneliness and more than half of Swedes also believed that pensioners suffer from boredom and dissatisfaction with life.Little seems to have changed for the better, or even impaired with regard to the images of the psychological conditions of pensioners, at the same time as Swedes have become somewhat more knowledgeable about the physiological/material conditions associated with aging. This follows from a 2005 follow-up of a Swedish Facts on Aging Quiz, first given in 1982. The comparatively stable pattern of stereotypes over the 23-year period indicates that stereotypes – in old, well-known or permutated forms – will prevail as long as their ageist roots do. The changes observed indicate the possibility of a future pattern of stereotypes, which combines an exaggerated “positive” image of retirement pensioners’ health and wealth, with associated envy of the “greedy geezers”, and pity for their lonely and meaningless lives.

  9. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T L Cox

    Full Text Available We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal, our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay. We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817, assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  10. Stereotypes Possess Heterogeneous Directionality: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of Stereotype Structure and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. PMID:25811181

  11. Women drive better if not stereotyped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Cadinu, Mara; Maass, Anne

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held stereotype is that women are poor drivers. This stereotype is recognized and endorsed by women and girls very early on, long before taking their driving licence, nevertheless they are less involved in accidents and drive safer and less fast than men. In line with the stereotype threat theory, the present study tests the hypothesis that making the driving stereotype salient will lead women to underperform in a driving simulation task. In Experiment 1women in the stereotype threat condition were told that the aim of the study was to detect gender differences in driving whereas in a control condition no study aim was provided. In Experiment 2, two conditions were compared: stereotype threat (same instructions as in Experiment 1), and stereotype boost (the alleged goal was to compare driving ability of young vs. old people). As predicted, the results of both experiments showed that women under stereotype threat, as compared to either control or stereotype boost participants, doubled the number of mistakes. Nevertheless, they overall expected/self-reported to drive/have driven poorly. Importantly, their level of expectation was a significant predictor of their actual driving performance only in the stereotype threat condition. Implications of these effects of stereotype threat on women's driving performance and self-assessment are discussed.

  12. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls.

  13. When Using a Negative Gender Stereotype as an Excuse Increases Gender Stereotyping in Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkley, Melissa; Andrade, Angela; Burkley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has shown that women use gender stereotypes to excuse their stereotypic failures, and doing so incurs negative costs. This study examined if the audience who witnesses a woman using such a stereotypic excuse also incurs costs in the form of increased gender stereotype endorsement. Male and female participants reviewed a survey supposedly completed by a female target who recently took a math exam. In this survey, the female target either performed well or poorly on the exam, and when asked to explain her performance, either invoked a gender stereotype as an excuse (e.g., women are worse at math than men) or not. The results indicated that men (but not women) showed greater gender stereotype endorsement after reading about a female target that invoked a stereotypic excuse. These results suggest that when women use a gender stereotype as an excuse, they may unintentionally cause some observers to increase their endorsement of gender stereotypes.

  14. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  15. Thanks, but No Thanks: Women's Avoidance of Help-Seeking in the Context of a Dependency-Related Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Juliet R. H.; Hopkins, Nick; Greenwood, Ronni M.

    2012-01-01

    The stereotype that women are dependent on men is a commonly verbalized, potentially damaging aspect of benevolent sexism. We investigated how women may use behavioral disconfirmation of the personal applicability of the stereotype to negotiate such sexism. In an experiment (N = 86), we manipulated female college students' awareness that women may…

  16. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  17. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  18. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  19. Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: the differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-01-01

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated that why people stereotype determines how they stereotype: When a comprehension goal was salient, positive as well as negative stereotypes were applied, whereas a salient self-enhancement goal led to the application of negative but not positive stereotypes. Study 3 replicated these effects with different stereotypes. Study 4 replicated these effects and gave more insight in the consequences of goal fulfillment on stereotyping. Results indicated the fulfillment of a salient self-enhancement or comprehension goal led to the reduction of stereotyping. These effects were goal specific: Fulfillment of a self-enhancement goal decreased enhancement-driven but not comprehension-driven stereotyping; fulfillment of a comprehension goal decreased comprehension-driven but not enhancement-driven stereotyping.

  20. 'Help me! I'm old!' How negative aging stereotypes create dependency among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudin, Genevieve; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of negative aging stereotypes on self-reported loneliness, risk-taking, subjective health, and help-seeking behavior in a French sample of older adults. The aim of this study was to show the detrimental effects of negative aging stereotypes on older adults' self-evaluations and behaviors, therefore contributing to the explanations of the iatrogenic effect of social environments that increase dependency (e.g., health care institutions). In the first experiment conducted on 57 older adults, we explored the effects of positive, neutral, or negative stereotype activation on the feeling of loneliness and risk taking decision. The second experiment (n = 60) examined the impact of stereotype activation on subjective health, self-reported extraversion as well as on a genuine help-seeking behavior, by allowing participants to ask for the experimenter's help while completing a task. As predicted, negative stereotype activation resulted in lower levels of risk taking, subjective health and extraversion, and in higher feelings of loneliness and a more frequent help-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that the mere activation of negative stereotypes can have broad and deleterious effects on older individuals' self-evaluation and functioning, which in turn may contribute to the often observed dependency among older people.

  1. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Toca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.

  2. Stereotypes in media and media literacy among young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people, the most common consumers of media content, bear out the view that media shapes people’s lives. Therefore we must not underestimate the effect media exerts on young people’s values and behavioral patterns. Television is the medium which draws children and young people for the greatest part of their free time. Regardless whether television programs are described as positive or negative, whether they abound with stereotypes or not, it is important that young people develop a critical attitude towards them so that they may resist different forms of media manipulation. The paper discusses how stereotypes are generated and used by media and the manners in which stereotypical concepts affect young people’s attitudes. It highlights the importance of the development of media literacy which implies a critical attitude towards media images and discourses, the development of criteria for the selection and evaluation of information broadcast by media, the development of skills in interpreting and understanding stereotypical concepts and familiarity with alternative forms of media culture. The paper draws special attention to the issue of media education. The conclusion is that schools should offer media literacy as part of their curriculum and in it possible solutions to the problems discussed. .

  3. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups. With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129 and older (n = 112 German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups. When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype’s components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  4. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DALIA PETCU; SORIN SUCIU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; CIPRIAN OBRAD

    2012-01-01

    Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  5. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALIA PETCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  6. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T

    2010-08-10

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response.

  7. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.

  8. Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, A G; Banaji, M R

    1995-01-01

    Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion--that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation--extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures--which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.

  9. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  10. The cognitive representation of self-stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, Marcella; Vaes, Jeroen; Cadinu, Mara; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present work looks at the self-stereotyping process and reveals its underlying cognitive structure. When this process occurs, it is necessarily the result of an overlap between the representation of the ingroup and that of the self. Two studies measured this overlap and showed that it was higher on stereotype-relevant than on stereotype-irrelevant traits, it involved both positive and negative stereotypical traits, and it implied a deduction-to-the-self process of ingroup stereotypical dimensions. Moreover, the status of one's social group was found to be a key variable in this process, showing that self-stereotyping is limited to low-status group members. Indeed, results of Study 2 showed that the overlap between the self and the ingroup for high-status group members was the result of an induction-to-the-ingroup process of personal characteristics. Implications for research on people's self-construal are discussed.

  11. STEREOTYPES REGARDING ACCOUNTING PROFESSION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Atena FARAGALLA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current article highlights the main stereotypes associated with the accounting profession, the traditional accountant stereotype and the business professional stereotype. Although the business professional stereotype is not that commonly used when reffering to the accounting profession, lately it started to have its own ‚voice’. To see what is the image that this profession has in Romania, we will investigate through this empirical study, which is based on a questionnaire, the accounting profession using two main directions so we can find out: if the professional accounting has the features of the traditional stereotype in the respondents conception or if the profession is seen through the features of the business professional stereotype.

  12. Stereotypical images and implicit weight bias in overweight/obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Burmeister, Jacob M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Koball, Afton M

    2013-12-01

    In this brief report, an unanswered question in implicit weight bias research is addressed: Is weight bias stronger when obese and thin people are pictured engaging in stereotype consistent behaviors (e.g., obese-watching TV/eating junk food; thin-exercising/eating healthy) as opposed to the converse? Implicit Associations Test (IAT) data were collected from two samples of overweight/obese adults participating in weight loss treatment. Both samples completed two IATs. In one IAT, obese and thin people were pictured engaging in stereotype consistent behaviors (e.g., obese-watching TV/eating junk food; thin-exercising/eating healthy). In the second IAT, obese and thin people were pictured engaging in stereotype inconsistent behaviors (e.g., obese-exercising/eating healthy; thin-watching TV/eating junk food). Implicit weight bias was evident regardless of whether participants viewed stereotype consistent or inconsistent pictures. However, implicit bias was significantly stronger for stereotype consistent compared to stereotype inconsistent images. Implicit anti-fat attitudes may be connected to the way in which people with obesity are portrayed.

  13. CONSUMERS’ OPINIONS ON GENDER STEREOTYPING IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Kolman, Petra; Tkalac Verčić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Successful advertising conveys dominant and accepted values of a certain country, culture or group of people. By using values characteristic of a specific segment, the likelihood of creating a successful advertisement increases, which is why stereotypes that exist in a society have a very big influence on advertising content and style. One of the most discussed types of stereotyping is gender stereotyping. Since a culture greatly affects the way gender roles are defined and since most of the ...

  14. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of Jersey Shore, investigating three gendered issues: physical appearance, social roles and behavioral traits. Findings demonstrated the carefully manufactured relationship between gender role stereotyping and reality television programming in Jersey Shore, and illustrate the development of the female reality show character as related to sexualized behavior and social/emotional gender stereotypes. The depiction of female reality show characters seems to have increased its level of sensationalism, while continuing to be clichéd and conventional, while depiction of male characters is beginning to push the boundaries of being typecast in regards to their physical appearance and role in performing domestic tasks. Additionally, physical alterations on screen were many, warranting further investigation of this behavior.

  15. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  16. Gender-dependent effects of maternal immune activation on the behavior of mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid C Y Xuan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior.

  17. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

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    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  18. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  19. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  20. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  1. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  2. Self-image threat decreases stereotyping: The role of motivation toward closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Bukowski, Marcin; Guinote, Ana; Dragon, Piotr; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2016-01-01

    Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, our results demonstrate that the fear of invalidity resulting from self-image threat induction is responsible for the foregoing effects (Study 3). These results are discussed in light of theories of motivational readiness and lay epistemics.

  3. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  4. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  5. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  6. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  7. Being smart or getting smarter: Implicit theory of intelligence moderates stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Laura; Martiny, Sarah E; Deaux, Kay; Goetz, Thomas; Mok, Sog Yee

    2016-09-01

    This research explores implicit theory of intelligence (TOI) as a moderator of stereotype activation effects on test performance for members of negatively stereotyped and of favourably stereotyped groups. In Germany, Turkish-origin migrants are stereotyped as low in verbal ability. We predicted that on a test diagnostic of verbal intelligence, endorsement of an entity TOI predicts stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students and stereotype lift effects for German students. This effect could account for some of the performance gap between immigrants and host society members after stereotype activation. Study 1 (N = 107) established structural equivalence of implicit theories across the ethnic groups. In two experimental studies (Study 2: N = 182, Study 3: N = 190), we tested the moderating effect of TOI in a 2 (stereotype activation: diagnostic vs. non-diagnostic test) × 2 (ethnicity: German vs. Turkish migration background) experimental design. The results showed that when the test was described as diagnostic of verbal intelligence, higher entity theory endorsement predicted stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students (Study 2 and Study 3) and stereotype lift effects for German students (Study 3). The results are discussed in terms of practical implications for educational settings and theoretical implications for processes underlying stereotype activation effects.

  8. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  9. Dating Preferences in Sex Stereotypic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine A.

    Although research suggest a general preference by men for attractive partners, attractiveness may be more important for some men than for others. This study was conducted to investigate the role of men's sex stereotypic attitudes on their dating preferences. It was hypothesized that the level of sex stereotyping would correlate with the level…

  10. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  11. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  12. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  13. Diagnosing Sex-Role Stereotyping in SEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Feiss, Katherine

    In response to a request from the Southeast Council, the Southeast Alternatives (SEA) Internal Evaluation Team undertook a study to provide information about sex-role stereotyping in Southeast Alternatives schools. The questionnaire had ten questions that asked such things as if stereotyping occurred, where it occurred, what would be the best…

  14. Stereotypes as a Measure of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Kitano, Harry H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Whereas early Chinese and Japanese stereotypes were uniformly negative, reflecting the social, economic, and political climate in America, currently these Asian American groups are viewed as highly successful, model minorities; it is suggested that some stereotypes have a kernel of truth. (Author/JM)

  15. Stereotype Traits can be Processed Automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    functional, providing the individual with a psychological justification for prejudice ( Adorno , Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950; Katz, 1960...stereotypes outlined by Deaux and iLewmis (1983). 1% Stereotype traits page 26 References - Adorno , T. V., Frenkel-Brunawik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R

  16. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  17. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  18. LONGMU BUPLEURUM DECOCTION ON STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR AND EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN(GFAP)IN RAT MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA%柴胡龙牡汤对精神分裂症大鼠模型刻板行为和胶质细胞纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东阳; 周秀芳; 孙晓东; 陈涛; 鲁娜

    2011-01-01

    [目的]观察柴胡龙牡汤对精神分裂症大鼠模型刻板行为和GFAP表达的影响.[方法]将44只大鼠分为4组,空白组腹腔注射生理盐水.剩余3组均用氯胺酮造模(腹腔注射氯胺),其中氯氮平组从d4开始加用氮氮平灌胃,柴胡龙牡汤组从d4开始加用柴胡龙牡汤灌胃.[结果]模型组刻板行为较空白组明显增多;氯氮平组和柴胡龙牡汤组刻板行为均较模型组明显减少;柴胡龙牡汤组刻板行为较氯氮平组增多.模型组GFAP表达较空白组明显增多;氯氮平组GFAP表达较模型组明显减少;柴胡龙牡汤组GFAP表达较模型组明显减少;柴胡龙牡汤组GFAP表达较氯氮平组增多.[结论]柴胡龙牡汤对精神分裂症大鼠模型前额叶GFAP和刻板行为有一定的影响.%[Objective] To observe Longmu Bupleurum Decoction on stereotyped behavior and CFAP expression in rat model of schizophrenia. [Methods] 44 rats were divided into 4 groups, control group injected with normal saline.The remaining three groups were made using ketamine model (intraperitoneal injection of ketamine), in which clozapine group was added intragastric administration of clozapine from the fourth day, Chai Hu Tang Longmu d starting was added intragastric administration of Bupleurum Longmu from the fourth day. [Results] The stereotyped behavior in model group increased significantly comparing with control group; the stereotyped behaviors in clozapine group and Bupleurum Decoction group Longmu were significantly reduced comparing with model group; the stereotypic behavior in Bupleurum Longmu Decoction increased more comparing with that in clozapine group.GFAP expression in model group increased significantly comparing with control group; CFAP expression in clozapine group was significantly reduced comparingwith the model; CFAP expression in Bupleurum Decoction Longmu was significantly reduced comparing with the model; CFAP expression in Bupleurum Longmu Decoction increased more

  19. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes.

  20. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  1. Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-04-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their parents the Short Sensory Profile and Childhood Routines Inventory. Significant correlations were found between degree of sensory abnormalities and amount of restricted and repetitive behaviours reported. Repetitive behaviours, age and IQ significantly predicted completion time on the EFT. The results suggest a cognitive link between an individual's detail-focused cognitive style and their repetitiveness. No such relationship was found with sensory processing abnormalities, which may arise at a more peripheral level of functioning.

  2. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  3. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  4. Contents of Stereotypes toward Woman Subgroups: An Investigation in the Framework of Stereotype Content Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Aktan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the stereotype contents toward woman subgroups and relate these contents to social-structural predictors and sexism. In this respect, 119 university students were recruited for the first study and they were asked to rate 10 woman subgroups in terms of their competence and warmth, and their status and competitiveness. Participants' level of sexism was also measured using ambivalent sexism scale. The findings of the first study revealed that competence and warmth were the two fundamental dimensions of the stereotype contents, these stereotypes could be depicted in three clusters, the content of many women stereotypes were mixed, and status was linked to competence and competition was related to lack of warmth. Besides replicating the main hypotheses of stereotype content model, the findings supported its two basic assumptions, i.e. negative stereotypes are not necessary to reveal stereotype clusters and personal stereotypes are more open to motivational concerns. Finally, sexism was related only with competition, but not with stereotype contents. Since, high competent / high warm cluster was not observed in the first study, the number of woman subgroups was increased in the second study. Thus, 86 university students were asked to rate 18 women subgroups on the scales used in the first study. Results replicated the findings of the first study, supporting the main hypothesis of stereotype content model. The findings of the studies were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  5. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Eimear; Oakhill, Jane; Garnham, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgment task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g., beautician) and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g., brother). Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed two blocks of such judgment trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1) or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2). To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer four questions on each one relating to the character's leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction, and personal life. Accuracy of judgments to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87%) as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%), while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  6. Documenting Nursing and Medical Students' Stereotypes about Hispanic and American Indian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Meghan G; Focella, Elizabeth S; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B; Badger, Terry A

    2014-10-01

    Hispanic Americans and American Indians face significant health disparities compared with White Americans. Research suggests that stereotyping of minority patients by members of the medical community is an important antecedent of race and ethnicity-based health disparities. This work has primarily focused on physicians' perceptions, however, and little research has examined the stereotypes healthcare personnel associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients. The present study assesses: 1) the health-related stereotypes both nursing and medical students hold about Hispanic and American Indian patients, and 2) nursing and medical students' motivation to treat Hispanic and American Indian patients in an unbiased manner. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their awareness of stereotypes that healthcare professionals associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients then completed measures of their motivation to treat Hispanics and American Indians in an unbiased manner. Despite being highly motivated to treat Hispanic and American Indian individuals fairly, the majority of participants reported awareness of stereotypes associating these patient groups with noncompliance, risky health behavior, and difficulty understanding and/or communicating health-related information. This research provides direct evidence for negative health-related stereotypes associated with two understudied minority patient groups-Hispanics and American Indians-among both nursing and medical personnel.

  7. Evidence of nonconscious stereotyping of Hispanic patients by nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Meghan G; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B; Badger, Terry A; Focella, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Current research on nonconscious stereotyping in healthcare is limited by an emphasis on practicing physicians' beliefs about African American patients and by heavy reliance on a measure of nonconscious processes that allows participants to exert control over their behaviors if they are motivated to appear nonbiased. The present research examined whether nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of stereotypes about Hispanic patients using a task that subliminally primes patient ethnicity. It was hypothesized that participants would exhibit greater activation of noncompliance and health risk stereotypes after subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces compared with non-Hispanic White faces and, because ethnicity was primed outside of conscious awareness, that explicit motivations to control prejudice would not moderate stereotype activation. Nursing and medical students completed a sequential priming task that measured the speed with which they recognized words related to noncompliance and health risk after subliminal exposure to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White faces. They then completed explicit measures of their motivation to control prejudice against Hispanics. Both nursing and medical students exhibited greater activation of noncompliance and health risk words after subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces, compared with non-Hispanic White faces. Explicit motivations to control prejudice did not moderate stereotype activation. These findings show that, regardless of their motivation to treat Hispanics fairly, nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of negative stereotypes when they encounter Hispanics. Implications are discussed.

  8. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  9. Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, David M; Hamilton, Holly K

    2012-12-01

    How does intergroup anxiety affect the activation of implicit racial evaluations and stereotypes? Given the common basis of social anxiety and implicit evaluative processes in memory systems linked to classical conditioning and affect, we predicted that intergroup anxiety would amplify implicit negative racial evaluations. Implicit stereotyping, which is associated primarily with semantic memory systems, was not expected to increase as a function of intergroup anxiety. This pattern was observed among White participants preparing to interact with Black partners, but not those preparing to interact with White partners. These findings shed new light on how anxiety, often elicited in real-life intergroup interactions, can affect the operation of implicit racial biases, suggesting that intergroup anxiety has more direct implications for affective and evaluative forms of implicit bias than for implicit stereotyping. These findings also support a memory-systems model of the interplay between emotion and cognition in the context of social behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Retraining attitudes and stereotypes to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Schmader, Toni

    2010-11-01

    In a series of experiments, a retraining paradigm was used to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals' motivation and cognitive capacity in stereotype-threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4), which in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype-threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.

  11. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

  12. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  13. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  14. Stereotype threat and hazard perception among provisional license drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; Webb, Hugh; Stewart, Lisa; Kostyanaya, Maria; Cruwys, Tegan; McNeill, Kathy; Frain, Andrew J; Lim, Li; Jones, Benjamin M; Smyth, Lillian; O'Brien, Kerry J

    2013-05-01

    Stereotype threat refers to the negative impact a stereotype about one's group can have on one's performance in domains relevant to the stereotype. In the current paper, we explore whether the negative stereotype of provisional license drivers (PLDs) might produce stereotype threat in a driving-related hazard perception task. We manipulate threat by asking participants to self-identify as PLDs in a categorization condition, or by reminding PLD participants explicitly of the stereotype of PLDs in an explicit stereotype condition. Results reveal increments in hazard perception in the categorization condition, and decrements in hazard perception in the explicit stereotype condition. Mediation analysis reveals that hazard perception performance is fully mediated by increased effort in the categorization condition and by decreased effort in the explicit stereotype condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for stereotype threat and its mediators, and for public policy that explicitly discriminates between PLDs and other driver groups.

  15. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2006-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping b...

  16. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  17. Repetitive exposures to a surrogate nipple providing nutritive and non-nutritive fluids: effects on suckling behavior of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Evgeniy S; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kramskaya, Tatiana A; Spear, Norman E

    2004-10-01

    Responsiveness to a surrogate nipple providing water, 0.1% saccharin, 10% sucrose, pedialyte, or milk was tested in naïve-to-suckling newborn rats during six 10-min exposures, one every 1.5 h over a 7.5 h period. Across a succession of exposures, newborn rats repeatedly attached to and ingested milk from a surrogate nipple, yielding significant body weight gain and increased concentration of blood plasma glucose. Initially, pups ingested considerable amounts of saccharin and sucrose, but then dramatically decreased their consumption of these fluids across the experimental sessions. Intake of milk was significantly higher than that of all other substances. Blood glucose concentration in pups treated with water, saccharin, sucrose, and pedialyte did not differ significantly from that of non-treated pups. The present data suggest a potential contribution of a fluid's palatability and nutritive value in the persistence and efficacy of diet intake for neonatal rats in the context of suckling behavior.

  18. Histamine H3 receptor agonists decrease hypothalamic histamine levels and increase stereotypical biting in mice challenged with methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemura, Motohiko

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the histamine H(3) receptor agonists (R)-α-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypical behavior were examined in mice. The administration of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to male ddY mice induced behaviors including persistent locomotion and stereotypical behaviors, which were classified into four categories: stereotypical head-bobbing (1.9%), circling (1.7%), sniffing (14.3%), and biting (82.1%). Pretreatment with (R)-α-methylhistamine (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased stereotypical sniffing, but increased stereotypical biting induced by METH, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of (R)-α-methylhistamine on behavior was mimicked by imetit or immepip (brain-penetrating selective histamine H(3) receptor agonists; 10 mg/kg, i.p. for each drug). Hypothalamic histamine levels 1 h after METH challenge were significantly increased in mice pretreated with saline. These increases in histamine levels were significantly decreased by pretreatment with histamine H(3) receptor agonists, effects which would appear to underlie the shift from METH-induced stereotypical sniffing to biting.

  19. Stereotype-based modulation of person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Flannigan, Natasha; Waiter, Gordon D; Rossion, Bruno; Wig, Gagan S; Turk, David J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-07-15

    A core social-psychological question is how cultural stereotypes shape our encounters with other people. While there is considerable evidence to suggest that unexpected targets-such as female airline pilots and male nurses-impact the inferential and memorial aspects of person construal, it has yet to be established if early perceptual operations are similarly sensitive to the stereotype-related status of individuals. To explore this issue, the current investigation measured neural activity while participants made social (i.e., sex categorization) and non-social (i.e., dot detection) judgments about men and women portrayed in expected and unexpected occupations. When participants categorized the stimuli according to sex, stereotype-inconsistent targets elicited increased activity in cortical areas associated with person perception and conflict resolution. Comparable effects did not emerge during a non-social judgment task. These findings begin to elucidate how and when stereotypic beliefs modulate the formation of person percepts in the brain.

  20. Communication Stereotypes and Perceptions of Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Carlson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that gender and racial stereotypes affect beliefs about communication style. This study sought to investigate whether these stereotypes would be replicated in a sample of White working adults and whether participants thought that a social skills training program that is usually targeted at women would have an impact on managerial targets’ speech. Results indicated that racial stereotypes were more salient than gender stereotypes, with participants viewing White managers’ speech as more socially appropriate and less emotional, but also as more dominant and articulate than Black managers’ speech. Participants also perceived female managers’ speech as more emotional than male managers’. After training, participants thought that men’s and White managers’ speech would become more emotional, despite the fact that this training has been targeted specifically at female managers. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of examining race and gender in evaluating managerial communication.

  1. Stereotype accuracy of ballet and modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

    2004-02-01

    The authors recorded preprofessional ballet and modern dancers' perceptions of the personality traits of each type of dancer and self-reports of their own standing, to test the accuracy of the group stereotypes. Participants accurately stereotyped ballet dancers as scoring higher than modern dancers on Fear of Negative Evaluation and Personal Need for Structure and accurately viewed the groups as equal on Fitness Esteem. Participants inaccurately stereotyped ballet dancers as lower on Body Esteem; the groups actually scored the same. Sensitivity correlations across traits indicated that dancers were accurate about the relative magnitudes of trait differences in the two types of dancers. A group of nondancers reported stereotypes that were usually in the right direction although of inaccurate magnitude, and nondancers were sensitive to the relative sizes of group differences across traits.

  2. Stereotyped: investigating gender in introductory science courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and biochemistry, however, little attention has been paid to the performance of women in comparison with men or perceptions of stereotype threat, despite documentation of leaky pipelines into professional and academic careers. We used methodologies developed in physics education research and cognitive psychology to 1) investigate and compare the performance of women and men across three introductory science sequences (biology, biochemistry, physics), 2) document endorsement of stereotype threat in these science courses, and 3) investigate the utility of a values-affirmation writing task in reducing achievement gaps. In our study, analysis of final grades and normalized learning gains on content-specific concept inventories reveals no achievement gap in the courses sampled, little stereotype threat endorsement, and no impact of the values-affirmation writing task on student performance. These results underscore the context-dependent nature of achievement gaps and stereotype threat and highlight calls to replicate education research across a range of student populations.

  3. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  4. Heart Rate Variability and Skin Conductance During Repetitive TMS Course in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Hensley, Marie K; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder marked by difficulty in social interactions and communication. ASD also often present symptoms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning abnormalities. In individuals with autism the sympathetic branch of the ANS presents an over-activation on a background of the parasympathetic activity deficits, creating an autonomic imbalance, evidenced by a faster heart rate with little variation and increased tonic electrodermal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of 12 sessions of 0.5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic activity in children with ASD. Electrocardiogram and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded and analyzed during each session of rTMS. The measures of interest were time domain (i.e., R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, NN50-cardio-intervals >50 ms different from preceding interval) and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices [i.e., power of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio]. Based on our prior pilot studies it was proposed that the course of 12 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS bilaterally applied to the DLPFC will improve autonomic balance probably through improved frontal inhibition of the ANS activity, and will be manifested in an increased length of cardiointervals and their variability, and in higher frequency-domain HRV in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power, resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and in decreased SCL. Our post-12 TMS results showed significant increases in cardiac intervals variability measures and decrease of tonic SCL indicative of increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. Behavioral evaluations showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings that correlated with several autonomic variables.

  5. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Why we stereotype influences how we stereotype. Self-enhancemmt and comprehension effects on social perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arne van den

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about the characteristics of groups of individuals and form the basis of prejudice. Stereotyping can be functional in at least two ways: as a tool to understand the world around us and because it can help to elevate ones self-esteem. In this dissertation, the

  7. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  8. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  9. Sex Stereotyping in Math Doesn't Add Up. Project on Sex Stereotyping in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta.

    This instructional module on sex stereotyping and its effect on mathematics education is composed of four transparency masters, two handouts, and a bibliography and is designed to accompany a 25-minute tape. The four transparencies are stereotyping sample mathematics problems, sex differences in mathematical skills, and mathematics courses and job…

  10. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  11. Rethinking stereotype reliance. Understanding the connection between female candidates and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nichole M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of female candidates are running for Congress in American national elections. Despite the rise in female candidates running for office, women are not significantly increasing their presence in the House and Senate. A much hypothesized influence over the electoral fates of female candidates is the role of gender stereotypes. However, political science scholars have struggled to pinpoint the effect of stereotypes on vote choice, if there is any effect. This essay compares the way social psychology and political science scholars theoretically, conceptually and empirically test for gender stereotype influence over evaluations of female candidates and politicians. Differences emerge in the theoretical assumptions made in the two disciplines, the types of measures used in research, and the empirical tests conducted to demonstrate the presence or absence of stereotypes in evaluations of women. The discussion explores how scholars studying female candidates and politicians can integrate insights from social psychology to clarify the role of stereotypes in candidate evaluation and choice.

  12. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  13. Unpopular, overweight, and socially inept: reconsidering the stereotype of online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Rachel; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Online gaming has become an activity associated with a highly specific, caricatured, and often negative image. This "stereotype" has permeated the collective consciousness, as online gamers have become common caricatures in popular media. A lack of comprehensive demographic inquiries into the online gaming population has made it difficult to dispute these stereotypical characteristics and led to rising concerns about the validity of these stereotypes. The current study aims to clarify the basis of these negative characterizations, and determine whether online video game players display the social, physical, and psychological shortcomings stereotypically attributed them. Sampling and recruiting was conducted using a two-stage approach. First, a representative sample of 50,000 individuals aged 14 and older who were asked about their gaming behavior in an omnibus telephone survey. From this sample, 4,500 video game players were called for a second telephone interview, from which the current data were collected. Only those participants who completed all of the questions relating to video game play were retained for the current analysis (n=2,550). Between- and within-group analyses were enlisted to uncover differences between online, offline, and nongame playing communities across varying degrees of involvement. The results indicate that the stereotype of online gamers is not fully supported empirically. However, a majority of the stereotypical attributes was found to hold a stronger relationship with more involved online players than video game players as a whole, indicating an empirical foundation for the unique stereotypes that have emerged for this particular subgroup of video game players.

  14. The Big Bad Wolf and Stereotype and Bias in the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Describes a librarian/teacher coplanned fourth-grade unit at Central Elementary School (Indianapolis, Indiana). The lesson focused on wolves and pack behavior and incorporated the tale of the Big Bad Wolf and the Three Little Pigs to teach the media literacy concepts of point of view, message, stereotype, and bias. Sample worksheets are included.…

  15. The Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity and Stereotyping: Implications for BSW Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valutis, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and intolerance can influence one's professional practice. The study of such influences remains sparse within the social work literature. Behaviors that reduce uncertainty, including categorizing or stereotyping, are used by those who feel discomfort in ambiguous situations. This study explores explore the relationship between…

  16. Conformity under uncertainty: reliance on gender stereotypes in online hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Silberzahn, Raphael

    2014-02-01

    We apply Bentley et al.'s theoretical framework to better understand gender discrimination in online labor markets. Although such settings are designed to encourage employer behavior in the northwest corner of Homo economicus, actual online hiring decisions tend to drift southeast into a "confirmation bias plus weak feedback loops" pattern of discrimination based on inaccurate social stereotypes.

  17. From flip-flopping stereotypes to desecuritizing hybridity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2015-01-01

    by negative stereotypes; another is encouraged by how the very same stereotypes are ironically taken to extremes. Bearing in mind the intimate relation between identity and security, however, the stereotypical representation of difference is never innocent. The overall narratives of Danish public service...... broadcast series such as The Killing, Government and The Protectors rely on stereotypical security policy narratives identifying Muslims as threats. Even when stereotypes are creatively articulated to reverse the negative valuation, Muslim roles are distinctly charged or 'securitized' when compared to non......-Muslim roles. However, placing the 'Muslim' character centre stage allows a separate level of representation a distinct role in the way stories articulate stereotypes, facilitating hybrid identities....

  18. Social exclusion and stereotyping: why and when exclusion fosters individuation of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Heather M; Bernstein, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Exclusion triggers a desire to re-capture connections with others. To facilitate this goal, excluded individuals typically process social information especially carefully. One implication of this is that exclusion may foster judgments of others that are reliant on a careful consideration of their idiosyncratic behaviors rather than on more superficial features. We predicted, therefore, that excluded individuals should individuate more and stereotype less than non-excluded individuals and that such effects should be in service of identifying appropriate re-affiliation candidates. In 3 replications of Experiment 1, excluded (compared to non-excluded) individuals rendered less stereotypic judgments of occupational and racial group members described with mildly or ambiguously counter-stereotypic information. Confirming such processes aid with re-affiliation, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that these effects occurred for social targets that represented reasonable sources of re-affiliation, but not for offensive social targets (i.e., Skinheads) or non-social agents. Experiment 4 underscored that excluded participants process presented social information more carefully (individuate), showing greater differentiation in judgments of highly stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent targets. Implications for the social exclusion literature are discussed.

  19. 个人理论对刻板印象相关行为信息注意加工的调节作用%The Adjustment Role of Person Theory to Process Stereotype Related Behavioral Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余秋梅; 张锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察个人理论对性别刻板印象相关信息注意加工的调节机制.方法:翻译修订Levy等人编制的内隐个人理论测验(Implicit Person Theory Measure)作为研究筛选实验被试的工具,通过自编问卷确定实验材料,通过反应时范式考察个人理论对性别刻板印象相关信息注意分配的调节作用.结果:在高认知负荷条件下,实体论者将更多的注意资源分配于对与其刻板印象一致性信息的加工,而动态论者将更多的注意资源分配于对与其刻板印象不一致性信息的加工;在低认知负荷条件下,实体论者与动态论者对不同类型行为信息的注意分配不存在差异.结论:实体论者与动态论者对基于性别刻板印象行为信息的加工机制不同.%Objective:To explore the moderating effect of person theory on the attention processing on gender stereotype information.Methods:Implicit Person Theory Measure was translated and revised,which was used to screen the parcipants.and a self-administered questionnaire was applied to determine the experimental material.Results:Under high cognitive load,entity theorists allocated more attention to consistent information than to inconsistent information,whereas incremental theorists allocated more attention to inconsistent information than to consistent information.There were no significant differences of attention allocation for either entity theorists or incremental theorists in the low load condition.Conclusion:Person theory may influence the attentional processing on the gender stereotype information under high cognitive load conditions.

  20. Exploring the relation between masculinity and mental illness stigma using the stereotype content model and BIAS map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A

    2017-01-01

    The current research explored the association of masculinity and stigma toward mental illness using theoretical predictions stemming from the stereotype content model and BIAS map. Two correlational studies (Ns = 245, 163) measured stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral intentions in relation to masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral disorders. Participants perceived masculine disorders as lacking personal warmth and competence. Masculine disorders also elicited more negative emotions and behavioral intentions. Two experimental studies (Ns = 161, 431) manipulated personal warmth, sex, and type of disorder in descriptions of people with mental illness. Low warmth and stereotypically masculine disorders consistently elicited negative emotions and behavioral intentions, but sex had limited effects. Overall, the results supported the theoretical models and illustrated the importance of warmth and symptomatic behavior in explaining the masculinity-stigma relation.

  1. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981. The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results show that the assessment of the minority groups is more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceive most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews are positive.

  2. Occupational sex stereotypes among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M J; Kruczek, T A; Brown, M T; White, G B

    1989-06-01

    Occupational stereotypes among college students are examined. College students rated the 106 occupations contained in the Strong Interest Inventory according to the degree persons in these occupations contained masculine or feminine traits or according to the proportion of men and women employed in them. Men and women made equivalent ratings of occupations. Ratings for trait and proportion did not differ. Based on comparisons with Shinar's earlier research in 1975, it would appear that stereotyping has moderated even though it remained present in responses. Further comparisons show consistent differences in stereotyping based on the Holland occupational types of occupations rated. Implications for the use of interest inventories and the continuation of sex typing are presented.

  3. Contesting the existence of male speech stereotypes within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contesting the existence of male speech stereotypes within the communicative context of nursing: a case of Bonda mission ... speech stereotypes to the communicative context of nursing. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Disinhibition of stereotyping : context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K; Spears, R; Dovidio, JF

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereqtypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first r

  5. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content.

  6. Ethical Aspects of Gender Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FRUNZA Mihaela; GRAD Iulia; FRUNZA Sandu

    2016-01-01

    .... By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously promote their brands as open-minded, creative and modern and inspire...

  7. Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On Secondary School ... Correlational research design was used in which a random sample of 378 was ... and Stereotyping of Science Questionnaire (SASSQ) was used in data collection.

  8. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  9. Why we stereotype influences how we stereotype. Self-enhancemmt and comprehension effects on social perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Arne van den

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about the characteristics of groups of individuals and form the basis of prejudice. Stereotyping can be functional in at least two ways: as a tool to understand the world around us and because it can help to elevate ones self-esteem. In this dissertation, the focus lies on the specific influences of these two goals on the use of stereotypes in social perception. Through a number of experiments, it is shown that an increased need to understand the world arou...

  10. Terror management and stereotyping: why do people stereotype when mortality is salient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Lennart J; Stapel, Diederik A; Maringer, Marcus; van Yperen, Nico W

    2008-04-01

    Three studies examine two routes by which mortality threats may lead to stereotyping. Mortality salience may activate both a comprehension goal and an enhancement goal. Enhancement goals are likely to be more active in situations where intergroup competition or conflict is salient. If this is not the case, then a comprehension goal will predominate. In line with a why-determines-how logic, when mortality salience activates a comprehension goal, both positive and negative stereotyping occur. In contrast, the activation of an enhancement goal only increases negative stereotyping.

  11. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers' cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ballesteros R

    2016-05-01

    professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. Keywords: cultural stereotypes, caregiver functioning, older adult functioning, person-centered care vs standard care, stereotype content model

  12. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  13. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  14. Willful stereotype control: the impact of internal motivation to respond without prejudice on the regulation of activated stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehr, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Jonas, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Internal motivation to behave nonprejudiced leads to heightened control of stereotype activation. However, it is not clear whether internal motivation to behave nonprejudiced only reduces stereotype activation or whether individuals high internally motivated to behave nonprejudiced are also more

  15. Media Stereotypes Analysis in the Classroom at the Student Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Media Stereotypes Analysis is the identification and analysis of stereotypical images of people, ideas, events, stories, themes and etc. in media texts. Media stereotype reflects the well-established attitudes towards a particular object, it is schematic averaged, familiar, stable representation of genres, social processes/events, ideas, people,…

  16. Stereotyping of the Elderly in Literature, Television, and Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joyce

    Our society has many misconceptions or stereotyped ideas about elderly people. These stereotyped ideas have from time to time been reflected in literature for both adults and young people. It is the purpose of this course to make secondary level students aware of the stereotyped ideas commonly held about the elderly and to enable them to recognize…

  17. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Stereotype Threat and Test Performance: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethical guidelines require school psychologists to ensure that their assessment practices are nondiscriminatory, but typical discussions on this topic neglect the possible discriminatory effects of cultural stereotypes on assessment results. Recent research on "stereotype threat" shows that students' knowledge of stereotype-based negative…

  19. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visib

  20. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  1. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  2. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  3. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  4. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  5. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  6. Unethical female stereotyping in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Cusack, Simone; Dickens, Bernard M

    2010-06-01

    Stereotypes are generalized preconceptions defining individuals by group categories into which they are placed. Women have become stereotyped as homemakers and mothers, with the negative effect of precluding them from other roles and functions. Legislation and judicial constructions show a history, and often a continuing practice, of confining women to these stereotypical functions. In access to reproductive and sexual health care, for instance, women's requests have been professionally subject to approval of their husbands, fathers or comparable males. Choice of abortion is particularly significant, because it embeds moral values. Women's capacity to act as responsible moral agents is denied by stereotypical attitudes shown by legislators, judges, heads of religious denominations, and healthcare providers who consider women incapable of exercising responsible moral choice. These attitudes violate ethical requirements of treating patients with respect and equal justice. They can also result in violations of human rights laws that prohibit discrimination against women. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deconstructing Hollywood: Negative Stereotyping in Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deep, Kim

    2002-01-01

    ... and political messages. By portraying Arabs in a negative fashion, the Western film industry only serves to further the ideology of Western expansionism that has prevailed since the Middle Ages. The wealthy Arab stereotype threatens the security of Americans and the American dream of prosperity. Movies like Into the Night (1985) associate Ar...

  8. Sex Stereotyping in Children's Toy Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lori A.; Markham, William T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a survey of toy catalogs and packages, which focused on stereotypes in depictions of children playing with toys. Reports that toys that were previously rated by students as strongly or moderately sex-typed were generally shown with a child of the "appropriate" sex. (KH)

  9. Canadian Perspectives on Sex Stereotyping in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Alice E.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    Based on research findings that sex stereotyping used for product commercials is offensive and often ineffective, recommendations for change have been proposed to the advertising industry. Women, in particular, have been portrayed in advertising in traditional domestic roles, emphasizing the consumer role, especially in television advertising.…

  10. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  12. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  13. Shattering Our Stereotype: Librarian's New Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherdin, Mary Jane; Beaubien, Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of Scherdan's revised Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) study, and compares outcomes to past MBTI studies to disprove librarian stereotypes. Scheridan's 1992 study used responses from 1,600 librarians to determine psychological types and personality profiles. Discussions and tables compare results to the general population, other…

  14. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  15. Attribution, the Attractiveness Stereotype, and the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…

  16. The Stereotype and Recognition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Cyd; And Others

    The stereotype of women athletes in college is predominantly positive rather than negative. In one study, female athletes were seen to be strong, strong-willed, leaders, brave and healthy. In the second study, women were judged to be significantly more attractive when the interviewer was male, and males gave significantly higher ratings than…

  17. Attribution, the Attractiveness Stereotype, and the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…

  18. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  19. Gender-Stereotyping of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Margaret W.; Matkoski, Kathleen M.

    In the area of cognitive skills, the actual differences between males and females are relatively small. Females score slightly higher on verbal tasks and males score slightly higher on mathematical tasks. According to the cognitive approach to stereotypes, people should perceive these differences to be quite large. To determine whether subjects…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  1. Breaking Racial Stereotypes by Reconstructing Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Pete

    2000-01-01

    Racial stereotypes and discrimination have destroyed many bright futures by limiting the possibilities of people of color in America. Describes two initiatives that can be implemented in schools in order to help destroy negative images of race and reconstruct a more healthy foundation to build on: multiculturalism across the curriculum and…

  2. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  3. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes.

  4. When abstraction does not increase stereotyping : Preparing for intragroup communication enables abstract construal of stereotype-inconsistent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments investigated when perceivers can construe stereotype-inconsistent information abstractly (i.e., interpret observations as generalizable) and whether stereotype-consistency delimits the positive relation between abstract construal level and stereotyping. Participants (N1=104, N2=83) p

  5. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve ...

  6. Cultural Stereotypes as Gatekeepers: Increasing Girls’ Interest in Computer Science and Engineering by Diversifying Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna eCheryan; Allison eMaster; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter these fields. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that ...

  7. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  8. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  9. Stereotypes of the elderly in magazine advertisements 1956-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P N; Miller, D W; McKibbin, E M; Pettys, G L

    1999-01-01

    The globalization of American culture is increasing as various media target an international market. This article reports the results of a study examining trends in the stereotyping of the elderly in print advertisements appearing from 1956 to 1996 in U.S. magazines. Results show that the percentage of elderly portrayals in print ads has decreased. There has been relatively little overall stereotyping of elderly, with only 4 percent of the sample depicting negative stereotypes. Nevertheless, there has been an increasing percentage of negative stereotypes and a decreasing percentage of positive stereotypes. Results are analyzed in relationship to marketing trends and the social impact on aging.

  10. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  11. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  12. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  13. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J; Wood, Dana

    2013-05-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults' beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children's own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults' race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents.

  14. The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne; Gainsburg, Izzy; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control). Participants then shot a set of free throws, during which half the participants were also videotaped (observer condition), whereas the other half were not (no observer condition). Results demonstrated that positive stereotypes improved free throw performance, but only in the no observer condition. Interestingly, observer pressure interacted with the positive stereotype to lead to performance decrements. In the negative stereotype condition, performance decrements were observed both in the observer and no observer conditions.

  15. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  16. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  17. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  18. Prematurity stereotyping and mothers' interactions with their premature and full-term infants during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine; McIntosh, Bonnie; Moritzen, Sara; Olexa, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    To longitudinally assess stability and correlates of prematurity stereotyping and perceptions of infant vulnerability in mothers of premature (N = 56) and full-term (N = 59) infants. At 5, 9, and 12 months, mothers rated videotapes of unfamiliar infants with a full-term label (FTL) or a preterm label (PL), interacted with their own infant, and completed other questionnaires. A subgroup of infants were administered a developmental assessment at 32 months. Mothers rated PL infants more negatively than FTL infants at each age. Individual differences in stereotyping were not stable. Mothers who negatively rated infants labeled with the same birth status of their own infants exhibited more negative interactive behaviors with their infants. Mothers who viewed their own infant as more vulnerable and who showed more prematurity stereotyping at 5 months had infants with lower 32-month mental scores. The results suggest an association between early maternal cognitions and both contemporaneous maternal behavior and later child developmental outcomes.

  19. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  20. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  1. The physical attractiveness stereotype in a consumer-related situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, H; Kanekar, S

    1994-06-01

    A mixed factorial design was used to examine the physical attractiveness stereotype in the context of consumer behavior, with physical attractiveness and clothing elegance as between-subjects variables and type of consumer product as a within-subject variable. Female graduate students in India were shown photographs of a young female model and were asked to indicate the quality of four consumer products that the model was likely to choose. Product quality was rated higher for the attractive model than for the plain (nonattractive) model, but the difference was significant only for beauty products. Product quality was rated higher for the elegantly dressed model than for the model who was not elegantly dressed, irrespective of product type.

  2. Helping Chinese Overcome Stereotypes about American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜洁

    2014-01-01

    This research paper, from the perspective of cross-cultural communication, intends to analyze the cultural misconcep⁃tions Chinese have about North American culture. Inspired by the data the author collected through the semester-long project with three subjects from different background, the topic of helping Chinese people overcome stereotypes about American culture stands out to claim the practical value in terms of enhancing Chinese people’s cultural awareness and ability to distinguish cultural perspectives and recognize the complexity of cross-cultural communication. Also, recommendations like to know yourself, to de⁃velop cross-cultural communication competence are provided for overcoming the formation of stereotypes and to decrease possi⁃ble cultural incidents since people of both cultures are increasingly interacting with each other in various aspects in the situation of globalization.

  3. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon.

  4. Cultural Stereotypes as Gatekeepers: Increasing Girls’ Interest in Computer Science and Engineering by Diversifying Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna eCheryan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry, women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter these fields. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are more compatible with qualities that are typically valued in men than women. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  5. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations. PMID:25717308

  6. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  8. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  9. How stereotypes impair women's careers in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi

    2014-03-25

    Women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollments, but they are much less likely than men to major in mathematics or science or to choose a profession in these fields. This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. We studied the effect of such stereotypes in an experimental market, where subjects were hired to perform an arithmetic task that, on average, both genders perform equally well. We find that without any information other than a candidate's appearance (which makes sex clear), both male and female subjects are twice more likely to hire a man than a woman. The discrimination survives if performance on the arithmetic task is self-reported, because men tend to boast about their performance, whereas women generally underreport it. The discrimination is reduced, but not eliminated, by providing full information about previous performance on the task. By using the Implicit Association Test, we show that implicit stereotypes are responsible for the initial average bias in sex-related beliefs and for a bias in updating expectations when performance information is self-reported. That is, employers biased against women are less likely to take into account the fact that men, on average, boast more than women about their future performance, leading to suboptimal hiring choices that remain biased in favor of men.

  10. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  11. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M; Langlois, Judith H

    2006-04-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the "beauty-is-good" stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the "beauty-is-good" aphorism.

  12. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  13. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  14. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  15. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bettina J Casad; Patricia eHale; Faye Linda Wachs

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  16. The spontaneous formation of stereotypes via cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Douglas; Hutchison, Jacqui; Slessor, Gillian; Urquhart, James; Cunningham, Sheila J; Smith, Kenny

    2014-09-01

    All people share knowledge of cultural stereotypes of social groups--but what are the origins of these stereotypes? We examined whether stereotypes form spontaneously as information is repeatedly passed from person to person. As information about novel social targets was passed down a chain of individuals, what initially began as a set of random associations evolved into a system that was simplified and categorically structured. Over time, novel stereotypes emerged that not only were increasingly learnable but also allowed generalizations to be made about previously unseen social targets. By illuminating how cognitive and social factors influence how stereotypes form and change, these findings show how stereotypes might naturally evolve or be manipulated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. From flip-flopping stereotypes to desecuritizing hybridity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2015-01-01

    by negative stereotypes; another is encouraged by how the very same stereotypes are ironically taken to extremes. Bearing in mind the intimate relation between identity and security, however, the stereotypical representation of difference is never innocent. The overall narratives of Danish public service...... broadcast series such as The Killing, Government and The Protectors rely on stereotypical security policy narratives identifying Muslims as threats. Even when stereotypes are creatively articulated to reverse the negative valuation, Muslim roles are distinctly charged or ‘securitized’ when compared to non......-Muslim roles. However, placing the ‘Muslim’ character centre stage allows a separate level of representation of a distinct role in the way stories articulate stereotypes, facilitating hybrid identities....

  18. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives.

  19. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  20. Psychosurgery for self-injurious behavior in Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Sharadamani; Wigg, Cindy L; Thomas, Christopher R; Coffey, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    One of the most serious and difficult-to-treat conditions in child and adolescent psychiatry is self-injurious behavior (SIB). SIB can be associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, including mental retardation, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, pervasive developmental disorders, stereotypic movement disorder, and Tourette's Disorder. A variety of neurosurgical procedures have been used to treat both intractable SIB and severe Tourette's Disorder. Understandably, there are few reports concerning psychosurgery in children and adolescents for any condition or disorder. This report describes the use of cingulotomy and subsequent limbic leucotomy in an adolescent boy with Tourette's Disorder for SIB. His repetitive and medically serious SIB and failure of all other treatments prompted this intervention after careful, comprehensive review and discussion. Following the second surgery, the severity and frequency of his SIB were reduced.